THE TAIJI MANUAL OF XU YUSHENG

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太極拳勢圖解
TAIJI BOXING POSTURES WITH DRAWINGS AND EXPLANATIONS
許禹生
by Xu Yusheng
[1921]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Aug, 2012]

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辛酉七月
1921, 7th month
太極拳勢圗解
Taiji Boxing Postures With Drawings and Explanations
傅增湘
- [calligraphy by] Fu Zengxiang

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題詞
[1st] FOREWORD

在昔角牴。意存釣奇。曳牛摶豬。徒勇何為。
嗟彼武術。損益然疑。發揮光大。其在是時。
敎誨有度。調一罄宜。桓桓學子。天馬得覊。
克剛克柔。以遨以嬉。筋骨互運。心力互追。
著者楮墨。法無所遺。流傳萬本。並詔來茲。
表斯微尚。請鑒於詩。天之方懠。無為夸毗。
In ancient wrestling, the idea was to see who was best, and so they “dragged oxen along while steering pigs around” [i.e. struggled moving every which way] to see which student was bravest. Alas, for those martial arts, it is hard for us to say whether they were good or bad, but they were extensively developed and were popular in their time.
     When instruction is systematic, fitting, and proper, the student will make a truly martial display, and “the divine horse will gain a bridle” [i.e. the student will achieve control over a special power]. Hardness and softness will conquer each other. Experiment and play will make use of each other. The muscles and bones will carry each other. The mental and physical will seek each other.
     Xu Yusheng’s writing leaves nothing out. Let it be spread in countless copies and give instruction to the future. I have expressed here but meager esteem, so please scrutinize these words, for fear of divine justice has kept me from exaggerating.
袁希濤
- Yuan Xitao

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題詞
[2nd] FOREWORD

屹矣金臺。燕趙舊都。武勇是尚。施及吾徒。
觥觥國技。與古為新。數典而忘。乃乞諸鄰。
北方之強。誰與首倡。許子之功。頡頏馬帳。
首善結社。聲氣應求。精研三育。同澤同仇。
不有高文。何以行遠。一紙風傳。桑榆非晚。
武士有會。斯道以傳。強國之容。請視此編。
Towering are the splendid towers of Yan and Zhao’s ancient capitals. So too martial valor is to be respected, for it is bestowed on us as its students. Our magnificent martial arts are as fresh as they are old. But many systems have been forgotten, and so we must seek for them from every neighbor. In the might of the north, who is the best? Xu Yusheng’s skill rivals the horses of the heavens.
The ideal thing to do is unite in association with each other and rouse our spirits to strive, to study intensively in the triple aspects of education [i.e. ethical, intellectual, physical] and let us be common friends against a common foe. Without strength of literature, how will these things be spread far? A single page carried by the wind can delay a culture’s decay. When warriors assemble, these methods will be passed on. For the sake of strengthening our nation, please regard this book.
劉潛
– Liu Qian

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PREFACE [BY ZHANG YILIN]

往嘗讀周禮及司馬法之軍制。試以次國二軍為平均率。則每國當有二萬五千人之兵額。百國卽有二百五十萬人。若以千八百國計。則勝兵者殆四千萬。當今全國男子總數十之五矣。又甞讀戰國策。齊、秦、燕、趙、韓、魏、楚、七國。國必有帶甲百萬。技擊數十萬。蒼頭數萬。若以今全國男子二萬萬例之。則吾國當有勝兵之男子千萬矣。日俄之戰。旅順、遼陽、諸役。肉搏相爭。論者以日之勝俄。歸功於柔道。(見日人所著肉彈)柔道者。卽吾技擊相傳之一。故吾而不欲自衛則已。苟欲自衛。則德育、智育、體育、三者之中。尤以體育為最要。自秦政一統。世主忘人民之尚武。去古者兵農合一之時益遠。國人多媮惰委靡。霸天下者乃大歡。適以與東西列强接觸。遂不寒而慄。不吹而僵。誰之咎也。民國成立。識時之士。漸知拳術之為國魂。許君禹生、於各術靡不通曉。而尤精太極一門。一麐曾入其社。為特別社員。時時承許君敎益。一日出所著太極拳圖說見示。余繙閱一過。以科學分析之眼光。發明其先後疾徐之序。而為圖以表之。大則可强國强種。小則可却病延年。前見徐君棫所撰拳術與力學之關係。借力學槓桿之理。解太極避實擊虛之法。藝而幾進乎道。惜其書僅一見於體育季刋中。未窺全豹。今許君圖解。裒然完帙。其視徐君所撰。如車有輪。如鳥有翼。卽孱弱如不佞。亦能振懦而起衰。世之學者。可以興矣。但使吾國男女四萬萬人。分其飲博徵逐之精神。以從事於此道。卽有百分之一。鍥而不舍。已足抵成周兵額十分之一。且此四百萬者。皆非游手坐食之徒。何渠不足以自衛耶。質諸許君。以為何如。
I studied the military systems in the Rites of Zhou and the Maxims for War Ministers to figure out the average size of each state’s armies. Each state had a force of 25,000 soldiers, so a hundred states would amount to 2,500,000, and if there were 1,800 states, that would amount to 40,000,000 [45,000,000]. Nowadays, the equivalent amount for the whole country would be five out of every ten eligible males. I also studied the History of the Warring States, with its seven kingdoms of Qi, Qin, Yan, Zhao, Han, Wei, Chu. Each state had to possess 1,000,000 pieces of armor, 100,000 weapons, and 10,000 servants. If by such numbers we arranged the 200,000,000 males of our entire country as it is at present, then our nation would have men eligible for service numbering 10,000,000!
     During the Russo-Japanese War [1904-1905], in the battles at Port Arthur [Feb 8-9, 1904], Liaoyang [Aug 24 - Sep 4, 1904], and so on, there was hand-to-hand fighting, and it has been argued that Japan’s victory over Russia came down to their skill in Judo. (See the Japanese book Human Bullets: Notes of Actual Combat at Port Arthur [by Lt. Tadayoshi Sakurai, published 1906].) Judo is one of the martial arts we have passed down. If it is the case that we are not concerned with defending ourselves, we do not need it. But if we do wish to defend ourselves, then central to it are the three aspects of cultivating virtue, wisdom, and body, the cultivation of the body being the most important.
     Ever since the unification of China during the Qin Dynasty, rulers have neglected the martial spirit of the people, and the ancient days when a person was both soldier and farmer have gotten ever more distant. Now our nation’s people are generally lazy and dispirited, to the joy of onlooking tyrants. When we come into contact with the mighty powers to the east and west, we then respond by shivering as if it is cold or stiffening as if being hit with a chilling breeze, and really it is our own fault.
     When the Republic was established, those who comprehended the era we are living in gradually understood that boxing arts are our national soul. Xu Yusheng is well-versed in each of these arts, but is particularly expert in Taiji. When I joined his school, I became a privileged member [being more literate than most,] and he often bestowed his wisdom upon me. One day he showed me something he had written, an Illustrated Handbook of Taiji Boxing, and I gave it a careful readthrough. It had a scientific way of analyzing things, written in a systematic way and including drawings in sequence.
     In the larger scale, Taiji can strengthen our nation and our race. In the smaller scale, it can prevent disease and prolong life. I had previously seen Xu Zhiyi’s article “Boxing Arts in Relation to Physics”, drawing from the principles of leverage, and explaining Taiji’s theory of avoiding the opponent where he is full and attacking him where he is empty, its skill approaching near to the Way.
     Unfortunately Xu Zhiyi’s writings have only appeared in Physical Education Quarterly and have not been seen in their entirety [His material, including his physics article, was finally compiled into a book and published in 1927.], but now Xu Yusheng’s illustrated explanations have been compiled into a complete book. Compared to Xu Zhiyi’s writings, it is “like the wheel of a cart or the wings of a bird” [i.e. is getting around more easily]. For those who are frail, like myself, it can rouse you from your timidity and brace you up out of your feebleness. All who study it can be invigorated by it.
     Let us take the 400,000,000 men and women of our nation and leave aside those with a wasteful lifestyle. Of those who follow this method, one in a hundred will work at it without giving up, but that would already be enough to supply ten percent of the whole army, and these 4,000,000 will none of them be idle parasites. How could they then be inadequate at defense? If we inquire of Xu Yusheng’s opinion of all this, would he not agree with me?
中華民國十年孟秋吳縣張一麐序
- preface by Zhang Yilin of Wu county, 1st autumn month, 1921

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PREFACE [BY YANG CHANG]

拳技有內外兩家。外家祖達摩祖師。曰少林派。內家祖張三丰先生。曰武當派。其所資為師承之具者。不外乎着與勁。形於外者為着。蘊於內者為勁。着其質也。勁其氣也。着其體也。勁其用也。氣質兼修。體用皆備。而後可以言拳。外家與內家之別。卽以着與勁二者言之。外家精於着。內家邃於勁。猶漢儒之重訓詁。宋儒之明性理。雖各有獨到之處。要亦並行而不悖。世人不察。以為外家主剛。內家主柔。烏知剛柔不可偏重。且亦未嘗須臾離哉。太極十三式。傳自張三丰。張固道家者流。故其論太極拳曰。人剛我柔謂之走。我順人背謂之黏。又曰。由着熟而漸悟懂勁。由懂勁而階及神明。走也、黏也。皆當於勁中求之。必也感覺靈敏。無有窒礙。而後可謂之懂勁。必也隨機因應。一任自然。而後可謂之階及神明。與老子所謂常無欲以觀其妙。常有欲以觀其徼之旨。正無以異。拳家論勁。至此境界。亦可謂臻無上上乘矣。惟其陳義極高。說理極細。故習之者、殊難計日程功。嘗見有人以為習太極拳、祗須懂勁。好高務遠。專致力於推手。而於身手步法。略不注意。習之數年。疲弱如故。甚至不能與習他拳數月者一角。此皆誤於內家主柔之說。而不求姿勢正確着法純熟之所致也。禹生同學、治斯道垂三十年。更能博通內外諸家。識其精義。因强其著書。以餉同志。詳其動作。誌其應用。而於推手法尤為重視。三易藁而後書成。名之曰太極拳勢圖解。讀者苟能悉心體會。豁然貫通。着旣熟矣。更習推手。以求懂勁。自不難階及神明。卽使無暇更習推手。亦當使此十三式着着皆能任意運用。游刃有餘。始可謂極熟着之能事。此禹生之所志也。滄海橫流。萬方多難。明達之士。多逃於釋老以自晦。其亦有聞風興起、由藝而進於道者乎。是書或亦津梁之一也。
In boxing arts, there are the two schools of internal and external. The external was founded by Damo and is called the Shaolin school. The internal was founded by Zhang Sanfeng and is called the Wudang school. The elements taught in both do not go beyond technique and energy. Technique is what is outwardly revealed. Energy is what is inwardly concealed. Technique is substance. Energy is flow. Technique is form. Energy is function. When substance and flow are both cultivated, and when form and function are both prepared, then it can be said to be boxing.
     The distinction between external and internal comes down to these two terms: technique and energy. The external school excels in technique. The internal school excels in energy. It is similar to the way the Han Dynasty scholars put importance on the commentaries to ancient texts but the Song Dynasty scholars were more concerned with understanding the ideas within the texts themselves. Although each group has its distinct method, they should work in parallel to each other rather than in opposition.
     Most people do not scrutinize, thinking that the external school is all about hardness and the internal school is all about softness, and they do not understand that hardness and softness must not be individually emphasized, and that there should never be a moment when they are separated. Taiji’s “thirteen dynamics” [i.e. the solo set] was passed down from Zhang Sanfeng. Since Zhang was a Daoist, it is therefore said in Taiji Boxing things such as: “He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking.” And also: “Once you have engrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous.”
     Yielding and sticking should both be sought in the aspect of energy. You must be sensitively aware and be without obstruction, and then you can say you are identifying energies. You must respond to circumstances and do what is natural, and then you can say you are on your way toward something miraculous. It is as Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 1]: “Dwelling with nothingness, you will see mystery. Dwelling with somethingness, you will see details.” Truly this is no different. When boxing experts discuss energy and have reached this level, it can be said they have achieved a way that is great beyond greatness. But when they explain its meaning, it is so lofty, and when they discuss its theory, it is in such detail, and therefore for those who practice it, it is very hard to predict the day when skill will arrive.
     I have seen people who think that in practicing Taiji Boxing, it is only necessary to identify energies, who then get ahead of themselves by rushing into focusing on pushing hands without having given adequate attention to how they are using their torsos, hands, and feet [i.e. the aspect of technique]. After practicing like this for many years, they are just as weak as when they started, reaching the point that they cannot even be a match for someone who has been practicing other boxing arts [i.e. external] for only a few months. These are all mistakes of thinking the internal school is all about softness, the result of not striving to make the postures correct and the techniques skillful.
     Xu Yusheng, my fellow student, has researched this method for nearly thirty years and is capable and knowledgeable in both the internal and external schools, understanding the essentials of each, and so he is perfect for the task of making such a book to provide for his comrades. He has explained the movements, including their applications, and the pushing hands methods, which is especially valuable. He went through three drafts to make the final manuscript, calling it Taiji Boxing Postures With Drawings and Explanations.
     If you can put your heart into what you learn from it, you will break through and become skillful. The more you practice the pushing hands, striving to identify energies, from there it will not be difficult to get on your way toward something miraculous. Even if you have no extra time to practice the pushing hands, practicing the techniques in the solo set should be sufficient for you to begin to be able to say you are well-versed in these skills. This is Xu Yusheng’s goal. When there is social turmoil or natural disasters, sensible people often flee to hide in philosophy. But it is also the case that we hear of things that wake up our senses, such as: through art we approach the Way! And this book is a bridge toward it.
民國十年歲次辛酉孟秋湘潭楊敞序於都門
- written by Yang Chang of Xiangtan in Beijing, 1st autumn month, 1921

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自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

余幼孱弱多疾病。因徧閱養生之書。節飲食。愼起居。若是者累年。卒未收效。尋得華陀五禽經、達摩易筋經、八段錦諸書。從事練習。然均有圖無說。精意不傳。勉强摹仿。效亦甚尠。遂未竟學。後乃從事外家拳術。習技擊。事跳躍。於是身體稍壯。然苦於鍛鍊之猛。稍輟而疾又作矣。始知亦非良法。最後得內家拳術。卽世所謂太極功者。俯仰屈伸。以意導氣。簡而易習。柔而省力。習未期年。而宿疾盡愈。效至鉅矣。其拳每勢運動。均有節拍可循。而前後聯絡。宛如一氣呵成。呼吸與動作、相為激盪。氣血筋骸。活潑無滯。殆深得古導引術之意者。其動作之剛柔進退。陰陽虛實。實合周易太極之理。而對敵之時。因勢利導。應機而發。批隙導窾。悉中肯綮。誠莊子所謂技而近乎道者也。因為圖解。公之於世。雖於古人之意未必盡合。而善習者未始不可藉為入道之階。閱者勿專視為拳技也可。
When I was young, I was frail and often ill, and so I read all sorts of health books, controlled my diet, and was careful in my daily habits. I proceeded along such lines for several years, but had not yet received any outstanding results. I sought out the books of Hua Tuo’s Five Animal Frolics, Da Mo’s Tendon Changing Classic, and the Eight Sections of Brocade, and practiced according to them. However, in each case the pictures had no explanations and the essential concepts were not being imparted. I did my best to imitate the postures, but the results were sparse, and so I did not complete the study. After that I engaged in external styles of boxing arts. I trained in the skills of attack and defense, worked at jumping all over the place, and consequently my body became somewhat robust. But I suffered from the severity of the exercise and had to take a break due to renewed illness. I began to understand that it was not a good method.
     Finally I got into internal styles of boxing arts, namely what the world calls the skill of Taiji. In its contracting and expanding, its bending and extending, the mind guides the energy. It is simple and easy to practice. It is soft and sparing of effort. Before I had practiced it for a full year, all my long-standing ailments had been alleviated. The results were enormous. In every movement in the postures of its solo set, there is a rhythm to follow, a linking up throughout, like a continuous flow. With the breath and the movement spurring each other, the energy and blood, muscles and bones, are lively without stagnation, and you will deeply achieve the essence of the ancient limbering arts. The qualities of its movements – hard and soft, advance and retreat, passive and active, empty and full – fully conform to the taiji principle in the Book of Changes. When facing an opponent, act according to the situation and seize opportunity when it appears, “striking where there is a gap, guided by the hollows”, and knowing what areas are too tough to bother with. Indeed it is like those words from the Book of Zhuangzi [chapter 3] where it talks of the butcher whose skill is near the Way.
     And so I have made this book to share with the world. Although it does not do justice to the intentions of the ancients, if you practice well, it will be possible for you to make your way toward the Way. You need not look upon this as only a martial arts text.
中華民國十年秋古燕許靇厚敘於京師體育研究社
- written by Xu Longhou [Yusheng] of Guyan at the Beijing Physical Education Research Society, autumn, 1921

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凡例
GENERAL COMMENTS

一本書各章。前經登入體育季刋。原擬俟全書登畢。再行彙集出版。嗣因閱者時加督促。倉卒付印。冗濫闕略之處。在所不免。倘蒙方家錫以敎言。實所慶幸。
- Each chapter of this book has been previously published in Physical Education Quarterly. The intention right from the start was to wait until the series of articles had added up to a comprehensive volume of material, and now they have been compiled for such a publication. Because the process of editing has been hastened to get it published that much faster, areas of either repetition or omission are inevitable. If experts would give me correction, I would be overjoyed.
一本書分上下兩編。上編係說明太極拳之由來及其原理。下編係就太極拳路各姿勢繪圖說明。並附推手諸法。
- This book is divided into two parts: the first part being concerned with explaining Taiji Boxing’s origins and principles, the second part being concerned with explaining the postures in the solo set, including drawings, and the various methods of pushing hands.
一本書博採衆長。不拘己見。於拳勢純取開展姿勢。以便學者。
- This book draws widely from the expertise of others and is not confined to my own understanding. For the boxing techniques, I have focused on larger postures to make it easier for you to see what is going on.
一太極拳最重聯貫。本書為便於解釋起見。將各勢動作分段說明。學者練習時。仍宜連續行之。
- The most important thing in Taiji Boxing is the linking of movements. In this book, for the sake of convenience of explanation, each movement within a posture is divided into its own section of description, but while you are practicing you should still be moving from one to another continuously.
一本書說明拳式動作。多取通行術語。間有創製者。務期適合原意。
- In this book, the explanations for the movements in the postures often make use of current martial arts terminology mixed into what the founders have passed down to us, and I hope it conforms well to their original intention.
一本書採入太極衍易各圖。專取可以印證拳術之處。以資閱者參考。
- In this book, I have selected the Taiji Diagram and the Change Development Chart as a means of verifying the place of this boxing art and to supply you with reference material.
一編輯是書時。北京體育研究社敎員紀子修、楊夢祥、吳鑑泉、劉恩綬、劉彩臣、諸君。均備諮詢。社員郭志雲、郎晉墀、二君。擔任繪圖。楊季子、葉膺唐、二君。擔任修正。伊見思、許小魯、二君。擔任校刋。
- In the course of making this book, Beijing Physical Education Research Society instructors Ji Zixiu, Yang Mengxiang [Shaohou], Wu Jianquan, Liu Enshou, and Liu Caichen all served as consultants, while society members Guo Zhiyun and Lang Jinchi did the drawings [Most of these drawings are obviously based on photos of Yang Chengfu which were published later in Chen Weiming’s 1925 book, although occasionally the descriptions make a better fit with postures of Wu Jianquan. The drawings which are not based on the Yang Chengfu photos are again sometimes more similar to Wu Jianquan’s movements and are also apparently drawn by a different hand. We can thus see how their work was divided: one man worked exclusively at drawing from the Yang Chengfu photos while the other man drew either from photos of a different source or from an actual model.]. Yang Jizi and Ye Yingtang did the editing, and Yi Jiansi and Xu Xiaolu did the proofreading.
編者識
(author)

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著者肖像
Portrait of the author

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太極拳勢圖解目次
CONTENTS

上編
PART ONE
第一章 緒言
Chapter One: Introductory Remarks
第二章 太極拳之意義
Chapter Two: The Meaning of “Taiji Boxing”
第三章 十三式名稱之由來 附八方圖五步圖
Chapter Three: The Origin of the Name “Thirteen Dynamics” (Including Maps of the Eight Directions and Five Steps)
第四章 太極拳合於易象之點 附太极圖衍易圖
Chapter Four: How Taiji Boxing Conforms with the Symbols of Change (Including the Taiji Diagram and the Chart of the Development of Change)
第五章 太極拳之流派
Chapter Five: The Various Schools of Taiji Boxing
第六章 太極拳經詳註
Chapter Six: The Taiji Boxing Classic Annotated
下編
PART TWO
第一章 太極拳路之順序及運動部位圖 附說明
Chapter One: The Sequence of the Taiji Boxing Solo Set with Movement Positioning Chart (Complete with Explanations)
第二章 太極拳各勢圖解
Chapter Two: Explanations for Each of the Taiji Boxing Postures with Drawings
(1)預備式
PREPARATION POSTURE
(2)攬雀尾式
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
(3)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(4)提手上式
RAISE THE HANDS
(5)白鶴亮翅式
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
(6)左右摟膝拗步式
LEFT & RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
(7)手揮琵琶式
PLAY THE LUTE
(8)進步搬攔鎚式
ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
(9)如封似閉式
SEALING SHUT
(10)十字手式
CROSSED HANDS
(11)抱虎歸山式
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
(12)攬雀尾式
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
(13)斜單鞭式
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
(14)肘底看鎚式
GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW
(15)倒攆猴式
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
(16)斜飛式
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
(17)提手上式
RAISE THE HANDS
(18)白鶴展翅式
WHITE CRANE UNFURLS ITS WINGS
(19)白鶴亮翅式
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
(20)摟膝拗步式
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
(21)海底針式
NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”
(22)扇通背式
FAN THROUGH THE BACK
(23)彆身鎚式
FLINGING BODY PUNCH
(24)卸步搬攔鎚式
WITHDRAWING STEP, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
(25)攬雀尾式
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
(26)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(27)雲手式
CLOUDING HANDS
(28)左高探馬式
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT
(29)右分脚式
KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE
(30)右高探馬式
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE –RIGHT
(31)左分脚式
KICK TO LEFT SIDE
(32)轉身蹬脚式
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
(33)落步摟膝拗步式
COME DOWN, BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
(34)進步栽鎚式
ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH
(35)翻身彆身鎚式
TURN AROUND, FLINGING BODY PUNCH
(36)二起脚式
DOUBLE KICK
(37)左右打虎式
LEFT & RIGHT FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE
(38)披身踢脚式
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK
(39)雙風貫耳式
DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS
(40)進步蹬脚式
ADVANCE, PRESSING KICK
(41)轉身蹬脚式
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
(42)上步搬攔鎚式
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
(43)如封似閉式
SEALING SHUT
(44)十字手式
CROSSED HANDS
(45)抱虎歸山式
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
(46)斜單鞭式
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
(47)野馬分鬃式
WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE
(48)玉女穿梭式
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE
(49)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(50)雲手式
CLOUDING HANDS
(51)下勢式
LOW POSTURE
(52)左右金雞獨立式
LEFT & RIGHT GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
(53)倒攅猴式
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
(54)斜飛式
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
(55)提手上式
RAISE THE HANDS
(56)白鶴亮翅式
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
(57)摟膝拗步式
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
(58)海底針式
NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”
(59)扇通背式
FAN THROUGH THE BACK
(60)上步搬攔鎚式
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
(61)上步攬雀尾式
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
(62)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(63)雲手式
CLOUDING HANDS
(64)高探馬式
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
(65)十字擺連腿式
CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK
(66)摟膝指襠鎚式
BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
(67)上步攬雀尾式
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
(68)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(69)下勢式
LOW POSTURE
(70)上步七星式及退步跨虎式
STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER and RETREAT TO RIDE THE TIGER
(71)轉身擺連式
TURN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK
(72)彎弓射虎式
BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER
(73)合太極
CLOSING POSTURE
第三章 論太極拳推手術
Chapter Three: Discussion of Taiji Boxing’s Pushing Hands Skill
第四章 推手術八法釋名
Chapter Four: Explanations of the Eight Techniques of the Pushing Hands Skill
第五章 太極拳應用推手術
Chapter Five: Taiji Boxing’s Practical Function – Pushing Hands
第一節 太極拳之樁步
Section 1: TAIJI BOXING’S STANCE
第二節 單撘手法
Section 2: SINGLE TOUCHING-HANDS METHOD
第三節 雙撘手法
Section 3: DOUBLE TOUCHING-HANDS METHOD
第四節 單手平圓推揉法
Section 4: “SINGLE-HAND HORIZONTAL CIRCLING” PUSHING & RUBBING METHOD
第五節 捋按推手法
Section 5: “ROLLBACK & PUSH” PUSHING HANDS METHOD
第六節 單手立圓推手法
Section 6: “SINGLE-HAND VERTICAL CIRCLING” PUSHING HANDS METHOD
第七節 捋擠推手法
Section 7: “ROLLBACK & PRESS” PUSHING HANDS METHOD
第八節 單壓推手法
Section 8: “SINGLE-HAND PRESSING DOWN” PUSHING HANDS METHOD
第九節 壓腕按肘推手法
Section 9: “PRESSING DOWN THE WRIST & PUSHING DOWN THE ELBOW” PUSHING HANDS METHOD
第十節 四正推手法
Section 10: PUSHING HANDS METHOD FOR THE FOUR PRIMARY TECHNIQUES
第十一節 四隅推手法
Section 11: PUSHING HANDS METHOD FOR THE FOUR SECONDARY TECHNIQUES

Postscript

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上編
PART ONE

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第一章 緒言
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

昔河出圖而八卦畫。洛呈書而九疇敘。孔子因之以作周易。易雖本諸卜筮之說。而萬事之理。則已悉具其中矣。然因卦作說。無提綱挈領之要。後人不能融會貫通。各執一說。每入歧途。周子憂之。默契道體。根極要領。作太極圖說。使天理之微。人倫之著。事務之衆。鬼神之幽。莫不洞然。畢貫於一。誠言哲學者之鼻祖也。我國拳術發明最早。而迄今反無統一之術者。蓋緣後世學者言術而不言理。視為技藝。而不用作鍛鍊身心之具耳。攷拳術之由來。蓋出於古之導引術。當上古醫藥尚未發明。人偶為六氣所中。榮衛失宜。氣血聚而為病。則屈伸俯仰。以意導氣。舒其所凝滯之處。使通暢焉。則疾自愈。故名為導引。昔伏羲命陰康作大舞。展舒肢體。以愈民疾。黄帝作內經。採按摩導引諸法。以繼針砭酒醴之所窮。蓋皆本體育原理。以運動戰勝疾病也。莊子曰吐故納新。熊經鳥申。則合於呼吸運動矣。漢華陀因推廣之。以作五禽經。(虎鹿猿熊鳥是也)其謂吳普之言曰。『人體欲得勞動。但不當使極耳。動則穀氣得消。血脈流通。病不得生。譬如戶樞終不朽也。是以古之仙者。為導引之事。引挽要體動諸關節。以求難老。吾有一術。名曰五禽之圖。覺體有不快。則起作一禽之戲。怡而汗出。卽輕便而欲食矣。』吳從而學之。年九十餘。而耳目聰明。少林寺僧人承其意。融合達摩所傳散手、而作五拳。(龍虎豹蛇鶴)然注重應用。詳少林拳術秘訣已失體育之原意矣。然宋元以來、言技藝者多祖述之。自寺焚之後。僧徒星散。黠者巧為附會。各執一是。派别繁多。而少林眞傳。反因之湮没。元之季世。有隱君子者。曰張三丰先生。本儒家太極之理。融會各家之長。納五行八卦於拳術步法方位之中。而以太極之陰陽剛柔動靜。喻其作用。提綱絜領。名為內家。蓋所以别於方外也。就着勢言之。太極拳固無異於各家拳術。然其運動行氣。純以虛靜勝人。注重精神上之修養。堅凝意志。增進智慧。則非外功拳術專從事於筋肉鍛鍊者。所可同日語也。素習外功拳術者。倘稍師其意。亦能不勞而獲。由是觀之。易學得太極圖說。而衆理一貫。拳術得太極功。而各家統一矣。其拳經傳於世者。約有數種。然抄襲相傳。魚魯莫辨。壬子歲曾囑關君葆謙校訂。近本社附設體育學校。授課之暇。因取原書。加以注釋。幷就其拳中姿勢、繪圖著說。以示學者。倘亦取行遠自邇登高自卑之意云爾。
In ancient times, there was the map that came out of the Yellow River, the arrangements of the eight trigrams, the scroll that appeared from the Luo River, and the pattern of the nine fields. Confucius used them to make the Book of Changes. Although the Book of Changes is fundamentally a discussion of divination, within it is already a tool for understanding the principles of all things. But because the explanations for the symbols did not have the main points laid out, later generations have been unable to comprehensively understand them and each explanation has gone down mistaken paths.
     Zhou Dunyi worried about this situation, so he contemplated the substance of the Way, the essentials at its root, and wrote the “Explanation to the Taiji Diagram”. He made it so that the subtleties of nature, the methods of society, the variety of activities, and the inscrutability of spirits all have a single principle running through them. It can genuinely be said that he was the originator of a philosophy.
     Our nation’s boxing arts were the earliest to be developed, but so far have not yet become an integrated art. This is because later generations of students discuss the art but not the theory, and they look upon it as a skill but do not use it as a tool for training body and mind. When we look for the source of the boxing arts, we find they came from the ancient limbering arts.
     Long ago before medicine had been invented, [the theory was that] people encountered six kinds of atmospheres [windy, cold, hot, moist, dry, smoky] which, when the body’s defenses were down, gathered in the breath and blood to make illness. Thus those people engaged in bending and extending, contracting and expanding, using mind to lead energy, stretched areas of stagnancy to unclog them, and thus cured themselves of illness. Therefore their art was known as limbering [“dao yin”, meaning to “lead” and “pull”, as in stretching].
     In those ancient times, Fu Xi assigned Yin Kang to make a Grand Dance to stretch the body and heal the people’s illnesses. The Yellow Emperor made his famous book of medicine, containing massage and limbering techniques, as well as comprehensive information on acupuncture and medicinal mixtures, all the basic principles of nurturing the body and of using exercise to defeat illness.
     It is said in the Book of Zhuangzi [chapter 15]: “Expel dead air and take in fresh. Loosen by imitating the walking motions of bears and stretch by imitating the extending motions of birds.” These ideas are suitable for breathing exercises. Hua Tuo of the Han Dynasty [206BC-220AD] continued to spread it by making the Five Animal Classic (the five being tiger, deer, ape, bear, bird).
     Wu Pu discussed it thus: “The human body desires to be worked, although it is not appropriate to work it too strenuously. When we move, the energy from our food is dispersed to circulate through our blood, and illness then cannot be born, in the same way a door hinge [that is constantly used] will never rot. Therefore the ancient immortals engaged in limbering exercises, drawing in what is essential to the body, moving every joint, to strive to hinder aging. I possess an art, which is called the Imitating of Five Animals. When I feel my body is unwell, I begin to act like one of the animals, until I feel comfortable and sweaty, and then, lightened and efficient, I have an appetite for food.” Wu followed its principles and learned it. Even beyond his ninetieth year he still had acute hearing and sharp vision.
     The Buddhist monks of the Shaolin Temple carried on his ideas, mixing them together with the various techniques passed down by Damo, and made the Five Boxing Styles (dragon, tiger, leopard, snake, crane), but with particular attention to practical application. (The five are explained in detail in Secrets of the Shaolin Boxing Art [published 1915].)
     The original intentions of this physical training have been lost, but since the Song and Yuan Dynasties many who discussed martial arts followed in the path of their forefathers. After the temple was burned, the monks dispersed in all directions. The clever ones developed strained interpretations, each holding to their version, branching off into numerous schools. However, the authentic transmission of Shaolin consequently fell into oblivion.
     In the declining years of the Yuan Dynasty, there was a retired scholar called Zhang Sanfeng who took the basic Confucian principle of taiji and mixed it together with the major principles of the other schools of thought, putting the five elements and eight trigrams into his boxing techniques and footwork, using taiji’s passive and active, hardness and softness, movement and stillness, as metaphors for its function. With these as its main points, it became known as the internal school, distinct as a result from the external school.
     In the matter of its techniques, Taiji Boxing is indeed different from the other schools of boxing arts, moving by way of energy, defeating opponents purely through the use of emptiness and stillness, emphasizing spirit as the highest form of cultivation, resolute of intention and determined of will, to the enhancement of one’s intelligence, which cannot be said by those who emphasize the body-building of external styles.
     If those who practice external styles learn but some of its ideas, they will be able to benefit from the work of others. From this it can be seen that as a study of the Book of Changes which involves the “Explanation to the Taiji Diagram” reveals the principle that runs through everything, so a training in boxing arts which involves the Taiji skill will integrate all the boxing schools.
     There are several versions of the Taiji Boxing Classic that have been passed down to us, but due to all the retranscribing of the text, with words getting transposed for other slightly different words, it is hard to distinguish which version is correct. In 1912, I asked the scholar Guan Baoqian to analyze the versions and determine the correct text. Recently my organization has established a physical education school, where he gives lessons in his spare time. [I asked for his help] because I seek to present the Classic in its original form, and I have also added commentary to it. As for the postures of the solo set, I have included drawings and explanations with which to instruct you. In order to deal with what is easy before tackling what is hard, take it one step at a time.

