AUTHENTIC ZIMEN BOXING
including SECRET RECORDS OF INJURY MEDICINES
by Hu Yisheng
authorized by the Central Martial Arts Institute
[published March, 1933]
[translation by Paul Brennan, Oct, 2014]
This book has been sent to the publishers with a couple of extra verses to start it off:
I have written down what I was taught, attentively gathering it all up,
but I feel only that “the more I look up at his teaching, the higher it goes, and the more I drill into his teaching, the harder it gets”. [Lun Yu, 9.11]
I have told it as I have heard it,
so much have I heard that I dare compare myself to Ananda [Buddha’s main disciple].
The art’s boundless subtle truths provoke interpretations,
and so I have elaborated upon the method, pushed to produce twelve essays.
I am blessed by the presence of one of the Eight Chefs, a Wang Kao
who contributed money toward the publishing of the book.
(This is in acknowledgement of Wang Jichun, who financed my printing costs.) [The “eight chefs” were eight wealthy gentleman in the Han Dynasty who put forth money to help others. (The other seven were Du Shang, Zhang Miao, Liu Ru, Hu Muban, Qin Zhou, Fan Xiang, and Wang Zhang.)]
– written by Hu Yisheng to Yao Huawu of Lanxi [in Zhejiang], first month of winter, 1932
Portrait of the author’s teacher, Zen Master Kexiu
Brief Bio of Zen Master Kexiu
Portrait of the author
Reply Letter from the Central Martial Arts Institute
Inscription from the Central Martial Arts Institute
Inscription from the Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute
Inscription by Chu Minyi
Inscription by Su Jingyou, Assistant Director of the Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute
A Few Comments
Preface by Rao Caorong
Secrets of the [Eight Primary] Techniques
Theory of the Eighteen Techniques
Stepping Into a Stable Posture
Seven-Character Verses About Specific Situations
List of the Eight [Primary] Techniques
List of the Ten [Secondary] Techniques
Drawing & Explanation for TESTING
Song of the Eight Ground-Fighting Techniques
LION SHAKES ITS FUR
RUKH SPREADS ITS WINGS
IRON OX PLOWS THE LAND
BUTTERFLY CLOSES ITS WINGS
OFFICIAL SLIPS INTO EACH OF HIS SLEEVES
TUCK & ROLL TO GAIN GROUND
SLEEPY SHEEP CURLS UP IN THE GRASS
SHIVERING CHICKEN WRAPS ITSELF IN DIRT
Keys to the Ground-Fighting Techniques
Essays Elaborating Upon the Subtleties:
Chapter One: Maintaining Willpower
Chapter Two: Preserving Essence
Chapter Three: Cultivating Energy
Chapter Four: Gathering Spirit
Chapter Five: Taking the Right Path
Chapter Six: The Eighteen Techniques
Chapter Seven: Solidifying Your Stance
Chapter Eight: Dispelling His Force
Chapter Nine: Developing Power
Chapter Ten: Lightening the Body
Chapter Eleven: Practical Application
Chapter Twelve: Meditation
Secret Records of Injury Medicines:
Generalized Effects of Medicines
Song of Medicines for the Whole Body
Portrait of the author’s teacher, Zen Master Kexiu
BRIEF BIO OF ZEN MASTER KEXIU
Zen Master Kexiu has the secular surname of Liu. His family line has spent many generations in Nanchang, Jiangxi. During the reign of Emperor Guangxu [1875-1908], he accompanied a certain military man traveling to Yanshan county [about a hundred miles east of Nanchang]. The man then dismissed him and left him there, so he made his living through teaching martial arts. He soon shaved his head, entered the temple at Ehu Peak, and became a monk, later becoming the abbot of the temple. He is almost sixty as of this year [and was therefore born mid-1870s], and he is still as strong and healthy as he ever was.
As a boy, he was unusually intelligent and energetic. His father’s friend Shao doted on him and accepted him as his adopted son. When he was nine years old, a certain monk trained him in martial arts. He did not get to finish the training, so foster father Shao, a formal student of Shaolin whose skill was very deep, had him move into his home and taught him personally. Through such guidance, his skill dramatically progressed. When he completed his training, he was only fourteen. People wished to see his skill, inspiring him to compete with local boxing experts. He won again and again, defeating teachers from a dozen schools. His fame thereupon grew to a crescendo.
He then roamed all over the country, befriending many virtuous heroes. His foster father taught him further – on the art of striking acupoints. The more refined his skill became, the more density his internal power developed. When he arrived in Yanshan, challengers came to visit him, to whom he was always polite, never seeking to boost his reputation through these matches nor boasting of his victories.
His body appears lame and weak, and he is not at all grand in stature, but when he sends power to his fingertips, he can make a hole in a wall. His stance is so stable, he calls for several robust men to pull his feet with ropes, but stands proud and immovable. He is also proficient at trauma medicine. Those with broken bones or skin punctures all seek him out for treatment, and they always recover. For this reason, his fame is known also to women and children.
– respectfully written by Rao Caorong of Ehu
Portrait of the author
FROM THE TEACHINGS OF SUN YAT-SEN:
[This is a brief excerpt, selectively phrased, from Sun’s Three Principles of the People – Identity of the People, Power of the People, Livelihood of the People – from his first speech on the Power of the People, delivered Mar 9, 1924.]
“People should be able to survive… Every day we must… Of the greatest importance is protection… By protection, I mean self-defense. Whether on the scale of individual, group, or nation, there should be the capacity for self-defense. Then there will be the ability to survive… In order for people to seek to survive in this competitive world, there will be struggle, and struggle will come to us daily without giving us any break… From the moment we are born to whatever age we are now, every day entails struggle…”
In reply to you about your manuscript of Authentic Zimen Boxing that you have recently presented to us, we have deeply studied its drawings and explanations, and we find that your sense of the equal importance of practice and cultivation fits perfectly with this school’s aim in promoting martial arts. The book has been examined and approved, and we have added to the original manuscript our own inscription of “practice and cultivation are both important” on the following page.
– Respectfully yours, good fortune always, Central Martial Arts Institute, Feb 1 
[transparent words under text:]
Defend yourself when you find yourself in a fight.
Strengthen the masses to save the nation.
[right & left sides, upper:]
Recovering our inherent skills
will bolster our national spirit.
[right & left sides, lower:]
We hope that everyone
will be transformed by martial arts.
– from the Central Martial Arts Institute [in Nanjing]
Practice and cultivation are both important.
– calligraphy by (the director of [張之江 Zhang Zhijiang]) the Central Martial Arts Institute
To the flourishing of martial studies.
– calligraphy [by the director (魯滌平 Lu Diping) of ] the Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute [in Hangzhou]
Strengthen the self to strengthen the masses.
– calligraphy by Chu Minyi
Martial arts are a bridge.
– calligraphy by Su Jingyou [vice-director of Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute]
A FEW COMMENTS
This book is not a volume of scholarly research, merely a means of conveying thoughts. Although there are parts that are unrefined, every part has to do with technical terminology. I have not dared to abridge any of it, since attempting to improve the language might corrupt the ideas.
This book focuses on discussion of principles, and so its drawings for the eighteen techniques and the eight ground-fighting postures give only a general idea. If you wish to practice this art, you must also seek out a noteworthy teacher, then you will be able to peer into its subtleties.
The material in this book is given conscientiously, as in the Buddhist way of teaching everything that one knows [“passing down one’s robe and alms bowl”]. You should not treat its words or drawings as something trivial, because nothing in it is just some stuff I made up.
I will not dare to ruin the masterful dissertation [in Part One] by adding my own ideas within it. Most of the words [in this book – i.e. Part Two] are from my own experience, but the rest are from my teacher’s guidance, and thus I am sharing them with all those who have interest so that you may study and gain from his teachings.
Beyond the Zimen art, Buddhist doctrine is also to be valued, and my teacher developed in both simultaneously. As I have obtained only the remnants of his views, this book will consequently have a few inconsistencies, but they can be cleared up through studying the book as a whole.
The “Secret Records of Injury Medicines” [in the Appendix] are all tried and true recipes, but they should be applied according to the proper guidelines for them to be effective.
PREFACE BY RAO CAORONG
Early this year, the city I call home suffered a catastrophe which sent relatives and friends scattering [the January 28th Incident]. I knew Hu Yisheng was in Hangzhou engaged in a writing project, but I had not yet seen his manuscript. In the winter, I happened to be vacationing at West Lake [in Hangzhou], and there I got to see the pages of this book with his “Essays Elaborating Upon the Subtleties of Zimen Boxing”. Penetrating, extensive, and detailed, I could tell it is a profound achievement born of a great deal of hard work.
This spring, as I was circulating messages around the Jiangs [area comprising Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Anhui], Hu sent me a letter requesting I write a preface for him. I am not really that scholarly, nor have I received instruction in boxing arts, but I do have the ability to presumptuously discuss what is beyond me, though I could not make any words about it at the time due to the present devastation in my neighborhood.
China is currently in chaos. There are men of vision who are all pointing out that it is not military power that is responsible for a nation’s destiny, who then appeal to the League of Nations for help in extending justice. This is not only shameful, it is more like the dream of an idiot. For in the modern world, it is still apparently the case that might makes right. Yet when I look around at the people of our nation, I see they are addicted to leisure and pleasure, and in body and spirit they grow weaker by the day, especially within the cities. If some morning there was trouble and men were called up to rush into battle, could they grasp sharpened blades and charge enemy lines? Therefore I believe that in this time of emergency, our nation is in need of a special system of education, one that esteems the martial quality, like that of the Spartans.
I hereby call upon my countrymen to practice martial arts. Let us rouse the lazy and train good generals. People who train every day will have bodies that are strong and healthy, movement that is powerful and nimble. During peace, we should not fail to strengthen the citizenry, and then whenever a threat arrives, a mighty army is prepared. In charging forth and fighting hand-to-hand, we will be particularly able to grasp victory. The effectiveness of such exercise goes beyond the calisthenics now taught in schools anyway. The intent of the material in this book is bodily fitness in substance, self-defense in function.