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第二章 太極拳之意義
CHAPTER TWO: THE MEANING OF “TAIJI BOXING”

太極拳者、形而上之學也。法易中陰陽動靜之理。而運勁作勢。純任自然。無中生有。所謂無極而太極也。至其運用圓活。如環無端。莫知所止。則又所謂太極本無極也。勢勢之中。着着之內。均含一圜形。故假借太極之理以說明之。而以陰陽動靜剛柔進退等喩其作用焉。非如世俗卜筮迷信者所謂太極也。現在科學昌明。後之學者。能以幾何重學等理說明之。而不沾於易象。則所深望也。
Taiji Boxing is a study in abstractions. Modeled upon the principles within the Book of Changes of passive and active, movement and stillness, its movements and postures are simple and natural, with something being generated from nothing, in other words: Wuji [“no pivot”], then Taiji [“grand pivot”]. Its movements are round and lively, like a limitless circle, no one knowing where the end is, and so again the idea that Taiji comes from Wuji. [As well as “no pivot”, Wuji can equally be rendered as “no limit”. Although representing nothingness, it seems closer in concept to infinity than to zero.] Within each posture and technique, there is a round shape, therefore explaining the borrowing of the use of the taiji principle [i.e. the yinyang symbol], serving to supply the analogies of passive/active, movement/stillness, hard/soft, advance/retreat, and so on, and is not the same as the common shamanic superstition that made use of the term “Taiji”. Nowadays science is flourishing and the next generation of students will be able to use geometry and other studies to explain its principles rather than divining from the Book of Changes, so I heartily hope.

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第三章 十三式名稱之由來 附八方圖五步圖
CHAPTER THREE: THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME “THIRTEEN DYNAMICS” (INCLUDING MAPS OF THE EIGHT DIRECTIONS AND FIVE STEPS)

十三式者、合五行八卦而言之也。太極拳以掤按擠捋四者、喩乾坤坎離等四正方。以採挒肘靠四者、喩巽震兌艮等四斜角。以進前退後左顧右盻中定五者。喩火水木金土也。或曰五行具五性。應以仰火曰炎上俯水曰潤下進木曰屈直退金曰從革定土曰稼穡得五行之正以喩中定五者喩之。其說亦通。
The thirteen dynamics are the five elements and eight trigrams combined. Taiji Boxing uses the four techniques of ward-off, push, press, and rollback (corresponding with the four cardinal directions of ☰, ☷, ☵, and ☲), the four techniques of pluck, rend, elbow, and bump (corresponding with the four corner directions of ☴, ☳, ☱, and ☶), and the five steps of forward, back, left, right, and staying put (corresponding with fire, water, wood, metal, and soil, known as either the five phases or five elements). They are applied as expanding [advancing] (“Fire blazes upward,…”), contracting [retreating] (“water soaks downward,…”), advancing [contracting] (“wood is flexible yet resilient,…”), retreating [expanding] (“metal is malleable yet resistant,…”), and staying put (“and soil goes with planting and harvesting.” [passage from the Book of Documents] This one is the most important of the five elements, corresponding with the central position.). These five correspondences are also depicted in the [second] map below.

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八方圖
Map of the Eight Directions:

兌  乾  巽
☱  ☰  ☴
肘  掤  採
(elbow) (ward-off) (pluck)
離     坎
☲     ☵
捋     擠
(rollback)   (press)
震  坤  艮
☳  ☷  ☶
挒  按  靠
(rend) (push) (bump)

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五步圖
Map of the Five Steps:


fire

(advance)
木  土  金
wood soil metal
顧  定  盼
(left)  (center)  (right)

water
退
(retreat)

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第四章 太極拳合於易象之點 附太極圖衍易圖
CHAPTER FOUR: HOW TAIJI BOXING CONFORMS WITH THE SYMBOLS OF CHANGE (INCLUDING THE TAIJI DIAGRAM AND THE CHART OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANGE)

易也者、包羅萬象者也。而其扼要之哲理。不出太極一圖。太極拳之言陰陽虛實剛柔動靜之處。無不則之。但世傳太極圖有二。一為周蓮溪所遺。一則俗傳之雙魚形圖也。雙魚形圖、除可藉表明雙搭手時之陰陽虛實盈縮進退外。餘無可取。至周氏圖則所具之理甚奧。其圖說一篇。幾盡可為習太極拳者所取法焉。惟因限於篇幅。不能詳釋。今僅就原圖約略言之。此圖共分五層。首層圜形。在平面為圜倘立體時應作球體此所謂無極而太極也。當行工時。中心泰然。抱元守一。無機心。無朕兆。作虛空相。可謂無極矣。而動靜陰陽剛柔進退已悉具其中。實萬有之母也。非太極而何第二層、中分圜形為兩。陰陽虛實各得其半。所謂動而陽。靜而陰。立兩儀。是也。舒之則為坎離二卦。喩拳之柔中隱剛。動中守靜。互為其根之意也。三層、五行喩五步。就其陽變陰合言之。如水根於陽。火根於陰。喩進極思退。退極思進也。木性曲直。金性從革。喩拳運勁時之屈伸開合。粘走隨抑也。萬物均生於土。而位又居中。在人為意。推手時掤捋擠按。互為生尅。然不以意貫串之則謬矣。圖說云。五氣順布。四時行焉。蓋五行異質。四時異氣。而不能外乎陰陽。陰陽異位。動靜異時。而皆不能離乎太極也。第四層喩人。第五層喩物。言無極二五。聚則成形。感而遂通。化生萬物。精於太極拳者。一動一靜。均合至理。扼樞要。是萬殊而一本也。至因敵變化。交互其用。錯綜其道。而應付無窮。則一本而萬殊矣。周子曰。聖人定之以中正仁義。而主靜。立人極焉。其行之也中。其處之也正。其發之也仁。其裁之也義。一動一靜。莫不有以全夫太極之道、而無所虧焉。則無往而不制勝矣。
The Book of Changes covers everything, yet its terse theory does not go beyond the Taiji Diagram. The things Taiji Boxing discusses – passive and active, empty and full, hard and soft, movement and stillness – are all there. However, the world has inherited two taiji diagrams. One comes from Zhou Lianxi, being in common tradition the one with the double fish. The double fish pattern can be seen during the double touching-hands posture in its qualities of passive and active, empty and full, expand and contract, advance and retreat, and can be found endlessly beyond them. The principles within Zhou’s diagram are too profound to be covered in a single chapter, but can be almost fully experienced by practicing the techniques of Taiji Boxing. Due to the brief length of this chapter, it cannot be explained in detail, so here will be given only a rough analysis of the diagram. This diagram divides into five layers:
     First, there is its round shape (2-dimensionally a circle, 3-dimensionally a sphere). It is said: “Wuji, then Taiji.” When practicing, be calm within, embracing the primordial oneness. When there is no scheming thought and there is also no giving anything way, only emptiness to be seen, this can be called wuji. From within it comes movement and stillness, passive and active, hard and soft, advance and retreat… truly it is the source of all things. How could it not be taiji?
     Second, the circle divides into two aspects: passive and active, or emptiness and fullness, each occupying a half. And so it is said that from movement the active is generated and from stillness the passive is generated. Thus are established the two polarities. By extension, there are the two trigrams of ☵ and ☲ [notice the inverted pattern], and this is like the boxing’s hardness hidden within softness, or stillness maintained within movement, the idea that the two aspects are the root of each other.
     The third level: the five elements are equated with the five steps. This expresses the idea that with the active aspect there is change and with the passive aspect there is merging, as in the case of the active aspect being rooted in the element of water [which is passiveness at its peak] and the passive aspect being rooted in the element of fire [which is activeness at its peak], akin to wanting to retreat at the end of advancing and wanting to advance at the end of retreating. The disposition of wood is to be flexible yet resilient, and the temperament of metal is to be malleable yet resistant, and in the boxing exercise this is akin to bending and extending, opening and closing, sticking and yielding, absorbing and pressing. All things are born of earth, which therefore dwells in the central position [of the five elements], and so this is akin to your mind. During pushing hands, the actions of ward-off, rollback, press, and push generate and overcome each other, but if you are not mentally engaged in them throughout, they will be done incorrectly. The “Explanation to the Diagram” says: “When these five kinds of weather [cold (corresponding to water), hot (fire), damp (wood), dry (metal), wind (earth)] occur accordingly, the four seasons march along as they should.” The five elements each have a different nature and the four seasons each have a different weather, but none of these natures and weathers can go beyond their roles within the passive and active aspects. Passive and active occupy different positions, movement and stillness occur at different times, but they cannot depart from their roles within the taiji.
     Fourth and fifth, there is the comparison to people and to things. We have discussed wuji [i.e. the Zero], the two [aspects], and the five [elements]. They gather and take form, affecting each other and then join to produce all things. The essence of Taiji Boxing lies in movement and stillness, both merging to fulfill the [taiji] principle, thereby controlling the center at the basis of all variations. Once you are responding according to the opponent’s changes, no matter how interlinked his techniques or intricate his methods, you can deal with everything, since all your variation is rooted in a single principle. Zhou said: “A wise man is fixed upon being fair and upright, compassionate and just, is guided most of all by a sense of peace, and is thereby the best of men.” Fairness has to do with his behavior. Uprightness has to do with his character. Compassion has to do with his influence. Justice has to do with his judgments. There is movement and there is stillness. All who are devoted to the taiji principle [i.e. the perfect balancing of complementary opposites] are without flaws, and therefore there is nothing they do that is not successful.

周蓮溪太極圖
ZHOU LIANXI’S TAIJI DIAGRAM

太極 無極
taiji / wuji
陽動 陰靜
active – movement / passive – stillness
火 水
fire / water

earth
木 金
wood / metal
坤道成女
The way of the ground makes the female quality,
乾道成男
the way of the sky makes the male quality,
萬物化生
[and together] they produce all things.

邵子衍易圖。言陰陽剛柔動靜之處。與周圖略異。周言動而生陽。靜而生陰。立天之道。曰陰與陽。立地之道。曰柔與剛。邵子觀物篇云。動之始則陽生焉。動之極則陰生焉。靜之始則柔生焉。靜之極則剛生焉。則是動而生陰陽。靜而生剛柔也。立論雖殊。然其言動靜之機、陰陽剛柔之分量處。裨益太極拳術匪鮮。要在觀者自得之耳。
Shao’s Chart of the Development of Change concerns passive and active, hardness and softness, movement and stillness. It is somewhat different from Zhou’s diagram with its words of “With movement, the active is generated… With stillness, the passive is generated… The workings of the sky are based upon passive and active [or more literally, shade and sunshine]. The workings of the ground are based upon softness and hardness [or more connotatively, yielding and firmness].”Shao observed things and wrote: “When movement begins, the active is generated. Once movement peaks, the passive is generated. When stillness begins, softness is generated. Once stillness peaks, hardness is generated. Thus it is movement that generates passive and active, and it is stillness that generates hardness and softness.” Although his line of reasoning is different, yet his description of movement and stillness as a machinery producing a distinction between passive/active and hardness/softness is of unique worth in the Taiji boxing art, and you should consider it and grasp its meaning.

邵康節之衍易圖
SHAO KANGJIE’S CHART OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANGE

一動一靜之間
the moment between movement and stillness

靜 動
- - —
stillness / movement
↓             ↓
柔 剛 陰 陽
- - — - - —
softness / hardness / passive / active
↓                      ↓                      ↓                      ↓
太柔 太剛 少柔 少剛 少陰 少陽 太陰 太陽
- -  —  - -  —  - -  —  - -  —
great soft / great hard / lesser soft / lesser hard / lesser passive / lesser active / great passive / great active

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第五章 太極拳之流派
CHAPTER FIVE: THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS OF TAIJI BOXING

自伏羲畫卦。闡明陰陽。而太極之理。已寓於其中。嗣更命陰康作大舞。以宣導湮鬱。黄帝作內經。採按摩導引諸法。均本太極之理。為無形式之運動。華陀本莊子吐故納新。熊經鳥申。作五禽經。以授吳普。是時已開姿勢運動之先河矣。唐許宣平。許先師江南徽州府歙縣人隱城陽山結廬南陽辟穀不食身長七尺六寸髯長至臍髮長至足行如奔馬唐詩每負薪賣於市中獨吟曰負薪朝出賣沽酒日夕歸借問家何處穿雲入翠微李白訪之不遇為題詩於望仙橋云所傳太極拳術名三世七。因祗三十七勢而得名。其敎練之法。為單勢敎練。令學者一勢練熟。再授一勢。無確定拳路。功成後各勢自能互相連貫。相繼不斷。故又謂之長拳。其要訣有八字歌、心會論、周身大用論、十六關要論、功用歌。傳宋遠橋。
Since Fu Xi first drew the set of eight trigrams, the concepts of passive and active were understood, and the taiji principle was already implied within it. He later assigned Yin Kang to make a Grand Dance to guide people to become more invigorated. The Yellow Emperor made his famous book of medicine, containing massage and limbering techniques, all based in the taiji principle, to make formless exercises. Hua Tuo based his work on words from the Book of Zhuangzi [chapter 15]: “Expel dead air and take in fresh. Loosen by imitating the walking motions of bears and stretch by imitating the extending motions of birds.” He wrote the Five Animals Classic to instruct Wu Pu, who was already an early advocate of postural exercises.
     There was Xu Xuanping of the Tang Dynasty. (He was from Jiangnan, Huizhou prefecture, Xi county. He lived as a hermit at Mt. Chengyang, where he retired on the south-facing slope and avoided eating grains. He was seven and a half “feet” tall. His beard reached his navel and his hair reached his feet. He walked like a galloping horse. Xu, a Tang poet, often carried firewood to sell in the marketplace, chanting to himself: “I carry firewood in the morning to sell, / so I can buy wine to find retreat in being drunk all day. / Pardon me, where do I live? / Through the clouds up the verdant hillside.” Li Bai went to visit Xu but did not meet him, then carved a poem [about not meeting him] onto Gazing Immortal’s Bridge.) Xu taught a Taiji boxing art he called Thirty-Seven, because it had only thirty-seven posture names. His method of instruction was single posture training, making the student train each posture to perfection and only then moving on to the next posture. There was no fixed solo practice set, but once all the postures were learned, all the postures could be linked up with each other as an unbroken continuity, thus it was also called Long Boxing. It secrets are contained in the “Eight Character Song”, “On Mental Understanding”, “On Using the Whole Body”, the “Sixteen Key Points”, and the “Song of Function”, all passed down to Song Yuanqiao.
俞氏江南寧國府涇縣人所傳之太極拳。名先天拳。亦名長拳。得唐李道子之傳江南安慶人李居武當山南岩宮。不火食。第日啖麥麩數合。人稱之為夫子李云。兪氏所傳之人。可知者、有兪淸慧、兪一誠、兪蓮舟、兪岱岩等。
The Taiji Boxing that Mr. Yu (of Jiangnan, Ningguo prefecture, Jing county) taught was called Innate Nature Boxing, and Long Boxing. He learned it from Li Daozi of the Tang Dynasty (who was from Anqing, Jiangnan). Li lived in the Wudang Mountains at the Southern Cliffs Temple. He did not cook his food, instead snacking on wheat bran several times a day, and people called him “master”. Those who were taught by Mr. Yu that we know of were Yu Qinghui, Yu Yicheng, Yu Lianzhou, and Yu Daiyan.
程氏太極拳術。始自程靈洗。字元滌江南徽州府人侯景之亂惟歙州得保全者皆靈洗力梁元帝授以本郡太守卒謚忠壯其拳術得之於韓拱月。傳至程珌。紹興中進士授昌化主簿累官禮部尚書拜翰林院學士追封新安郡侯端明殿學士致仕精易理著有洛水集改名小九天。共十四勢。有用功五誌、四性歸原歌。
The Cheng style Taiji boxing art started with Cheng Lingxi (He was called Cheng Yuandi. He was from Hui prefecture, Jiangnan. He protected Xizhou in Anhui during the Houjing Rebellion [548-552], and because of all his help was given charge over it by the Liang emperor as a devoted and powerful soldier.), who received it from Han Gongyue. It eventually was passed down to Cheng Bi. (Cheng Bi [in 1193] achieved a second level in the civil service exam in Shaoxing prefecture, was then given the mayorship of Changhua [a town near the city of Hangzhou], working his way up to Minister of Rites, was honored with a degree from Hanlin Academy, given the title of Marquis of Xin’an prefecture [modern day Huizhou in Anhui], as well as Scholar of the Hall of Clarity, was an expert in the theory of the Book of Changes, and author of the Luo River Collection.) The name was changed to Small Highest Heaven and had fourteen postures in total. It includes a list of “Five Study Reminders” and the “Song of Four Natures Returning to One”.
殷利亨所傳之太極拳術。名後天法。傳胡鏡子。楊州人胡鏡子傳宋仲殊。安州人嘗遊姑蘇台柱上倒書一絕云天長地久地悠悠你旣無心我亦休浪迹天涯人不管春風吹笛酒家樓其式法十七。多屬肘法。雖其勢法名目不同。而其用則一也。
The Taiji Boxing art taught by Yin Liheng was called the Acquired Nature Method, and he taught it to Hu Jingzi (of Yangzhou). Hu Jingzi taught it to Song Zhongshu. (Song was from Anzhou. He traveled to Gusu, where he wrote this poem on a temple wall: “Universe eternal, on and on forever, / you don’t think about me, so I don’t care about anything. / I wander to the ends of the Earth, nobody paying any attention to me, / and when spring breezes come, I blow my flute in taverns.”) His posture count amounted to seventeen, many of which were elbow techniques. Although its posture names were different, its method of use was the same as before.
張三丰名通。字君實。遼陽人。元季儒者。善書畫。工詩詞。中統元年、曾舉茂才異等。任中山博陵令。慕葛稚川之為人。遂絕意仕進。遊寶鷄山中。有三山峯。挺秀倉潤可喜。因號三丰子。世之傳三峯先生者。不下十數。均未言其善拳術。洪武初、召之入朝。路阻武當。夜夢玄武大帝授以拳法。旦以破賊。故名其拳曰武當派。或曰內家拳。內家者。儒家之意。所以别於方外也。又因八門五步。為此拳中之要訣。故名十三式。言十三法也。後世誤解以為姿勢之勢。則謬矣。傳張松溪、張翠山。先是宋遠橋、與兪蓮舟、兪岱岩、張松溪、張翠山、殷利亨、莫谷聲等、七人為友。往來金陵之地。尋同往武當山。訪夫子李先生不遇。適經玉虛宮。晤三丰先生、七人共拜之。耳提面命者月餘而歸。自後不絕往拜。由是而觀。七人均曾師事三丰。惟張松溪、張翠山傳者名十三式耳。
Zhang Sanfeng, given name Tong, called Junshi, was from Liaoyang. He was a Confucian scholar from the end of the Yuan Dynasty, excelling at calligraphy and painting, versed in poetry and essays. In the first year of Kublai Khan’s reign [1260], he was noticed for his remarkable talent and was appointed as a scholar-official for Zhongshan. He admired the nature paintings of Ge Zhichuan, which inspired him to abandon his official career, and he traveled to Mt. Baoji, where the mountain has three peaks so proud and elegant, green and lush, a joy to behold, and from then he was known as Three Peaks [“san feng”].
     Over the generations, about a dozen sources of biographical information about Zhang have accumulated, but none discuss his superb boxing art. At the beginning of Emperor Hong Wu’s reign [1368], he was invited to court, but his way was blocked at Wudang. That night in a dream, the deity Xuan Wu gave him the boxing method, and then at dawn he used it to defeat the bandits. Thereupon his boxing art was known as the Wudang branch, or the internal school of boxing.
     Internal stylists are of a Confucian mentality, and are therefore distinct from transcendentalists. Also because eight techniques and five steps are the key within this boxing art, it is therefore called Thirteen Dynamics [or “thirteen postures”], meaning thirteen methods. Later generations have misunderstood the term as indicating postural “postures”, leading to confusion.
     It was taught to Zhang Songxi and Zhang Cuishan. Then beginning with Song Yuanqiao and Yu Lianzhou, and followed by Yu Daiyan, Zhang Songxi, Zhang Cuishan, Yin Liheng, and Mo Gusheng, these seven colleagues met each other in Nanjing, then together went to the Wudang Mountains. They sought to visit a Master Li, but they did not get to meet him. However, passing by the Jade Emptiness Temple, they did meet Zhang Sanfeng. They did obeisance to him, listened to his wisdom for over a month, and then went home, constantly returning to get more lessons. From this it can be seen that all seven of these men considered Zhang to be their teacher, but only Zhang Songxi and Zhang Cuishan taught his art by the name of Thirteen Dynamics.
或曰三丰係宋徽宗時人。値金人入寇。彼以一人殺金兵五百餘。山陝人民慕其勇。從學者數十百人。因傳其技於陝西。元世祖時。有西安人王宗岳者。得其眞傳。名聞海內。著有太極拳論、太極拳解、行工心解、搭手歌、總勢歌等。温州陳州人多從之學。由是由山陝而流傳於浙東。又百餘年。有海鹽張松溪者。在派中最為著名。見甯波府志後傳其技於寗波葉繼美近泉。近泉傳王征南來咸。淸順治中人。征南為人勇而有義。在明季可稱獨步。黄宗羲最重征南。其事蹟見游俠佚聞錄征南死時。曾為作墓誌銘。黄百家主一、為傳內家拳法。有六路長拳、十段錦、等歌訣。征南之後。又百年。始有甘鳳池。此皆為南派人士。其北派所傳者。由王宗岳傳河南蔣發。蔣發傳河南懷慶府陳家溝陳長興。其人立身常中正不倚。形若木鷄。人因稱之為牌位先生。子二人。曰耿信、曰紀信。時有楊露蟬先生福魁者。直隸廣平府永年縣人。聞其名。因與同里李伯魁共往師焉。初至時。同學者除二人外皆陳姓。頗異視之。二人因互相結納。盡心研究。常徹夜不眠。牌位先生見楊之勤學。遂盡傳其秘。楊歸傳其術徧鄕里。俗稱為軟拳。或曰化拳。因其能避制强硬之力也。嗣楊游京師。客諸府邸。淸親貴王公貝勒多從授業焉。旋為旗營武術敎師。有子三。長名錡、早亡。次名鈺、字班侯。三名鑑、字健侯、亦曰鏡湖。皆獲盛名。余從鏡湖先生游有年。諗其家世。有子三人。長名兆熊、字夢祥。仲名兆元、早亡。叔名兆淸、字澄甫。班侯子一、名兆鵬。務農於鄕里。當露蟬先生充旗營敎師時。得其傳者蓋三人。萬春、凌山、全佑是也。一勁剛、一善發人、一善柔化。或謂三人各得先生之一體。有筋骨皮之分。旋從先生命。均拜班侯先生之門。稱弟子云。有宋書銘者。自云宋遠橋後。久客項城幕。精易理。善太極拳術。頗有所發明。與余素善。日夕過從。獲益匪鮮。本社敎員、紀子修、吳鑑泉、劉恩綬、劉彩臣、姜殿臣、等多受業焉。(吳為全佑子、紀常與凌君為友、)
It is also said that Zhang lived during the reign of Huizong [1082-1135] of the Song Dynasty. During the invasion to install the Jin Dynasty [1115-1234], he killed more than five hundred Jin troops single-handed. The people of mountainous Shaanxi admired his valiance, earning him hundreds of followers, and so he passed down his skill in Shaanxi.
     When the Yuan Dynasty began, Wang Zongyue of Xi’an obtained the authentic transmission and became renowned everywhere. He authored the “Taiji Boxing Classic”, the “Taiji Boxing Treatise”, “Understanding How to Practice”, the “Touching Hands Song”, and the “Thirteen Dynamics Song”. Chen Zhoutong of Wenzhou learned it, and thereupon it spread from Shaanxi all the way to eastern Zhejiang [i.e. from the mountains to the sea].
     More than a hundred years later, there was Zhang Songxi of Haiyan county, Zhejiang, who became the most famous within the system (see the Records of Ningbo Prefecture). His art was then passed on in Ningbo to Ye Jimei, called Jinquan, who then taught it to Wang Zhengnan, called Laixian, during the reign of the Qing Emperor Shunzhi [1644-1661].
     Because Zhengnan was bold with people but just, he had a unique reputation at the end of the Ming Dynasty. Huang Zongxi puts the greatest importance on Wang Zhengnan (whose deeds can be found in the Stories of Knight-Errants). When Wang died, Huang wrote a memorial inscription for him. Huang Baijia [Huang Zongxi’s son] wrote the Boxing Methods of the Internal School, including “Six Path Long Boxing”, “Ten Sections of Brocade”, and other instructions. More than a century after Zhengnan, the next person of note was Gan Fengchi. These are all exponents of the southern branch.
     Of those who passed on the northern branch, it was taught by Wang Zongyue to Jiang Fa of Henan, who then taught it to Chen Changxing of the Chen family village, Huaiqing prefecture, Henan. Chen always stood straight, impassively, not inclining in any direction, was as expressionless as a rooster made of wood, and so people called him Mr. Board. He had two sons, Gengxin and Jixin.
     At that time, Yang Luchan, called Fukui, from Yongnian county, Guangping prefecture, Hebei, heard of his fame, and so he with his fellow villager Li Baikui went to learn from him. When they arrived, they were the only students who did not have the surname Chen and they were looked upon as being very much outsiders, but because there was a close bond between the two of them, they studied wholeheartedly, often practicing throughout the night instead of sleeping. Mr. Board saw that Yang studied diligently and thereupon taught him all his secrets.
     Yang went home and taught the art to his fellow villagers, and it was commonly known as Soft Boxing or Neutralization Boxing, because it has the ability of using evasion to gain control over a strong force. Then Yang traveled to Beijing and was a guest in every mansion. Many Qing Dynasty royals, nobles, and men of rank learned from him, and at that time he was made martial arts instructor to the Manchu barracks. He had three sons, the eldest named Qi, who died young, the second named Yu, called Banhou, and the third named Jian, called Jianhou, also called Jinghu, and both Banhou and Jianhou earned much fame.
     I learned from Yang Jianhou for years and know his family’s history. He has three sons, the eldest named Zhaoxiong, called Mengxiang, the middle one named Zhaoyuan, who died young, the third named Zhaoqing, called Chengfu. Banhou had one son, named Zhaopeng, who is a farmer in his village. While Yang Luchan served as instructor at the Manchu barracks, three people who got instruction from him were Wan Chun, whose power was hard, Ling Shan, who was good at flinging opponents away, and Quan You, who was good at neutralizing, and so it is said that three people each obtained one of his qualities. When he physically declined, he then told them all to do obeisance to Banhou as their teacher, and hence they are said to be Banhou’s disciples.
     Song Shuming, who says he is descended from Song Yuanqiao, has traveled much, is an expert in the theory of the Book of Changes, and is proficient in the Taiji boxing art, contributing many innovations. He is casual and familiar with me, and I have had a constant association with him from which I have received unique benefit. Instructors in my organization such as Ji Zixiu, Wu Jianquan, Liu Enshou, Liu Caichen, and Jiang Dianchen have also received much from him. (Wu Jianquan is Quan You’s son, and it is often said that he was close friends with Ling Shan.)

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第六章 太極拳經詳註
CHAPTER SIX: THE TAIJI BOXING CLASSIC ANNOTATED

太極者無極而生、
Taiji is born of wuji.
太大也。至也。極者樞紐根柢之謂。太極為天地萬物之根本。而太極拳則為各拳之極至也。無極而生者。本於無極也。此拳重在鍛鍊精神。運勁作勢。純任自然。不甚拘於形式。以虛無為本。而包羅萬象。故曰無極。然初學者究當就有形之姿勢。入手學習。久之着熟然後懂勁。融會慣通。始能入於神化之境。
Tai means the “grand” or “extreme”. Ji means the “central pivot point”. Taiji is the ultimate foundation of everything in existence. Taiji Boxing therefore is what each boxing system ultimately attains to. To be “born of wuji” means that wuji [“no pivot”] is the origin [of the grand pivot]. This boxing art emphasizes refining spirit and uses the wielding of energy to make the postures, which are natural and unrestrictive in their shapes. Emptiness is the foundation, yet it embraces everything, and thus it is called wuji [also meaning “no limit”]. However, a beginner should work on the postures as the initial training. After a long period of becoming familiar with them and then identifying energies, you will naturally have a breakthrough, and you will begin to have a condition of the miraculous.
案周濂溪太極圖說。無極而太極。註云。上天之載。無聲無臭。而實造化之樞紐。品彙之根柢也。故曰。無極而太極。非太極之前、復有無極也。此云無極而生。究有語病。
It says in Zhou Dunyi’s “Explanation to the Taiji Diagram”: “Wuji, then taiji.” Zhu Xi’s commentary to it says: “Nature’s work is silent and intangible, yet it is truly the operation of creation, the foundation of all things. This is why it says there is wuji, then taiji. But wuji is not beyond taiji, since taiji will return to wuji.” Although in that case, the phrasing of “born of wuji” would thus seem to be a poor choice of words.
動靜之機、陰陽之母也
It is the manifestation of movement and stillness, and the mother of yin and yang [the passive and active aspects].
變易物體之位置。或動體進行之方向曰動。保存或維持其固有之位置或方向曰靜。機者朕兆也。如陰符經天發殺機之機。夫動靜無端。陰陽無始。太極者其樞紐機關而已。太極拳當行工時。中心泰然。抱元守一。未常不靜。及其靜也。神明不測。有觸卽發。未常無動。於動時存靜意。於靜中寓動機。一動一靜。互為其根。合乎自然。此太極拳術之所以妙也。
Change in position or the progress of the body in a certain direction is called “movement”. Solidly staying in or preserving its location or orientation is called “stillness”. By “manifestation” is meant the “sign” of their occurring. It is similar to the use of that word in the Classic of the Talisman of the Abstract, in which it says: “The sign of the sky expressing its destructiveness [is the shifting of the constellations]” [the shifting of the constellations indicating the change of seasons, the different seasons bringing different weather, and each change in weather being “destructive” to the previous status quo of weather]. There is no beginning or end to the cyclings of stillness and movement, passive and active. “Taiji” means the pivoting mechanism between them.
     When practicing Taiji Boxing, there is calm within the mind, an embracing of a primordial state of oneness. Do not get stuck in either movement or stillness, but be instead magically unpredictable. Once there is contact, issue, but do not then freeze into stillness. When moving, preserve an intention of stillness, but within the stillness dwells the potential for more movement. Movement and stillness are rooted in each other and complement each other naturally. Herein lies the subtlety of the Taiji Boxing art.
萬物之生也。負陰而抱陽。莫不有太極。有太極斯有兩儀。故太極為陰陽之母。太極拳着着勢勢。均含一〇圜形。其動而陽。靜而陰。及剛柔進退等。均與易理無異。故得假借易理以說明之。非强為附會也。
Everything that comes into existence “carries the passive and contains the active” [Daodejing, chapter 42]. They all have taiji. When there is taiji [i.e. polarity], there is therefore duality. Therefore taiji is the mother of passive and active. Every technique and posture in Taiji Boxing contains a circle. When it moves it is active, and when still it is passive. So it is with hard and soft, advance and retreat, etc, all having the same principle of change. Therefore here I will explain the principle of alternating changes in an easy way:
中國舊日學說。諸凡事物均以陰陽喩之。故陰陽無定位。太極拳之喩陰陽亦然。如拳勢之動者為陽。靜者為陰。出手為陽。收手為陰。進步為陽。退步為陰。剛勁為陽。柔勁為陰。發勁為陽。收勁為陰。粘勁為陽。走勁為陰。手足關節之伸為陽。曲為陰。分為陽。合為陰。開展為陽。收歛為陰。身軀之仰為陽。俯為陰。升為陽。降為陰。凡此所喩。無論遇如何變化。內皆含一〇圜形。故動靜不同時。陰陽不同位。而太極無不在焉。
The theory in ancient China was that everything corresponded analogously to passive and active, and therefore passive and active themselves do not have fixed roles. This is the case for correspondences of passive and active in Taiji Boxing –

active / passive:
movement / stillness
hands going out / drawing in
advancing / retreating
hardness / softness
issuing / gathering
sticking / yielding
joints extending / bending
spreading apart / closing inward
expanding / shrinking
contracting / expanding
rising / lowering…

All of these correspondences, regardless of how one thing changes into another, are each contained within a circle. Therefore when movement and stillness become distinct, passive and active then do not occupy the same place and taiji is everywhere.
動之則分、靜之則合、
With movement there is division [into the vectors of the initial force and the diverting force (often called “a thousand pounds” and “four ounces”)]. With stillness there is merging [into the net force of both].
動、變動也。動之則分陰分陽。兩儀立焉。靜之則冲漠無朕。而陰陽之理。已悉具其中矣。太極拳術當行工時。其各姿勢。一動一靜相間。其拳術之動者。前後左右上下。均有陰陽虛實可循。故曰動之則分。其靜的姿勢。雖無痕跡可指。然陰陽虛實。已具其中。故曰靜之則合。若作運動解。則太極之陽變陰合。卽物理力學分力合力之理也。太極拳術遇敵欲制我時。則當分截其勁為二。使敵力不能直達我身。(背勁)所謂動之則分是也。若將敵粘起用提勁。陽之變也。及起。靜定之使不動。或敵勁落空。稍靜卽發。用合勁陰之合也。倘敵欲發我。則應中心坦然。審候應機。靜以俟之。微動卽應。所謂後人發先人至是也。
Movement means change. When there is movement, there is differentiation of passive and active, and the two polarities are established. When there is stillness, there is nothing disturbed and nothing that gives anything away, though the principle of passive and active is complete within it.
     When practicing the Taiji boxing art, in each of its postures, movement and stillness alternate with each other. This boxing art’s movements go forward or back, left or right, up or down, but in all cases there is passive and active, empty and full, to be abided by. Therefore it is said that in movement they become distinguishable. In postures of stillness, although there is no trace of anything that can be specifically pointed out, passive and active, empty and full, are all already within. Therefore it is said that in stillness they become indistinguishable.
     If we break down the exercise, then Taiji’s active aspect transforms and its passive aspect merges, which with an air of physics or mechanics represent the principles of the “dividing force” [components of force] and “merging force” [resultant/net force]. In the Taiji boxing art, when I encounter an opponent and he wants to control me, I then right away [take his attack] to the side, dividing his power into two paths [i.e. the components of force], causing his power to be unable to directly reach my body (coarsening his energy). This is what is meant by “With movement there is division”.
     If this induces him to stick to me, I apply lifting energy [a further vector added upon the sideways energy], which is a transformation of the active aspect, and once initiated, a stillness is established which either causes him to cease his movement or gets his power to land on nothing. [If the latter (he has landed on nothing but is still moving),] then once there is the slightest stillness [i.e. hesitation, confusion, indecision on his part], I promptly issue, making use of the merging energy [i.e. taking advantage of the net force – in other words, capitalizing on the direction he is now unpreparedly moving in], which is the merging of the passive aspect.
     If the opponent wants to issue upon me, I then respond by being calm in my mind, watching for the moment and taking the opportunity when it comes. While there is stillness, I wait [for the moment to move at an angle and thereby create components of force]. Once there is the slightest movement, I respond [by seeking the stillness within movement of the merging net force which can be taken advantage of]. It is like the saying goes: “Second to shoot but first to hit the target.”
夫道一而已矣。當混沌未判。洪濛未闢。本無動靜。何有陰陽。故以虛無為本者。無不合道。天地如是。太極如是。太極拳習至極精處、亦如是也。然此指先天而言。指習拳術功深進道者而言。初學之士、驟難語此也。及乾坤旣定。兩儀攸分。有陰陽斯有動靜。則言太極者、不能不就有形象者以講求之。太極拳之分合動靜。合乎陰陽。如動勢須求開展。運勁務明虛實。剛則化之、故曰分。柔則守之、故曰合。坤在靜中求動。無為始而有為終。必須伏炁。乾則動中求靜。有為先而無為了。只要還虛。蓋萬物之理。以虛而受。以靜而成。天地從虛中立極。靜中運機。故混沌開而闔闢之局斯立。百骸固而無極之藏自主。無不從虛靜中來也。重陽子曰。此言大道之原。而功先於虛靜。虛則無所不容。靜則無所不應。由是觀之。習太極拳者。倘以虛靜為本。則分合變化。自無不如意也。
There is only one Way. In the primal chaos there were not yet distinctions and the vast opaqueness was not yet cleared away. If in the beginning there was neither movement nor stillness, how could there be passive and active? Therefore use emptiness as the foundation and you will invariably join with the Way.
     The universe is like this, the Taiji is like this, and when you have practiced Taiji Boxing until it is extremely refined, it will also be like this. But these words about the beginning of the universe are being used to talk about the practicing of the boxing art and how depth of practice advances you to the Way, and beginners may suddenly find this difficult to discuss.
     The sky and the ground are fixed, and the two polarities are separated. When there is passive and active, there is movement and stillness, and thus one who talks of Taiji must pay attention to the postures. Taiji Boxing’s separating and joining, movement and stillness, accord with passive and active. If there is movement in a posture, you must seek to open up. When wielding power, you must understand emptiness and fullness. When he is hard, neutralize him. This is called dividing [i.e. creating components of force]. Once he is soft, defend against him. This is called merging [i.e. making use of the net force]. The ground is in a state of stillness seeking movement. It has an end but no beginning, and we must submit to it. The sky is in a state of movement seeking stillness. It has a beginning but no end, and the only thing to do is return to emptiness.
     It is the principle of all things that emptiness receives and stillness completes. The universe stands within emptiness and revolves within stillness. Therefore when the primal chaos opened up, the whole of the beginning was established. The whole body truly initiates from wuji, invariably coming from a state of emptiness and quietude.
     Wang Chongyang said: “Here I describe the source of the Way: work first at emptiness and quietude. As for emptiness, there is nothing it does not welcome. As for quiet, there is nothing it does not answer.” Looking at it this way when practicing Taiji Boxing, if emptiness and quietude are taken as your foundation, then the changing between dividing his force and merging with it will naturally happen as you please.
無過不及隨曲就伸、
Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend.
過、逾也。不及、未至也。隨、無逆也。就、卽之也。過與不及。皆為失中。失中則陽亢陰暌。未能有合也。太極拳於曲伸分合等處。運勁過則生頂抗等病。不及則有丢扁等病。欲求不卽不離。則應隨之而曲。就之而伸。隨機應變。毋固毋我。因力於敵。以中為主。而粘黏連隨以就之。自無不合。所謂君子而時中也。案初學此拳者。每失之過。迨稍懂勁。則每失之不及。學者宜審愼之。
“Too far” means you are going beyond. “Not far enough” means you are not arriving. To “comply” means to not resist. To “engage” means to approach. Going too far or not far enough are both cases of becoming uncentered. If you become uncentered, you will be resisting by way of your active aspect or separating by way of your passive aspect, and you will be unable to have connection.
     Taiji Boxing lies in the situations of bending, extending, dividing his power, and closing on him. If when wielding power you go too far, you are making the errors of crashing in or resisting. If you do not go far enough, you are making the errors of running away or collapsing. If you wish to be neither reaching nor separating, you should comply and bend then engage and extend.
     Adapt to the situation and act accordingly, being neither stubborn nor egotistical, for it depends on the power coming from the opponent. Making centeredness your priority, engage by sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, staying always with the opponent. As it says [in the “Zhong Yong” (Impartial Constancy), chapter 31 of the Book of Rites]: “A gentleman always stays centered.” It is the case that a beginner in this boxing art will often go too far, and while you begin to identify energies, you will often fail to go far enough. You should be carefully aware of this.
人剛我柔謂之走、我順人背謂之粘、
He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking.
人者、敵也。剛、指剛强有力而言。柔、順也。走者、化也。以柔順變化敵力之方向。不為所制。故曰、走。順者、自由便利也。背者、不自由不便利也。粘者、取制敵人之力也、遇敵施剛力時。我惟順應其勢取而制之。使俯就我之範圍。故曰、粘。太極拳常以小力敵大力。弱勝、强。柔制、剛。為其主旨。但以常理言之。小固不可以敵大。弱固不可以勝强、柔固難期以制剛、然云敵之勝之制之者。必有其所以制勝之理在。蓋敵力須加吾身方生效力。苟御制得道。趁其用剛發動之始。審機應變。採取擒獲。使還制其身。則我雖弱。常居制人地位。敵雖强。常居被制地位。難於自由發展。力雖巨奚益。此老聃齒敝舌存之說也。頗合太極拳剛柔之義。然非好學深思之士。未足以語此。
By “he” is of course meant the opponent. Hardness indicates being strong and forceful. Softness has to do with smoothness. Yielding has to do with neutralizing. Using softness and smoothness, change according to the direction of the opponent’s force so it does not restrict you, and thus it is called yielding. Smoothness is being unrestrained and easy. Coarseness is being restrained and difficult. Sticking is seizing control of the opponent’s power. Upon encountering the opponent’s hard power, I smoothly respond to his momentum and take charge of it, causing him to lean into range of my control, and thus it is called sticking.
     Taiji Boxing always uses little strength in response to the opponent’s great strength. Weak defeating strong, soft controlling hard – this is the gist of it. However, the conventional opinion is that the small cannot really match the large, that weakness cannot really defeat strength, and that it is really difficult for softness to gain control over hardness. But in talking of matching, defeating, controlling, there is indeed a theory behind getting the upper hand: the opponent’s power must get to me for it to be effective, but if I gain control over what he is trying to do, I take advantage of the moment he begins to apply hard power, watching for the opportunity and responding accordingly, arresting his attack and sending him back to seeking control over his own body.
     Therefore even if I am weaker, I always claim control over the opponent’s position, and even if he is stronger, he is always in a position of being controlled. If it is difficult for him to freely expand, then even if his power is great, what good would it be? The statement of Laozi that “the teeth wear out but the tongue goes on” very much aligns with the idea of hard and soft in Taiji Boxing. But if you are not an ardent student who ponders deeply upon these things, these words will not help you.
動急則急應、動緩則緩隨、雖變化萬端、而理為一貫、
If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow. However countless his changes may be, the principle of this timing is a single constant.
此言己動作之遲速。當隨敵動作遲速之程度而異。但欲識敵之遲速程度。須先體察敵力之動機。方能因應咸宜。何謂動機。周濂溪通書有云。動而未形有無之間者曰機。又曰機微故幽。難識如此。設非功深。不易知也。然苟得其機。敵雖變化萬端。由一本而萬殊。而我則執兩用中。扼萬殊使歸一本。審機應候。無過不及。守一以臨。純任自然。無絲毫之凝滯矣。故曰得其一而萬事畢是也。
The speed of your movement should be based on the speed of the opponent’s. If you want to know his speed, you must first watch for the pivotal moment his power moves, then you will be able to respond appropriately. What is this moment of movement? It says in Zhou Dunyi’s Penetrating the Book of Changes: “The pivotal moment is the time before action has taken shape, between when it is not and when it is… The moment is subtle, and so it is hard to spot.” As difficult to recognize as it is, if you have not trained deeply it will not be easy to understand. As long as I catch the timing, it does not matter what the opponent does, for countless variations are based upon that single principle, and so I hold to it, controlling the variations by making them return to their single basis. I observe the timing and respond to the situation, neither overdoing nor underdoing. Holding to that “single constant” and being ruled by it, your movement will be pure and natural and be without the slightest bit of stagnancy. Thus it is said [Zhuangzi, chapter 12]: “Obtain the One and all things are accomplished.”
由着熟而慚悟懂勁、由懂勁而階及神明、然非用力之久、不能豁然貫通焉、
Once you have engrained these techniques, you will gradually come to indentify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.
此言習太極拳者。進功自有一定之程度。而不可躐等躁進也。太極拳之妙全在用勁。此勁字係靈明活潑由功深練出之勁不可僅作力量解然勁為無形。必附麗於有形之着。始能顯著。言太極拳者。每專恃善於運勁。而輕視用着。以致習者無從捉摸。有望洋興歎之槪。虛度光陰。難期進益。較循序漸進者。反事倍功半。不遵守自然之程序故也。昔孔子講學。常因材授敎。故諸門弟子。各得其益。拳術雖屬小技。然執塗人而語以升堂入室之奧。未有能豁然者也。故習此拳者。應先模仿師之姿勢。姿勢正確矣。須求各姿勢互相聯貫之精神。拳路熟習矣。須求各勢着數之用法。着熟矣。其用是否能適當。用均得其當矣。其勁是否不落空。勁不落空。是眞為着熟。再由推手以求懂勁。研求對手動作之輕重遲速。及勁行之趨向方位。久之自微懂而略懂。進至於無微不覺。無處不懂。方得稱為懂勁。懂勁後不求用着。而着自合。進至無勁非着。無着非勁。漸至不須用着。祗須用勁。再至不求用勁。而勁自合。以意運勁。以氣代意。精神所觸。莫之能禦。則階及神明矣。是非數十年純。功曷克臻此。
For Taiji Boxing practitioners, there is a fixed process of progress. You cannot skip steps and rush ahead. The subtlety of Taiji Boxing all comes down to using energy. (This “energy” has to do with nimbleness and liveliness, comes from a deeper level of training, and cannot be explained only in terms of physical strength.) Although the energy is shapeless, it must be in accord with the shape of the technique in order for you to start to be able to manifest it. In Taiji Boxing, whenever you concentrate power it depends on being good at moving energy. If you neglect it when applying techniques, you will end up unable to understand why they are not working, and you will feel pathetic, that you have wasted your time, and that progress is hopeless. Compared to proceeding step by step and progressing gradually, you will instead get half the effect for double the effort, the result of not abiding by the natural sequence.
     Confucius discussed education along these lines: if it is always based in talented instruction, then each student will benefit from it. Although boxing arts are a lesser skill, it takes applying it upon opponents to say you have mastered it, which no one has ever been able to do quickly, therefore a practitioner of this boxing art should first imitate the teacher’s postures.
     Once you are doing them correctly, you must seek to be mindful of linking them with each other. Once you can do the solo set fluently, you must focus on each posture’s function. Once you are familiar with the techniques, see whether or not you can apply them properly. Once you have grasped the proper way to apply them all, see whether or not your power is empty. Once your power is substantial, you have truly engrained the techniques.
     Then seek to identify energies through pushing hands. Study the weight and speed of your opponent’s movements and the direction his energy moves toward. After a long time, you will naturally come to identify a little bit, then a little more, until you progress to the point that you sense the slightest thing and everywhere know what it is, and then you will have grasped what is meant by identifying energies.
     Once you are identifying energies, you will not try to apply techniques and they will happen by themselves. You will progress to the point that without the energy there is no technique and without the technique there is no energy. Gradually you will reach the level at which you do not need to apply techniques, you only need to apply energy. Then finally you will not try to apply energy and the energy will happen by itself, for you are wielding power by way of intention and transposing intention with energy. There is spirit in your touch and nothing can stand against it. You have proceeded to the miraculous. Indeed, without several decades of ardent practice, how could you attain this?
虛領頂勁、
Forcelessly rouse strength at the headtop.
虛、一作須。似宜從虛。虛者對實之稱。實卽窒滯難巧也。頂者頭頂。亦曰顖門。小兒初生時。此處骨軟未合。常隨呼吸顫動。道家稱為上丹田泥丸宮。蓋藏神之府也。佛家摩頂受記。道家上田練神。易曰行其庭不見其人。庭指天庭頭頂也行神氣流行也不見其人虛也黃庭經云。子欲不死修崑崙。山名喩頭頂均示人修養之要訣也。夫人之大腦主思想。小腦主運動。而頭頂實首出庶物。支配神經。為主宰之樞府。其地位重要如此。宜為修養家所注重。練太極拳者。向主身心合一。內外兼修。精神與肉體二者同時鍜鍊。故運勁時必運智於腦。貫神於頂。務使頂上圓光。虛靈不昧。所以鍊神也。蓋頭為全身綱領。綱舉則目張。頭頂懸則週身骨骼正直。筋肉順遂。偶有動作。全身一致。左右前後。無掣肘之虞矣。
“Forcelessly” has also been written as “must” [making “You must rouse strength at the headtop.”], but it seems appropriate to go along with “forcelessly”. “Force-lessly” is said in opposition to “-fully”. To do it forcefully would cause you to be jammed up and slowed down, making it hard to be skillful. [i.e. “You must rouse strength at the headtop” neglects the point that it should be done without effort, and in fact due to the imperative nature of “must”, it would seem instead to encourage effort. Therefore “must” can be dismissed as simply wrong. It was surely not intended and was most likely the wrong character transposed for the right one, an easy and common mistake when characters have identical pronunciations, a major hazard of the Chinese language.] “Headtop” means the top of the head, the area also called the “fontanel”. During infancy, the bones in this area are soft and not yet joined, and it often trembles along with the breath.
     Daoists call it the “upper elixir field” or the “clay pellet palace”. It is the mansion in which the spirit is stored. When a Buddhist is ordained, he receives marking there. For Daoists, the upper field is where spirit is cultivated. The Book of Changes says: “He walks in his courtyand but does not notice his family.” (The “courtyand” indicates the forehead, but means the top of the head [the “headtop”]. “Walks” – this is the spirit and energy flowing along [corresponding to “rouse” / “strength”]. “Does not notice his family” – this is the emptiness [corresponding to “effortlessly”].) The Yellow Courtyard Classic says: “He wishes to be immortal and cultivate himself at Kunlun.” (This mountain’s name is a metaphor for the headtop.) All these examples show people with the knack for self-cultivation.
     A person’s cerebrum controls thought while the cerebellum controls movement, but the headtop is really the source from which all things emerge, controlling all the nerves. [The acupoint at the top of the head is named 百會 (Bai Hui) – “where all meet”.] It is the “governor’s mansion”, and its position is important as such, for it is a fitting place to emphasize when engaged in self-cultivation. The Taiji Boxing practitioner directs body and mind to unite. Inside and out are simultaneously cultivated, and spirit and body are simultaneously tempered. Therefore, when moving energy in the body, you must move intellect in the brain, penetrating spirit to the headtop, seeking to make a halo of clear-mindedness round the head, and thereby refining the spirit. The head is the whole body’s guide. Guiding upward, the gaze then spreads outward. When the headtop is suspended, throughout the body the skeleton is upright, the muscles behave smoothly, and whenever there is movement, the whole body functions as one unit, whether to the left or right, forward or back, without being impeded by anxieties.
氣沉丹田、
Energy sinks to the elixir field.
丹田、穴名。道家謂丹田有三。一居頭頂、以藏神。一居中脘、以蓄炁。一居臍下。以藏精。此指下丹田也。(臍下三寸)常用深呼吸使氣歸納于此。自能氣足神旺。黃庭云。呼吸廬外入丹田。審能行之可常存。蓋常人呼吸短促。每至中脘而回中脘橫膈膜也不能下達此處。因之循環遲緩。肺力薄弱。不足以排泄腹中炭養。血脈不能紅活。於人之壽命關係至鉅。老子曰。天地之間。其猶橐籥乎。又曰虛其心。實其腹。蓋吐故納新。吐吐腹中濁氣納吸新鮮空氣也歸根復命。根根蒂指下丹田命門精氣也歸復者以意逆志於此也以心意導精氣於下丹田而施烹煉也。久之自能延年却病。下丹田為全身重點所在。習拳術者。沉氣於此。則屹然不動。不易撼倒。但沉者徐徐而下。在有意無意之間。非若外家之用力下沉、外臌小腹也。倘或不愼。每致腸疝諸症。邇來日本之靜坐家剛田虎二郎、罹糖尿病逝世。議者疑係努力下丹田所致。非無因也。
The “elixir field” [Dan Tian] is the name of an acupoint. The Daoists say there are three elixir fields: one at the headtop storing spirit, one in the belly storing energy, and one below the navel storing essence. This last one is the lower elixir field (three inches below the navel). Through constant deep breathing, which causes energy to accumulate at this point, you will naturally have sufficient energy and abundant spirit.
     The Yellow Courtyard Classic says: “When breathing, take outside air into the elixir field and see how long you can keep it there.” The length of the ordinary person’s breath is short and only goes as deep as the belly (i.e. meeting the diaphragm [but not expanding it]) and cannot make it to the elixir field. This causes the circulation to slow and the lungs to weaken, inadequately removing impurities from the abdomen, and hence the blood cannot be lively, greatly shortening a person’s life span. Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 5]: “The space between sky and ground is like a bellows.” He also said [Daodejing, 3]: “Empty the mind, fill the abdomen.” This is along the lines of [Zhuangzi, chapter 15]: “Expel dead air and take in fresh” (“expel” meaning exhaling bad air from the abdomen and “take in” meaning inhaling fresh air) and [from Daodejing, 16]: “Returning to the root… [and thereby] rejuvenating life.” (By “root” is meant the source, i.e. the vitality in the elixir field [in the lower abdomen] and what is called the “life-gate” in the lower back, and then “returning” and “rejuvenating” meaning the intention is inverted and aimed at these places.)
     Use intention to guide energy to the lower elixir field where it is refined. After a long time you will naturally be able to prolong life and prevent disease. The lower elixir field is the key point of the whole body for practitioners of boxing arts. By sinking energy to this area, you will be majestically stable and it will not be easy to affect you or make you topple. But sinking the energy is to be done slowly, somewhere between deliberately and unconsciously, not like an external stylist’s sinking by way of effort and outwardly swelling the abdomen. If you are not careful, you could end up giving yourself a hernia, amongst other ailments. Recently Gang Tianhu, a second-level practitioner of Japanese meditation, died of diabetes. It is suggested the cause may be in connection with him being too forceful with his lower elixir field, a hypothesis which is not unreasonable.
不偏不倚、忽隱忽現、
Neither lean nor slant. Suddenly hide and suddenly appear.
偏、偏頗失中也、倚、倚賴失正也。隱、隱藏。現、表現。忽隱、忽現者。神明不測也。上指身體姿勢。下指神氣運勁而言。太極虛明中正者也。於姿勢則必中必正。於運勁若有意無意。使神氣意力。全身貫澈。無過不及。忽隱忽現。令人不可捉摸。練習純熟。便易領悟。幾何學定理。兩點之間祗可作一直線。太極拳上領頂勁。下守重心。週身中正。便無不是處矣。但領守均須含活潑之意。富自然之趣。過于矜持。則神氣凝滯。姿態呆板。運勁不能虛靈。動生障礙矣。故曰忽隱忽現也。
To “lean” means to lose your balance. To “slant” means to deviate from your upright posture. To “hide” means to conceal. To “appear” means to show. To “suddenly hide and suddenly appear” means to be magically unpredictable. “Neither lean nor slant” has to do with the body’s posture. “Suddenly hide and suddenly appear” has to do with the movement of spirit and energy. In Taiji, there is emptiness and clarity, balance and uprightness, meaning that the posture must be balanced and upright, and that the movement seems both intended and not intended, causing the spirit, energy, intention, and power to course through the whole body. Neither going too far nor not far enough, suddenly hide and suddenly appear, making the opponent unable to figure out what you are doing. When you have practiced until you are skillful, you will easily come to comprehend this.
     In geometry, between two points there is only a single straight line. In Taiji Boxing, strength at the headtop is to be roused above and the center of balance is to be guarded below, and as long as the whole body is balanced and upright, these will easily be the case. But both the rousing above and guarding below must contain an intention of liveliness and a quality of being abundantly natural, whereas if you overdo them and become restrictive, then the spirit and energy will become sluggish, the posture will become stiff, the wielding of power will not be able to be done with effortless nimbleness, and your own movements will begin to obstruct you. Therefore it is said: “Suddenly hide and suddenly appear.”
左重則左虛、右重則右杳、
When there is pressure on the left, the left empties. When there is pressure on the right, the right disappears.
此仍承上文而言。吾隱現無常。敵以吾力在左。思更加重吾左方之力。使失平衡。吾則虛以待之。令敵力落空。敵揣吾右方有力。可以擒制。吾卽隱而藏之。虛實易位。隨機善應。敵更何所施其技耶。
This continues the thought from the previous explanation. I hide and appear inconstantly. If the opponent feels me applying force on my left side and wants to add pressure to it to cause me to lose my balance, I then empty my left side and await his pressure, guiding his power to land on nothing. If he feels I am applying force on my right side and that he can take control of it, I promptly hide it and store it away, my empty and full switching roles. If you adapt to the situation and respond accordingly, how can an opponent ever use his techniques?
仰之則彌高、俯之則彌深、
When looking up, it is still higher. When looking down, it is still lower.
仰升、俯降也。敵欲提吾使上。吾卽因而高之。敵欲抑吾使下。吾卽因而降之。敵遂失其重心。反受吾制矣。
“Looking up” means rising. “Looking down” means lowering. If the opponent wants to lift me to make me go upward, I then continue it even higher, or if he wants to crush me to make me go downward, I then continue it even lower. This makes him lose his balance and turns the tables to subject him to my control.
進之則愈長、退之則愈促、
When advancing, it is even farther. When retreating, it is even nearer.
進、前進也。長、伸舒也。退、後退也。促、逼迫也。吾前進時。倘敵順領吾勁時。吾則長身以隨之。使無可退避。或敵乘勢前進。吾急引而伸之。使力到盡頭。自不得再逞。吾若退後。敵力逼來。每致迫促無路可逃。易云天行健君子以自强不息。示人遇事當積極進行。不可退縮也。太極拳雖以柔靜為主。但非務退避。其佯退者。乃以退為進。非眞退也。若竟退時。倘遇敵隨之深入。則逼迫不自安矣。又敵退後時。吾進而迫之使愈促。吾退後時。敵力跟來。吾則或俯身摺疊以促其指腕。或旁按臂彎。使敵促迫不安、而不能再進。
To advance is to go forward. “Even farther” means to stretch out. To retreat is to go back. “Even nearer” means to close in. When I advance forward, if the opponent complies with and leads in my power, I then extend my body and follow him in so that he cannot evade me. If he takes advantage of the situation and advances, I quickly lure him in until he is stretched out, making his power reach its limit so he cannot do anything with it. If I were to simply retreat, his power would press in on me and I would be forced back with no route of escape.
     It says in the Book of Changes: “The sky acts with vigor. A gentleman ceaselessly improves himself.” When you see the opponent is about to forcefully advance, you must not cower. Although Taiji Boxing prioritizes softness and stillness, it does not seek to avoid contact. Feign retreat and turn retreat into advance rather than actually retreating. If I retreat and the opponent follows me closely, I will be crowded and made uncomfortable. When he retreats, I advance and press in to make him more crowded. If I retreat and his power follows me to attack, I then bend forward, folding up to obstruct his fingers or wrist, or twist sideways to push his elbow, making him crowded and uncomfortable and unable to advance any farther.
一羽不能加、一蠅不能落、
A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land.
羽、翎羽也。加、增之也。落、降也。着也。言善太極工者。感覺敏銳。稍觸卽知。稍縱卽逝。雖輕如一羽。微如蠅蟲。稍近吾體。亦卽知覺。趨避而不令加着也。夫虛靈不昧之謂神。有知覺然後能運動。致虛極。守靜篤。寂然不動。感而遂通。有不期然而然者。非鍛鍊有素、肢體軟靈、富有觸力、未足語此也。
The character for “feather” [can also mean “wing” but here indeed] means feather. To “be added” is in the sense of to be put on you. To “land” means to lower and touch you. These phrases describe one who has excellent Taiji skill, perceiving acutely, knowing the opponent upon the merest contact, putting an end to the situation when the opponent makes the merest attempt. Even if his touch is as light as a feather or as slight as a fly, if he encroaches upon me to the smallest degree, I am immediately aware of it, evading his attack but not adding any pressure to him in the course of doing so. With the natural clear-mindedness we call spirit, I am aware of his action and then able to act upon it. [Daodejing, chapter 16:] “Achieve an extreme softness and maintain a sincere stillness.” Be silent and still, sensing and connecting, and give no warning when you act. If you do not train to the point of purity, building a supple nimbleness in your body and developing an abundant power of touch, you will not be qualified to discuss these things.
人不知我、我獨知人、英雄所向無敵、蓋皆由此而及也、
He does not know me, only I know him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.
虛靜則陰陽相合、覺敏則剛柔互濟。敵偶動作。吾無不知。吾之動作。敵盡難知。拳術家所向無敵。蓋均由此。孫子曰。善戰者無赫赫之功。又曰。知彼知己。百戰不殆。不知彼而知己。一勝一負。人不知我。我能知人。則所向無敵矣。
When you are empty and still, passive and active blend together. When you are aware and alert, hard and soft alternate with each other. Whatever the opponent does, I know it all. As for what I am doing, the opponent has a very difficult time knowing any of it. When an expert of boxing arts encounters no opposition, it is because of this principle [of knowing and being unknown]. Sunzi said [Art of War, chapter 4]: “Good fighters do not make a show of their skill.” He also said [chapter 3]: “Knowing both self and opponent, you will win every time. But not knowing the opponent and only knowing yourself, you will have only a fifty-fifty chance.” If the opponent does not know me but I am able to know him, then I will meet no opposition.
斯技旁門甚多、
There are many other schools of boxing arts besides this one.
泛指他項拳術而言。
This points to other kinds of boxing arts generally.
雖勢有區別、
Although the postures are different between them,…
流派不同。姿勢各異。
Different schools, different postures.
槪不外乎壯欺弱、慢讓快耳、
… they generally do not go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast.
他種拳術重力量。尚着法。而不求懂勁。故於機勢妙合、運用靈敏、以靜制動諸訣。槪不過問。
Other kinds of boxing arts emphasize strength and showing off. They do not seek to identify energies, and thus the ingenuity of merging timing and momentum, of applying sensitivity, and of using stillness to overcome movement of any speed, are things which are typically not looked into.
有力讓無力、手慢讓手快、此皆先天自然之能、
The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability…
謂力大與敏捷二者。均為天賦的能力。
This points out that both great strength and quick reflexes are talents one is born with.
非關學力而有所為也、
… and bear no relation to skill that is learned.
非由學而能者。
They are not abilities that come from learning.
察四兩撥千斤之句、 見搭手歌牽動四兩撥千斤顯非力勝、
Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds” (See the “Touching Hands Song” [i.e. “Playing Hands Song”] where it says: “I will tug on his movement with four ounces of force moving his of a thousand pounds.”), which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength.
如秤衡秤物。滑車起重。全賴桿杆斜面等理。太極拳以小力勝大力。以無力制有力。與科學暗合。
When measuring weights on a scale, the pulley responds to the heavier side, as per the mechanics of leverage. Taiji Boxing’s use of a small force to defeat a large force, or an absence of force to gain control over a presence of force, is in accordance with science.
觀耄耋能禦衆之形、快何能為、
Or consider the sight of a septua/octogenarian repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.
古稱七十曰耄。八十曰耋。年老之人。舉動遲緩。然古之名將。如廉頗等。雖老尚能勝衆。是必不僅持手足速快已也。
In the old days, “septuagenarian” was commonly used to indicate a man in his seventies, “octogenarian” a man in his eighties. An old man moves slowly, but in ancient times there were great generals like Lian Po, who when he was old could still defeat many. Therefore there is surely more to it than hands and feet being fast.
立如平凖、
Stand like a scale.
中正安舒。不偏不倚。脊背三關。自然得路也。
If your body is upright and comfortable, neither leaning nor slanting, the three sections of the spine will naturally be correctly placed.
活似車輪、
Move like a wheel.
圓妙莊嚴。靈活無滯。則周身法輪。常轉不已矣。
If your poise is rounded and dignified, your movement nimble and without sluggishness, then your whole body will have a wheel-like quality, constantly turning without end.
偏沉則隨、
If you drop one side, you can move.
偏、指一端也。如吸水機。如撤酒器。使一端常虛。故能引水。如欹器之不堪盈滿。滿則自覆矣。
To “drop” means to go to one side. It is like when water is being drained by being poured from a bottle. This causes one side to be empty and therefore you can draw off the water. If the bottle were overfilled, it would spill on its own.
雙重則滯、
If you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck.
有彼我之雙重。有一己之雙重。太極拳以虛靈為本。單重尚且不可。况雙重乎。
There is the “equal pressure” between me and the opponent [i.e. neglecting to drop one side and release the pressure on that side to draw the opponent off balance, instead maintaining pressure on both sides and merely spending effort holding him back], and there is the “equal pressure” that has to do only with myself [i.e. having equal weight on both feet]. Taiji Boxing is based on naturalness. If you cannot function with single pressure [i.e. with the weight more on one foot than the other], what is double pressure supposed to get you?
每見數年純工、不能運化者、率皆自為人制、雙重之病未悟耳、
We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is generally under the opponent’s control, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood.
古云恃德者昌。恃力者亡。易曰。天行健君子以自强不息。蓋言虛則靈。靈則動。動則變。 變則化。化則無滯耳。善應敵者。常致人而不致於人。而况自為人所制乎。用功雖純。苟不悟雙重之弊。猶未學耳。
Long ago it was said [in the Historical Records, chapter 68]: “Those who rely on virtue flourish. Those who rely on force perish.” It says in the Book of Changes: “The sky acts with vigor. A gentleman ceaselessly improves himself.” Building upon these words, when you are empty you are sensitive, being sensitive you move, by moving you change, by changing you neutralize, and when you neutralize you do not get stuck. [Sunzi said (Art of War, chapter 6):] “One who is good at dealing with opponents always controls the opponent and is never controlled by the opponent.” Is not this even more important to know for one who is “under the opponent’s control”? Although you may have worked to the point of skill, if you do not understand the error of double pressure, it is like you have not yet learned anything.
欲避此病、
If you want to avoid this error,…
雙重之病。
(the error of double pressure)
須知陰陽、
… you must understand passive and active.
陰陽之解甚多。前已述之。茲不復贅。
Pairings of passive and active are rather numerous, and as it has already been touched upon above, such a list will not be repeated here.
粘卽是走、走卽是粘、
In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking.
制敵勁時謂之粘。化敵勁時謂之走。
When you control the opponent’s energy, this is called sticking. When you neutralize the opponent’s energy, this is called yielding.
陰不離陽、陽不離陰、陰陽相濟、方為懂勁、
The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies.
知彼己之剛柔虛實。則陰陽互為消長。以虛濟盈。而不失其機。斯眞懂勁。
Being aware of both the opponent’s and your own hardness and softness, emptiness and fullness, then passive and active mutually wax and wane. When switching emptiness to fullness [and vice versa] without misjudging the time to do it, here indeed is the identifying of energies.
懂勁後愈練愈精、
Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be,…
反襯不懂勁則愈練愈不精也。
By contrast, if you are not identifying energies, then despite lots of practice you will have very little increase in efficiency.
默識揣摩、漸至從心所欲、
… and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.
懂勁後能自揣摩。默而識之。有餘師矣。
Once you are identifying energies, you can constantly think about them and further understand them by experiencing them. Experience and contemplation are your extra teachers.
本是舍己從人、
The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent.
毋意、毋必、毋固、毋我。隨機應便。不拘成見。
[Confucius said (Lun Yu, 9.4):] “There is no idea, no imperative, no insistence, no me.” Respond according to situations. Do not get stuck in expectations.
多誤舍近求遠、
We often make the mistake of ignoring what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances.
不知機而妄動者。動則得咎。
When you do not sense the right moment to act and then end up acting with haste, what your action gets you is not going to be what you would want.
所謂差之毫釐、謬之千里、
For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.”
區別甚微。人易謬誤。
Unless you distinguish very minutely, you can easily go astray.
學者不可不詳辨焉、是為論、
You must understand all this clearly. That is why it has been written down for you.
古人云。獲得眞訣好用工。苟不詳為辨別。則眞妄費工夫矣。
Someone in the past said: “Obtain the real stuff and ardently work at it.” If you do not discriminate over details, then you will simply be wasting your effort.
此論係三丰先生入室弟子王君宗岳所作。語簡而賅。要之於太極拳之奧理已闡發無遺。原經甚多。先取此篇加以註釋。臆斷之處。在所難免。閱者諒之。
This essay comprises what Wang Zongyue learned from Zhang Sanfeng. Its words are simple and comprehensive. He wanted Taiji Boxing’s subtle theory to be explained without anything left out. Of the many primary texts, start with this one, including its commentaries. If you come across doubtful areas, as is bound to happen from time to time, please pardon.