I believe that if we allow our nation to sink further each day into degradation and do nothing to remedy the situation, we will be lost. If on the other hand we decide to strive toward a return to the spirit of Shennong and the Yellow Emperor [i.e. the traditional Chinese soul], it will not work without special attention given to martial arts. So that it can be given such attention, Hu has made this book, the right book for the times, the secret key to our cure. Everyone ought to give it a readthrough.
Hu is both intelligent and fond of thoughtful study. Where we grew up had been the hometown of the poet Jiang Tiaosheng [Ehu, Yanshan county, Jiangxi], who had a lasting influence upon us with his writings so refreshing and elegant. We studied at the Fourth Teacher-Training Institute, located in the old Ehu Classics Academy, where Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan had debated over similarities and differences. We were therefore steeped in the studies of body, mind, nature, and life.
Hu’s father, Hu Yongqing, loved reciting verse. He even signed his name to his poetry addiction with the printing of his own collection of poems, A Half Acre of Purification. He furthermore excelled in martial arts and loved receiving many old-style heroes as his guests. Hu Yisheng received the “pre-nature” teachings. Thus beyond his work with poetry, he loved exploring into the boxing arts.
After we went our separate ways from the Institute, I went to train in fine arts in Shanghai and he went north to study at Beijing Normal University. I later found out he had grabbed a teaching position back in Ehu, and as he neared the town, he met the monk Kexiu on the road, and so his boxing arts have since progressed even more. Lately I read in his letters of how the powerful boxers that the world so admires are typically of a crude and foolish type. He is unable to study anything of their methods because once some good idea has been brought up, they clam up and keep it from people. The result of this is that our nation’s martial arts have been getting increasingly obscured for a long time.
Hu has now produced this book, having in mind that we should succeed both individually and together, and so we should stand both individually and together. He is determined to pour out everything he knows so that our people will become sturdy and ready. Our national prestige will spread far. His achievement will be not only to clarify a martial study, but also to preserve our cultural essence. Thus I have written this preface.
– written by Rao Caorong at the Jiangxi 6th Provincial High School’s spring cottage, 1932
Martial arts used to be something rarely practiced by scholars. Those who were proficient in it kept quiet about it and were not willing to write books on the subject. Boxing manuals that were actually block-printed publications are as rare as unicorn horns or phoenix feathers, nowhere to be seen, but occasionally there were literate boxing teachers who produced handwritten texts. However, they did not lightly show them to people, and so those texts ended up rotting away or getting burned, and as a consequence, the handwritten manuals are rarer than they would otherwise be and these arts are left even more obscured. This is indeed a pity.
Nowadays, martial arts are flourishing. The publishing of these kinds of books is no longer uncommon. Among them there is no lack of masterpieces, but lesser examples of expounding and publishing are more frequently seen. Those who have mastered one of these arts cannot necessarily write well about it, while those who can write have not necessarily mastered their art. The former runs the risk of being giggled at and the latter has the flaw of being mere armchair theory, either of which will cause readers to feel contempt for the material and to suspect that Chinese martial arts might not be very special after all, hindering their interest in practicing. In the promoting of Chinese martial arts, this is a real problem.
I am neither bright nor have I yet practiced this art to the point of mastery. But I have devoted time to my teacher and listened to his words. Comprehending many of the principles, I noted them down, gaining greater and greater understanding. Following the main section of this book, I have written “Essays Elaborating Upon the Subtleties of the art”, so that those who are beginning their training in Zimen Boxing may easily find explanations and thereby gain twice the result for half the effort. This work is therefore a small token of my appreciation [for being taught the art].
The Zimen [zi = “word”, men = “school”, i.e. “the school of the 18 words”, meaning the 18 techniques] boxing art is widespread in Jiangxi, practiced by many boxing instructors there, but very few of them have learned the whole art or understand it completely. Some teachers have also been keeping a few of the techniques secret rather than passing them on to students. As that process goes on through many generations of teaching, the art will get altered to the point that it will lose its authenticity. Though the discussion in this book strives to present the essentials of the system concisely and succinctly, it nevertheless expresses them fully and leaves nothing out. All students of the art will therefore automatically be able to gain by reading it.
The original manuscript had several misprints, but even after the text was corrected, there are inevitably still some errors. Whether the writing be excellent or full of mistakes, I hope the knowledgeable throughout the nation will give me instruction.
– written by Hu Yisheng of Jiangxi, at the shore of West Lake [in Hangzhou, Zhejiang], 1st month of winter, 1931
字門正宗卷上 總論 著者佚名 鵝湖胡遺生輯
PART ONE: GENERAL DISCUSSION (authorship unknown, compiled by Hu Yisheng)
[OVERVIEW OF THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES]
A body that is extremely weak has been inadequately equipped by what is innate, and this has to be compensated for by training that is acquired. The way of filling this gap lies in cultivating essence and spirit. Once essence and spirit are sufficient, energy and blood will be abundant in the body, and then even an extremely weak body can be changed into a strong one. It has been written [in the early Qing book Medical Realizations by Cheng Guopeng]: “Human life is a matter of essence and spirit. If the essence and spirit are not worn out, the body will long be youthful.” This is the foundation of a strong body, and our art is based on this. If you can abide by this precious precept, you will surely never bring harm to your body.
Once the way of turning weakness into strength is understood, then study the eighteen techniques. What is emphasized within the techniques is the skill of tendon-based power. If the tendons are not worked, laziness will lead to atrophy and cramping. Tendon-based power merges with health, and thus flexibility will not be held back.
Once the skill of tendon-based power has been achieved, you should learn the way of emptiness and fullness. To sum this up: movement is empty and stillness is full, effort is empty and leisureliness is full, leaning is empty and uprightness is full. Know that if the opponent has brawn, he will use it, and if he has no brawn, he will use his wits. My body is urged forth by internal fullness to match an opponent’s attack of hard fierceness. This is the art of knowing emptiness and fullness.
Once the way of emptiness and fullness is understood, constantly practice it in accordance with each of the techniques. Strive to understand the theory, and then you will obtain the art. The techniques are:
 TESTING: I urgently put my hand straight out to feel for where the opponent is empty and full.
 It continues into SENDING, which lies hidden within TESTING and ready to spring out from it. There is nothing that will not be sent away – this is the true intent of SENDING.
 AIDING: I perform my techniques as lively as an agile monkey, but if my hand misses, I use this technique to rescue the situation.
 SEIZING: I seize his incoming force so that I may make use of it.
 PULLING: If the opponent is stronger than me, I fear victory will be hard to achieve, but once our hands connect, I perform PULLING, causing him to stand unstably by way of my extending and contracting.
 PUSHING: When practicing, I put sinking energy into my [rear thigh] and heavily push down without losing connection, making it difficult for the opponent to adapt while leaving me able to apply techniques with ease.
 CROWDING: If I encounter an opponent whose body is strong and force is powerful, I crowd in on him a half step, causing his fullness to switch to emptiness, giving me control of the situation.
 ABSORBING: When an opponent noticeably advances toward my body, this is a technique of slightly going along with his momentum.
 STICKING means “softening toward”. By putting out my hands with softness, I will go along with the opponent’s intention and send him away, having in my own hands an intention of techniques being ready to spring out.
 HOISTING means “lifting”. If the opponent’s upper body is powerful and my hands can hardly do anything to him, effectiveness is a matter of not contending against him. I change to this technique to overcome him, sending him away quickly.
 CURVING means “going with”. It is to be applied together with ABSORBING.
 INSERTING means “hardening against”. I use my fullness to send away his fullness.
 THROWING means “tossing away”. The effect of this technique is for him to be surprised and flustered while I am calm and at ease.
 PROPPING means “assisting”. This technique assists all the others.
 RUBBING means “tightening”. Whenever his hands get slowed down, they will be of little use. This is close in intention to SENDING.
 SCATTERING means “blocking”. Train your whole body until it is skillful and capture his ferocious force. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it is SENDING, which it is to be followed up with when applying it. Send out your hand with speed.
[17&18] VANISHING and EJECTING must be trained to proficiency. When your skill is great, an opponent will have no idea what you are doing as you put out your hands, and thus you will succeed.
It seems the “darting” [i.e. SENDING] technique is the major one, for it is transformed into in ways almost too numerous to describe. All of this material should be taught meticulously, but talented students have to be sure not to pass it on to cruel people. This is crucially important.
SECRETS OF THE [EIGHT PRIMARY] TECHNIQUES
I put out my hands with softness in order to go along with his intention and send him away, and so I should be flexible with the direction of my power.
EJECTING [which is almost the same as SENDING] is what I do the opponent when I encounter him. Though I will not be able to if I am constantly in disarray.
To rescue myself in an emergency, I go along with his direction to take control. If the opponent’s upper body is powerful, I should therefore change to AIDING, for I must seal off his raised hands to keep them from adapting. My mind should be concentrated upon the pointing of my curled-in palm.
PULLING is a matter of going along with his momentum in line with its direction. Diligently practice to develop skill. Why fear the force of a Xiang Yu when you have the strategy of a Han Xin? [These are two Three Kingdoms era generals.]
PUSHING should be sticky. Once I cross hands with the opponent, I must not lose connection with him. If I beware of breaking contact, I will then make no mistakes.
CROWDING means I lift my hand then seal off the opponent, rendering him unable to advance. Once all of the techniques are skillful, CROWDING can then be performed.
ABSORBING is almost the same as VANISHING. VANISHING changes easily into EJECTING. They form the maneuver of borrowing his momentum.
My body and hands should be relaxed. The principles of these eight techniques should be studied until they are understood and practiced until they are skillful. The eight techniques [including TESTING and SEIZING, though not mentioned here] are interrelated. If one is not understood, they will all be hindered.
THEORY OF THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES
This art is an exquisite rarity, for it does not use brute force.
Weak-bodied scholars can all practice it.
Its theory is that of eighteen hand actions
which are applied to the middle, above, or below, or to the left or right.
As I raise my hands and step into my stance, I make sure not to use effort.
I stand with my feet along a straight line, rear leg bent, front leg straight.
Among the eighteen techniques, the most important are [the first eight]:
TESTING, SENDING, AIDING, SEIZING, PULLING, PUSHING, CROWDING, ABSORBING.
THROWING, PROPPING, RUBBING, SCATTERING – these will occur as needed.
CROWDING and RUBBING are soft techniques, borrowing the opponent’s force.