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下編
PART TWO

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第一章 太極拳路之順序及運動部位圖 附說明
CHAPTER ONE: THE SEQUENCE OF THE TAIJI BOXING SOLO SET WITH MOVEMENT POSITIONING CHART (COMPLETE WITH EXPLANATIONS)

自北邊起向西作預備式。進左步、向右方轉身、面北作攬雀尾式。開左步、回身向南、作單鞭式。移右步向前、作提手上式。原地作白鶴亮翅式。開左步面南、作左摟膝拗步式。上右步、作右摟膝拗步式。再上左步、作左摟膝拗步式。幷右步、作手揮琵琶式。開左步、作搬攔鎚式。原地作如封似閉式。向右幷步、面西作十字手式。開右步、向右斜後方轉、向東北作抱虎歸山式。原地作攬雀尾式。回身向西南開左步、作斜單鞭式。上右步、收左步、面向南作肘底看鎚式。左腿後撤、左手前伸。作倒攆猴式一。撤右腿、伸右手、作倒攆猴式二。再撤左腿、伸左手、作倒攆猴式三。退右步向西北(或進左步向東南)作斜飛式。移右步向前、作提手上式。原地作白鶴亮翅式。開左步面南作左摟膝拗步式。左腿後撤半步、屈腿作海底針式。再開左步、作扇通背式。右後轉作彆身鎚式。撤右步、作卸步搬攔鎚式。再上右步、作攬雀尾式。開左足、回身向南、作單鞭式。幷右足、作雲手式一。開左足、作雲手式二。再幷右足、作雲手式三。開左足、作單鞭式。左足後撤半步作左高探馬式。踢右足、作右分脚式。落右足、作右高探馬式。踢左足、作左分脚式。左後轉、作轉身蹬脚式。落左足、作左摟膝拗步式。上右足、作右摟膝拗步式。再上左步、作進步栽鎚式。右後轉、作翻身彆身鎚式。提左腿、踢右腿、作二起脚式。落右腿、撤左足、向左方作左打虎式。撤右足、向右方作右打虎式。原地作披身踢脚式。落右足向前作雙風貫耳式。踢左足、作進步蹬脚式。右後轉面向東、落左足、踢右足作轉身蹬脚式。落右足、上左步、作搬攔鎚式。原地作如封似閉式。向右幷步、作十字手式。開右步、向右斜後轉、向東北作抱虎歸山式。原地作攬雀尾式。回身開左步、向西南作斜單鞭式。上右步、作野馬分鬃式一。上左步、作野馬分鬃式二。再上右步、作野馬分鬃式三。上左步向西北作玉女穿梭式一。右後轉向西南作玉女穿梭式二。再上左步向東南作玉女穿梭式三。右後轉向東北作玉女穿梭式四。原地作攬雀尾式。開左足、回身向南作單鞭式。幷右足作雲手式一。開左足作雲手式二。再幷右足作雲手式三。開左足作單鞭式。原地屈腿作下勢式。立身、提右腿作右金鷄獨立式。落右足提左腿作左金鷄獨立式。撤左足作倒攆猴式一。撤右足作倒攆猴式二。撤左足作倒攆猴式三。退右足向西北(或進左足向東南)作斜飛式。移右足向前作提手上式。原地作白鶴亮翅式。開左足面南作左摟膝拗步式。左足後撤半步、屈腿作海底針式。開左足、作扇通背式。右後轉、作彆身鎚式。進左足作上步搬攔鎚式。原地作攬雀尾式。開左步回身、作單鞭式。幷右足作雲手式一。開左足作雲手式二。幷右足作雲手式三。開左足作單鞭式。左足後撤半步、作左高探馬式。開左步、穿左掌、右後轉作十字擺連式。右足落地、作右摟膝拗步式。進左足作摟膝指襠鎚式。上右足作攬雀尾式。開左足、回身作單鞭式。原地屈腿作下勢式。立身上右足、作上步七星式。退右足、收左足、作退步跨虎式。右後轉、上左足、穿左掌、再右後轉、作轉脚擺連式。向右方落右足、作彎弓射虎式。上左足靠攏、雙手下垂、還原預備式。
[1] With north to your [right] and west in front of you, perform READINESS POSTURE.
[2] Advance with your left foot, turning your torso to the right, and perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
[3] Step out with your left foot, turning around to the south, and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[4] Shift your right foot forward and perform RAISE THE HAND.
[5] Staying where you are, perform WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS.
[6] Step out with your left foot to the south and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side, step forward with your right foot and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the right side, then step forward again with your left foot, and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
[7] Bring your right foot beside your left foot and perform PLAY THE LUTE.
[8] Stepping out with your left foot, perform PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
[9] Staying where you are, perform SEALING SHUT.
[10] Bring your left foot beside your right foot, facing west, and perform CROSSED HANDS.
[11] Step out with your right foot, turning around diagonally to your right rear, to the northeast, and perform CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN.
[12] Staying where your are, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
[13] Turn around to the southwest, stepping out with your left foot, and perform DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP.
[14] Step forward with your right foot, withdraw your left foot, face south, and perform GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW.
[15] Withdraw your left leg, extending your left hand forward, and perform the first movement of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY. Withdraw your right leg, extending your right hand forward, and perform the second movement of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY. Again withdraw your left leg, extending your left hand forward, and perform the third movement of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY.
[16] Retreat your right foot to the northwest (or advance your left foot to the southeast) and perform DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE.
[17] Shift your right foot forward and perform RAISE THE HAND.
[18&19] Staying where you are, perform WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS.
[20] Step out with your left foot, facing south, and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
[21] Withdraw your left leg a half step, bend your [right] leg, and perform NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”.
[22] Again stepping out with your left foot, perform FAN THROUGH THE BACK.
[23] Turn around to the right and perform FLINGING BODY PUNCH.
[24] Withdrawing your right foot, perform WITHDRAWING STEP, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
[25] Again step forward with your right foot, and perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
[26] Step out with your left foot, turning around to the south, and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[27] Bring your left foot beside your right foot and perform the first movement of CLOUDING HANDS, step out with your left foot and perform the second movement of CLOUDING HANDS, again bring your left foot beside your right foot and perform the third movement of CLOUDING HANDS, then step out with your left foot and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[28] Withdrawing your left foot a half step, perform RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT.
[29] Kick with your right foot to perform KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE.
[30] Lower your right foot and perform RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – RIGHT.
[31] Kick with your left foot to perform KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE.
[32] Turn around to your left rear, and perform TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK.
[33] Bring your left foot down and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side, then step forward with your right foot and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the right side.
[34] Again step forward, now with your left foot, and perform ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH.
[35] Turn around to your right rear, and perform TURN AROUND, FLINGING BODY PUNCH.
[36] Lift your left leg and kick with your right leg to perform DOUBLE KICK.
[37] Lower your right leg, withdraw your left foot, turn to your left, and perform FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE on the left side, then withdraw your right foot, turn to the right, and perform FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE on the right side.
[38] Staying where you are, perform DRAPING THE BODY, KICK.
[39] Bring your right foot down in front and perform DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS.
[40] Kick with your left foot to perform ADVANCE, PRESSING KICK.
[41] Turn around to your right rear, to the east, lower your left foot, and kick with your right foot to perform TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK.
[42] Bring your right foot down, step forward with your left foot, and perform PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
[43] Staying where you are, perform SEALING SHUT.
[44] Bring your left foot beside your right foot and perform CROSSED HANDS.
[45] Step out with your right foot, turning around diagonally to your right rear, to the northeast, and perform CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN, then staying where your are, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
[46] Turn around, stepping out with your left foot to the southwest, and perform DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP.
[47] Step forward with your right foot and perform the first movement of WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE, step forward with your left foot and perform the second movement of WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE, then again step forward with your right foot and perform the third movement of WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE.
[48] Step forward with your left foot and perform the first movement of MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE to the northwest, turn around to your right rear and perform the second movement of MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE to the southwest, again step forward with your left foot and perform the third movement of MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE to the southeast, turn around to your right rear and perform the fourth movement of MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE to the northeast, then stay where you are and perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
[49] Step out with your left foot, turning around to the south, and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[50] Bring your left foot beside your right foot and perform the first movement of CLOUDING HANDS, step out with your left foot and perform the second movement of CLOUDING HANDS, again bring your left foot beside your right foot and perform the third movement of CLOUDING HANDS, then step out with your left foot and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[51] Staying where you are, perform LOW POSTURE.
[52] Stand your body up, lift your right leg, and perform GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG on the right side, then lower your right foot, lift your left leg, and perform GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG on the left side.
[53] Withdraw your left foot and perform the first movement of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY, withdraw your right foot and perform the second movement of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY, then withdraw your left foot and perform the third movement of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY.
[54] Retreat your right foot to the northwest (or advance your left foot to the southeast) and perform DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE.
[55] Shift your right foot forward and perform RAISE THE HAND.
[56] Staying where you are, perform WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS.
[57] Step out with your left foot, facing south, and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
[58] Withdraw your left leg a half step, bend your [right] leg, and perform NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”.
[59] Step out with your left foot and perform FAN THROUGH THE BACK.
[60] Turn around to your right and perform FLINGING BODY PUNCH, then advancing with your right foot, perform STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
[61] Staying where you are, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
[62] Step out with your left foot, turning around, and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[63] Bring your left foot beside your right foot and perform the first movement of CLOUDING HANDS, step out with your left foot and perform the second movement of CLOUDING HANDS, bring your left foot beside your right foot and perform the third movement of CLOUDING HANDS, then step out with your left foot and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[64] Withdrawing your left foot a half step, perform RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT.
[65] Step out with your left foot, threading through with your left palm, then turn around to your right rear, and perform CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK.
[66] Bring your right foot down and perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the right side, then advance with your left foot and perform BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH.
[67] Step forward with your right foot and perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
[68] Step out with your left foot, turning around, and perform SINGLE WHIP.
[69] Staying where you are, perform LOW POSTURE.
[70] Stand your body up, step forward with your right foot, and perform STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER, then retreat your right foot, withdraw your left foot, and perform RETREAT TO RIDE THE TIGER.
[71] Turn around to your right rear, step forward with your left foot, threading through with your left palm, then again turn around to your right rear, and perform SPIN AROUND ON THE FOOT, SWINGING LOTUS KICK.
[72] Lower your right foot to your right and perform BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER.
[73] Step forward with your left foot so your feet are standing next to each other, both hands hanging down, and return to READINESS POSTURE.

附太極拳運動部位圖說明
EXPLANATIONS TO THE TAIJI BOXING SOLO SET MOVEMENT POSITIONING CHART

(一)凡練習武術。例在某地方開始練起。卽應仍在某地方收勢。今為易於觀覽起見。特舒展圖面。故起訖不能在於一處。
1. Generally when practicing martial arts sets, you should end where you began. So that it is easy here to see everything in the chart, it is spread out [vertically], and therefore the beginning and ending posture cannot occupy the same place [horizontally].
(二)凡在一處繼續練習數式、不移動地方者。難於疊寫。祗得接近排列。以示在原地練習之意。如是。

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2. Often you will continue through several postures without changing your location. It is difficult to show this and so they are merely put in order by piling them up.
(三)凡兩式同在原地、而位置略移動者。特參差其位。以表明之。如是。

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3. When two postures happen in the same place, but the movement slightly shifts away, the postures are given an irregular alignment.
(四)凡動步者、則於兩位置間畫一直綫。以示前進之意。如是。

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其斜向移動者、則畫一斜綫。但綫之長短、與前進之度無關。
4. When movements have a vertical line between them, it means you are advancing in that direction, and when it is happening diagonally, the line is diagonal, but the length of the line has no bearing on the distance you are advancing.
(五)凡姿勢之斜正。均以圖位之方向斜正表明之。
5. Whether a posture is at an angle or straight, it is indicated by the angle of the box in the chart.
(六)每式注字之方法。各按每式所向之方向而定。閱者注意。
6. Each posture is written toward the direction it [your torso] faces, a hint to be given attention to. [This is displayed only in the Chinese text in the chart, whereas in the list I have simply used arrows to indicate which direction your torso is facing.]
(七)凡身體旋轉之式。以 @ 綫表明之。其半轉身者。則畫  )綫以表明之。
7. [In the chart,] a full turn of your body is indicated by a full circle spiraling inward/outward and a half turn is indicated by a half circle.
(八)左右分脚圖之指標綫。乃示其足尖所向之方向。
8. For the LEFT & RIGHT KICK TO THE SIDE, the chart shows the direction your toes are pointing [rather than the direction your torso is facing].
(九)凡畫虛綫位者。乃示下一式當居之位。因該處地勢窄狹。不便引畫。故移畫於下方。
9. When a box is made of dotted lines, its posture is indicated in the box below it. Because the space in the chart is confined, it would be inappropriate to write it so high [for the sake of the movements that continue from it], and so it is shifted below.
(十)全圖方向。另有指標。與普通所謂上為北下為南者不同。
10. As to the other direction indicators for the whole chart, the common way is for up to be north and down to be south, but here it is different [up being east and down being west]. [As no actual reason for this is given here, this does not satisfy. It amounts to saying something along the lines of, “What most people call left, in my book I have decided to call right.” Why not just leave it “the common way” of up being north? And since Xu so rarely mentions compass directions within his actual instructions for the postures, there seems little purpose in his bringing it up at all.]

[1] 預備式 READINESS POSTURE [↓]
[2] 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [←]
[3] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[4] 提手上式 RAISE THE HAND [↓]
[5] 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS [↓]
[6.1] 左摟膝拗步 LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [→]
[6.2] 右摟膝拗步 RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [→]
[6.3] 左摟膝拗步 LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [→]
[7] 手揮琵琶 PLAY THE LUTE [→]
[8] 搬攔鎚 PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [→]
[9] 如封似閉 SEALING SHUT [→]
[10] 十字手 CROSSED HANDS [↓]
[11] 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN [↖]
[12] 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [↖]
[13] 斜單鞭 DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP [↙]
[14] 肘底看鎚 GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW [↓]
[15.1] 倒攆猴一 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (1) [←]
[15.2] 倒攆猴二 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (2) [←]
[15.3] 倒攆猴三 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (3) [←]
[16] 斜單鞭 DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP [斜飛式 DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE] [↙]
[17] 提手上式 RAISE THE HAND [↓]
[18&19] 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS [↓]
[20] 摟膝拗步 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [→]
[21] 海底針 NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA” [→]
[22] 扇通背 FAN THROUGH THE BACK [↓]
[23] 彆身鎚 FLINGING BODY PUNCH [←]
[24] 搬攔鎚 PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [←]
[25] 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [←]
[26] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[27.1] 雲手一 CLOUDING HANDS (1) [↓]
[27.2] 雲手二 CLOUDING HANDS (2) [↓]
[27.3] 雲手三 CLOUDING HANDS (3) [↓]
[27.4] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[28] 左高探馬 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT [→]
[29] 右分脚 KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE [↗]
[30] 右高探馬 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – RIGHT [→]
[31] 左分脚 KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE [↘]
[32] 轉身登脚 TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK [←]
[33.1] 左摟膝拗步 LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [←]
[33.2] 右摟膝拗步 RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [←]
[34] 進步栽鎚 ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH [←]
[35] 彆身鎚 TURN AROUND, FLINGING BODY PUNCH [→]
[36] 二起脚 DOUBLE KICK [↘]
[37.1] 左打虎式 LEFT FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE [↓]
[37.2] 右打虎式 RIGHT FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE [↓]
[38] 披身踢脚 DRAPING THE BODY, KICK [→]
[39] 雙風貫耳 DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS [→]
[40] 進步蹬脚 ADVANCE, PRESSING KICK [→]
[41] 轉身蹬脚 TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK [→]
[42] 搬攔鎚 PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [→]
[43] 如封似閉 SEALING SHUT [→]
[44] 十字手 CROSSED HANDS [↓]
[45.1] 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN [↖]
[45.2] 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [↖]
[46] 斜單鞭 DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP [↙]
[47.1] 野馬分鬃一 WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE (1) [←]
[47.2] 野馬分鬃二 WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE (2) [←]
[47.3] 野馬分鬃三 WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE (3) [←]
[48.1] 玉女穿梭一 MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (1) [↙]
[48.2] 玉女穿梭二 MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (2) [↘]
[48.3] 玉女穿梭三 MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (3) [↗]
[48.4] 玉女穿梭四 MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (4) [↖]
[48.5] 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [←]
[49] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[50.1] 雲手一 CLOUDING HANDS (1) [↓]
[50.2] 雲手二 CLOUDING HANDS (2) [↓]
[50.3] 雲手三 CLOUDING HANDS (3) [↓]
[50.4] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[51] 下勢 LOW POSTURE [↓]
[52.1] 右金鷄獨立 RIGHT GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG [→]
[52.2] 左金鷄獨立 LEFT GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG [→]
[53.1] 倒攆猴一 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (1) [←]
[53.2] 倒攆猴二 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (2) [←]
[53.3] 倒攆猴三 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (3) [←]
[54] 斜單鞭 DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP [斜飛式 DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE] [↙]
[55] 提手上式 RAISE THE HAND [↓]
[56] 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS [↓]
[57] 左摟膝拗步 LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [→]
[58] 海底針 NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA” [→]
[59.1] 扇通背 FAN THROUGH THE BACK [↓]
[59.2] 彆身鎚 FLINGING BODY PUNCH [←]
[60] 進步搬攔鎚 ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [←]
[61] 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [←]
[62] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[63.1] 雲手一 CLOUDING HANDS (1) [↓]
[63.2] 雲手二 CLOUDING HANDS (2) [↓]
[63.3] 雲手三 CLOUDING HANDS (3) [↓]
[63.4] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[64] 左高探馬 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT [→]
[65] 十字擺連 CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK [←]
[66.1] 右摟膝拗步 RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [←]
[66.2] 指襠鎚 PUNCH TO THE CROTCH [←]
[67] 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [←]
[68] 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [↓]
[69] 下勢 LOW POSTURE [↓]
[70.1] 上步七星 STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER [→]
[70.2] 退步跨虎 RETREAT TO RIDE THE TIGER [→]
[71] 轉脚擺連 SPIN AROUND ON THE FOOT, SWINGING LOTUS KICK [→]
[72] 彎弓射虎 BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER [→]
[73] 合太極 CLOSING POSTURE [↓]

-

第二章 太極拳各勢圖解
CHAPTER TWO: EXPLANATIONS FOR EACH OF THE TAIJI BOXING POSTURES WITH DRAWINGS

太極拳術以虛無為本。其所鍛鍊神氣二者而已。非如外功拳術之專尚形勢也。則曷貴乎姿勢。但人之神氣曷所寄。寄於肉體。由肉體以鍛鍊精神。以心意作用。運動肢體。而俯仰屈伸。各如其意。使身心二者合一。由開合、鼓盪、呼吸、進退、以鍊其氣。由體覺、筋覺、觸覺、以敏其神。使太極之體用兼備。則習太極拳術者。於姿勢之講求。似亦未可從緩。嘗考太極拳之流派有三。有以姿勢之多寡命名者。如三十七、小九天、等是也。有以易象異名者。如先天拳、後天拳、等是也。有以運勁行步之方位定名者。如十三式、是也。其姿勢、名目、練習方法、各有不同。雖均可採。然除十三式外。多用單式練習。無固定之次序。於聯貫敎練上未盡相宜。當另為編製。今先就十三式拳路各姿勢之原有次序。繪圖立說。聊備參攷云爾。
The Taiji boxing art uses nothingness as its root. What it trains is nothing more than spirit and energy, and it is not like the external boxing’s emphasis on how it looks. So why care about the postures at all? Well, what does a person’s spirit and energy depend on? The body, by way of which the spirit is trained. Use the actions of the mind to move the body. Its contracting and expanding, bending and extending, are each as the mind dictates. Make body and mind merge to become one. By way of opening and closing, rousing and stimulating, inhaling and exhaling, advancing and retreating, the energy is tempered. By way of the sensitivity of the body, the sensitivity of the muscles, and sensitivity of touch, the spirit is sharpened. For the sake of training both Taiji’s form and function, a practitioner of the Taiji boxing art will be particular about the postures, and so it seems they cannot be treated dismissively. Examining the different schools of Taiji Boxing, they fall into three categories:
     [1] There are those who practice many postures – such as the schools of the Thirty-Seven Postures, Small Highest Heaven, and so on.
     [2] There are those who make use of the symbols in the Book of Changes – such as the schools of Innate Nature Boxing, Acquired Nature Boxing, and so on.
     [3] There are those with specific techniques of moving energy and moving the feet – such as the school of the Thirteen Dynamics.
     The postures, names, and practice method of each school are different. Although any of them can be selected, apart from the school of the Thirteen Dynamics many use a single posture practice without a fixed sequence, but I feel that to continue into that as an accompaniment to Part One of this book would not yet be very suitable, so I will save it for a future edition. For now I will begin by presenting the postures of the Thirteen Dynamics solo set in their original sequence, with drawings and explanations for you to consult.

(1)預備式
PREPARATION POSTURE

(釋名)凡拳路於演習之前。必有預備。以喚起全身注意。若警告其振作精神。從事練習。且致敬禮於參觀者之意。與體操之立正相同。太極拳以心意作用、運動筋肉。將練習時。必須精神專注。方克有濟。故預備式於太極拳術中尤為重要。
Explanation of the name:
Before practicing any boxing set, there must be a readiness, a rousing of the whole body and a focusing of the mind, like when your sense of caution is stimulated, making you more alert. When practicing, there is also the intention of paying respect to those observing you, same as standing at attention in gymnastics. Taiji Boxing uses the mind to move muscle, and so when practicing, your spirit must be concentrated, and then you can be efficient. Therefore within the Taiji Boxing art, PREPARATION POSTURE is particularly important.
(動作)有一、(一)預備、
One movement:
1. Get ready.
(圖解)身體直立。兩手下垂。腕與胯齊。掌心下按。目前視。兩足距離與肩之寬相等。
Explanation for the drawing:
Your body stands upright, your hands hanging down, wrists beside your hips, palms pushing down, eyes looking forward, your feet shoulder width apart.

(注意)敎練時。宜體靜神舒。氣沉丹田。精神貫頂。(頭頂)全身須靈動活潑。無絲毫着力處。
Points for attention:
When practicing, your body should be calm and your spirit comfortable, energy sinking to your elixir field, spirit passing through to your headtop. Your whole body must be nimble and lively without the slightest effort anywhere.

(2)攬雀尾式
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

(釋名)取兩手持雀頭尾、而隨其旋轉上下之意。一名攬切尾。擬敵人之臂為雀尾、攬之以緩其前進之力、卽乘勢前切以擲之也。二說均可。
Explanation of the name:
The idea is that your hands are holding a sparrow by the tail and following its movement as it flutters up and down. Another name is CATCH & TEAR OFF THE TAIL. Imagining the opponent’s arm is a sparrow’s tail, catch it to slow its forward power, then take advantage of the moment by cutting forward to throw him away. Both of these explanations work.
(動作)有六、初習時僅分攬切二動作。熟習後則兩手由內向外。復由外向內。其運行路線。為左右兩圜形。細分之為提擠捋按掤切六動。(一)開步提手、(二)進步冲擠、(三)坐步捋攬、(四)進身按手、(五)外掛前掤、(六)推切手、
There are six movements. When beginning to train, this posture divides into only the two movements of catching and cutting. When you are more advanced at it, then both your hands go from inward to outward and again from outward to inward, the path of the movement making a circle. In finer detail, the posture then divides into the six movements of lift, press, rollback, push, ward-off, and cut.
1. Step out, lifting your hands.
2. Advance, penetrating with a press.
3. Sit back, rolling back to catch.
4. Advance with your hands pushing.
5. Hang outward, warding off forward.
6. Push forward with cutting hands.
(圖解)(一)由前式左足向前踏出一步。足踵着地。同時屈右膝蹲身。左掌自左胯側。由外向內作圈。彎轉前伸而上。至腹前。右手下按。指撫左肱。以助其勢。逐漸上提。至胸而止。左足尖隨之下落。至着地時。全身重點。移於左足。
Explanation for the drawings:
1. From the previous posture, your left foot takes a step forward, heel touching down, while your right knee bends and your torso squats down, your left palm goes from beside your hip, inward from outward in an arc, rotating, extending forward and upward until in front of your belly, your right hand pushing down, fingers touching your left forearm to assist the posture. They gradually lift to chest level as your left toes come down, and upon touching the ground, the weight shifts to your left foot.

(二)進右步。向右方。同時右臂曲肱向外前擠。垂肘。大指約對鼻部。右腿隨同前屈。(三)左腿後坐。兩臂向懷內合。若攬物下捋之意。(四)兩手前按。(五)右手上仰前掛。隱含掤意。(六)兩手旋轉向內。指尖作圈。右手轉至掌心向下。卽向前推切。左手約居右肘彎處。兩手參差。向同一方向前推。
2. Advancing your right foot to the right, your right arm bends and does a press outward and forward, elbow hanging down, thumb at nose level, your right leg likewise bending forward.
3. Your left leg sits to the rear, your arms embracing inward as though with the intent of catching something with a downward rollback.
4. Your hands push forward.
5. Your right hand faces upward and hangs forward with an intention of warding off.
6. Both hands rotate inward, fingertips drawing an arc, your right hand rotating until the palm is downward then pushing forward with a cutting motion, while your left hand stays by your right elbow, the hands unevenly placed but pushing forward in unison.

(注意)練時手尖路線須成一雙環形。腰脊隨之作同一動作。方能靈活。此勢運動身體腹腰肩背各部。
Points for attention:
When practicing [this posture], the path of your fingertips must make a double circle, and if your waist and spine are going along with it to make the same movement, then it will be nimble. This posture exercises your torso, abdomen, waist, shoulders, and back.
(應用)撘拗手時。撘外則外掛前推。撘內則內攬採起前推。若撘順手時。則攬其肘外方前推。撘內則向外掛其肘或腕。卽前推。
Application:
When using the rear hand, if contacting the outward side [of an opponent’s arm], then I outwardly hang [my hand over it] and push forward, and if contacting to the inward side, then I inwardly catch with a plucking action and lift up to push forward. When using the front hand, [if contacting to the outward side,] then I catch to the outside of his elbow and push forward, and if contacting to the inward side, then I outwardly hang over his elbow or wrist and then push forward.

(3)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP

(釋名)單者、單手之意。鞭者、如鞭之擊人也。單式練習時。亦可改為雙手。同時向左右分擊。名雙鞭式。
Explanation of the name:
“Single” means with one hand. “Whip” means it is like you are hitting someone with a whip. When practicing this as a single posture, you can also change to using both hands spreading to the sides at the same time, in which case the posture would be called DOUBLE WHIP.
(動作)有二、(一)垂腕、(二)伸臂放掌、
Two movements:
1. Hang from your [right] wrist.
2. Extend your [left] arm, sending out your palm.
(圖解)(一)由前勢右臂不動。手腕下垂。五指微攏作鈎形。右足尖微向左前轉。約九十度。(二)屈左臂。左掌循右臂左行。經胸前略作上弧形。向左伸與右臂成一直線。坐左腕。五指分張微屈向上。食指對鼻。肘彎微屈。同時左足略抬。向左前方踏出半步。與足尖作同一方向。兩足成斜平行方形。足尖隨手落下。作弓箭步樁。使全身重點移於右足。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your right arm stays where it is, but your hand hangs down from your wrist, your fingers gently gathering to make a hook shape, while your toes subtly turn about ninety degrees to the forward left.
2. Your left arm bends and the palm traces along your right arm to the left, passes in front of your chest in a slight upward arc, then extends to the left, making a straight line with your right arm, your left wrist sitting, fingers upward, spread and slightly bent, forefinger at nose level, elbow slightly bent. At the same time, your left foot slightly lifts, takes a half step out to the forward left, toes pointing to the same direction, the feet parallel on a diagonal, the toes coming down with the positioning of your hand, making a bow & arrow stance, causing the weight to shift to your right [left] foot.

(注意)前手向前運勁時。後手須用通臂勁以助之。略含自上下擊之意。而左右二足相隨。務須一致。後肩與前肩水平勿上聳。此勢為四肢曁背部之運動也。
Points for attention:
When your front hand moves forward, your rear hand must put energy through the arm to assist, and there is a slight hollowing in order to strike from above to below. Your feet are to coordinate with each other and must move in unison. Your shoulders are to be level with each other, neither one rising up. This posture exercises your limbs and back.
(應用)敵以順手進擊時。乘勢引領其臂。使敵身略前傾。卽伸掌進擊其胸。用推按勁。或切勁均可。
Application:
An opponent uses his front hand to advance and strike me, I take advantage of his momentum to draw his arm in, causing him to slightly lean forward, then extend my palm to strike his chest with either a pushing energy or a cutting energy.

(4)提手上式
RAISE THE HANDS

(釋名)提者、勁名。若提物向上也。一名上提手。
Explanation of the name:
“Raising” describes the energy. It is like lifting an object up, hence the name is “Raising [up with] the Hands”.
(動作)有二、(一)合手、(二)上提手、
Two movements:
1. Bring your hands together.
2. Raise your hands up.
(圖解)(一)由前式右足前進。至兩足距離之中分處。(如以兩足距離為三角形之底邊線。則右足踵適落其頂角。)兩臂向懷內抱。右手略前。兩掌心左右相對。(如圖一)、
Explanation for the drawings:
1. From the previous posture, your right foot advances, creating distance between your feet (It is like your feet are making a triangle, your right heel at the vertex.), your arms embracing inward, your right hand slightly farther forward, palms toward each other. See first drawing:

但右臂向內合抱時。其法有二。一、從上而下向內抱。一、從下而上向內抱。(二)垂右手腕。從左掌內經過向上提。約對鼻凖。(如圖二)
But when your right arm embraces inward, there are two parts: going down from above, and up from below.
2. Drop your right wrist, then lift it up, passing your left palm to the inside, until at about nose level. See second drawing:

(注意)練此式時。宜提頂勁。而腰腿隨其伸縮上下。方得機勢。此式練習脊骨之伸縮力。
Points for attention:
When practicing this posture, you should lift your headtop, and with your waist and thighs going along with the expanding and shrinking, with the up and down, you will then obtain the opportunity and position. This posture trains the power of expanding and shrinking.
(應用)敵用順手迎面直擊時。一法、我由上撘其臂。用腕擠擲之。或下蹲身向上以擲之。一法、用左手下按敵腕。掏出右手。提腕上擊敵之頦鼻等處。
Application:
An opponent uses his front hand to strike directly to my face. One response is to make contact with his arm from above and use my wrist to do a pressing technique to throw him away, or squat down and ward off upward to throw him away. Another is to use my left hand to push down on his wrist while drawing out my right hand, lifting my wrist to strike his chin or nose.

(5)白鶴亮翅式
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

(釋名)此式分展兩臂。斜開作鳥翼形。兩手兩足。皆一上一下。一伸一屈。如鶴之展翅故名。華陀五禽經之鳥形。婆羅門導引術第四式之鶴舉。第十二式之鳳凰展翅。閩之鶴拳。均取此意也。習太極拳者。練此勢時。有斜展正展之別。實則一為展翅。(斜)一為亮翅。(正)可連續為之。如圖一為展翅。圖二為亮翅。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, you spread your arms at an angle, making a shape like a bird’s wings, with your arms extended above and your legs bent below, like a crane spreading its wings, hence the name. There is the bird form of Hua Tuo’s Five Animal Frolics. The fourth posture in the Brahmanic limbering art is “crane rising” and the twelfth posture is “phoenix unfurls its wings”. And then there is the Crane Boxing of Fujian. All of these things are the same idea. When practicing this posture, it is divided into spreading at an angle and spreading squarely, or “spreading wings” (at an angle) and “showing wings” (squarely forward), which can be done as a continuous movement from one to the other. Drawing 1 is of “spreading wings” and drawing 2 is of “showing wings”.
(動作)有二、(一)展臂、(二)雙舉手、
Two movements:
1. Spread your arms.
2. Raise both hands.
(圖解)(一)分展兩臂。斜開若雁翼形。左掌斜下外摟。身隨之半面向左轉。左足斜出一步。足尖點地。右手經過面前。斜上展至腦右方而止。手背向外。掌心相應。兩臂展開時。須速度相同。全身重點寄於右足。(如圖一)
Explanation for the drawings:
1. Spread your arms apart at an angle in the manner of a wild goose, your left hand going diagonally downward and brushing outward, your torso turning halfway to the left, your left foot stepping out diagonally, toes touching down, your right hand passing in front of your face, spreading diagonally upward until to the right side of your head, the back of the hand outward, palm therefore inward. When your arms spread open, they must have the same speed as each other and the weight shifts fully to your right foot. See first drawing:

(二)收左足。身體直立。左手曲肘上舉。約與頭齊。或略高。掌心向上。同時右手亦翻轉向前。兩手作同一姿勢。頭與兩臂恰如山字。(如圖二)
2. Withdrawing your left foot, your body stands upright, your left hand, elbow bending, rising up to about head level or slightly higher, palm upward. At the same time, your right hand also turns to face forward [with the palm also upward], both hands making the same posture, your head and arms forming the character for “mountain”: 山. See second drawing:

(注意)練時須背心用勁。以為兩臂之樞紐。則開合自然矣。此式為練習胸部及背部之伸縮力。
Points for attention:
When practicing [this posture], you must use energy from the center of your back to make your arms twist, and then the opening and closing will be natural. This posture trains the flexibility of your chest and [upper] back.
(應用)一敵在左側。我用左手由敵腋下穿提上展。右手下撫。則敵必仰倒矣。二為開纏敵手。
Application:
1. For an opponent to my left side, my left [right] hand threads through from under his [left] armpit, lifting and spreading away, while my right [left] hand strokes away downward [along his left arm], causing him to lean back.
2. Or I simply spread open to tangle up his hands.

(6)左右摟膝拗步式
LEFT & RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

(釋名)摟膝者、卽以手下摟膝蓋之意。拗步者、步名也。拳術家以進左足伸左手、進右足伸右手、謂之順步。反是、如出左足伸右手、出右足伸左手、謂之拗步。
Explanation of the name:
Brushing the knee means brushing downward past your knee. A “crossed stance” is a stance name. When a boxing arts practitioner advances his left foot while extending his left hand, or advances his right foot while extending his right hand, that is called a “straight stance”. But when it is the reverse, and the left foot is advanced while the right hand is extended, or the right foot is advanced while the left hand is extended, that is called a “crossed stance”.
(動作)有二、(一)原地摟膝、(二)上步摟膝、(三)拗步掌、
Two [three] movements:
1. Staying where you are, brush past your [right] knee.
2. Step forward, brushing past your [left] knee.
3. Cross your stance with a [right] palm strike.
(圖解)(一)由前式蹲身。左手不動。右手向外下摟右膝暫停。(二)左足向左方踏出一步。右手順鼻凖下落至胸前。順勢向左外摟左膝。至左胯旁暫停。掌心向下。指向前。臂微屈。肘尖向後。此時身左轉向前方。(三)身向左轉時。右手由後下方宛轉上伸。經過右耳之旁。掌心幾與耳相摩。時肩肘手三者成水平線。直向前伸。伸至極處。指尖上翹。掌心吐力。腿為弓箭步。(如圖)
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, squat your torso down, your left hand staying where it is, your right hand brushes outward and downward until beside your right knee.
2. Your left foot takes a step to the left, your left hand passing your nose and lowering in front of your chest, then continues outward to the left, brushing past your left knee until beside your left hip, palm downward, fingers forward, arm slightly bent, elbow pointed to the rear. Your torso is now turned to the left to be squared forward.
3. When your torso turns to the left, your right hand goes from downward in the rear, turning over and extending upward, passing beside your right ear, the palm almost rubbing against it, and then with a horizontal line forming from the three parts of shoulder, elbow, and hand, extends straight forward until at its limit, fingertips lifted, palm expressing power, legs making a bow & arrow stance. See the drawing:

[Repeat the posture on the other side and then once more on this side.]
(注意)練時須蹲身。兩臂動作憑腰力運動。左右手運行路線皆為橢圓形。此式練習兩臂腰膝之屈伸力。
Points for attention:
When practicing, you must squat your torso down. The movement of your arms is based on the movement of your waist. The route of each hand makes an oval shape. This posture trains the flexibility of your arms, waist, and knees.
(應用)敵由下方擊來。卽以順手向旁摟開。以拗手前推其胸。
Application:
The opponent strikes at me from below, so I use my front hand to brush it aside and use my rear hand to push his chest.

(7)手揮琵琶式
PLAY THE LUTE

(釋名)兩手相抱。如抱琵琶狀故名。手揮者、兩手搖動如以指撫弦者然。
Explanation of the name:
Both your hands embrace toward each other in the manner of holding a lute, hence the name. When your hands “play”, your fingers seem to give a strum to the strings.
(動作)有二、(一)抱手、(二)幷步外揉、
Two movements:
1. Embrace with your hands.
2. Step together, rubbing outward.
(圖解)(一)由前摟膝拗步式。身漸撤回。使全身重點。移於右腿。如丁虛步。右手後撤。同時左手順左胯上舉。雙手內抱。兩手參差相對。若抱球狀。兩肘微垂。前手食指約對鼻凖。後手當胸。掌心約對前手臂彎處。(如圖)
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE, your torso slowly withdraws, causing the weight to shift fully onto your right leg, making an empty stance. At the same time, your right hand withdraws while your left hand follows along with your left hip and rises up, both hands embracing inward, unevenly facing each other as though holding a ball. Your elbows are slightly hanging, the forefinger of your front hand is at about nose level, and your rear hand is in front of your chest, palm almost facing to the elbow of your forward arm. See the drawing:

(二)幷右足至左足後踵。同時雙手作環形外運。
2. Bring your right foot up to stand together with your left foot behind the heel, both your hands moving outward with a round shape.
(注意)以手外運時。須用腰脊之力。
Points for attention:
When moving your hands outward, you must use the strength of your waist and back.
(應用)敵握吾右腕時。吾右手向懷內後撤。以揉化其力。遂進右足、以左手按其肩下前推。
Application:
The opponent grabs my right wrist, so I withdraw my right hand toward my chest to neutralize his energy, then advance my right foot, using my left hand to push his shoulder down and then forward.

(8)進步搬攔鎚式
ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH

(釋名)搬攔鎚者、卽用手搬開敵人手而攔阻之。復用拳迎擊之稱。南人名拳為鎚。此為太極拳五鎚之一。進步搬攔鎚者。與後之退步搬攔鎚。卸步搬攔鎚、之對稱也。
Explanation of the name:
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH means that you use a parry to take aside the opponent’s hand, then a block to obstruct him, and then a punch to strike him directly. Southerners use a different character for “punch” which directly indicates a fist, whereas the one used here instead expresses a mace. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing. When ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH is performed retreating, it is called WITHDRAWING STEP, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
(動作)有三、(一)裏搬手、(二)外攔手、(三)前擊鎚、
Three movements:
1. Inward parrying hand.
2. Outward blocking hand.
3. Punch forward.
(圖解)(一)由前式以在前之左手肘臂向內搬。腰身隨之。右手當胸。指尖向上。(二)左足向左前方進半步。左手隨之外攔。約對左耳為止。肘微屈下垂。肘尖約對左胯。指尖上指。(如圖一)
Explanation for the drawings:
1. From the previous posture, use your left hand to parry inward, your torso going along with it, your right hand in front of your chest, fingertips up.
2. Your left foot advances a half step to the forward left, your left hand goes along with it, blocking outward until by your left ear, the elbow slightly hanging down aligned with your left hip, fingertips pointing up. See first drawing:

(三)右手握拳內轉。虎口向上。沿左掌向前直擊。(如圖二)
3. Your right hand grasps into a fist and turns inward, tiger’s mouth upward, and punches forward past your left palm. See second drawing:

(此為上搬攔。若下搬攔。則由左腕上出拳前擊。)
(This is parrying and blocking upward. If you parry and block downward, then you will punch forward over your left wrist.)
(注意)練時腰背肩胯須一致。搬攔時須空腋鬆肩。擊拳時須正身用脊力。不可探身向前。因探身則僅用腰力矣。此式運動脊椎。靈活肩胯。
Points for attention:
When practicing [this posture], your waist, back, shoulders, and hips must all move in unison. When you parry and punch, you must keep space in your armpits and loosen your shoulders. When you punch, you must keep your body upright and use power from your spine, not leaning forward, for if you lean, you will only be using power from your waist. This posture exercises your spine and the nimbleness of your shoulders and hips.
(應用)敵拳當胸擊來。卽以順手向內搬開。敵欲外逃卽攔之。來機拳擊其胸。
Application:
The opponent punches to my chest, so I move my front hand inward to parry it aside. If he wants to escape outwardly, I then jam him and take the opportunity to punch him in the chest.

(9)如封似閉式
SEALING SHUT

(釋名)封閉者、卽格攔敵手之意。與岳氏連拳之雙推手。形意拳之虎形相同。
Explanation of the name:
SEALING SHUT means to stop the opponent’s hands, and is the same as the double push of General Yue’s Continuous Boxing and the tiger form of Xingyi Boxing.
(動作)有三、(一)十字撘手、(二)雙分手、(三)前推手、
Three movements:
1. Cross your hands.
2. Spread your hands apart.
3. Push forward.
(圖解)(一)左手不動。身後坐。右腿微屈。右拳向左畫一平圈形。右腕收回至左腕上面時。兩手腕成十字交叉。(二)將右拳撤回變拳為掌。雙手隨卽分開。兩手距離與肩之寬等。(三)雙手內合前推。身隨前傾。重點寄於左足。或抬左足略向前邁亦可。(如圖)
Explanation for the drawing:
1. Your left hand not moving, your torso sits back, your right leg slightly bending, your right fist arcing across to the left, and once the wrist has withdrawn to be above your left wrist, both wrists are crossed to make an X shape.
2. Then your right fist withdraws, changing from fist to palm, and both hands spread apart to about shoulder width.
3. Both hands turn inward and push forward, your torso inclining forward, the weight shifting to your left foot, or you can lift your left foot and step it slightly forward. See the drawing:

(注意)撤拳時須全身後坐。將拳帶回。不可僅屈臂彎。撘腕卽須分開。分開卽須前推。不可停滯。分手時兩肘微彎。肘尖下垂近肋。切勿旁開。致勁分散。前推時手指前伸。掌心吐力。
Points for attention:
When you withdraw your fist, you must fully sit back your torso to lead back the fist, not merely bend your arm. Once your wrists are crossed, they must spread apart, and once they spread apart, they must push forward – there can be no sluggishness. When you spread your hands apart, the elbows slightly bend and hang down near your ribs. They must not spread away to the sides, or the energy will be scattered. When pushing forward, your fingers extend forward, then the palms stick out forcefully.
(應用)用搬攔鎚時。敵若以左手推吾右拳。卽將右拳向內撤回。而以左手從下外方攔其手。復騰出右手向前推之。
Application:
If when I apply PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH, the opponent uses his left hand to push my right fist, I then turn my right fist inward and withdraw it, while sending my left hand from below to the outside of my right fist to block his hand, and once I have cleared his right hand aside, I push forward.

(10)十字手式
CROSSED HANDS

(釋名)十字手者。兩手腕交叉相撘。狀如十字故名。凡兩式相連轉折不便者。均可加十字手以資銜接。
Explanation of the name:
CROSSED HANDS means your wrists cross each other to make an X shape, hence the name. Whenever two postures are linked by a transition that is not flowing, you can always add the crossed hands as a way to join them up.
(動作)有一、(一)十字手、
One movement:
1. Make an X shape with your hands.
(圖解)由前式左足向右內轉。約九十度。全身隨之右轉。兩足距離與肩之寬等。左手在內。右手在外。同時上舉交叉於頭頂上。兩臂微屈。
Explanation for the drawing:
From the previous posture, your left foot turns inward to the right almost ninety degrees, your body turning with it to the right, and the distance between your feet becomes shoulder width. With your left hand inside, right hand outside, your hands rise in unison, crossing above your headtop, arms slightly bent.

(注意)演練此式。須連續下式。不可稍有停頓。
Points for attention:
When practicing this posture, it must continue into the next posture without the slightest pause.

(11)抱虎歸山式
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN

(釋名)抱虎歸山者、擬敵為虎抱而擲之也。又名抱虎推山。當抱敵時。敵思逃遁。卽乘勢用手前推也。兩說均是。學者於此式多不注意。或有以如封似閉代之者。蓋此式與後式攬雀尾連絡一氣。最易混淆之故。
Explanation of the name:
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN means that the opponent is in the role of the “tiger” and you take hold of him and throw him away. It is also called EMBRACE THE TIGER AND PUSH THE MOUNTAIN. When you embrace the opponent and he wants to escape, take advantage of it by pushing forward. Both of these explanations are equally valid. Students often do not pay attention to this posture, and there are those who transpose the name onto SEALING SHUT. Since this posture flows continuously into the next posture, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL, it is very easy to get confused.
(動作)有五、(一)原地摟膝、(二)上步摟膝、(三)拗步掌、(四)內抱、(五)前推、
Five movements:
1. Staying where you are, brush past your [left] knee.
2. Stepping forward, brush past your [right] knee.
3. Palm strike with the rear hand.
4. Embrace inward.
5. Push forward.
(圖解)(一)由前式右手不動。左手下摟左膝。坐身向右斜後方轉。(二)開右步落右手。下摟右膝。(如圖)
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your right hand does not move, your left hand lowers and brushes past your left knee, your torso squats down, and you turn around to face diagonally to the right rear.
2. Step out with your right foot and lower your right hand, brushing downward past your right knee. See the drawing:

(三)伸左掌為右式摟膝拗步式。(四)左手不動。右手向後伸。以肩為中心。臂為圓圈之半徑。從下後方翻轉向上。至前方作大圓圈下抱。至手肘與肩平時。卽坐身雙手隨向後捋。作交叉狀。(五)雙手分向前平推。
3. Extend your left palm to make the posture of BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the right side.
4. Your left hand not moving, your right hand extends to the rear, and using the shoulder as a central pivot point and the arm as the radius of a circle, goes from downward to the rear and turns over upward, until forward, having made a large circle, wrapping around below. Once the hand and elbow are at shoulder level, sit back your torso, rolling back to the rear with both hands, and make the CROSSED HANDS shape.
5. Both hands spread apart and do a level push forward.
(注意)此式須以腰身運動肩背。五動作宜連成一氣。
Points for attention:
In this posture, you must use your waist to move your shoulders and back. The five movements should be one continuous flow.
(應用)設敵以左手由吾身後右側擊來。卽以右手下摟其臂。以左掌迎面擊之。倘敵左臂乘勢上抬外逃。或左轉隨手擊吾頭部。應卽進身以右肩承接其臂根。圈右臂後抱敵身。設敵思逃遁。應回身以右手外挒其雙手前推其胸。
Application:
If an opponent uses his left hand to strike me from behind on my right side, I then send my right hand downward to brush aside his arm and use my left palm to strike his face. If his left arm takes advantage of the momentum by lifting to carry outward, or he turns to the left and strikes to my head, I then advance, using my right shoulder to brace under his armpit, circle my right arm to the rear, and wrap around his torso. If he wants to escape, I withdraw my torso, using my right hand to rend his hands outward, and push forward to his chest.

(12)攬雀尾式(見前)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (as before)

(13)斜單鞭式
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

(釋名)斜者、指方位而言。前抱虎歸山式、係斜方位。此依前式方向故名斜單鞭式。
Explanation of the name:
“Diagonal” indicates the direction. The previous posture took a diagonal direction and the direction of this posture is dependent on the direction of that posture, hence the name.
(動作)與單鞭式同
Movements:
Same as in SINGLE WHIP.
(圖解)與單鞭式同
Explanation for the drawing:
Same as in SINGLE WHIP.

(注意)斜方向
Points for attention:
The direction is at an angle.
(應用)與單鞭式同
Application:
Same as in SINGLE WHIP.

(14)肘底看鎚式
GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW

(釋名)立肘時、肘之下曰肘底。看者看守之意。一名肘下鎚。
Explanation of the name:
When your elbow is stood up, [the space] below it is called “under the elbow”. By “guarding” is meant being protective. It is also called PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW. [This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.]
(動作)有三、(一)移步領手、(二)收步舉手、(三)肘下鎚、
Three movements:
1. Shift a step, leading with your [right] hand.
2. Withdraw a step, raising your [left] hand.
3. Punch under your [left] elbow.
(圖解)今作三角形。前式左足足在甲點。右足在乙點。
Explanation for the drawing:
Making a triangular shape in relation to the previous posture, your left foot is at point A(1), right foot at point B(1).

肘底看鎚步法圖
Footwork diagram for GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW:

A(1)
/      \
A(2)   \
/            \
B(1) –>– B(2)

(一)左足不動。右足向右方踏出半步。移至乙´點。右手隨之。(二)左足向內收半步。由甲點移至甲´點。足踵著地。足尖向上。同時左手由外向內作圈。順胯而上至胸前上舉。掌心向內。約與眼平。(三)左腕略外轉上托。右手作拳置左肘下。右腿微屈。成丁虛步。全身重點寄於右足。
1. Your left foot staying where it is, your right foot steps out a half step to the right, shifting to B(2), your right hand moving along with it.
2. Your left foot withdraws a half step inward, from A(1) to A(2), heel touching down, toes up. At the same time, your left hand arcs inward from outward, passes your hip, and rises until in front of your chest, palm inward, at about shoulder level.
3. Your left wrist slightly turns outward and props up, while your right hand makes a fist and is placed under your left elbow, and your right leg slightly bends, making an empty stance, the weight shifting fully to your right foot.