My hand reaches his chest, SENDING forward without hesitation.
I let him make a thousand adjustments, my mind focused on only one goal.
If he attacks fiercely, CURVING or INSERTING will match him.
HOISTING does not contend against him. STICKING will help him fall even better.
I use softness to overcome hardness, decisiveness to overcome hesitation.
I let him become agitated until he is worn out and I am still performing leisurely.
By going along with the direction of his attack, there is no energy expended.
By practicing diligently until skill is achieved, the body will be well-defended.
The subtleties within the eighteen are natural and distinct.
The eight basic techniques come out with urgency.
Oriented in a straight line, I observe the opponent’s techniques.
My upper and middle body should have an urgency, while my lower body should be bent [i.e. be like a coiled spring].
By not underestimating his force, VANISHING and EJECTING will easily succeed.
CROWDING and ABSORBING are to be kept in mind, never for an instant forgotten.
Even if his body is powerful, my hands are urgent.
His incoming force of a thousand pounds I will rival with PUSHING.
I come and go without a trace.
No harm is done to my body, no obstruction, not an ounce of failure.
These techniques change from one to another, one of mine able to defeat ten of his.
We can all succeed through awareness of emptiness and fullness.
Suppose his incoming attack is powerful and I stand in the midst of his fullness.
If I switch to AIDING, all will comment the result is remarkable.
As long as I guard against missing, I will be without error.
Treacherous people are not to be taught this art. Always remember this.
When your hands go out with TESTING and SENDING, the power must be urgent and direct.
When CROWDING or PUSHING, thirty percent of the technique is borrowing the opponent’s force.
When THROWING or PROPPING, RUBBING or SCATTERING, adjust according to the opponent’s hands.
When PULLING or ABSORBING, AIDING or SEIZING, there should be a downwardness to them.
CURVING and INSERTING can overcome a fierce incoming force.
VANISHING, EJECTING, and SCATTERING will make him fall even more effectively.
When you perform SCATTERING or apply HOISTING, you have to pay urgent attention.
To his strength or weakness, you are STICKING, enabling you to carry out techniques.
Raise your hand and aim for his chest, quelling all fear.
Your hand is already upon his body, your step following in.
Solidifying your stance, you become fully aware of what is happening.
Squeeze your knees and pull back your crotch to remove that area of yourself from the situation.
Techniques that follow will thus succeed without obstruction.
You must remember to perform with a casual aloofness.
If you wish to develop unusual skill,
I advise you to practice diligently.
STEPPING INTO A STABLE POSTURE
With rear leg slightly bent, front leg loose,
and eyes intent upon the opponent’s chest,
raise your hand to perform TESTING, quelling all fear.
Your hand is already upon his body, your step following in.
The hand has to be pinched firmly into a pointer.
Once pinched, urge forward with SENDING, and thus you can grab success.
To put out just your hands would be very doubtful, so add the strength of your shoulders.
Lightly STICKING, follow his hands wherever they go.
SEVEN-CHARACTER VERSES ABOUT SPECIFIC SITUATIONS
I raise both my hands in unison and retreat into my stance.
With my chest inclining to the left, my right hand engages the opponent.
The hand has to be pinched firmly into a pointer.
Once pinched, I urge forward with SENDING, and with no hesitation.
I go through his two gates, inner and outer, going above, middle, below.
I follow him, aligned toward his chest without being veered off course.
Through his outer gate I attack his head, injuring his ear or neck.
My right hand carries across while my left hand attacks.
If he comes in with an attack to my waist or ribs,
I counter to cover my body, my left hand seeking the center.
I grab to deal with him, using one or both of my hands.
In seeking his tendons, I stay naturally loose.
If he does a draping block or an intercepting chop, his hand will then slightly withdraw,
so I attack with both hands in unison, one high, one low.
If one of my hands gets suddenly chopped down,
the other will suddenly issue forth with SENDING.
If he attacks fiercely, intent upon scooping up my foot or grabbing my leg,
I lower my body and advance, thrusting toward his chest.
As he then drops down all the way onto one knee to pick up my leg,
I use both hands to perform a lifting SENDING, which catches him by surprise and sends him away.
If his right hand shoots through my inner gate to wound my face or eyes,
I counter with EJECTING, which I may also perform as a palm strike.
Or I can perform PUSHING downward with my left hand,
and my right hand suddenly performs SENDING without hesitation.
If he and I go through the same gate, both aiming for the chest,
I can grab success by putting both my hands across with SENDING.
If he then returns a strike from not very far away,
I save myself by countering as fast as wind.
Whether he does a draping block or intercepting chop, or a grab with one or both hands,
I go through his outer gate to be able to apply techniques.
If he goes to scoop my foot or grab my leg, it is still the same kind of situation,
except that I have to change my tactic to going through his inner gate.
If his footwork never varies,
my right foot goes along with my right hand and I keep stepping around him.
The eighteen techniques are to be practiced to the point of skill,
so that when the time comes, they will be applied as is necessary.
LIST OF THE EIGHT [PRIMARY] TECHNIQUES
 TESTING [can]: searching
 SENDING [tui]: darting
 AIDING [yuan]: rescuing
 SEIZING [duo]: snatching
 PULLING [qian]: leading in
 PUSHING [na]: pushing down
 CROWDING [bi]: sealing off
 ABSORBING [xi]: shrinking back
LIST OF THE TEN [SECONDARY] TECHNIQUES
 STICKING [tie]: softening toward
 HOISTING [cuan]: lifting
 CURVING [quan]: going with
 INSERTING [cha]: hardening against
 THROWING [pao]: tossing away
 PROPPING [tuo]: assisting
 RUBBING [ca]: tightening
 SCATTERING [sa]: blocking
 VANISHING [tun]: disappearing
 EJECTING [tu]: appearing
[THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES IN DETAIL]
This technique transforms into a multitude of techniques. When lifting your hand, your whole body should be in a state of softness and must not begin by using effort. If you put forth effort, it will be difficult to switch from one technique to another. As you lift your hand, your eyes should be focused on the opponent’s chest. There must be no timidity in your mind, which would cause you to hesitate. Lift your hand from beside your thigh with a double finger like an arrow heading toward the bull’s eye. You must not veer off-target, yet be aware of everything around you. This technique leads into CROWDING or ABSORBING. The angle between your feet is between ninety and forty-five degrees. Your whole body should have softness. Your mind focuses and your courage magnifies. When you shoot your hand out, there must be no delay. This is the posture of TESTING. All transformations come from this, but its greatest effectiveness is revealed in the SENDING explanation below:
Within the eighteen techniques, it is TESTING and SENDING that are the most emphasized, though this may prevent most people from understanding how to train and apply the rest. While TESTING seeks out opportunity, it is the skill of SENDING that is the most important. The eighteen techniques cycle one after another, but all depend on the skill of SENDING. In gaining many ingenious skills, although the hand techniques may transform without limit, ultimately they change back to SENDING, also called “darting”. The hand goes out pinched in tightly, the greatest effectiveness lying in shrinking the palm down to a pointer. Your shoulders should disappear and your knees should squeeze toward each other. Your stance should be stable and so you should not be standing wide. With a wide stance, it is difficult to maneuver. Guard against missing, and then you will be without error.
AIDING means “rescuing”. I defend my outer gate with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or by grabbing with one or both hands, and I cover my flanks with shaking of elbows. If the opponent attacks with urgent ferocity, I save myself by switching to this technique. If he props my hand aside, I go to the side using a posture of “old man carrying a bird cage while gripping his belly”, then immediately advance. I raise my hand into AIDING and I do not disconnect from him, PROPPING up his hand or elbow to either side, then advancing. Hidden within this technique and ready to spring out from it are RUBBING, SCATTERING, and SENDING.
This is a method of adapting. It is similar to AIDING. If an opponent gets through to my inner gate with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or grabs with one or both hands, or uses an elbow to hook, crash, or jolt, I change to this technique to seize him. My hands will then rotate and shoot out, but I must not do so sluggishly. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it are RUBBING, SCATTERING, and SENDING.
PULLING means “leading in”. If an opponent makes an attack with his upper body so fiercely that I can hardly seize him, I switch to giving a pluck with my [right] hand to cause him to stand unstably, changing his fullness into emptiness by way of my extending and contracting. My left hand should assist so as to stabilize my own stance, and then I quickly continue into RUBBING, SCATTERING, or SENDING.
PUSHING means “pushing down”. When practicing, I put sinking energy into my [rear] thigh to give solidity to my hands, then push down without losing connection. Once I am crossing hands with an opponent, I must never lose connection with him. I he goes to the left, I also go to the left. I he goes to the right, I also go to the right. I thus turn his posture into empty movements. This technique can be quickly followed up with SCATTERING or SENDING.
CROWDING means “sealing off”. If I encounter an opponent whose body is strong and force is powerful, I raise my hand and seal him off. Once I have sealed him, I will perform SENDING. This technique borrows his power and causes his fullness to become empty, giving me control of the situation.
ABSORBING means “shrinking back”. CROWDING and ABSORBING are to be applied together. Keep it in mind that they are not to be disconnected from each other for a moment. They are skills that are standing by to rescue the rest of the techniques. If when my hand shoots out, the opponent uses both hands to grab my hand and push it down, wanting to press it against my chest or ribs or against my lower body, making my hand unable to express, a critical situation, I immediately use this technique to save myself. Carefully study it.
This technique is similar to CROWDING and ABSORBING. When my hands go out, my whole body should have softness. By putting out my hands with softness, I will go along with the opponent’s intention and send him away. Thus I should be flexible about the direction of my power and emphasize readiness to spring out techniques, causing the opponent to have no idea what I am doing. The intention is borrow his force and take advantage of his emptiness.
This is a method of adapting. If the opponent’s upper body is powerful and my hands can hardly do anything to him, I change to this technique. His left hand carries upward and his right hand wants to get to my chest or through one of my side gates. As his hand carries upward, I apply this technique, but I must not wait for him to twist his body. If he is carrying outward, I go along with it to lift him outward. If he is carrying inward, I go along with it to lift him inward. Once I have sealed off his carrying hand, my right hand performs a lifting SENDING to send him away.