(注意)右臂運行之線路。成一半平圈形。左臂在左方畫一斜立圈形。出拳時身須隨之略含向前之意。同時鬆腕聳身。尤須注意三合。(卽肩與胯合。肘與膝合。手與足合。)此式練習深呼吸。
Points for attention:
The path of your right arm makes a horizonal semicircle while your left arm arcs in a vertical slant. When punching, your body must go along with it and slightly shrug forward. At the same time, loosen your wrist and lengthen your torso. Pay particular attention to the three unions (i.e. shoulder united with hip, elbow united with knee, hand united with foot). This posture trains deep breathing.
(應用)設敵以右手擊來。以左手握敵右肘前領。轉腕上托。而以右手下擊其脅。
Application:
If the opponent uses his right hand to strike, I use my left hand to grab his right elbow and lead it forward, turn my wrist over to prop upward, then use my right hand to strike underneath to his ribs.

(15)倒攆猴式
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY

(釋名)倒攆猴者、因猴遇人卽前撲。先以手引之。乘其前撲。一方撤手。一方以手按其頭頂之意。一名倒趕後。卽向後倒退。引敵趕來。隨以手乘勢襲擊之意。
Explanation of the name:
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY means that when a “monkey” [i.e. a troublemaker] attacks forward, first use a hand to draw him in, then strike forward, one hand withdrawing, the other pushing down on his headtop. The retreating refers to moving backward away from pursuit, drawing the opponent in as he chases, then take advantage of the moment to make a surprise strike with your hand.
(動作)有三、(一)退左步伸掌、(二)退右步伸掌、(三)與(一)同、
Three movements:
1. Retreat with your left foot, extending your [right] palm.
2. Retreat with your right foot, extending your [left] palm.
3. Same as 1.
(圖解)(一)由前式右足不動。左足向後退半步。左手順耳邊前伸至極處。五指尖上指。掌心吐力。腕與肩平。同時右手下落至胯旁。與摟膝拗步姿勢同。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your right foot stays where it is and your left foot retreats a half step behind you, your while left hand goes from beside your ear, extending forward to its limit, fingertips up, palm expressing power, wrist at shoulder level. At the same time, your right hand lowers until beside your hip, same as in BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE.

(二)左足不動。右足向後退半步。右手由後翻轉向上至耳邊。前伸至極處。指尖上指。掌心吐力。腕與肩平。左手下落至胯旁。與摟膝拗步姿勢同。(三)與(一)同
2. Your left foot staying where it is, your right foot retreats a half step behind you, while your right hand goes from the rear, turns over, goes upward until beside your ear, and extends forward to its limit, fingertips up, palm expressing power, wrist at shoulder level, your left hand lowering until beside your hip, same as in BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE.
3. Same as 1.
(注意)兩腿彎宜微屈。兩足足尖與踵前後宜成直線。兩足分開之寬度。宜與肩齊。須正身軀。懸頭頂。提脊背。以運動督脈。(十二神經)此式動作次數。宜取單數或三或五均可。
Points for attention:
Your knees should be slightly bent. Your feet should each make a straight line front to back from toe to heel and should be spread to shoulder width. Your body must be upright, headtop suspended, and spine lifted so as to exercise the Ren-Du path (of the twelve meridians) [the circle that goes up your back and down your front]. This movement should be done an odd number of times, either three or five [and ending with your left hand forward].
(應用)設敵用拳擊或足踢。卽以前手下摟以格攔之。復以後手迎擊其面部。
Application:
If the opponent uses either his fist to strike or foot to kick, I use my front hand to brush downward and block it, then use my rear hand to strike to his face.

(16)斜飛式
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE

(釋名)此式如鳥之斜展兩翼而飛故名。有左右兩式。但練左式。初習者每易斷勁。不如右式之順也。
Explanation of the name:
This posture is like a bird diagonally opening its wings to fly, hence the name. There is both a left and a right version of the posture, but when practicing the posture to the left, the beginner often easily interrupts the energy, and so it is inferior to the version on the right side.
(動作)有二、(一)撘腕、(二)斜飛、
Two movements:
1. Meeting wrists.
2. Diagonally flying.
(圖解)(一)由前式俟練至右腿在前時。左手在前不動。右手由後方翻轉向前畫一圓圈形。向左腕下落。(二)約將至左腕時。左手從右腕上挽過。使掌心相對。同時退右步復向右後斜方踏出半步。右手斜向右方。左手斜向左方。若鳥張兩翼狀。目注視右手。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the practice of the previous posture, wait until it is again with your right leg in front. Your left hand is in front and does not move. Your right hand goes from behind and turns over, drawing a semicircle forward, lowering under your left wrist.
2. When your right hand has almost reached your left wrist, your left hand flattens out above your right wrist so that the palms are facing each other. At the same time, retreat your right foot and step out a half step toward the right rear corner. Your right hand goes diagonally to the right and your left hand goes diagonally to the left, in the manner of a bird spreading its wings. Your gaze is toward your right hand.

(注意)須以腰身運動手足。
Points for attention:
You must use your waist to move your hands and feet.
(應用)此式為騰手法。如右手與敵左手相撘。卽以左腕上挑敵腕。以右手進擊之。
Application:
This posture is a technique of surprise. If my right hand and the opponent’s left hand are touching each other, I send my left wrist up to carry his wrist and send my right hand forward to strike him.

(17)提手上式
RAISE THE HANDS
(18)白鶴展翅
WHITE CRANE UNFURLS ITS WINGS
(19)白鶴亮翅
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
(20)摟膝拗步
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
以上四式均前見
These four postures are all done as before.

(21)海底針
NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”

(釋名)海底者、人體之穴名。海底針、卽手向海底點刺之意。
Explanation of the name:
“Under the Sea” is the name of an acupoint on the human body. [Hai Di, more commonly known as Hui Yin (“Gathering Place of the Passive”), is located just in front of the anus.] NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA” means your hand has an intent of poking toward the “Under the Sea” point. [Going by the application explanation below, you are not to aim for this acupoint directly, but instead use it as a mental target to help you go through the opponent as you aim your intent at his lower abdomen, his Qi Hai area, appropriately indicating that to get to his “Under the Sea”, you must go through his “Sea of Energy”.]
(動作)有二、(一)提步摟手、(二)海底針刺、
Two movements:
1. Lift your [left] foot, brushing with your [left] hand.
2. Stab the “needle” to “Under the Sea”.
(圖解)(一)左手摟膝。同時收左足。足尖點地。(二)右腿下屈。坐身。右臂沿左膝內向下直伸。指尖下指。此時左手或拊右肱。或沿胯後撤均可。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. With your left hand brushing your knee, withdraw your left foot, toes touching down.
2. Your right leg squatting down, sit your torso, your right arm extending straight down along the inner side of your left knee, fingertips pointing down. At the same time, your left hand may either touch your right forearm or withdraw behind your hip.

(注意)脊骨務須直立。不得屈曲前傾。手下指時。略含點刺之意。此式練習脊骨及膝之伸縮力。
Points for attention:
Your spine must be erect and should not bend and lean forward. When pointing down with your hand, slightly harbor an intention of poking an acupoint. When practicing this posture, there should be flexibility in your spine and knee.
(應用)敵用右手擊來。卽以左手向旁摟開。以右手還擊敵胸。如敵用左手握吾右腕時。則轉腕向下直指。則吾勁前發。敵必倒矣。
Application:
When the opponent [in the previous posture] used his right hand to strike me and I then used my left hand to brush it away to the side while using my right hand to strike his chest, if at that moment he uses his left hand to grab my right wrist, I then turn my wrist over, pointing downward, and issue my energy forward, making him topple away.

(22)扇通背式
FAN THROUGH THE BACK

(釋名)扇通背者、擬脊椎骨為扇軸。兩臂為扇幅。如扇之分張狀。通背者、使脊背之力。通於兩臂之謂也。
Explanation of the name:
FAN THROUGH THE BACK means that your spine is like the hinge of a fan and your arms are like the cloth of the fan, and it is like a fan spreading open. “Through the back” means that you send power from your spine through your arms.
(動作)有二、(一)立身合腕、(二)通背掌、
Two movements:
1. Stand up, bringing your wrists together.
2. Palm through the back.
(圖解)(一)立身兩腕相抱。(二)左足前進一步。左臂向前直伸。右臂彎曲上抬。手背覆額。此時須正身。兩腿成騎馬式。惟左足尖須前向。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. Stand up, your hands embracing toward each other.
2. Your left foot takes a step forward while your left arm extends forward and your right arm bends, lifting until the back of the hand covers your forehead. Your body should now be straight and your legs are making a horse-riding stance except that your left foot should be pointing its toes forward.

(注意)運勁時。左掌心之力與左肋骨相應。作向前之勢。同時右臂之力。須通於左手。此式練腿力及肩背力。
Points for attention:
When wielding energy, the power in your left palm must be coordinated with your left ribs in going forward, and at the same time, the power in your right arm must go through to your left hand. This posture trains strength in your spine and upper back.
(應用)敵以右手擊來。卽以右手反刁敵腕上提。以左掌擊敵脅下。
Application:
If the opponent uses his right hand to strike, I then use my right hand to slyly lift his wrist and use my left palm to strike his ribs.

(23)彆身鎚式
FLINGING BODY PUNCH

(釋名)彆身鎚者、腰部後彆。使身折疊。復用腕進擊之謂。此為太極拳五鎚之一。
Explanation of the name:
FLINGING BODY PUNCH means you fling your waist to the rear, causing your torso to fold up, then advance and strike using your wrist. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
(動作)有二、(一)肋下交叉手、(二)彆身鎚、
Two movements:
1. Cross your hands below your ribs.
2. Flinging torso punch.
(圖解)(一)由前式身向右轉屈左腿。兩手相合下落。兩腕相撘於左肋下。全身重點寄於左足。(二)左手不動。提右足向右後方斜移半步。身隨右轉。右手掌心向上作拳。屈肘彆身。肘浮依右肋。拳由上落下。與肘成水平為度。左手當胸作掌。手尖向上。食指約對鼻準。目前視。步為丁八步。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your body turns around, your left knee bending, your hands lower and come together, wrists meeting below your left ribs, the weight shifting fully onto your left foot.
2. Your left hand staying where it is, your right foot lifts and takes a half step diagonally to the right rear, your torso turning to the right, while your right hand, palm upward, makes a fist, the elbow bending as you fling your torso, the elbow lightly against your right ribs. While the fist comes down from above until lining up level with the elbow, your left hand does a palm strike at chest level, fingertips upward, forefinger at about nose level. Your gaze is forward. Your stance is a large T stance.

(注意)轉身時。手腿動作須以腰脊為樞紐。方能靈活無滯。
Points for attention:
When turning around, the movement of your hands and legs must use your waist and spine as a pivot, then it can be nimble and without sluggishness.
(應用)敵人自身後一手按腕。一手按肘。將擲吾時。卽向後彆身屈肘。擒制敵臂。乘勢抬步握拳迎擊。
Application:
An opponent from behind me uses one hand to push down on my wrist and the other to push down on my elbow. When he is about to hurl me away, I then fling my torso to the rear, bending my elbow to seize control of his arm, taking advantage of the opportunity to step in, making a fist, and intercepting his attack with a [palm] strike.

(24)卸步搬攔鎚式
WITHDRAWING STEP, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH

(釋名)搬攔鎚己說明於前。卸步者、將步向旁挪移。與退步之向後退者不同。
Explanation of the name:
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH has already been explained. By “withdrawing” is meant a step shifting to the side and is not the same as retreating.
(動作)有二、(一)裏搬手、(二)前擊鎚、
Two movements:
1. Inward parrying hand.
2. Punch forward.
(圖解)(一)左手內搬。左足不動。右足向右卸半步。右拳隨之由內向外平運。其路線成一圜形。遂轉右腕。虎口向上。
Explanation for the drawings:
1. Your left hand parries inward, your left foot staying where it is, your right foot withdrawing a half step to the right, your right fist going along with it by blocking across outward from inward, its path an arc, the wrist then rotating so the tiger’s mouth is upward.

(二)右拳前擊。與進步搬攔鎚式同。
2. Your right fist punches forward, same as in ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.

(注意)手腕宜隨步動作。
Points for attention:
Your wrist should go along with the movement of your step.
(應用)撘手時。敵設用力上抬。卽卸步以緩化敵力乘勢進擊其胸。
Application:
When contacting the opponent’s hand, if he forcefully lifts up, I withdraw a step to the side to neutralize his energy, then take advantage of the moment to strike forward to his chest.

(25)攬雀尾式(見前)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (as before)

(26)單鞭式(見前)
SINGLE WHIP (as before)

(27)雲手式
CLOUDING HANDS

(釋名)雲手者。手之運動如雲之回旋盤繞之意。其左右手運行。與少林拳術之左右攀援手同。此式於太極拳中最為重要。
Explanation of the name:
CLOUDING HANDS means your hands move like the swirling of clouds. The movement of the hands to the left and right is the same as the “left & right climbing hands” of Shaolin Boxing. This is the most important posture within Taiji Boxing.
(動作)有三、(一)原地雲手。(二)移步右雲手、(三)移步左雲手、
Three movements:
1. Staying where you are, cloud with your [right] hand.
2. Shifting your step, cloud with your right [left] hand.
3. Shifting your step, cloud with your left [right] hand.
(圖解)(一)左手不動。右手下落。自右下方向左畫圓圈形。其運動路綫。右臂圓轉向下經過雙膝。復向上由臍左上升。繞過頭頂至右額角停。左手俟右手運行至左肩時。卽下降。掌心向內。自左下方向右上升。畫圓圈形。其運行路線。左臂向下圈轉、經雙膝、向右上升。至右脅稍停。(如圖一)
Explanation for the drawings:
1. Your left hand not moving, your right hand lowers and arcs from the lower right to the left, the path of its movement as your right arm arcs downward taking it past both of your knees, then rising from your navel to the left, until past your headtop and slowing by your right temple. Your left hand, which has been waiting until your right hand has moved as far as your left shoulder, at that moment lowers, palm inward, then rises from the lower left to the upper right in an arc, the path of its movement as your left arm arcs downward taking it past both of your knees, then rising to the right, slowing by your right ribs. See first drawing:

(二)接上動作。右手下落。仍向左畫圓圈形。繞過頭頂至右額角稍停。與原地雲手下降時同。惟左手運行將至右肋時。右足應隨右手向左挪移半步。左手於右手向下運行時。卽向上繞頭頂至左額角稍停。(如圖二)
2. Continuing from the previous movement, your right hand lowers, again arcs to the left, until past your headtop and slowing by your right temple. The rest is the same as the first movement, except that when your left hand is by your right ribs, your right foot coordinates with your right hand by shifting a half step to the left, and your left hand coordinates with the lowering of your right hand by going upward until past your headtop and slowing by your left temple. See second drawing:

(三)左手接上動作下降。繞過雙膝向右上升。至右脅旁。右足向左挪移半步。右手同時繞過頭頂至右額角稍停。左右雲手每手以三次為度。至末次仍復前單鞭式。
3. Your left hand continues from the previous movement by lowering, passing your knees, and rising to the right until beside your right ribs, your right [left] foot shifting a half step to the left. Your right hand at the same time goes past your headtop and slows by your right temple. Each hand clouds three times. After the last time, again perform the SINGLE WHIP posture as before.
(注意)雙手運行。速度須等。步須隨身移動。上身不宜搖擺。眼注視在上部運行之左右手。
Points for attention:
The movement of both hands must be of equal speed. Your step must shift along with your body’s movement. Your upper body should not sway. Your eyes follow along with your upper body as your hands move side to side.
(應用)設敵自後襲擊右肩。卽以右手迎之。及觸敵手。卽翻掌發勁擲之。左手亦然。又敵用左手自前面擊來。卽以右手向右運開。乘勢進擊。
Application:
If an opponent attacks my right shoulder from the rear, I meet his hand with my right hand, and as I turn over my palm, I issue power to throw him away. [If the same situation to the left,] my left hand does the same. Or if an opponent attacks from the front, I then move it aside to the right with my right hand, then take advantage of the moment by advancing and striking [with my left].

(28)左高探馬式
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT

(釋名)高探馬者、身體高聳。向前探出。如乘馬探身向前狀故名。左高探馬。在右分脚前。右高探馬。在左分脚前。
Explanation of the name:
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE means your body is rising up and you are reaching out forward, in the manner of extending your body forward to mount a horse, hence the name. RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT precedes KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE. RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – RIGHT precedes KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE.
(動作)有二、(一)捋手、(二)撲面掌、
Two movements:
1. Roll back with your [left] hand.
2. Palm strike to the face.
(圖解)(一)收左足。足尖點地。左手外挽下捋。仰手屈肘。置左肋旁。同時右手自右上方下落。經過面前。撘於左腕上。成十字手。兩手虎口向上。(二)左手掌心向上。肘向後微撤。右掌心向下。由左掌上面前伸。掌心吐力。食指對鼻凖。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. Withdraw your left foot, toes touching down, your left hand turning outward and doing a downward rollback, the hand facing upward, the elbow bending until placed beside your left ribs. At the same time, your right hand lowers from the upper right, passes in front of your face, and touches on top of your left wrist so the hands are making the CROSSED HANDS shape, the tiger’s mouths of both hands facing upward.
2. With your left palm facing upward, your elbow slightly withdraws, and with your right palm facing downward, it extends forward from above your left palm and expresses power in the center of the palm, fingertips at nose level.

(注意)捋手時。足之起落須與手一致。
Points for attention:
When your hand rolls back, the lifting and lowering of your foot must happen in unison.
(應用)設敵以左手進擊吾胸。卽順右手捋敵拗腕。隨手擊之。
Application:
If the opponent uses his left hand to strike forward to my chest, I then use my right [left] hand to roll back and twist his wrist, and strike with my [right] hand.

(29)右分脚式
KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE

(釋名)分脚者、卽用脚向左右分踢之謂。此為右分脚式。下又有左分脚式。
Explanation of the name:
KICK TO THE SIDE means to use your foot to kick to the side, be it left or right. This one is to the right side, but below there is also the left side.
(動作)有二、(一)撤步捋手、(二)分踢、
Two movements:
1. Withdraw a step, rolling back with your hands.
2. Kick to the side.
(圖解)(一)向左後方撤左步。同時雙手後捋。或分向外畫一圓圈形。隨向內抱。成十字手式。同時右足收至左足右方。成丁虛步。足尖點地。蓄力待發。(二)兩手分開。手腕與肩成水平。同時右腿向右前方分踢。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. Withdraw your left foot to the left rear while rolling back with both hands, or drawing an outward arc and then embracing inward, making the CROSSED HANDS shape. At the same time, your right foot withdraws until to the right side of your left foot, making an empty stance, toes touching down, storing power and awaiting the moment to express it.
2. Your hands spread apart, wrists at shoulder level, while your right leg kicks forward to the right side.

(注意)撤步捋手。須手步一致。踢時兩臂水平。後腿微屈。全身重點寄於後腿。
Points for attention:
When withdrawing your foot and rolling back with your hand, hand and foot must act in unison. When kicking, your arms are level, your standing leg slightly bent, and the weight is entirely on the standing leg.
(應用)捋敵之臂。用撲面掌時。如敵順勢用肘或臂上抗。卽用下纏手。由內分手外擲其臂。乘勢前踢。
Application:
When I roll back the opponent’s arm and use my palm to strike to his face, if he follows my energy and uses his elbow or arm to resist upward, I then wrap my hand around under it, from inward spread my hand outward to cast away his arm, and take advantage of the moment by kicking forward.

(30)右高探馬式
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – RIGHT

(釋名)見左高探馬式。
Explanation of the name:
See RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT
(動作)有二、(一)收步合手、(二)撲面掌、
Two movements:
1. Withdraw your foot, bringing your hands together.
2. Palm strike to the face.
(圖解)(一)右腿收回原地。足尖點地。兩臂由外下落向懷內抱。兩腕相撘作十字手式。(二)同左高探馬式第二動作。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. Your right leg withdraws back to where it was, toes touching down, while your arms from outward lower to embrace inward and your wrists touch to make the CROSSED HANDS shape.
2. Same as in RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT, movement 2 [but with left and right reversed].

(注意)同左高探馬式。
Points for attention:
Same as in RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT.
(應用)同左高探馬式。
Application:
Same as in RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT [but with left and right reversed].

(31)左分脚式
KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE

(釋名)己於右分脚式說明。手脚之動作與右分脚同。惟左右互易。
Explanation of the name:
Already explained in KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE. The hand and foot movements are the same, except left and right are reversed.

(32)轉身蹬脚式
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

(釋名)轉身蹬脚者、身向後轉。復以足踵前蹬也。
Explanation of the name:
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK means your body turns around to the rear, and then you press forward using your heel.
(動作)有二、(一)轉身、(二)蹬脚、
Two movements:
1. Turn around.
2. Pressing kick.
(圖解)(一)收左足。足尖點地。右足立地。足尖隨身向左轉。同時兩臂由外下落向懷內抱。兩腕相撘作十字手式。屈右足蹲身。左足尖點地。目左視。(二)身上聳。兩手左右分開。左足同時向左前蹬。足踵用力。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. Withdraw your left foot, toes touching down, right foot going along with your torso as it turns to the left, while your hands come from outward to embrace inward, the wrists making the CROSSED HANDS shape, your right leg bent, your body squatting, your left toes touching down, your eyes looking to the left.
2. Your body lifts up, and spreading your hands away to the sides, your left foot presses forward to the left, force expressed with the heel.

(注意)轉身時。身須直立不可前俯。
Points for attention:
When you turn around, your body must be upright and not lean forward.
(應用)設敵由身後襲擊。卽轉身避過。並乘勢用脚前蹬。兩手隨向左右分開。以防敵之摟腿也。
Application:
If an opponent suddenly attacks me from behind, I then turn around to prevent it, taking advantage of the moment to press forward with my foot, my hands spreading away to the left and right to prevent him from brushing my leg aside.

(33)落步摟膝拗步式
COME DOWN, BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

(釋名)落步摟膝拗步者、承前式。左足向前落步。隨以左手摟膝之謂也。餘與前摟膝拗步式同。
Explanation of the name:
Come down into BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE performed as before. As your left foot steps down forward, your left hand brushes past your left knee. The rest is the same as before.

(34)進步栽鎚式
ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH

(釋名)進步栽鎚者、步向前進。同時將拳由上下擊。如栽植之狀故名。為太極拳五鎚之一。
Explanation of the name:
ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH means you step forward while your fist strikes down from above as if to plant something, hence the name. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
(動作)有二、(一)並步摟膝、(二)開步摟膝栽鎚、
Two movements:
1. Step again, brushing past your [right] knee.
2. Step out, brushing past your [left] knee while performing a planting punch.
(圖解)(一)足進半步。屈左腿。右手下摟至膝。左手從後下方上舉至耳邊。屈臂向前。掌心內向稍停。(二)進左步。左手下落。向前外摟。同時右手作拳。手心向內。向下方斜擊。左手撫右腕以助其勢。左腿前弓。右腿彎微屈。作弓箭步亦可。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. Your [right] foot advances a half step, your left leg bending, your right hand brushing down until by your [right] knee, your left hand going from downward in the rear, lifting to be beside your left ear, the arm bending forward, the palm inward and almost coming to a halt.
2. Advance your left foot, your left hand lowering and brushing forward and outward. At the same time, your right hand makes a fist, palm inward, and strikes diagonally downward, your left hand patting your right wrist to assist the posture. Your left leg is bent forward and your right leg is slightly bent, although you can also make a full bow & arrow stance.

(注意)頭頂不可傾斜。冐過足尖。栽錘須用脊骨力。摟左膝時。左手宜浮靠左膝。
Points for attention:
Your head must not tilt nor dare go past your toes. The planting punch must be powered from your spine. When brushing past your left knee, your left hand should float near your left knee.
(應用)設敵以右拳迎擊吾胸。卽以左手向外摟開。隨以右手進擊敵面部。倘敵以左手內握吾腕。卽覆手作拳前擊其腹。
Application:
If the opponent uses his fist to strike to my chest, I then use my left hand to brush it aside while sending my right hand forward to strike his face. If he then uses his left hand to grab my wrist, I then turn over my hand, make a fist, and strike forward to his abdomen.

(35)翻身彆身鎚式(見前)
TURN AROUND, FLINGING BODY PUNCH (as before [but in the opposite direction])

(36)二起脚式
DOUBLE KICK

(釋名)二起脚者、左右脚連續起踢也。
Explanation of the name:
DOUBLE KICK means your feet, left then right, lift and kick in succession.
(動作)有二、(一)捋手前踢、(二)落步前踢
Two movements:
1. Roll back with your [left] hand and kick forward.
2. Step down and kick forward.
(圖解)(一)由前翻身彆身鎚式。左手屈肘仰掌收回。貼於左肋。右手前伸。(同撲面掌)左腿前踢。如彈腿式。(二)左足落下。兩手由右上方。向左下方下捋。左足甫及地時。右足提起前踢。兩臂前伸。兩掌拍右脚背。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From TURN AROUND, FLINGING BODY PUNCH, your left hand, the elbow bending, withdraws with the palm up to be near your left ribs, while your right hand extends forward (same as in a palm strike to the face) and your left leg kicks forward (similar to the snapping kick of Tantui).
2. Your left foot comes down while your hands roll back from the upper right to the lower left. Right when your left foot comes down, your right foot lifts and kicks forward, your arms extending forward, both palms slapping the back of your right foot.

(注意)第二動作之路線宜成圓圈形。
Points for attention:
The path [of your hands] in the second movement should make an arc.
(應用)敵用左拳當胸擊來。卽以左手進握其腕。以右手迎撲其面。乘其不意。起左腿踢之。設敵退避或下格吾足時。則復躍起換右腿踢之。
Application:
The opponent uses his left fist to punch my chest, so I send my left hand forward to grab his wrist and strike his face with my right hand, capitalizing on the surprise by kicking him with my left leg. If he retreats or blocks my foot, I then hop to change feet and kick him once more, now with my right foot.

(37)左右打虎式
LEFT & RIGHT FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE

(釋名)此式氣象凶猛。狀類打虎。故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, the energy is fierce in the manner of a fighting tiger, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)左打虎式、(二)右打虎式、
Two movements:
1. FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE on the left side.
2. FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE on the right side.
(圖解)(一)由前式左足向左後方斜撤半步。弓膝作左弓箭步樁。身左傾。半面向左。右足隨之後撤半步。落於前式左足所在地。同時、左臂由腹前、向左後撤至脅下。握拳由外上舉。仰拳(虎口向後)覆左額側。右臂隨同後撤。覆拳橫置左脅下。(虎口貼左脅)
Explanation for the drawings:
1. From the previous posture, your left foot diagonally withdraws a half step to the left rear to make a left bow & arrow stance, your torso inclining to the left and facing halfway to the left. Your right foot has withdrawn a half step, coming down where your left foot was in the previous posture. At the same time, your left arm goes from in front of your abdomen, withdrawing to the left until below your ribs, grasps into a fist, raising up from outward, and faces up (tiger’s mouth to the rear [downward in the drawing]), turned over beside your left temple, your right arm also withdrawing to the rear, turning over, and is placed sideways below your left ribs (tiger’s mouth close to your left ribs).

(二)右足右移半步。弓膝作右弓箭步樁。身右傾。半面向左。同時兩拳下落。經小腹前。至右脇下。左臂覆拳橫置右脇下。右拳由外上舉。仰拳覆右額側。
2. Your right foot shifts a half step to the right, and makes a right bow & arrow stance, your torso inclining to the right and facing halfway to the left. At the same time, your fists lower, pass in front of your lower abdomen, until below your right ribs, left fist turned over and placed sideways below your right ribs, right fist raising up from outward, and faces upward [tiger’s mouth again facing downward in the drawing], turned over beside your right temple.

(注意)左右兩式。拳之運行路線。宜成左右兩圓形。其交叉綫。在大腹之前。
Points for attention:
In the left and right postures, the paths your fists move along should indicate two circles
that would link with each other in front of your stomach.
(應用)敵以雙手握吾之臂。卽將臂後撤上轉。復用他手。由脇下穿。替出所握之臂。迎頭擊之。
Application:
The opponent uses both hands to grab my arm, so I withdraw my arm, turning it over upward, then use my other hand to thread through below my ribs, replacing his grab of my arm with a strike to his head [ribs].

(38)披身踢脚式
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK

(釋名)披身踢脚者、身後傾作斜披勢。起脚前踢也。
Explanation of the name:
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK means your body inclines into a diagonal draping posture, and your foot lifts and kicks forward.
(動作)有三、(一)披身捋手、(二)十字手、(三)分手前踢、
Three movements:
1. Drape your body, rolling back with your hands.
2. Crossed hands.
3. Spread your hands and kick forward.
(圖解)(一)由前左足向左方斜後撤半步。身向左後坐。同時兩手作掌。由右向左運行半圈。左手置胸左側。右手置胸前。食指約對鼻凖。(二)撤右脚至左足右側。足尖點地。左腿下蹲。同時撤右手撘左腕下。左手稍向前伸。兩掌向胸作十字手。(三)兩手分向前後展開。同時起右脚前踢。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your left foot withdraws a half step diagonally to the left, and your body sits back to the left. At the same time, your hands become palms and go from right to left in a half circle, your left hand placed to the left of your chest, your right hand placed in front of your chest, fingertips at about nose level.
2. Withdraw your right foot until it is to the right side of your left foot, toes touching down, your left leg squatting down. At the same time, your right hand touches under your left wrist, your left hand slightly extending forward, the palms making the CROSSED HANDS shape in front of your chest.
3. Your hands spread apart forward and back while you lift your right foot and kick forward.

(注意)披身、須以腰為樞紐。運動雙臂。起脚前蹬時。左腿宜微屈。使重心寄於左足。
Points for attention:
When draping your body, you must use your waist as a pivot to move your arms. When lifting your foot to do a pressing kick forward, your left leg should slightly bend to get the weight to shift onto your left foot.
(應用)敵以左手當胸擊來。卽披身用手捋敵之臂。復以右手向外挑擊。同時起右脚踢敵胸脇。
Application:
The opponent uses his left hand to strike directly to my chest, so I drape over my body, using my hands to roll back his arm, then I strike out with my right hand propping upward while kicking his chest or ribs with my right foot.

(39)雙風貫耳式
DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS

(釋名)此式以兩拳從側方貫擊兩耳。敏捷如風。故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, both fists come from the sides to strike the opponent’s ears as swift as the wind, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)落步鎖手、(二)分手雙貫、
Two movements:
1. Step down with your hands “manacled”.
2. Spread your hands apart and thread them through.
(圖解)(一)由前式右足向前落下。約離後足一步。膝前弓。同時兩臂由外方向內平運。至膝前。雙腕交叉。(左腕在上虎口向上)(二)身後撤。腿後坐。雙手(掌心向上)向左右分開。至胯側作拳。由內而外。向前上方運行。至與肩成水平時。兩拳相遇約離四五寸。此時覆拳垂肘。兩臂水平。雙臂內彎成橢圓形。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your right foot comes down forward about a full step’s distance from your rear foot, your right knee bending forward, while your arms move inward until in front of your knee, crossing at the wrists (left wrist on top, tiger’s mouths upward).
2. Your torso withdraws and your legs sit back, both hands (palms up) spreading to the sides, making fists once beside your hips, then travelling outward, then forward and upward, until they are at shoulder level, about four or five inches apart. Your fists are now turned over, elbows hanging, arms level and bent inward to make an oval shape.

(注意)雙臂進退。須與兩腿一致。活潑無滯。
Points for attention:
The retreating and advancing of your arms must be in unison with your legs, and be lively and without sluggishness.
(應用)敵以拳當胸擊來。卽以雙手分格。乘勢進擊敵之雙耳。
Application:
The opponent punches to my chest, so I use both hands to block to the sides, and then take advantage of the moment to advance and strike his ears.

(40)進步蹬脚式
ADVANCE, PRESSING KICK

(釋名)此式先向前進步。次起脚前踢故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, you first step forward, then lift your foot and kick forward, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)進步合手、(二)分手蹬脚、
Two movements:
1. Advance, bringing your hands together.
2. Spreading your hands apart, do a pressing kick.
(圖解)(一)由前式右腿伸展。左足趁勢向前進步。落步於右足前。蹲身。足尖點地。(身卽隨右足尖向右轉九十度)兩手作掌。(二)右腿伸展。身起立。左腿同時上提前蹬。兩手隨同向左右分展。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your right leg straightens as your left foot advances forward, coming down in front of your right foot, your torso squatting, your toes touching down (your torso going along with your right toes as they shift to the right ninety degrees), your hands becoming palms [and coming together to make the CROSSED HANDS shape].
2. Your right leg straightening, your torso lifts up, while your left leg lifts and does a pressing kick forward, your hands spreading away to the sides.

(注意)蹬脚時、須足踵吐力。右腿宜微屈。使全身重點集於右足。
Points for attention:
During the pressing kick, you must stick out the heel forcefully, your right leg should be slightly bent, and get the weight to gather fully onto your right foot.
(應用)設以左手擊敵。敵以右手自下托吾肘時。應卽蹲身向外下纒敵臂兩手。起左足前蹬敵脇。
Application:
When I use my left hand to strike the opponent, if he uses his right hand to prop up my elbow from below, I then squat my torso to the right, [my hands] going outward and downward to wrap around his arms, and lift my left foot to do a pressing kick to his ribs.

(41)轉身蹬脚式
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
(42)上步搬攔鎚式
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
(43)如封似閉式
SEALING SHUT
(44)十字手式
CROSSED HANDS
(45)抱虎歸山式
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
(46)斜單鞭式
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
以上六式均見前
These six postures are all done as before.

(47)野馬分鬃式
WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE

(釋名)此式運動狀態。如野馬奔馳。兩手分展、如馬之頭鬃左右分披。故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, the manner of the movement is like a wild horse running swiftly, your hands spreading away like the horse’s mane draping side to side, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)擰身合手、(二)上步分手、
Two movements:
1. Twist your torso, bringing your hands together.
2. Step forward, spreading your hands.
(圖解)(一)由前斜鞭式。兩足尖向右方移轉約九十度。身隨之向右轉。屈身。雙手內抱作十字手。(二)右足前進半步。膝前弓。全身重點寄於右足。同時右手向右前方。左手向左後方分展。遙遙相對。若鴈之展翼。此為右式。
Explanation for the drawings:
1. From DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP, both your feet shift to point their toes ninety degrees to the right, your torso turning to the right and bending in, your hands embracing inward to make the CROSSED HANDS shape.
2. Your right foot advances half a step, the knee bends forward, and the weight shifts to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand goes to the forward right and your left hand spreads away to the left rear, corresponding to each other from a distance, like a wild goose spreading its wings. This is the posture on the right side.

左式動作同右式。惟肢體左右互易。
The left side version is the same as the right, except your limbs are reversed left and right.

按拳路練習言之。本式動作。宜取奇數。如右式二次。左式一次。但第一次動作。只前進半步。餘均前進一步。
In the course of practicing the solo set, the movements of this posture should be done an odd number of times – if the right side is done twice, the left is done once – but while the first one only advances a half step, the rest each advance a full step.
(注意)兩臂分合。務須腰胯一致。全身動作。須舒展活潑。
Points for attention:
As your arms spread apart and come together, it must be in unison with your waist and hips. The movement of your whole body must be stretched out and lively.
(應用)敵直擊吾胸。卽以拗手進按敵腕。隨進順步至敵腿後彎。伸順臂自敵腋下斜上挑擊。
Application:
An opponent makes a direct attack to my chest, so I use my rear hand to push down on his wrist while advancing a step behind his knee and extending my front arm under his armpit to go diagonally upward with a carrying strike.

(48)玉女穿梭式
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE

(釋名)此式先前進。次後轉。再後轉。週行四隅。連續不絕。如織錦穿梭狀。故名。
Explanation of the name:
This posture first advances then turns around to the rear, then again [advances and] turns around to the rear, travelling toward the four corners in a continuous maneuver, like the manner of the shuttle slipping in and out when weaving silk, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)擰身合手、(二)曲肱探掌、
Two movements:
1. Twist your torso and bring your hands together.
2. Bend your arm and extend your palm.
(圖解)此式在拳路中。向四隅運動。共分四次。每次動作有二。身有轉身。回身之別。一三兩次為回身。二四兩次為轉身。每次所對方向。有一定順序。如自南而北演習。則先西北。次西南。次東南。次東北。(第一次運動)(一)如野馬分鬃式第一動。(二)左足向左前方踏出一步。膝前弓。身前傾。右手自左腋下向前探出。掌心吐力。
Explanation for the drawings:
In this posture, the path of your hands moves to the four corners for a total of four times, and each time the movement has two parts. Your body twists or turns around altogether, the first and third time twisting, the second and fourth time turning around. Each time faces a different direction and the directions are faced in a specific sequence: if practicing according to the compass directions [in the movement chart], the first time is to the northwest, the second to the southwest, third to the southeast, fourth to northeast.
First time:
1. Repeat the first movement of WILD HORSE PARTS ITS MANE.
2. Your left foot takes a step out to the forward left, the knee bends forward, your torso inclines forward, and your right hand extends forward from below your left armpit, the force expressed in the palm.

(第二次運動)(一)合手回抱胸前。作十字手。身向右後轉。(二)向右斜方踏出一步。手之動作、如第一次運動。惟左右互易。
Second time:
1. Your hands come together to embrace in front of your chest, making the CROSSED HANDS shape, and your body turns around to the right rear.
2. Your right steps out diagonally [to the forward right], and your hand movement is the same as in the first time, but with left and right reversed.

(第三次運動)左足向左橫踏一步。手之動作如第一次運動。
Third time:
Your left foot steps across to the left, your hand movement the same as in the first time.

(第四次運動)身向右後轉。手之動作、如前第二次運動。
Fourth time:
Your body turns around to the right rear, your hand movement the same as in the second time.

(注意)轉身時。須腰步相隨一致。運動方向雖斜。而身體姿勢仍宜中正毋欹。
Points for attention:
When turning your body around, your step and waist movement must be in unison, and although the direction is diagonal, your body posture should still be upright and not lean.
(應用)敵以拗手從後方側面擊來。卽回身以拗手傍纒敵腕。隨進順步。以順臂上掤敵臂。伸拗手擊敵胸腋。
Application:
An opponent uses his rear hand to strike me from behind, so I turn around and use my rear hand to wrap around his wrist from the side, then advance a step while using the same arm in an upward ward-off to his arm and extending my other hand to strike his chest.

(49)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(50)雲手式
CLOUDING HANDS
以上二式均見前。
Both of these postures are done as before.

(51)下勢式
LOW POSTURE

(釋名)下勢者、身體下降之意。故名。
Explanation of the name:
LOW POSTURE means that your body descends, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)坐身收手、(二)立身伸臂、
Two movements:
1. Squat, withdrawing your [left] hand.
2. Stand, extending your [left] arm.
(圖解)(一)由單鞭式屈右腿下蹲。伸左腿伏地。名半步叉樁步坐身於後足。後臂不動。(亦有彎屈與前手相抱作琵琶式者、)前臂屈肘後撤。至右胯彎。腿襠伸掌前指。又前臂後撤時。身手路線成上半圓形。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From SINGLE WHIP, bend your right leg and squat down, extending your left leg so it is almost lying on the ground (known as “half step forked stance”), and sit down on your rear foot, while with your rear arm not moving (Some bend the rear arm to make a PLAY THE LUTE posture together with the front hand.), your forward arm bends and withdraws until by your right knee (or inner thigh), then the palm extends forward. When your forward arm withdraws, the path of your body and hand make the upper half of a circle.

(二)弓前腿。後腿伸開。身因之起立。左臂隨由上方前伸。運動路線作下半圓形。與第一動合成正圓形。(還原單鞭式、)
2. Bending your forward leg, your rear leg straightens, causing your body to rise up to be standing, and your left arm extends forward from above [below], the path of the movement making the lower half of a circle, and with the previous movement makes a complete circle (returning you to the SINGLE WHIP posture).
(注意)蹲身時。脊骨須直立。不可前傾。膝臂屈伸與身之起落。務須一致。
Points for attention:
When squatting your body, your spine must be straight and not incline forward. The bending and extending of your knee and arm must happen in unison with the lowering and rising of your body.
(應用)敵以雙手握吾臂。或前撲吾身。不能抵抗時。則用此式坐身揉避。變化敵力。令其落空。卽乘勢前擊。
Application:
If the opponent grasps my arm with both hands, or makes a forward attack to my body which I cannot resist, I then use this posture of squatting my body to avoid it, neutralizing his force and causing him to land on nothing, and then take advantage of the situation by striking forward.

(52)左右金雞獨立式
LEFT & RIGHT GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG

(釋名)此式一足立地。一足提起。手臂上揚作展翅勢。狀若金鷄。故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, one foot stands on the ground while the other is lifted, a hand rising up to make a posture of spreading wings, in the manner of a rooster, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)前進提腿擎掌、(二)退步提腿擎掌、
Two movements:
1. Advance and lift your [right] leg, propping up with your [right] palm.
2. Retreat and lift your [left] leg, propping up with your [left] palm.
(圖解)(一)由前下式。右手由後向前旋轉上舉。至胸前。經過面部。至頭頂時。掌心翻轉向外。圈右臂成半圓形。環置右額側。同時右腿屈膝上提。至膝蓋與右肘相接為度。左腿直立。左臂下垂。掌心向內。指尖指右足左側。
Explanation for the drawings:
1. From the LOW POSTURE, your right hand comes forward from behind, twisting and lifting up in front of your chest, past your face, and once it is at headtop level, the palm is turned outward, the arm curving to make a semicircle shape and placed beside the right side of your forehead. At the same time, your right leg bends at the knee and lifts up until the knee and your right elbow meet. Your left leg is standing straight, your left arm hanging down, palm inward, fingers pointing to the left side of your right foot.

(二)右足下落。左手左足上提如第一動。作右臂下。垂指尖指左足右側。
2. Your right foot comes down, your left hand and left foot lift as in the first movement, your right arm hanging down, the fingers pointing to the right side of your left foot.

(注意)此式運動樞紐在腰頂。全身重點寄於一足。務使穩如山嶽。不可動搖。手足起落。尤須一致。
Points for attention:
In this posture, the movement pivots around your waist and headtop and the weight is entirely on one foot. Make it as stable as a mountain and do not sway. When your hands and feet lift and lower, they should do so in unison.
(應用)設以拳掌進擊敵胸。敵以手格攔。應卽以手向上挑開敵手。以後腿之膝衝敵小腹。並以前手同時進擊。
Application:
If I use my fist or palm to strike the opponent’s chest and he uses his hand to block it, I respond by using my [other] hand to lift his away, then strike his lower abdomen with my knee while striking forward with the same hand.

(53)倒攆猴式
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
(54)斜飛式
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
(55)提手上式
RAISE THE HANDS
(56)白鶴亮翅式
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
(57)摟膝拗步式
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
(58)海底針式
NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”
(59)扇通背式
FAN THROUGH THE BACK
(60)上步搬攔鎚式
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
(61)上步攬雀尾式
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
(62)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(63)雲手式
CLOUDING HANDS
(64)高探馬式
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
以上各勢均見前
All of these postures are done as before.

(65)十字擺連腿式
CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK

(釋名)拳術名詞、以伸順拳、踢拗腿、為十字腿。(如彈腿之第二路是)旁踢為擺連腿此式兼具故名。
Explanation of the name:
In boxing arts, when you extend your front fist while kicking with your rear leg, it is called a “crossed-body kick” (as in the second line of Tantui). When kicking from the side, it is called a “swinging lotus kick”. This posture does both kinds of things, hence the name.
(動作)有四、(一)穿手、(二)撲面掌、(三)轉身舉掌、(四)擺踢、
Four movements:
1. Thread through with your [left] hand.
2. Palm strike to the face.
3. Turn around, raising your [left] palm.
4. Swinging kick.
(圖解)(一)由高探馬式。左足前進半步。左手仰掌。由右手腕上面穿出。右手掌心向下。同時隨右臂抽回。屈肱置左腋下。(二)左掌內運下合。掌心向前吐力。(三)坐左腿。向右後方轉身。略舒右腿、如丁虛步。左臂由頭左上舉。圈置頭上。掌心向前。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, your left foot advances a half step and your left hand, palm up, threads out over your right wrist, while your right arm withdraws, palm down, bending to be placed below your left armpit.
2. Your left palm turns downward and expresses force forward.
3. Sitting on your left leg, turn around to your right rear, slightly relaxing your right leg so you seem to be in an empty stance, while your left arm goes from the left of your head, raising up in an arc to placed above your head, palm forward.

(四)右足由左向右擺踢。同時左掌由右向左拍右足面。左臂下埀。掌心向下。
4. Your right foot does a swinging kick from the left to the right, while your left palm goes from the right to the left, slapping the top of your right foot, causing your left arm to hang down, palm downward.
(注意)轉身後。須以全身重點寄於左足。方可將右足提起。右足運動路綫。宜為正圓形。
Points for attention:
Once you turn around, you must put all the weight on your left foot, then you can lift your right foot. The path your right foot moves along should be a crosswise arc.
(應用)敵由後襲擊。卽轉身以手格攔。乘勢以足側踢之。
Application:
An opponent attacks me from behind, so I turn around, using my hand to block it, and take advantage of the situation by sending out a sideways kick.

(66)摟膝指襠鎚式
BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

(釋名)此式於摟膝後。乘勢用拳進擊敵襠故名。此為太極拳五鎚之一。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, after you brush past your knee, take advantage of the moment to advance and punch the opponent in the crotch, hence the name. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
(動作)有三、(一)落步摟膝、(二)進步摟膝、(三)指襠鎚、
Three movements:
1. Bring your foot down and brush past the knee.
2. Advance, brushing past your [left] knee.
3. Punch to his crotch.
(圖解)(一)由前十字擺連腿。右足落地。右手摟右膝蓋。作左摟膝拗步。(二)左足前進一步。右手摟左膝蓋。(三)探身弓前膝、右手握拳。(虎口向上)前伸斜下指。左手置左膝旁。或撫右臂助勢。均可。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK, your right foot comes down and your right hand brushes past your right knee, making the posture of BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left [right] side.
2. Your left foot advances a step and your right [left] hand brushes past your left knee.
3. Inclining your body and bending your knee forward, your right hand grasps into a fist (tiger’s mouth upward) and extends diagonally forward and downward, while your left hand can either be placed beside your left knee or touch your right arm to assist the punch.

(注意)拳前擊時。力須由背脊發出。右肩須探出。右足宜直伸。
Points for attention:
When punching forward, the power must be sent from your spine, your right shoulder must stretch, and your right leg should extend straight.
(應用)敵以左右手足連擊下部。應以左右手格攔。乘勢進擊敵之下部。
Application:
The opponent attacks my groin with his left hand then his right foot, which I respond to by blocking with my hands in succession, and then I take advantage of the situation by advancing and punching him in the groin.

(67)上步攬雀尾式
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
(68)單鞭式
SINGLE WHIP
(69)下勢式
LOW POSTURE
以上各式均見前
All of these postures are done as before.

(70)上步七星式及退步跨虎式
STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER and RETREAT TO RIDE THE TIGER

(釋名)拳術家以兩臂相挽、兩拳斜對。名七星式。兩臂分張。兩手分作鉤掌。雙腿蹲屈。一足立地。一足提起。足尖點地。名跨虎式。此兩式有聯合練習之必要。故合之。
Explanation of the name:
When boxing practitioners roll their arms toward each other so their fists line up diagonally with each other, it is called a “big dipper” posture [i.e. making a bucket shape resembling the saucepan of the Dipper]. When the arms spread apart, the hands going to the sides as a hook and a palm, the legs squatting with one foot standing and one foot lifted, toes touching down, it is called “riding a tiger”. These two postures must be linked when practicing, therefore I have combined them here.
(動作)有二、(一)上步七星、(二)退步跨虎、
Two movements:
1. STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER
2. RETREAT TO RIDE THE TIGER
(圖解)(一)由下勢左膝前弓。右足前進。貼左足踵。足尖點地。左手握拳當胸。右手由後向前。握拳隨右足前進。經過右胯旁。由左腕下前擊。與左腕交叉作十字手式。
Explanation for the drawings:
1. From LOW POSTURE, your left knee bends forward and your right foot advances, staying near your left heel, toes touching down. At the same time, your left hand grasps into a fist in front of your chest and your right hand comes forward from behind, grasping into a fist and going along with the advancing of your right foot, passing beside your right hip and striking forward under your left wrist, crossing with it to make an X shape.

(二)右足退後半步。屈膝下蹲。左足收回至右足側。足尖點地。成丁虛步。雙臂相挽內抱。右手從左臂內掏出。向右側伸展。掌心前向。同時左手作鉤。向左下方斜摟。左膝上升。五指作猴拳。指尖後指。兩臂宜平。
2. Your right foot retreats a half step, the knee bends into a squat, and your left foot withdraws to be beside your right foot, toes touching down, making an empty stance. At the same time, your arms wrap inward, your right hand going from pulling out from inward of your left arm and extending to the right side, palm forward, as your left hand makes a hook which brushes diagonally to the lower left as your left knee rises, the fingers making a “monkey fist” [i.e. a hook hand], fingertips pointing to the rear [although the drawing shows a downward palm]. Your shoulders should be level.

(注意)七星式。全身重點在左足。跨虎式全身重點在右足。
Points for attention:
For STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER, the weight sits fully on your left foot. For RETREAT TO RIDE THE TIGER, the weight sits fully on your right foot.
(應用)(一)上步七星式。設敵以拳當胸擊來。應以左臂上架。或外攔。隨進右足。以右手從左手下擊敵胸部。(二)退步跨虎式。用前式時。設敵以手下壓。或外摟。及前踢。卽以左手下摟敵手或足。抽出右手。推敵胸肩。
Application:
1. STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER: If the opponent punches to my chest, I use my left arm to prop it up or block it outward, then advance with my right foot and use my right hand to strike under my left hand to his chest.
2. RETREAT TO RIDE THE TIGER: Continuing from the previous application, if the opponent uses his hand to push [my strike] down or brushes it aside and kicks forward, I then use my left hand to brush down his hand or foot, withdrawing my right hand to then push his chest or shoulder.

(71)轉身擺連式
TURN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK

(釋名)轉身、動作名。轉身擺連者、轉身蓄勢。藉起擺連腿也。(擺連腿解釋見前)
Explanation of the name:
“Turn around” describes movement. To turn around and do a swinging lotus kick means that you turn around to store up power, then release it by lifting your foot and doing a swinging lotus kick (as explained previously in Posture 65).
(動作)有二、(一)轉身合手、(二)擺連腿、
Two movements:
1. Turn around, joining your hands.
2. Swinging lotus kick.
(圖解)(一)由前跨虎式。右後轉身。上左步。雙手內合。當胸作十字手形。(二)起右足。由左向右擺踢。雙臂前伸。雙手自右向左拍右足背。
Explanation for the drawing:
1, From RIDING THE TIGER, turn your body to the right rear, step your left foot forward, both hands joining inward, crossing in front of your chest to make the CROSSED HANDS shape.
2. Lift your right foot and go from left to right with a swinging kick, both arms extended forward, the hands going from right to left, slapping the back of your right foot,

收置腰左右。此時右足落地。足尖點地近左足側。
then gathering in to be placed at both sides [to the left side] of your waist, your right foot now lowering to the ground, toes touching down close beside your left foot.
(注意)上左足時。宜足尖內向。以便迴轉。
Points for attention:
When your left foot steps forward, the toes should be pointed inward so as to make it easier to turn.
(應用)敵自左側擊來。卽閃身上左足以避之。誘敵追襲。乃轉身起右足。從旁踢敵脇部。
Application:
If an opponent attacks from my left side, I evade it by dodging with my body and stepping forward [back] with my left foot, drawing him in to be ambushed as I then turn around and lift my right foot to kick his ribs from the side.

(72)彎弓射虎式
BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER

(釋名)此式取人在馬上彎弓下射之意。故名。
Explanation of the name:
The intention in this posture is of a person quickly drawing a bow to shoot, hence the name.
(動作)有二、(一)開步曲肱、(二)舒臂前伸、
Two movements:
1. Step out, bending your arms.
2. Loosen your arms and extend them forward.
(圖解)(一)由前式右足向右前方踏出一步。身右前傾。屈雙臂作拳內抱。由左腰際過臍前。向右運行。至右腰旁。雙臂上舉。右臂肩肘相平。覆拳。(虎口向下)近右腮。指左前方。勢如持箭。左臂屈肘近脇。舉手當胸。雙目前視。勢如握弓。(二)拳向左下方略為旋轉。右上左下相對。兩臂伸舒。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From the previous posture, your right foot steps to the forward right, your torso inclines to the forward right, your arms bend, making fists, and go from the left side of your waist, passing in front of your navel, and move to the right until to the right of your waist. Your arms lift up, your right shoulder and elbow level with each other, the fist overturned (tiger’s mouth downward) near your right cheek, pointing to the forward left, the posture like holding an arrow. Your left elbow is bent near your ribs, the hand lifted in front of your chest. Your gaze is forward and the posture is like holding a bow.
2. Your fists go toward the lower left, slightly corkscrewing, aligned with each other as right fist above and left fist below, your arms extended.

(注意)雙拳前擊時。須隱含螺旋之意。
Points for attention:
When both fists strike forward, there must be a corkscrewing intention.
(應用)敵從右撘吾右臂下按。卽隨其動作半圓形。以揉化其力。乘其力懈。而前擊之。
Application:
If the opponent connects with me to the right and pushes down my right arm, I go along with the movement in a semicircle to neutralize his energy, riding his energy until it has slackened, then strike forward.

(73)合太極
CLOSING POSTURE

(釋名)此為太極拳路練畢還原之意。故名。還原之法。人各不一。有加以攬尾、撲面掌、等數式方還原者。有再作一搬攔鎚、如封似閉、二式者。均為原路所無。茲不贅述。
Explanation of the name:
The intention here is to conclude the solo set by returning to the original posture, hence the name. The methods of returning to the original posture vary among people: some [i.e. Wu style practitioners] do CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL, PALM TO THE FACE, and several more postures to get to the original posture, while others [i.e. Yang style practitioners] do the two postures of PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH and SEALING SHUT to get there. In either case it would here be unnecessarily repetitive to explain the original posture over again.
(動作)有二、(一)並步合手、(二)還原立正、
Two movements:
1. Step together, joining hands.
2. Return to the original posture, standing straight.
(圖解)(一)由射虎式上左步並於右足。轉身向右、交手當胸。(二)雙手放下。還原立正式。
Explanation for the drawing:
1. From SHOOT THE TIGER, step your left foot forward to stand beside your right foot, turning your body to the right, crossing your hands in front of your chest.
2. Both hands releasing downward, return to your original posture, standing straight.

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第三章 論太極拳推手術
CHAPTER THREE: DISCUSSION OF TAIJI BOXING’S PUSHING HANDS SKILL

推手、或曰撘手、一曰靠手、各派拳術家多有之。以練習近身用着之法者也。太極拳術以懂勁為拳中要訣。而懂勁以使皮膚富感覺力為初步。此感覺力練習之法。在二人肘腕掌指互撘。推盪往來。以研磨皮膚。由皮膚壓迫温凉之覺度。以察知敵勁之輕重虛實。及經過方位。久之感覺靈敏。黏走互助。微動卽知。斯為懂勁矣。太極拳經曰。『懂勁後愈練愈精、』習太極拳者。不習推手。等於未習。習推手而未能懂勁。則運用毫無是處。嗚呼。升階有級。入室知門。學者於推手術。曷注意焉。
Pushing hands, or “touching hands”, or “nearing hands”, is a feature of many boxing arts, and is used to train close-body techniques. The secret to the art of Taiji Boxing is identifying energies, the first step of which is to make your skin keenly aware. The method of training this sensitivity lies in two people touching with each other’s elbows, wrists, palms, and fingers, pushing back and forth to rub at the skin. The measure of sensitivity that comes from your skin being gently pressed is used to perceive whether the opponent’s energy is light or heavy, empty or full, and in which direction it is going. After a long time, your sensitivity will be very acute, sticking and yielding will be assisting each other, and when there is the slightest movement you will be aware of it, thus you will be identifying energies. The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be.”
     When practitioners of Taiji Boxing do not practice pushing hands, it is equal to not practicing at all. And if you practice pushing hands but are not yet able to identify energies, then it will be worthless when you try to apply it. Alas, there are levels to work through. Upon entering each room [i.e. moving on through each level], understand there is a door [that leads to another]. When practicing the pushing hands techniques, there are things you need to pay attention to:
推手術。有單撘手式。雙撘手式之別。(見後)單撘者。隻手單推。雙撘者。雙手並用。此均指撘外而言。(以胸懷為內、外指臂之外部也)又有所謂開合手者。則一方兩手均在內。一方均在外。互換為之。往復雙推也。單推手。研手門、及閩省拳靠手、五行手、(其手分金木水火土、五者。互相生尅運化。)多用之。余幼從劉師敬遠先生。習單推手術。稍有心得。嘗取太極拳各姿勢參酌各家。一一為之規定練習方法。編成推手術。以輔原來四正、四隅、各方法之不足。暇當另為編製。以享讀者。茲僅擇堪為太極正隅各手之初步者。略為述及。取便學者云爾。
The pushing hands techniques divide into single touching-hands postures and double touching-hands postures (explained below). Single touching is a single hand pushing by itself. Double touching is both hands being used together. This is always a case of touching outwardly with the fingers (the chest being inward, the fingers and forearms being outward).
     There is also what is called “open & close hands”, in which one partner’s hands both go inward while the other’s go outward, alternating with each other, going back and forth with double-hand pushes.
     In single-hand pushing hands, the rubbing method is the same as in the “nearing hands” in the boxing of Fujian, as well the “five element hands” (dividing into techniques for metal, wood, water, fire, and earth, the five generating and overcoming each other throughout the movements), and have many uses.
     In my youth I learned from Liu Jingyuan, training in the single-hand pushing hands techniques, gaining something of the idea. Then I sought out the various postures in the various schools of Taiji, and bit by bit I standardized a training method, organizing a complete regimen of pushing hands techniques to supplement the original “four cardinal” and “four corner” exercises where each is insufficient. I have added additional sections to provide you with the cardinal and corner exercises, but have selected only the beginning levels of them and have explained them in brief to make your experience easier.