This is a method of adapting. If I encounter an opponent who advances upon me with an obvious shoulder or elbow attack, his posture is very fierce, and I am unable to issue with my hands, I then adapt with this technique to overcome it, taking advantage of a gap in his intention by slightly going along with his force.
This is a method of adapting. If the opponent goes outward with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or if he covers over with both hands, or if he attacks fiercely with shoulder or elbow, and my hands are unable to find a way in, I change to this technique to defeat him. It entirely depends on hard power from my thighs. As my hand goes downward, my shoulder will touch to his shoulder. My left hand assists at the same time by borrowing thirty percent of his force to take advantage of his emptiness. If he comes in with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or grabs with one or both hands, I change to a left INSERTING to defeat him.
This is a method of adapting. When I send my hand out and he uses a draping chop to my hand while noticeably advancing with a desire to chop my hand down, as the heaviness of it makes contact, I use a floating energy to wrap his hand inward, my forward hand withdrawing halfway [i.e. the right “tossing away” to the left] as my left hand seals off his body’s momentum. RUBBING and SCATTERING are contained within it, SENDING ready to spring out from it, and there is nothing that will not be sent away.
This technique assists all the others. None of them can depart from it. You should practice it to proficiency and thereby possess a wonderful skill though merely a gesture of a hand. If I send out a hand and the opponent uses both hands to cover over my hand with the intention of pushing it against my upper body, I change at that moment to this technique to keep from being sent downward. I then perform INSERTING, sending my hand forward while passively wrapping my thigh around his, my left hand sealing off with CROWDING to make it difficult for him to adapt. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it is SENDING, and there is nothing that will not be sent away. This is a method of borrowing the opponent’s force to take advantage of his emptiness.
In this method, if I shoot out my hand and the opponent steps to dodge away his body, I should pivot my feet to follow him, my hand sticking to him and not disconnecting. Whenever his hands get slowed down, they will be of little use. If he sends both his hands from outward to grab my hand and prop it up, then once he loosens one of his tiger’s mouths, I urgently step in with my hand above leading into a downward push. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it are CROWDING, SCATTERING, or SENDING, and there is nothing that will not be sent away. This technique surprises and flusters him, that I am using such aggressiveness. Or if he uses both hands to spread my hand aside and then prop my hand upward with the intention of getting to my chest or ribs, or to my lower body, I should chase forward with RUBBING to his headtop. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it are CROWDING, SCATTERING, or SENDING, or even PULLING to lead the opponent downward.
This technique is similar to SENDING. If the opponent noticeably advances toward my body, I immediately use this. If he goes to the left, I go to the left. If he goes to the right, I go the right. I go along with the direction of his advance wherever he goes, not shying away from his force, easily capturing his attack, and having the effect of dispelling his force and stripping it away. You should practice it until you are skillful.
VANISHING means “disappearing”. Defend the five gates – inner, outer, upper, middle, lower – by using a draping block or an intercepting chop, by spreading with both hands or covering with both hands. If his attack is fierce and his hands difficult to catch, subdue him by changing to this technique, which causes him to have no idea what you are up to and switch his fullness to emptiness. The greatest effectiveness of it lies in following up with EJECTING, explained below:
EJECTING is a matter of extending. VANISHING and EJECTING are to be applied together. Disappearing and appearing will cause an opponent to have no idea what you are doing, and thus you will succeed. If you face an opponent who is very powerful and has great upper body strength, switch to this combination of techniques, borrowing his force to find out where he is empty.
All of the techniques above cycle back to SENDING. By studying them carefully, nothing else will be required.
SONG OF THE EIGHT GROUND-FIGHTING TECHNIQUES
LION SHAKES ITS FUR, then RUKH SPREADS ITS WINGS.
IRON OX PLOWS THE LAND, then BUTTERFLY CLOSES ITS WINGS.
OFFICIAL FOLDS HIS ROBE OVER LEFT & RIGHT, drawing it close around his body.
TUCK & ROLL TO GAIN GROUND, quickly bringing your knee down.
SLEEPY SHEEP CURLS UP IN THE GRASS will get the opponent’s root to lift up.
SHIVERING CHICKEN WRAPS ITSELF IN DIRT will be skillful after long practice.
With your hands like a monkey and your feet like a cat,
no matter how strong the opponent, he will lose.
LION SHAKES ITS FUR:
RUKH SPREADS ITS WINGS:
IRON OX PLOWS THE LAND:
BUTTERFLY CLOSES ITS WINGS:
OFFICIAL FOLDS HIS ROBE OVER LEFT & RIGHT:
TUCK & ROLL TO GAIN GROUND:
SLEEPY SHEEP CURLS UP IN THE GRASS:
SHIVERING CHICKEN WRAPS ITSELF IN DIRT:
KEYS TO THE GROUND-FIGHTING TECHNIQUES
In case you encounter an opponent who is very strong, with a fierce upper body and hands that are too hard to seize, be prepared to use these techniques. You have to practice them to proficiency, then you will be able to apply them and will have obtained the skills of many arts. For those who practice my art of words, a technique that is not suitable will not be effective.
These eight postures seem to be truly ingenious,
full of incomprehensible magic.
So many youths practice it but get nothing out of it,
only because once they break from the training, all they had worked for melts away.
Here ends Part One.
字門正宗卷下 闡微論 鵝湖胡遺生著
PART TWO: ESSAYS ELABORATING UPON THE SUBTLETIES (by Hu Yisheng)
CHAPTER ONE: MAINTAINING WILLPOWER
Ancient people had a saying [Lun Yu, 13.22]: “A man without perseverance will not become a shaman.” If those training to become shamans needed to have perseverance, how much more difficult it will be to succeed in boxing arts, many times more than learning the skills and ways of medicine. Hence we say: “have perseverance”. Boxing arts are truly the highest of all knacks and have to be carved into the mind. In both ancient and modern times, those who have been celebrated as having consummate skill needed to have a firm determination that would not be altered by any ordinary human affairs. To practice the art, you have to be tirelessly hardworking. After three years you will have some small success. After ten years you will have great success.
There are in the world practitioners who love to fight that have a very different kind of willpower. They think that after just a few weeks of practice, they will be able to use it to fight with people. They then approach local teachers who have set up schools, under the impression that after several weeks a practitioner will be able to say he has obtained the secrets and can claim dominance over the region.
There is also the type who seeks some instruction from many different teachers,
then proudly mentions them by saying that he has studied in several schools. But what he means by several schools is nothing more than a month in each. When he meets some weak old man and defeats him in a fight, his face fills with pride and he thinks of himself as unbeatable. Then when one day he gets knocked down by a strong young man, he becomes depressed, hating himself for his undeveloped techniques and incomplete theories, feeling he has not grasped even a superficial level of boxing arts.
Such a person is not adequate to the task of discussing boxing arts, but through the acquaintance of knowledgeable teachers, he will then come to deeply understand that health is the substance of boxing arts while self-defense is the function, and that daily practice is required to be able to gain results. Right from the beginning of the training, you should always and over a long period put all of yourself into it. One who has a love of sex that distracts his heart or a love of wealth that muddles his wits will quit halfway through, “lacking that last basket of materials [toward the building of a monument]” [Book of History, chapter 33]. These are descriptions of those who are unable to maintain willpower.
Therefore to be able to achieve a consummate skill, you will have to embrace the qualities of a more noble sort of person, such as the hermit who lives in the mountain valley or the wise man who sets a virtuous example in the marketplace. The young cannot change their behavior and the old cannot change their ideas, but it is by way of a lifetime of spirit, of conscientiously doing one’s utmost, that one will succeed in this art.
Looking at it from this point of view, if you do not desire to succeed in the art, then you won’t. If you do wish to succeed, then you have to have perseverance. If you do not wish to preserve your perseverance, then you are done. If you wish to preserve it, then you have to maintain your willpower. Willpower is like the rudder of a boat. If the boatman wants to drive his boat eastward, he has to firmly grab the rudder and make it point the boat to the east. Therefore when we train to develop skill, we must be resolutely determined, sticking to our decision and unwilling to shift, then we will be within reach of our goal.
The goal is nothing more than health and self-defense. Long ago, Damo paid a visit to the Shaolin temple. Because the monks were all falling asleep during their meditation practice, he taught them boxing arts to invigorate their spirits. This was the beginning of the Shaolin boxing arts. Later generations of monks who traveled through the mountains or slept in the wilderness practiced the arts to defend themselves against villains and animals. Although already something of a departure from its original intention, we should only use the art for self-defense and never dare to intentionally harm people. Therefore we should recognize the two aspects of boxing arts:
1. Bodily Health
It says in the Lu Shi Chunqiu [book 3, chapter 2]: “Running water never goes stale and a door that gets used does not get rusty hinges.” It is the same for our bodies and our energy. Thus those who live a life of physical toil [“calloused hands and feet” – Xunzi, chapter 29] typically have very fit bodies, whereas those who live a life of ease [“bounteous feasts and comfy shoes” – Wu Jianren’s Strange Things Witnessed Over Twenty Years, chapter 14] are often frail and weak. This is clear proof that unless the limbs are given movement, then energy and blood will not flow well, and that if you stuff your organs with greasy food or let sexual lust erode your primordial essence, a desire for health is not likely to be fulfilled.
For powerful boxers who have become skillful, practicing until they have grasped its ways, the internal movement of energy to the organs continues outward to the flesh and skin. With the inner body strengthened, illness cannot invade. Those who are deeply skilled at meditation have energy that fills their faces, overflowing from behind, and this can be seen at a glance. By practicing for a long time without slackening, you can develop the body of a warrior, and moreover you will prevent illness and prolong life.
When I began practicing this art, my teacher said to me: “This art can treat illness. One of my fellow students suffered from vomiting blood. After practicing for half a year, he finally recovered from this. But then he took a month off from the training and his illness returned. After that, he won’t dare take a break from practice.” When I first heard this, I was skeptical, but later I myself also obtained extraordinary effects. Previously, my left nostril had been blocked up for several years. After practicing this art for a few months, suddenly air was passing through. These examples demonstrate that boxing arts are sufficient to strengthen the body, and that the effects are in fact superior to tonics. In the practice of boxing arts, we assuredly should see the health of the body as the main objective.
1. Self Defense
Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 75]: “Softness accords with life. Hardness accords with death.” And also said [chapter 41]: “A cruel king will not die a natural death.” Our conduct within society is “without fight, without boldness” [Book of Poems, poem 198]. It is indeed inappropriate to be tyrannical and overbearing – the behavior of the “cruel king”. To get your body to achieve a consummate skill, you should be indifferent to worldly success, compassionate and amiable toward others. You have to also be sure not to become overconfident in your level of skill, looking down on everyone else. You must understand there is no end to learning and that there are a great many capable practitioners in the world. If you are headstrong and impertinent, that is the way to seek out death. If you end up in a moment in which you have no choice, you should examine your situation in order to defend against it. Be careful not to send out your hands to kill people, merely injure with graceful moderation.
The sum of this is that when we find ourselves in circumstances we cannot retreat from, this is a moment in which boxing arts have practical use. For instance, when thieves put their blades to you, you have permission to wrest away their weapons and slaughter them. But as for typical urban rogues, they can go ahead and hurl abuse at me, for I know how to cover my ears and walk away, whereas to grab one of them and seriously injure him would be excessive. Based on this, the meaning of self-defense is clear: it is for dealing with unusual occurrences. However, our bodies have to be strong and healthy so that when the instant comes, we will be equipped with everything we need. Therefore when practicing boxing arts, we must use the strengthening of the body as the foundation and defending of the self as the fulfillment.
Once we are clear about boxing arts concepts, the training of the willpower should then be solidified. There are four things to guard against:
1. Restrain your lust.
Lust is harmful, and in ways too numerous to write down. One who trains in this art but descends into debauchery extinguishes all he has so far worked for. It dissolves determination, and therefore it is listed as the first of the things to restrain.
2. Restrain your greed.
Ancient people had a saying: “A person who eats vegetable roots can do anything.” If you can keep this in mind, you will naturally lead a simple life. If you envy opulence, coveting fame and wealth, you will probably end up quitting halfway through your training.
3. Abstain from alcohol.
Wine is used for ceremonial purposes and the drinking of small quantities of it may be of some benefit. However, drinking excessive amounts will result in mental chaos. For instance, one who is sworn against visiting brothels may suddenly break his rules after getting drunk. Thus for practitioners of boxing arts, it would be better to avoid alcohol altogether.
4. Prevent Illness.
There is a saying: “Illness comes in through the mouth [because of the foolish things we eat]. Trouble comes out through the mouth [because of the stupid things we say].” If you wish to prevent illness, you must first of all be careful about what you eat and drink, and then live a consistent lifestyle, regardless of winter or summer. In the beginning of the training, when your body is not yet robust, you will occasionally be careless and make yourself ill. In these circumstances also, you would probably end up quitting halfway through your training.
Let us be in no way polluted in body and mind by lust, greed, alcohol, or illness, and perseveringly maintain such a condition, cultivating ourselves unceasingly. If we can cultivate soundness of body and nobleness of character, we will be especially successful in our training of the art.
CHAPTER TWO: PRESERVING ESSENCE
There is in the world the tradition of gaining strength by taking someone else’s energy.
It is said this art began with Rong Cheng’s teaching that men should have sex with young women but avoid ejaculating, and thereby use her passive aspect to nourish his active aspect. But as the human body naturally possesses both the passive and active aspects, it is not necessary to take it from someone else, and if a person instead approached it this way, he could then certainly be considered anti-materialist [vama-lokayata].
Our method is to preserve the essence. Essence is a substance that is stored in the bones and then condensed in the “water palace” [i.e. the kidneys]. If a burning desire is expressed, then a little bit of your primordial essence leaves its place and gets cooked. Even if you obtained a woman’s passive energy, how would it be sufficient to compensate for the loss? If you encountered a strong opponent, you would then suffer a humiliating defeat. And if you are not even preserving the substance that gives you life, how then could your active aspect be nourished anyway?
Therefore our method does not use sex with women, simply the cherishing of our essence as the main substance of life. It is said that [from Mengzi, chapter 4a] “the most unfilial thing of all is to not sire a next generation”, and so practitioners of boxing arts cannot all go their entire lives without marrying. But in training the art as a novice, you must wait until you have succeeded at it and then marry, and once you have taken a wife, it is then important to restrain yourself sexually. For one who marries first and later trains, you must from that point on forego sex in order to preserve your essence, for only then can you get results in your old age.
Let us compare it to trying to drive a train. The human body is like a machine. Essence is like the coal that fuels it. With too little essence, the body will not be strong, just as with too little coal, the fire would not be sufficient. When the fire is insufficient, the engine will not function. When the body’s strength is insufficient, the body will not be lively. To have a body that is not lively and yet wish to practice boxing arts is like an engine that will not function and yet is expected to run at full power. These are impossible situations. Therefore a practitioner of the art must cherish and preserve his masculine essence. Make it plentiful within the bones and gathering densely in the kidneys, just like the Daoist notion of “stopping up leakages to build a foundation”, then you can look forward to success.
Moreover, essence in the human body has especially marvelous qualities. If once we hit puberty we then never ejaculate, accumulating it for several decades, “genuine fire” will flourish. Then when the time comes, it will be used to train the “martial fire”, and then the joints will soften like taffy, meaning there can be bending without breaking. However, you must consistently engage in meditation to be able to achieve this.
Long ago, the Six Patriarchs of Zen were cleverly able to take refuge in the mountains,
throwing off their pursuers by disappearing into the cracks and the channels in the rock formations. This is verifiable because it is not something magical, but a true principle. The body of a Buddhist novice goes through training that makes his joints as soft as taffy, and even though a crack through rocks may be narrow, it cannot obstruct his way. The reader may still have doubts about this, so I will now present more evidence.
The bones of the old are hard. The bones of children are soft. This is obvious to all. Children within groups of traveling performers can contort their bodies into a ring shape, which has been witnessed by everyone. When we talk of “genuine fire”, the ordinary person really does not understand. Let us test our comparison of a coal fire to a “genuine fire” by comparing glass to human bones. Human bones and glass are both brittle things that will break when crashed against hard objects or split when thrown in a fire. If you place glass in a blazing coal fire, you can then see it soften like taffy. Therefore when human bones are trained to the point that they contain “genuine fire”, they naturally will be like glass put in a coal fire.
Regarding these descriptions, essence within the human body is indeed a crucial substance. But what is the intimate relationship between it and the study of boxing arts? Let me explain in detail. What is valued in boxing arts is power. What is power? It is the resistant force that is generated from energy. When we exhale forcefully, it is also called “energized force”. Force has to come from energy. If the energy is feeble, the force will be weak. If the energy is abundant, the force will be strong. Try using a rope to tie up someone who is at a high level of skill. With a single rousing of energy, the rope can be broken into pieces, to the undoubted surprise of onlookers. Rong Cheng tells us: “What makes his power great? It is that no one knows his energy is a hundred times more abundant than that of an ordinary person.”
That being the case, how can energy be that abundant? This is due to nothing more than the preserving of essence. Daoists say: “Train the essence and transform it into energy. Train the energy and transform it into spirit.” Even if those who practice these arts are unable to transform energy into spirit, they can at least preserve their essence so as to train their energy, an indispensable part of the training. This is because accumulating ten percent essence will give you ten percent energy, which will then produce ten percent force. Accumulating it over a long period, producing it unceasingly, it will consequently transform until one’s power is hard and fierce. Those who are at a deep level can resist sabers and spears, what is called “golden bell” or “iron shirt”. However, the skills of golden bell and iron shirt must be trained from childhood. From this can be understood the intimate relationship between essence and energy.
The body of a practitioner is resilient like a soccer ball. It starts out empty and insubstantial, then with the accumulating of essence and increasing of energy it is as though it has been pumped up with air. When essence is sufficient, energy will be abundant, like when a soccer ball is inflated with enough air that it can be kicked. Once there is sufficient air in the ball, this generates the maximum of bounciness. When energy is abundant within the body, then the power generated will be extremely hard and fierce. That this condition will be achieved is beyond doubt.
What about when we see an actor practicing his singing? To accomplish such a skill, the maestro must guard against damaging his body. If his body gets damaged, his voice will be spoiled. In the acting world, this is called “tipping over the granary”, for it is very difficult to restore to its original condition, and thereupon he is unable to loudly project his voice for the pleasure of customers. What actors in traditional opera depend on is that their energy be sufficient, therefore it seems they have to preserve their essence, and thus how much more so for us practitioners.
In the beginning of the training, we must engage in stance practice. The longer you practice stance work, the more stable your lower body will be. One of my fellow students used to be able to stand for a very long time, but one day he could stand for not even a short while and our teacher scolded him for violating the rules. Observing him closely, we saw his knees incessantly shaking. We thereupon understood how extremely harmful ejaculating is and fervently took heed of such a clear warning.
There was once a boxing teacher who secretly taught the position of the lethal acupoints to a neighbor’s wife. She applied them while her husband was ejaculating, intending only to hurt him as a prank, but he then died, and without a mark on him. Later his discharge was noticed and she was then cursed for her treachery. Looking at it from this point of view, essence is something that must never leave the body, for if a man is not careful after he ejaculates, he will contract illness that is difficult to treat. Illness will take advantage of his weakened state and enter, such as being oppressed by a desperate chill, and without getting treatment the result will be death, alas. And so for this latest generation of students, if you want your skill to build up to success, how can the preserving of essence be ignored?
CHAPTER THREE: CULTIVATING ENERGY
A person without energy dies, but with an abundance of energy, one is strong. Those with appropriately abundant energy truly have nothing to worry about, yet just as water can both float and capsize boats, energy can both strengthen the body or destroy it. Why is this? Because when energy is overabundant, it ceases to be good for you, like when water is turbulent rather than placid. Confucius said [Lun Yu, 16.7]: “[When a gentleman is in his prime,] his blood and energy are indomitable, and so he avoids fighting.” A man with indomitable energy will also have the flaw of loving to fight. And so one with ample essence and abundant energy will wish even more to try a bout with practitioners of these arts. Consider that when fighting a weak person, you may injure him, and when fighting an expert, you may get injured. If injuring someone, you will be chided for overdoing it. In getting injured, you may even get killed. Therefore we can say that abundant energy is also sufficient to ruin the body.