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第四章 推手術八法釋名
CHAPTER FOUR: EXPLANATIONS OF THE EIGHT TECHNIQUES OF THE PUSHING HANDS SKILL

掤、捧也、上承之意、膨也。如蓄氣於皮球中。用力按之。則此按彼起膨滿不已。令力不得下落也。(詩鄭風)抑釋掤忌。杜預云。箭筩也。又通作氷。(左傳昭二十五年)執氷而踞。(註)箭筩、蓋可以取飲。又以手復矢。亦曰掤。太極功。撘手訣內。逆敵之勢承而向上。使敵力不得降者。皆謂之掤。
WARD-OFF [peng] –
     This means “to hold up”, “to carry”, or “to expand”.
     It is like when inflating a leather ball and pushing down on it – the further it is pushed down, the more the expansion is felt, causing the force to be unable to push all the way down.
     From poem 78 of the Book of Poems: “His quiver is spent.” According to Du Yu, the word means “an arrow guiver”. It is also pronounced “bīng”.
     From Zuo’s Commentary to the Spring & Autumn Annals, 25th Year of Duke Zhao: “[His men took off their helmets and] sat down holding their quivers.” An annotation explains that the character used in this passage represents an arrow quiver which can be used as a drinking vessel as well as a carrier for arrows and is interchangeable with the same character that appears in poem 78.
     In the Taiji skill, it is the trick when touching hands of going against the opponent’s momentum by carrying him upward and making him unable to lower himself.
     All these things make up “ward-off”.
捋、讀作呂、字典中無此字、疑係攄之訛、舒也。(班固答賓戲)獨攄意乎宇宙之外。又布也。(司馬相如封禪書)攄之無窮。又散也。(揚雄河東賦)奮六經以攄頌。又猶騰也。(張衡思玄賦)八乘攄而超驤。太極功撘手時。凡敵掤擠我時。用攄字訣以舒散其力。使敵力騰散而不得復聚者、皆是。
ROLLBACK [lü] –
     Although it is pronounced lü, the actual character does not appear in any dictionary, and may be a mistake for a similar looking character meaning “to extend”. From Ban Gu’s drama Replying to a Guest: “In solitude, we extend our thoughts beyond the whole universe.”
     Or it can mean “to distribute”. From Sima Xiangru’s Book of Nature Worship: “… distributing without limit.”
     Or it can mean “to disseminate”. From “On the Rhapsodizers East of the Yellow River”, by Yang Xiong: “… extolling the Six Classics from which they disseminate their odes.”
     Or it can mean something akin to “gallop”. From “Thinking Profoundly”, by Zhang Heng: “The eight chariots are released and overtake with their gallop.”
     In the Taiji skill, when touching hands, usually when the opponent does a ward-off or press to me, I use rollback as a trick to dispel his force, causing it to gallop away, unable to be regrouped.
     All of these things make up “rollback”.
擠、(說文)排也、推也、以手向外擠物前進也。(左傳)小人老而無知。擠於溝壑矣。(史記項羽本紀)漢軍郤為楚軍擠。(莊子人間世)其君因其修以擠之。凡以手或肩背擠住敵身。使不得動。從而推擲之。皆擠也。
PRESS [ji] –
     The Shuowen Jiezi [China’s earliest dictionary] says that it means “to forcefully remove”, or “to push away”. It is to send a hand outward with a forward push to something.
     From Zuo’s Commentary to the Spring & Autumn Annals, 13th Year of Duke Zhao: “A man who is oblivious to his old age gets pushed into a ditch.”
     From the Historical Records, Annals of Xiang Yu: “A gap in the Han army made for a push from the Chu army.”
     From Zhuangzi, chapter 4: “Those rulers [Jie and Zhou] pushed these virtuous men away [i.e. had Guan Longfeng and Prince Bigan killed] because they were more virtuous than themselves.”
     Generally you may use your hand, shoulder, or back to press the opponent’s body and make him unable to move, and from that point give him a push to throw him away.
     All of these things make up “press”.
按、(說文)下也、(廣韻)抑也、(梁簡文帝箏賦)陸離抑按。磊落縱橫(爾雅釋詁)止也。(史記周本紀)王按兵毋出。(詩大雅)以按徂旅。釋遏止也。(前漢高帝紀)吏民皆按堵如故。(註)按次第墻堵不遷動也。又據也。(史記白起傳)趙軍長平以按據上黨民。又撫也。(史記平原君傳)毛遂按劍歷階而上是也。又按摩也。古有按摩導引之術。(前漢藝文志)黃帝伯歧著按摩十卷。蓋太極拳術。遇敵擠進時。用手下按。遏抑以制止之。使不得逞。謂之按。
PUSH [an] –
     The Shuowen Jiezi says this means “to go downward”.
     The Guangyun [a rhyming dictionary] says this means “to press downward”.
     From the Rhapsodies of Emperor Jianwen of Liang: “By way of variety and pressing down [i.e. restraint], elegance runs through it.”
     The Erya [an ancient thesaurus] lists it as a synonym of words meaning “to suppress”.
     From the Historical Records, Annals of Zhou: “The king pushed his army [i.e. encouraged] with the command of: no exit!”
     Poem 241 of the Book of Poems says: “Crush their armies [with yours]”, and the word is there explained [in the accompanying commentary of Zheng Xuan] as meaning “to suppress”.
     From the History of the Early Han Dynasty, Annals of Emperor Gao: “Both officials and commoners settled down [the two characters in the text making a term which is a combination of “push down” and “stop up”] to how it was before”, with the commentary then explaining: “Pushing constantly until the walls were sealed up and there was no change.”
     It also means “to occupy”, as in the Historical Records, Bio of Bai Qi: “The Zhao commander pacified the people by pushing in with an occupying force.”
     It also means “to stroke”, as in the Historical Records, Bios of Rulers of the Plains: “Mao then stroked his sword and marched onward into history.”
     There is also the meaning of “massage” [“to push down” plus “to rub” equalling “massage”]. In ancient times, there were the massage and limbering arts, as is mentioned in the History of the Early Han Dynasty, Bibliographical Records: “The Yellow Emperor’s Qi Bo wrote ten chapters on massage.”
     As for the Taiji boxing art, when your opponent presses forward, use your hands to push down and suppress his action, making him unable to do what he wants.
     This is “push”.
採、採取也。(晉書)山有猛虎。藜藿為之不採。又擇而取之曰採。太極拳以採制敵之動力為採。如靜坐家抑取身內之動氣。為採取也。陰符經曰。天發殺機。悟此則思過矣。
PLUCK [cai] –
     This means “to take”.
     From the Books of Jin: “On the mountain is a fierce tiger, and the plants are not what he picks to eat.”
     To select and take is called “plucking”.
     In Taiji Boxing, this is when you pluck to take control of the opponent’s force. This taking is like the movement of energy inward when a practioner of silent meditation restrains himself.
     The Classic of the Talisman of the Abstract says: “The sign of the sky expressing its destructiveness [is the shifting of the constellations.]” [i.e. The stars disappear over the horizon as if pulled down.]
     Once you understand these explanations, ponder on them.
挒、捩也、拗也、(韓愈文)捩手復羹。又紾也。轉移之意。太極拳以轉移其力。還制其身。謂之挒。又挒去之意。
REND [lie] –
     This means “to turn” or “to twist”.
     From the Writings of Han Yu: “Turn your hands to stir the soup”.
     It also means “to coil”. It is an intention of rotation.
     In Taiji Boxing, when you use rotational force to control the opponent’s body, it is called “rending”, including the intention of rending away.
肘、臂中部彎曲處之骨尖曰肘。拳術家以此處擊人為肘。蓋動詞也。太極拳用肘之法甚多。本書僅就推手時便於應用者。略述及之。
ELBOW [zhou] –
     This is the name of the boney point in the middle of your arm where it bends.
     When practitioners of boxing arts use this area to strike opponents, it is called “elbowing”, making it a verb rather than a noun.
     In Taiji Boxing, there are many methods of applying elbowing techniques. In this book, it is only mentioned in the pushing hands section when relevant, and discussed briefly.
靠、倚也、依也、依附於他物也。太極拳近身時。以肩胯擊人曰靠。有肩靠胯打之稱。
BUMP [kao] –
     This means “to lean on”, “to lean against”, or “to lean upon someone else”.
     In Taiji Boxing, when you are near with your body and you use your shoulder or hip to strike the opponent, it is called “bumping”, the two methods being known as “shoulder bump” and “hip strike”.

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第五章 太極拳應用推手
CHAPTER FIVE: TAIJI BOXING’S PRACTICAL FUNCTION – PUSHING HANDS

第一節 太極拳之樁步
Section 1: TAIJI BOXING’S STANCE

太極拳術之樁步。多用川字式者。由立正姿勢。左足向左前方踏出一步。兩足尖方向均向前。其左右距離。以肩為度。身下蹲。兩膝微屈。使全身重點。寄於後足。若丁虛步然。惟前足尖上翹。或平置於地。微不同耳。上體宜立腰。空胸。氣注小腹。頭正直。頂虛懸。尾閭中正。精神貫頂。脊背弓形。兩臂略彎。向前平舉。手掌前伸坐腕。指尖微屈分張向上。前手食指約對鼻凖。後手約居胸前。掌心參差遙對。若抱物然。削肩而垂肘。其肩肘腕與胯膝脚三者相合。全身宜靈活無滯。各逞自然狀態。(右式同此)斯為善耳。
The Taiji boxing art’s stance often uses the “river-character” posture [or “three-line posture” – showing a line for each foot and the line between them].
     From a posture of standing straight, your left foot takes a step out to the forward left, the toes of both feet are equally forward, and the distance between your feet to the left and right is shoulder width. Squat your body down, slightly bending your knees, and make the weight of your whole body go to your rear foot. It is somewhat like the T stance, except the front toes are held upward or placed flat on the ground, so it is slightly different.
     Your upper body should be upright in your waist and empty in your chest, with energy concentrated at your lower abdomen. Your head is held straight, headtop empty and suspended. Your tailbone is centered and spirit passes through to your headtop. Your spine is in a bow shape.
     Your arms are slightly bent and go forward, raising until level. Your palms extend forward and your wrists sit. Your fingertips are slightly bent, are spread, and are upward, the forefinger of your forward hand at about nose level, your rear hand at about chest level. Your palms are unevenly facing each other and seem to be holding something. Droop your shoulders and hang your elbows.
     Your shoulders, elbows, and hands are united with your hips, knees, and feet. Your whole body should be nimble and without sluggishness. Once each part has a condition of naturalness (and the posture on the other side is the same as on this side), then it is right.

第二節 單撘手法
Section 2: SINGLE TOUCHING-HANDS METHOD

兩人相對立。各右足向前踏出一步。右手自右脇傍作圓運動。向前伸舉。如前之樁步姿勢。兩手腕背相貼。交叉作勢。是為單撘手式。
Two people stand facing each other. Each steps out forward with the right foot, while the right hand extends forward from beside the right ribs in an arcing motion, as in the standing posture above. The backs of the wrists stick to each other, making a crossed shape. This is the single touching-hands posture.

第三節 雙撘手法
Section 3: DOUBLE TOUCHING-HANDS METHOD

此式如單撘手式之作法。惟以在後之拗手前出。各以掌心拊相手(卽對面之人)之臂彎處。四臂相撘。共成一正圓形。以兩腕相撘處為圜心。兩人懷抱中所占據之部分。各得此圜之半。儼如雙魚形太極圖之兩儀焉。是為雙撘手式。
This posture is like the single touching-hands posture, except that the rear hand also comes forward to pat the other person’s elbow area. Four arms are touching, making a complete circle. The wrists touching each other are turned inward so that both people occupy the area in front of their chests, each getting half of the circle. It is just like the two fishes of the taiji symbol. This is the double touching-hands posture.

第四節 單手平圓推揉法
Section 4: “SINGLE-HAND HORIZONTAL CIRCLING” PUSHING & RUBBING METHOD

兩人對立作右單撘手式。(一)甲右手手掌下按乙右腕。向乙胸前推。乙屈右肱。手向己懷後撤。平運退揉。作半圓形。手腕經左肩下向右運行。至胸骨前。(二)乙身向後坐。肘下垂。覆手貼於脇傍。手腕外張。脫離甲手之腕。還按甲腕。(三)乙手再向甲胸前推。如(一)之動作。(四)甲手退揉。如(二)之動作。亦成半圓形。往復推揉。俟熟習後再習他式。此為推手法基本動作。左撘手式與右撘手式動作相同。惟左右互易耳。
Both partners stand facing each other and make the right-sided single touching-hands posture.
     1. A’s right palm pushes down on B’s right wrist, pushing forward toward B’s chest.
B bends his right arm, his hand withdrawing toward his own chest, moving horizontally, retreating and rubbing, making a semicircle, his wrist passing below his left shoulder, moving to the right until in front of his breastbone.
     2. B’s torso sits back, elbow hanging down, turns over his hand drawing in beside his ribs, his wrist extending outward, peeling aside A’s wrist, then in turn pushes down on A’s wrist.
     3. B’s hand then pushes toward A’s chest as in movement 1.
     4. A’s hand retreats and rubs as in movement 2, also making a semicircle. Go back and forth, pushing and rubbing. Wait until you are skillful at it, then practice another posture. This is a basic action of the pushing hands methods.
     Doing the exercise on the left or right side is the same apart from left and right being switched.

第五節 捋按推手法
Section 5: “ROLLBACK & PUSH” PUSHING HANDS METHOD

兩人對立。作雙撘手右式、(一)甲右手手掌下按乙右腕。左手按乙之右肘。向乙胸分推作按式。(二)乙屈右肱。手向懷內後撤。平運退揉。左手拊甲之右肘後。右手腕經左肩下向右運行。左手隨之。向右下方屈肱作捋。雙肘下垂。(三)乙雙手按甲之肘腕。向甲前胸推作按式。如(一)之動作。(四)甲雙手退捋。如(二)之動作。
Both partners stand facing each other and make the right-sided double touching-hands posture.
     1. A with his right palm pushes down on B’s right wrist and with his left hand pushes down on B’s right elbow, making the “push” posture toward the sides of B’s chest.
     2. B bends his right arm, the hand withdrawing toward his chest, retreating and neutralizing with a horizontal motion, his left hand is patting behind A’s elbow. His right wrist is passing below his left shoulder as it moves to the right, left hand going along with it downward to the right, the arm bending, making a rollback, both elbows hanging down.
     3. B with both hands pushes A’s elbow and wrist toward A’s chest to make the “push” posture, as in movement 1.
     4. A with both hands retreats and rolls back, as in movement 2.

第六節 單手立圓推手法
Section 6: “SINGLE-HAND VERTICAL CIRCLING” PUSHING HANDS METHOD

兩人對立。作右單撘手式。(一)甲以右手掌緣。下切乙腕。(乙隨甲之切)指尖向乙腹部前指。(二)乙屈肱隨甲之切勁。由下退揉畫。立半圓形。經右脇傍上提。至右耳側。(三)乙右手接前之動作。作上半圓形。伸臂前指甲額。(四)甲身向後坐。屈右肱。手貼乙腕。隨其動作。向身側下領。至脇傍作前推勢。
Both partners stand facing each other and make the right-sided single touching-hands posture.
     1. A uses his right palm to cut downward onto B’s wrist (B going along with A’s cutting action), fingertips pointed forward toward B’s belly.
     2. B bends his arm, going along with A’s cutting energy, neutralizing with a withdrawing arc from below in a vertical semicircle, lifting past his right ribs until beside his right ear.
     3. B’s right hand continues the previous movement by making the upper half of the circle, extending his arm forward, pointing at A’s forehead.
     4. A sits his body back, bending his right arm, his hand sticking to B’s wrist and going along with his movement, turning his body to the side to lead downward, until when beside his ribs he turns it into a forward push.
附注、此式可練習太極拳中倒攆猴。及下勢二姿勢。如甲動作卽倣倒攆猴勢。乙卽倣下勢之動作也。
Note:
This exercise can train the two postures of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY and LOW POSTURE. If A moves in the manner of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY, B then moves in the manner of LOW POSTURE.

第七節 捋擠推手法
Section 7: “ROLLBACK & PRESS” PUSHING HANDS METHOD

兩人對立。作雙撘手式。(一)甲坐身立左肘向後斜捋乙右臂。(二)乙趁勢下伸右臂。進身向甲拊肘手之接觸點前靠。並以左手拊內臑。向外擠之。(三)甲俯身向前以緩乙力。並橫左手以尺骨、或腕骨、撘乙之上膊骨中間處。使乙臂貼身。並以右手由肱內拊其接觸點。前擠之。(四)乙揉身向內走化甲力。坐身立左肘向後斜捋甲之右臂。如(一)甲之動作。(五)甲如(二)乙之動作。(六)如(三)甲之動作。
Both partners stand facing each other and make the [right-sided] double touching-hands posture.
     1. A squats his torso, standing up his left forearm, and rolls back B’s right arm diagonally to the rear.
     2. B takes advantage of the moment and extends his right arm downward, advancing his torso toward where his elbow is being touched by A to do a bump forward, and by using his left hand to pat the inside of his own arm, does a press outward.
     3. A leans his torso forward to slow down B’s power, going across with his left ulna or wrist to touch the middle of B’s upper arm, causing B’s arm to get near his own torso, and then using his right hand to pat the inside of his own forearm, does a press forward.
     4. B softens his torso inward to yield to and neutralize A’s power, squats his torso, standing up his left forearm, and rolls back A’s right arm diagonally to the rear, like A in movement 1.
     5. A is like B in movement 2.
     6. B is like A in movement 3.

第八節 單壓推手法
Section 8: “SINGLE-HAND PRESSING DOWN” PUSHING HANDS METHOD

兩人對立。作單撘手式。(一)甲右手貼乙右腕。向外平運。隨卽抽撤。翻手下壓乙腕。仰掌屈肱。以肘近脇。(肘彎宜成鈍角)(二)甲因前動作。仰手壓乙腕。伸臂向乙腹前揷。(三)乙隨甲前進之力。覆手平運。屈肱退後隨之。俟甲指將插至腹前時。吸身垂肘。翻手下壓甲腕。如(一)甲之動作。(四)乙伸臂前插甲腹。如(二)甲之動作。左式同此。
Both partners stand facing each other and make the [right-sided] single touching-hands posture.
     1. A’s right hand sticks to B’s right wrist and moves outward horizontally, correspondingly withdrawing [as if in response to a forward energy from B], his hand turns over and presses down on B’s wrist, palm upward, arm bent, elbow close to his ribs. (The bend in the arm should make an obtuse angle.)
     2. A, continuing from the previous movement of using his upward-facing palm to press down B’s wrist, extends his arm forward toward B’s belly.
     3. B goes along with the force of A’s forward push, turns his hand over in a horizontal motion, bends his arm, retreating, then waits until the moment A is almost in front of his belly, and sucks in his torso and hangs his elbow down, turns his hand the rest of the way over, and presses down A’s wrist, like A in movement 1.
     4. B extends his arm forward toward A’s belly, like A in movement 2.
     This exercise is done the same on the left side.

第九節 壓腕按肘推手法
Section 9: “PRESSING DOWN THE WRIST & PUSHING DOWN THE ELBOW” PUSHING HANDS METHOD

兩人對立。作雙撘手式。(一)(二)甲壓乙腕前揷如前。惟以左手掌指下按乙肘助力。(三)(四)乙退後覆腕抽撤時。左手掌心向上仰捧乙肘。為不同耳。
Two people stand opposite each other, making the [right-sided] double touching-hands posture.
     1&2. A presses down on B’s wrist as before, except that his left hand, fingers pointing down, pushes down on B’s elbow to assist the power.
     3&4. As B retreats, turning over his wrist and withdrawing, his left palm goes upward to prop up B’s elbow, which is different from before.

第十節 四正推手法
Section 10: PUSHING HANDS METHOD FOR THE FOUR PRIMARY TECHNIQUES

四正推手者。卽兩人推手時。用捋擠按掤四法。向四正方周而復始作互相推手之運動也。作此法時。兩人對立。作雙撘手右式。(一)甲屈膝後坐屈兩臂肘尖下埀。(作琵琶式)兩手分攬乙之右臂腕肘處。向懷內斜下方捋。(二)乙趁勢平屈右肱。成九十度角形。向甲胸前前擠。接其雙腕。並以左手移撫肱內。以助其勢。(三)甲當乙擠肘時。腰微左轉。雙手趁勢下按乙左臂。(四)乙卽以左臂擠推。分作弧綫。向上運行。掤化甲之按力。同時右臂亦自下纒。上托甲之左肘。以助其勢。(五)乙掤化甲之按力後。卽趁勢捋甲之左臂。(六)甲隨乙之捋勁前擠。(七)乙隨甲之擠勁下按。(八)甲卽掤化乙之按力後捋。自此周而復始。運轉不己。是謂四正推手法。
Pushing hands with the four primary techniques is when two people are pushing hands using the four techniques of rollback, press, push, and ward-off, which are aligned with the four cardinal directions [of the eight trigrams], and repeat their cycle over and over again, back and forth between the two people. To begin, they stand opposite each other and cross their right hands.
     1. A bends his knees and sits back, bends his arms so his elbows hang down (making the “lute” posture), his hands catching B’s right arm at the elbow and wrist, and he rolls back inward and diagonally downward.
     2. B takes advantage of the momentum and bends his right arm horizontally, making a ninety-degree angle, and presses forward toward A’s chest with his wrists connected, then shifts his left hand to touch the inside of his own forearm and assist the power.
     3. Right when B presses with his elbow, A turns his waist slightly to the left, both hands taking advantage of the momentum and pushing down on B’s left arm.
     4. B then uses his left arm to do a pressing push, bringing it away [from his right arm] in an upward arc to ward off and neutralize A’s pushing force. At the same time, his right arm also wraps around from below to prop up A’s left elbow and assist the neutralization.
     5. Once B wards off and neutralizes A’s pushing force, he then takes advantage of the momentum and rolls back A’s left arm.
     6. A goes along with B’s rollback energy and presses forward.
     7. B goes along with A’s pressing energy and pushes down.
     8. A then wards off and neutralizes B’s pushing power, and then rolls back.
     All of this goes round and round without end. This is the pushing hands method for the four primary techniques.

第十一節 四隅推手法
Section 11: PUSHING HANDS METHOD FOR THE FOUR SECONDARY TECHNIQUES

四隅推手者。一名大捋。卽兩人推手時。用肘靠採挒四法。向四斜方周而復始作互相推手之運動。以濟四正之所窮也。作此法時。兩人南北對立。作雙撘手右式。(一)甲右足向西北斜邁一步。作騎馬式。或丁八步。右臂平屈。右手撫乙之右腕。左臂屈肘。用下膊骨中處。向西北斜捋乙之右臂。(二)乙卽趁勢左足向左前方橫出一步。移右足向甲襠中。揷襠前邁一步。同時右臂伸舒向下。肩隨甲之捋勁。向甲胸部前靠。左手撫右肱內輔助之。此時甲乙仍相對立。乙面視東北方。(三)甲以左手下按乙之左腕。右手按乙之左肘尖下採。同時左足由乙之右足外。移至乙之襠中。(四)乙隨甲之採勁。左腿向西南方後撤。作騎馬式。左臂平屈。左手撫甲之左腕。右臂屈肘用下膊骨中處。向西南方斜捋甲之左臂。(五)甲趁勢右足前出一步。移左足向乙襠中。揷襠前邁一步。同時左臂伸舒向下。肩隨乙之捋勁。向乙胸部前靠。右手撫左肱內以輔助之。此時甲乙仍相對立。甲面視東南方。(六)甲左臂欲上挑乙卽隨甲之挑勁。左手作掌向甲面部撲擊。右手按甲之左肩斜向下挒。(七)甲隨乙之挒勁。撤左足向東北方邁。左手撫乙之左腕。右臂屈肘向東北斜捋乙之左臂。(八)乙趁勢上右步。移左足。向甲襠中前邁。左臂隨甲之捋勁。用肩向甲胸部前靠。右手輔之。面視西北方。(九)甲以右手下按乙之右腕。左手按乙之右肘尖下採。同時右足由乙左足外。移至乙之襠中。(十)乙隨甲之採勁。撤右足向東南方邁。右手撫甲之右腕。左臂屈肘向東南斜捋甲之右臂。(十一)甲趁勢上左步。移右足。向乙襠中前邁。右臂隨乙之捋勁。用肩向乙胸部前靠。左手輔之。面視西南方。(十二)甲右臂欲上挑。乙卽隨甲之挑勁。右手作掌。向甲面部撲擊。左手按甲之右肩斜向下挒。甲退右腿。雙手捋乙之右臂腕肘處。還右雙撘手式。此為一度。可繼續為之。是為四隅推手法。
Pushing hands with the four secondary techniques, also known as Large Rollback, is when two people are pushing hands using the four techniques of elbow, bump, pluck, and rend, which are aligned with the four corner directions [of the eight trigrams], and repeat their cycle over and over again, back and forth between the two people. It compensates for the limitations of the four primary techniques. To begin, [persons A and B] stand opposite each other along a north-south line [A facing south, B facing north] and cross their right hands.
     1. A steps his right foot diagonally to the northwest, making a stance between a horse-riding stance and a wide T-stance, with his right arm level and bent, his right hand touching B’s right wrist, his left arm bends at the elbow and uses the middle area of the outer forearm bone to roll back B’s right arm diagonally to the northwest.
     2. B then takes advantage of the momentum and steps his left foot across forward and to the left, moving his right foot to step forward between A’s legs. At the same time, his right arm extends downward, his shoulder going along with A’s rollback energy, and bumps forward into A’s chest with his left hand assisting by touching the inside of his own right arm. Both people are again facing each other, with B looking toward the northeast.
     3. A uses his left hand to push down on B’s left wrist and his right hand to push down on B’s left elbow, plucking down. At the same time, his left foot goes from the outside of B’s right foot to step between B’s legs.
     4. B goes along with A’s plucking energy and withdraws his left leg to the southwest, making a horse-riding stance, and with his left arm level and bent, his left hand touches A’s left wrist, and his right arm bends at the elbow and uses the middle area of the forearm bone to rollback A’s left arm diagonally to the southwest.
     5. A takes advantage of the momentum and steps his right foot forward, moving his left foot to step forward between B’s legs. At the same time, his left arm extends downward, his shoulder going along with B’s rollback energy, and bumps forward into B’s chest with his right hand assisting by touching the inside of his own left arm. Both people are again facing each other, with A looking toward the southeast.
     6. A’s left arm wants to lift up. B then goes along with A’s lifting energy, his left hand doing a palm strike toward A’s face while his right hand pushes on A’s left shoulder, diagonally rending downward.
     7. A goes along with B’s rending energy and withdraws his left foot a step to the northeast, his left hand touching B’s left wrist, his right arm bending at the elbow, and rolls back B’s left arm to the northeast.
     8. B takes advantage of the momentum and steps forward with his right foot, moving his left foot to step forward between A’s legs, his left arm going along with A’s rollback energy and using his shoulder to bump forward into A’s chest, his right hand assisting. The direction B is facing is northwest.
     9. A uses his right hand to push down on B’s right wrist and his left hand to push on B’s right elbow, plucking down. At the same time, his right foot goes from the outside of B’s left foot to step between B’s legs.
     10. B goes along with A’s plucking energy and withdraws his right foot to the southeast, his right hand touching A’s right wrist, and with his left arm bent at the elbow, rolls back A’s right arm diagonally to the southeast.
     11. A takes advantage of the momentum and steps forward with his left foot, moving his right foot to step forward between A’s legs, his right arm going along with B’s rollback energy, and uses his shoulder to bump forward into B’s chest, his left hand assisting. The direction A is facing is southwest.
     12. A’s right arm wants to lift up. B then goes along with A’s lifting energy, his right hand doing a palm strike toward A’s face while his left hand pushes on A’s right shoulder, diagonally rending downward.
     [Movement 1 repeating:] A retreats his right leg, and with both hands he rolls back B’s right arm at the wrist and elbow area.
     Both people have returned to the posture of crossing their right hands and this whole sequence may continue. This is the pushing hands method for the four secondary techniques.

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POSTSCRIPT [BY ZHONG RUIYUAN]

中國拳術發源於戰國時代。歷漢魏唐宋。世有傳人。然皆口傳心授。隱秘其法。不以著書傳。世稱漢志所載手搏劍道。其書久佚。至明代戚南塘紀效新書。茅元儀武備志。始載劍經、拳勢、棍法、槍論。或詳或略。然後人講武術者。莫能出其範圍。至黃百家宗內家以論拳。吳殳錄手臂以言槍。則詳而精矣。前淸時傳習拳棒有禁。故私家授受。絕少刻本。其所傳皆以淺俗歌訣記之。不能詳言其理法。蓋傳習者。多非文人。勢使然也。庚申孟夏。遇許禹生先生於塗。約余至其所立體育學校觀馬子貞新武術隊演技。余以誤時。未得縱目。嗣後時與許君過從、因得觀許君所著太極拳經註及圖解二書。余於是始悉立校顚末。及注重太極拳之深識。余固素知許君精於技擊者。而不期其學深邃如是之極也。太極拳卽世所稱內家拳法。與少林分為二派者也。內家之學。名冠海內。然學之者。多不盡其術。且相傳秘其要法。後學更無從問津。此書出、而慕內家者得有塗轍。眞空前絕後之作也。然吾聞之學業技能。均無止境。深冀許君由圖解之麤迹。研經註之精理。使內家與少林並稱於世之所以然。筆之於書。以津逮後學。較之固守一先生之說。姝姝自悅。以為盡內家之能事者。其度量廣狹何如哉。余與許君累世交誼。不敢貢譽。故以質直之言。書為跋語。仲瀾氏瑞沅謹跋
Chinese boxing arts began during the Warring States period and were carried along through the dynasties – Han, Wei, Tang, Song, etc. They were passed on through the generations, but always by personal instruction, and with some things being kept secret, unrecorded in books. It is known that in the Han Records [History of the Early Han Dynasty, Bibliographical Records] there is mentioned records of [six chapters of] bare-hand fighting and [thirty-eight chapters of] swordsmanship, but those writings are long lost.
     During the Ming Dynasty, there was Qi Nantang’s [Qi Jiguang] New Book of Effective Methods and Mao Yuanyi’s Records of Martial Training Methods, and there emerged the Sword Classic, Boxing Postures, Staff Techniques, and Spear Treatise, some of these texts in detail, others in brief. Later generations of those who trained in martial arts were unable to surpass the range of those writings until the boxing essay of Huang Baijia on the internal school and the writings of Wu Shu on bare-handed fighting and the spear, which were detailed and refined.
     During the early Qing Dynasty, it was forbidden to teach or train in martial arts, and therefore it was done in secret, very rarely appearing in books. What was preserved was always through simple songs which were memorized and could not be very detailed about the theory or techniques, and this situation was caused because those transmitting it were often not very well-read.
     In the first summer month of 1920, I bumped into Xu Yusheng on my way somewhere, and he invited me to come right away to the physical education school he had established to see Ma Zizhen’s new martial arts performance team, but I was already running late and did not get to see them. I subsequently associated with Xu and so I got to look at two pieces of his writing: “A Commentary to the Taiji Boxing Classic” and “Explanations with Illustrations”. I thereupon began to understand his motivation for opening a school, as well as its emphasis on a deep understanding of Taiji Boxing. I had already known of him for quite a while as a skilled martial artist, but I did not expect the depth of his learning.
     “Taiji Boxing” is the way most people refer to the internal school, and together with Shaolin makes two distinct schools. Studying the internal school is more common but most who study it do not complete the course, and then when its essential principles are left a secret, later students will be even more unable to seek guidance. With the publication of this book, those who admire the internal school will have a way ahead, for it is a truly unparalleled work. But I have heard that the work of learning a martial skill never has an end.
     I truly hope that going through Xu’s stripped-down postural explanations and studying his meticulous commentary to the Classic will bring the internal school to be as equally regarded as Shaolin, and it is now recorded in a book to provide greater access to future students. Comparing him to a complacent teacher who keeps things to himself, he exhaustively shares the skills of the internal school, and so it is apparent which one has a more generous heart. Since Xu and I have a worldly friendship, I will not presume to praise him, and therefore I have confined myself to straightforward words in writing this postscript.
     – sincerely written by Zhong Lan (Zhong Ruiyuan)

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