The energy of the human body is the easiest thing to waste or spoil. Thus ancient people urgently warned against alcohol, sex, and wealth. One of the Buddhist perfections is “tolerance” [kshanti paramita], which is an admonishment against these harmful vices. When Buddhists talk of “emptiness” [sunyata], it is this “tolerance” that they mean and that one’s temperament should be reset at zero. We Confucians cannot withdraw from the world, indeed we perhaps have an energy that reaches farther than the constellations [as per Mengzi’s comment: “By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted, and thus will fill the whole universe.”]. Thus it is said [Mengzi, also from chapter 2a]: “I am good at nurturing my noble energy.”
Why do I say “an energy that reaches farther the constellations”? Some examples:
“Consider the loyal officials and righteous men of old, [how there came a day when they died for their country.]” [Records of the Three Kingdoms, book 19 of Wei]
“[A man of honor…] will sacrifice his life for honor.” [Lun Yu, 15.9]
“[If I cannot have both,] I would choose righteousness over life.” [Mengzi, chapter 6a]
This sacrificing for honor or choosing of righteousness, this calm in the face of death without changing one’s countenance, if not for a solid foundation in cultivation, would instead be a chaos of energy, a boiling of blood, a trembling from fear. Alas, although when energy is abundant and cultivation is understood this produces “loyal officials and righteous men”, when the opposite is the case the result is cutthroats and desperadoes. How can there be such a complete difference?
Someone may say: “Talking in this way, are you not overanalyzing? Boxing arts value courage, whereas a Confucian sensibility is to cultivate energy. Right?”
But it is one who can cultivate energy who will then be able to have courage. [from Mengzi, 2a:] “As Zengzi said to Zixiang: ‘You are in love with courage. I once heard Confucius talk of great courage: “Were I to examine myself and find I am not restrained by righteousness, I would be afraid of a bum on the street. Were I to examine myself and find that I am restrained by righteousness, I could face down a grand army all alone.”’”
What is meant by “were I to examine myself and find that I am restrained by righteousness”? This refers to the “greatness and indomitability” [Mengzi, 2a] of energy. “By nurturing it with integrity, it will not be corrupted, and thus will fill the whole universe.” What would one then have to fear even from a grand army? Thus it is said [Lun Yu, 14.4]: “Compassion requires courage.”
For instance, it says in Strange Occurrences [book 10]: “Yang Feng [while harvesting grains] got chomped on by a tiger. His daughter Xiang, who was fourteen years old and had not even a short blade with her, immediately pounced upon the tiger’s neck barehanded and saved her father.”
A tiger is a terrifying beast that would make any coward gibber and go pale. So how did Yang Xiang seize the animal is if it were more meager feline? For no other reason than due to her accumulation of ordinary filial feeling, her noble spirit went higher than the sky. In that moment, she was aware only of her father and not of the tiger.
People during their ordinary behavior are not very compassionate, but in such a moment they are moved by instinct, and even if they wish for safety, they will be undistracted by the thought. Therefore if practitioners of the art can cultivate their energy as the Confucianists did, then in moments of danger they can step right into peril and be like Yang Xiang seizing the tiger.
Someone may say: “For practitioners cultivating energy, are there not also some restrictions to be discussed?’
To which I answer from these quotes:
“If you are demanding of yourself and do not expect much from others…” [Lun Yu, 15.15] No matter how abusive someone’s language, do not respond to it.
“To learn something and then practice it always… To be unknown and yet unbothered by it…” [Lun Yu, 1.1] When at a high level of skill, do not be a braggart.
“If your speech and conduct are without reproach or regret…” [Lun Yu, 2.18] Do not be argumentative with people.
Behaving in this way, energy will fill your body, and the Way and righteousness will soon express as “noble energy”. Mengzi said [Mengzi, 2a]: “The mind leads the energy. The energy leads the body.” Therefore without the mind leading, the energy will be in chaos. With your energy in chaos, your spirit will be distracted. With your spirit distracted, your emotions will be in a panic. With your emotions panicking, your hands will become stagnant. That being the case, one who does not cultivate his energy will not use mind to lead energy, and then when he encounters a powerful opponent, he is sure to lose. Thus the cultivation of energy is greatly involved in defense against opponents, and practitioners have to understand this.
My teacher once told me: “When someone comes to challenge me, I must welcome him courteously and thank him with tactful words. Even if he gives me abusive language, I do not dare to even slightly act impulsively. It is only when I have no choice that I fight, and thus I have never lost.” With this testimony, the words that here have preceded it are not empty.
To expound on the theme further, if your skill in striking acupoints is not at the highest level, you may injure someone. You must take advantage of his position and attack where his veins are popping out from exertion. When his energy comes forth deviously, his vessels will swell along with his energy, affecting his whole body. Follow his momentum and seal him off, but do not act to kill him. When challenging others, how can this be ignored?
Buddhists say that a single utterance of ignorance [avidya] can destroy the world. Daoists say that to take rash action without understanding will result in loss of elixir. I used to not believe this until I practiced meditation. Once while criticizing someone, my emotions turned to anger, my energy became activated, and there was nothing to stop me from shouting. I suddenly felt a raging rising from my belly, a disconnection from within my torso, and I then felt uncomfortable for several days. Thereupon I knew that such movement of energy was useless and quite inferior to the beauty of self-restraint. Therefore I say that practitioners who have understood the protecting of essence must then also understand the cultivating of energy. Within our lungs [where the breath for our shouting moves] and inside our liver and gallbladder [where our courage dwells], we must carve these words:
I am sensitive to events and cautious in my speech,
keeping control over my ideals and not getting short-tempered with my energy.
CHAPTER FOUR: GATHERING SPIRIT
It says in the Daoist classics [from the “Jade Emperor’s Inner Truth Classic”]: “Spirit can penetrate stone. Spirit can take flight.” The use of spirit is great indeed. Once upon a time, there was a man traveling alone in the wilderness. He encountered thieves who stole his belongings and threw him down a dry well, then covered it over with a millstone. He piteously cried out for help, but there was no one in the wilderness to answer him. A “divine fox” passed by and pitied him, and so taught him the method of gathering spirit. He was told to stare a hole through the millstone, and then his body flew up out of the well.
There was a Buddhist monk who wished to practice this method. He put himself down a well and told people to cover it with a millstone. They then left him there and the monk died. To go down a well is one thing, but to make it a matter of life and death is another. Why is this? Because there is a distinction between obtaining the method of gathering spirit and not obtaining it. Although the use of spirit is great, it is useless without the method of gathering it. That being the case, what then is the method? It is nothing other than these abilities: “no expectation”, “no requiring”, “no distractions”, and “no helping”. Then it will work.
That monk went into the well intentionally to practice the method. Once the millstone had covered over him, his mind was “requiring” his body to fly. His mind was not distracted, but he was rigid in his goal, like the farmer who pulled on his plants to help them grow [Mengzi, chapter 2a]. These are the wrong methods. Of course he died.
Someone may say: “Such tales are ludicrous and unbelievable.” To which I reply that there is still more evidence in ancient texts:
[From Master Han’s Outer Commentary to the Poems, book 6, relating to Poem 263:]
“While Xiong Quzi of Chu was traveling at night, he thought a rock at rest was a tiger crouching, so he drew his bow and shot an arrow at it. The arrow went all the way through it from tip to feathers, but when he looked down upon it, he then realized it was a rock.”
[From Historical Records, chapter 109:] “While Li Guang was out hunting, he saw a rock in the grass, thought it was a tiger, and shot an arrow at it. The arrow disappeared right through it, and then he saw that it was a rock.”
A rock is an extremely hard object. A large rock may resemble a tiger, even in broad daylight or by strong lamplight, but if a bullet strikes it, it would still be unable to bore through it. Although these ancient men were experts at archery, how were they able to shoot an arrow all the way through from tip to feathers? When those experts in archery encountered tigers, they could penetrate with an arrow. Then when they saw a rock and thought it was a tiger, they did not at all know the tiger was actually a rock. Within those moments, their spirits were focused on tigers rather than rocks, therefore when they shot, their arrows went right through just as if they were shooting at tigers as they were used to. If they knew clearly it was a rock and had an intention of making an arrow go through, they would have raised their arms and drawn their bows with added effort to shoot their arrows, sharply pulling back, and even with their arrows pulled back all the way so tip meets bow and their bows are on the verge of snapping, it would still unable to go through the rock.
If your awareness is not stubborn, you will have achieved the way of “no expectation”.
If your motive is without agenda, you will have achieved the way of “no requiring”. If your mind is not ensnared, you will have achieved the way of “no distractions”. If your practice has no effort, you will have achieved the way of “no helping”. Otherwise you will overdo it and miss the mark, and in so doing, you will not achieve naturalness and your spirit will not be gathered anywhere. The Buddha had a saying: “All the layers of the world are just mind. All the methods in the world are just knowledge.” All the events and things in the world are born from the “river of knowledge and ocean of emotion”. This is the source of the mountains, rivers, and earth. And from this understanding comes the finding of enlightenment and transcendence.
Therefore taking a rock to be a tiger, their arrows shot right through. Whereas if they took a tiger to be a rock, they would snap their bows in trying to shoot it. Why is this? With the gathering of spirit, the spirit is made complete. When the spirit is complete, then things are merely mental constructs. You can “go into water without being drowned, go into fire without being burned” [lines from “Jade Emperor” that follow upon the previous ones]. You will not be blocked by boulders nor harmed by blades, not to mention able to shoot arrows through rocks.
Therefore if practitioners wish to dispense with their “third-rate horses” and ascend to the highest level, then apart from gathering spirit, truly there is no other way. There are experts in the world who can penetrate a cow’s belly with a pointed finger or smash a cow’s skull with a chop of a palm. Lesser practitioners admire them, but really they are not that unique. They have simply practiced their skill having obtained the method of gathering spirit. What is the method? I shall now explain it:
Whenever we practice these skills, we must strive to be elegant rather than imitating the imposing stature of the “valiant martial man” [Book of Poems, poem 7]. Although your eyes outwardly see, inwardly observe. Although your ears outwardly hear, inwardly listen. With nose open and mouth closed, touch your tongue to the upper palate. Your body is full of vitality, like the poplars and willows in spring. Your mind is emotionally calm, like an expanse of still water. When shifting a step, spirit gathers in the foot. When raising a hand, spirit gathers in the fingers. Do not have any expectation or use any effort. By not requiring it, power will come. Do not be distracted from simply feeling it. Power will manifest without any help. Even when walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, you may always gather spirit.
When walking, step slowly rather than quickly, with shoulders dropped rather than raised, eyes not watching more than ten feet away, hands not swaying off more than half a foot, forefingers extended rather than curled up, though not stiffly straight, the rest of the fingers curled up, though loosely rather than grasping tight. The result is that spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. After a long time, spirit will follow energy, energy will follow thought, and each will arrive in the fingertips. You will be building passive power.
When standing, be as erect as a pagoda, not leaning forward or back, or to the left or right. Your ears are not to listen distractedly. Your eyes are not to look all around. Your mind is not to run off to things outside of you, but instead hold to doing this one thing. The result is that spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. The posture of the fingers is the same as with walking. If where you are standing there is a small table nearby, you can touch your fingertips to it, or if there is an object with the height slightly lower, you can touch it with your fingers stood vertically over it.
When sitting [ordinary chair-sitting in this case rather than lotus position], make your head upright, your body erect, your spine straight. Your eyes are to gaze no more than three feet away. Your feet can be as much as a foot apart. Your knees should not be trembling, nor your body swaying. The muscles of your shoulders are to be loose rather than contracted, each of the three joints in your arms relaxed rather than tight. Spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. The posture of the fingers is the same as with walking or standing. You are to sit up straight, but you must not be forcefully propping yourself up.
When lying down, be on your side rather than facing upward, slightly curled in rather than straightened out. Your mouth should not be saying much, your mind not rashly thinking. Spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. The posture of the fingers is the same as before and should stand perpendicular to the bedroll. Make sure you are not pressing down with arm and wrist, for then they will become numb, and yet you should stay steadfast in the posture. When it is your left ribs that are touching down, your right forefinger [with the arm extended along your right side] will stand straight. When it is your right ribs that are touching down, your left forefinger [with the arm extended along your left side] will stand straight. In the beginning of the practice, your eyes will want to close and your forefinger will then droop. You should immediately stand it up again so that it is as before. After a long time, you will be able to sleep soundly without your forefinger drooping. The effect of this will be greater than when walking, standing, or sitting, for more time will get put into it than for the other versions.
Add the squeezing of embroidery hoops [explained below in Chapter Nine, akin to the finger training devices used by guitarists], and then passive power will be achieved within a year.
CHAPTER FIVE: TAKING THE RIGHT PATH
Why is it that when we hear scholars reciting poetry, there are popular folk songs as well as poems of highbrow artistry? One style is distinguished while the other is common, just like the clear water of the Wei River and the muddy water of the Jing River, which cannot be confused. Boxing arts have softness and hardness. This is really no different than the notion of poetry being either refined or crude. What is the reason for it? It is simply that there are different paths to take.
Some poet decides he will be a preeminent talent. He has learned the fundamentals, but then instead of striving toward the dignified, he tends toward the common, and is consequently inferior in style, a style he could get stuck in for the rest of his life. He cannot drive it away until he earnestly puts pen to paper and declares that his phrases are outstanding, certain to be immortal, admired by the pedants in the private schools, and he then takes his work to a publisher to have all his exciting ideas put in print to show to connoisseurs. Once he gazes upon his finished insights, it then seems to him like the mountaintop has cleared of mist and is now starkly reflected in the water, and his “remarkable and unique” style is finally fully revealed to him. Feeling ashamed, he suddenly realizes his error as he looks for any correct insights, skimming through for anything that deserves to be kept. He then knows he did not choose the right way and had wandered down the wrong path. Henceforth when he recites verse, he will ponder weightily upon what he used to consider to be a beautiful composition and no longer dares to use one word of, woe is he.
How is the appraisal of boxing instructors in terms of hard power versus deep skill any different from this scenario? Some practitioner throws out his punches and they are hardly pulled back before going out again. He then says: “My punch could collapse Mt. Tai.” Every step he takes is at a high level of difficulty and his spins are so quick. He then says: “My kick could turn the world.” The sounds of his body are pleasantly like pecking, and his leaps are so impressive. Ordinary people watch him and are full of praise. He thus becomes full of himself and brags about his skill. Then some notable expert sneers about him from the sidelines, and so he of course becomes furious about this and shouts out a challenge. Then in the blink of an eye, his body falls down several paces away, and it at last dawns on him that his own skill is greatly inferior to others. He asks to be taught so he can learn authentic material, now aware that he is incapable of using a single technique of what he had practiced or adopt a single posture from what he had trained. Why is this? Because he took the wrong path and he now has to entirely throw out his previous training.
Compare this to going to Fujian [from Hangzhou]. You must take the road that goes south. Whereas to go to Hebei, you must take the road that goes north. But if you are already in the north and you wish to go to the south, you must turn around and go from the north to then be able to reach the south. I therefore say that in the beginning of the training, you cannot afford to be ignorant as to which path to take.
To develop power in boxing arts, you should keep to the correct goals, regardless of hardness or softness. One who does not obtain the training method will then of course be considered hard, whereas one who does will be strongly proclaimed as being soft. Because of this, later generations came up with the two branches [internal and external], and their names remain to this day. When we try to compare them for their advantages and disadvantages, everyone knows that soft power is lacking in hardness, yet hard power is inferior to soft.
My art is considered to be soft, for it values softness rather than hardness, nimble adaptation rather than awkward stiffness, breathing through the nose rather than the mouth, poise of spirit rather than vigorous effort. Why so? With softness, energy will flow without obstruction and blood will circulate without stagnancy. Nimbly adapting means that when the opponent’s hands are about to adjust, my hands are adjusting, and then by the time he has adjusted, I have already found a way in. By breathing through my nose, the breath stays even, thereby preventing cool air from entering my lungs and damaging my “constructive and defensive” energy. With poise of spirit, spirit and energy are merged into one, and passive power courses through to my fingertips to destroy a strong opponent.
A practitioner of the other arts is not like this. He emphasizes hardness, which obstructs the movement of his energy, as well as keeping his blood from flowing smoothly, and will result in illness. He becomes stiff, thus making the mistake of generating hardness, with the result that when his opponent’s hand makes an adjustment, he is unable to respond, and when he is about to respond, he is already in a disadvantageous position. With his mouth open instead of closed, he grunts loudly, and he ends up sweating and panting, his mouth opening wider still, whereupon cold air will pour in and its influence will make its way to the organs, causing such harm as cannot be described in words. Moreover, while lunging in to close the distance, dust will be thrown up all around him and will be full of bacteria that cannot really be avoided. Therefore close your mouth and use your nose, for your nose has hairs that block bacteria and mucus that eliminates germs. If your mouth is open rather than closed, bacteria mixed into the dust will rush straight in, weakening your body’s power of resistance until you give way to illness.
As for one who puts forth effort instead of gathering spirit, power will be obstructed at the shoulder and not penetrate to the fingertips. Compare this to a steelyard scale. The shoulder is like the lever point, the elbow the middle section, the fingers the end section, and the power is like the counterpoise. For the steelyard to weight a heavy object, the counterpoise must be slid down toward the end section. The weight hung on the other end can now be weighed if it is very heavy but not if it is very light. Therefore practitioners of boxing arts who exert strength are hanging their weight at the other end of the steelyard [instead of letting the power flow all the way out to their fingers like the overpowering weight of the counterpoise being slid all the way to the end].
The force the body can generate is A, the object to be weighed by the steelyard. The shoulder is B, the lever point. The fingertip is C, the end section of the steelyard. The power is D, the counterpoise. When practitioners deliberately use force, power gets stuck at the shoulder. Even if your body has a thousand pounds of force, it will not of much use, like all the weight being hung from the lever point. Even if this steelyard could weigh an object of a thousand pounds, you would in such a situation be unable to express the power you are capable of. Therefore you must send power penetrating to your fingertips so that the power of your whole body can manifest and be of use. With the counterpoise pushed all the way to the end, the steelyard can weigh objects to the full weight that it is capable of.
Alas, he who practices hard power in this way will sometimes spit blood or have a worrying cough. Examining for the source of such ailments, they are all the result of damaging one’s energy. If not urgently treated, the result may be death, truly a pitiable situation. Therefore a weak-bodied man will shy away from that sort of school, fearing that his body is not healthy enough to be practicing, not knowing that they are using an improper method that should not be practiced anyway.
I have seen that practicing those kinds of arts can result in illnesses, whereas practicing my art can cure them. Why is this? For no other reason than that my energy is smooth whereas their energy is coarse. Energy is like water. When water is unhindered, it flows. But if obstructed, it overflows. And when there is flood, there is disaster, an inevitable outcome. When energy is obstructed, it will not flow smoothly, and when it surges, it will lead to chaos. Either way, health would be a sadly rare event. So choose your path very cautiously.
CHAPTER SIX: THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES
The variety of martial systems is like the branching of countless rivers. The different transmissions from teachers to students have resulted in different techniques. What then are the Zimen techniques like? They emphasize softness instead of stiffness, quickness instead of slowness, dexterity instead of clumsiness, roundness instead of sloppiness. Its issuing is like an arrow leaving a bowstring. Its turning is like the rapid rotation of a wheel. Its movement is like “the fragrant elephant crossing the Ganges”. [This refers to the Buddhist parable of a rabbit, horse, and elephant crossing the river. The rabbit floats across, symbolizing a superficial experience of existence. The horse sinks halfway, symbolizing a closer relationship to truth but still not quite there. The elephant sinks all the way down and walks along the river bottom, symbolizing enlightenment, i.e. getting right to the bottom of things. The meaning here is thus that the Zimen movements are of the “no nonsense” variety.] Its stillness is like “the gazelle hanging up its horns”. [This refers to the classical idea of a gazelle sleeping with its horns put up in a tree so that only its hind legs are touching the ground. The phrase was used to describe poetry that was enchantingly aloof. The Zimen stillness is thus fearlessly aloof toward opponents.] From beginning to end it has the surpassing power of “Han’s tides and Su’s seas” [i.e. the potent writings of Han Yu and Su Dongpo] which leave nothing in their wake. This gives the general idea.
 When encountering an opponent, you must begin with TESTING, or “searching”. What does this mean? Searching means to feel for where the opponent is empty and full. It is like when employing an army you must ascertain the enemy’s situation in order to know from which direction you can attack and what ground you can exploit. Therefore once I lift my hand, I do not yet set my mind on victory. I must examine his situation, so I extend my hand. If I can take advantage of his position, I will do so immediately. If not, I will switch to a different technique. I lure him into advancing to ensure that I can make use of his force. This is called “estimate your opponent, then attack” [Mengzi, chapter 2a].
If I were to lift my arm and strike in a single action, this would be like being blind to the enemy’s situation and penetrating deep into enemy territory with an isolated force. Such a maneuver would rarely be a masterstroke. Therefore my whole body has to be soft. My hand shoots out, then withdraws. But if I withdraw quickly, my force cannot capture his. If I am soft, then my posture can easily transform. My mind should be focused and not scattered, then even if he goes through countless transformations, I will respond like Zhuangzi’s famous butcher cutting up a cow [Zhuangzi, chapter 3]: “Swish, swish, the blade glides through with room to spare.”
 Then continue into SENDING. SENDING means “darting”. What is darting? It is to strike suddenly. When using an army, an opening has to be exploited. If troops are amassed but not put into action, then even if the army is made of crack troops, it will be incapable of destroying the enemy. Therefore an expert commander waits for the right moment then acts, watches for the right opportunity then attacks, sometimes attacking directly, sometimes attacking from the side, sometimes plundering to the outside, sometimes creating chaos within, sometimes feinting to the left then attacking to the right, sometimes feinting in front then attacking to the rear, ensuring that his enemy falls apart, and never daring to procrastinate and ruin his own position.
SENDING is as essential in Zimen Boxing as “attack” is in the use of an army. Therefore you must keep the subtle principles of SENDING in mind in order to apply it. Otherwise your defense would be more than is necessary and your offense would be insufficient, and no matter how fearsome your power is, you would be unable to do anything with it. Keeping in mind the principles for the rest of the techniques, you will thus apply them by way of waiting for the moment and watching for the opportunity, attacking directly or from the side, plundering without or creating chaos within, feinting to the left to attack to the right or feinting in front to attack to the rear. The techniques can cycle one after another, but are most effective when returning to SENDING.
The key to it can be summed up as STICKING to the opponent and then performing SENDING. Otherwise you would fail to catch your opportunity. It would be like a crossbow that has already shot off its bolt. You would cause the opponent to easily perceive what you are doing and then seal you off before you can do it. If you try to do everything in a single action, it will be difficult to avoid being weakened in the next movement and spent in the movement after that. Therefore SENDING is based in STICKING, which will cause your power to be abundant and vigorous, impossible to defend against, surprising him into disorder, like on a battlefield when the best of the enemy generals flee as far away as they can go. This then is the best use of SENDING. It says in Mengzi [chapter 2a]: “Even if one possesses wisdom, it does not compare to taking advantage of opportunity. Even if one possesses a large hoe, it does not compare to waiting for the moment to use it.” Read this statement several more times and then the theory of SENDING will be clear. Now that the method of SENDING has been explained, the principles for the rest of the techniques have to be understood. Please gradually study through them until they are clear and you are prepared to perform them.
 What is AIDING? It is “rescuing”. When using an army, if the enemy has us in a difficult situation, the general must be given aid to get him out of it. If my hand has been stripped aside or chopped away downward, the opponent’s hand will take advantage of the gap and charge in, a situation which can be very dangerous. At this moment, I use AIDING to rescue myself, and so his hand is again picked away by my pointing palm and I can respond to his changes by frustrating them. Therefore the AIDING technique emphasizes quickness, in the same way that bringing reinforcements to the general has to be carried out speedily.
How is AIDING to be done quickly? By way of smooth roundness and not being disorganized. It is the same way that a general can be reinforced quickly when his reinforcements are nearby. If my technique is disorganized, then AIDING will have no effect. It will then be like the general’s reinforcements being too far away – they will bring help too late.
What is meant by roundness? The rotating of the hand must make a round shape, encircling upward or downward with roundness, to all four directions [left, right, forward, back] with roundness, a magical roundness. Then there will be nothing that is not encircled. My hand now moving with smooth roundness, the opponent’s hand is not able to escape from this roundness. Why is this so? Because as his hand comes in, by rotating outward I can perform PULLING, by rotating inward I can perform SCATTERING, by rotating upward I can perform PUSHING, or by rotating downward I can perform PROPPING, and thereby I can still make use of his incoming force. These are the subtleties of AIDING. Examine them.
 What is SEIZING? It is “snatching”? It is like when using an army there is occupying of strategic ground by plundering the enemy’s supplies so that his morale plummets and he leaves it. Therefore the incoming force of the opponent’s hand is like an enemy army’s strategic ground and his supplies. If I snatch the opponent’s force and make use of it, he is sure to fear defeat. But if I want to snatch his incoming force, I also have to go along with his momentum in order to apply the technique. Therefore my body faces his force directly, then inclines to one side to seize it. I do not meet his ferocity, instead I borrow his force. These are the subtleties of SEIZING. Examine them.
 What is PULLING? It is “leading in”. The meaning of leading in is going along with the opponent’s momentum in order to lead it to my rear. If the opponent is stronger than me, I fear I will lose, but once our hands connect, I perform PULLING, causing him to stand unstably, separating his force from his lower body and making it difficult for his entire force to oppose me, and then I can be extending and contracting at my leisure. In what way then is the opponent stronger than me? Below is an analogous drawing with clarifying explanation. With careful examination of these principles, you will then know the subtleties of PULLING.
The opponent’s force is A, the object being weighed by the steelyard. My power is B, the counterpoise. I must borrow his force with PULLING to affect his lower body and cause his stance to become unstable. If he is crafty, he will use his leg to help press the weight up and bring the counterpoise back down. Although the object weighs a hundred pounds, the steelyard would then show the weight to be only eighty. [i.e. He sits back into his rear leg to prevent him being pulled forward, counterbalancing my pull sufficiently to nullify it (and giving me with the reversal of his momentum an opportunity to go forward with an attack).]
 What is PUSHING? It is “pushing down”. The meaning of pushing down is to heavily push down from above. Therefore I must cover the opponent’s hand with my palm and then proceed to push down. I particularly need to hang my thumb over his hand, which will keep me from slipping off and make it difficult for his hand to adapt. However, between my fingers and palm, there has to be a sinking energy for the technique to be applicable. My wrist needs to be especially flexible. To train such flexibility, I must twist my hand in an arc so that the wrist joint becomes like taffy. There should not be the slightest bit of stiffness, so that when I apply the technique, I will be able to stick and not disconnect. Since PUSHING will often be done on the opponent’s wrist, there is also an analogy that can be used: the opponent’s arm is like a steelyard and my power is like the counterpoise that I place along the end of the steelyard to determine how heavy something is [as in the drawing below]. These are the subtleties of PUSHING. Examine them.
The opponent’s force is A, the object being weighed by the steelyard. My power is B, the counterpoise. The result will fall into no more than three situations:
1. If my power is equal to his, it will be like the two weights are balanced, hence PUSHING will be effortless.
2. If my power is greater than his, it will be like a large counterpoise placed at the end of the steelyard, causing his stance to lean forward.
3. If my power is less than his, it will be like a small counterpoise placed near the lever point, causing me to feel the strain of effort.
 What is CROWDING? It is “sealing off”. If I encounter an opponent whose body is strong and force is powerful, I subdue him by changing to this technique. The method is to crowd in on him a half step, making it difficult for his hands to easily extend and forcing his fullness to switch to emptiness. I then go along with his momentum and borrow his force in order to seal off his hands. Compare this to a fast-running horse that is confined to a stable and unable to make a stride. The opponent is sure to firm up his lower body, but will soften in his upper body. If you can understand this reaction in all of the techniques, you will then be able to apply them. For the confined horse, if the door is not sealed firmly or if there is crack in the wall, he will kick his way out. These are the subtleties of CROWDING. Examine them.
 What is ABSORBING? It is “shrinking back”. If I encounter an opponent who noticeably advances toward my body and it is difficult for my hand to quickly prevent it, I change to this technique of evading, which is a method of hollowing my chest and belly, of bending my back like a bow, taking the target he wishes to strike a good half a foot away from him. All it takes is a single ABSORBING and then it will be easy to advance upon him, and should be followed up with CROWDING. This technique makes my body seem as though in a childlike game of pretending to be a man made of rubber. If the opponent presses down on me, I go along with his momentum by hollowing. If he strikes toward me, I yield to his hand so that it extends to its full reach. When I use this technique, I especially have to focus my mind, neither making contact nor disconnecting from him, my heels standing stable and my whole body in a state of softness, and then my hands can perform according to what is in my mind without there being any error. These are the subtleties of ABSORBING. Examine them.
 What is STICKING? It is “softening toward”. When I put out my hands, I emphasize softness. By being soft, I stick to the opponent rather than disconnecting. I can thereby go along with his momentum and turn his attack back to him. If he wishes to catch me above, I look upward and perform HOISTING. If he wishes to catch me below, I cover over and perform PUSHING. If he wishes to catch me at my inner gate, I bend and perform PULLING. If he wishes to catch me at my outer gate, I turn and perform SCATTERING. I am like a vine twining around a tree. He is never able to peel me away.
Therefore the softer your hands, the better your skill. For example, if a fishing line is tied to a flexible fishing rod, a larger fish can be hooked without the line breaking. A flexible rod will bend along with the fish’s force. If a line is tied to a wooden stick, then when the fish takes the bait, the line is sure to break. This is because the structure is hard rather than soft. You must train passive power in the area between finger and palm, then you will be able to dissipate incoming force. Otherwise you will be like the inexperienced fisherman whose line breaks when the fish bites. The reason for this is simply that you have not yet practiced it and your wrist has no passive power. To have the softness but not the power, your STICKING will always be disconnecting. This is to know the principle but not be able to apply the method. Examine it.
 What is HOISTING? It is “lifting”. The idea of “lifting” is to go upward from below. The method is stick to the opponent’s arm with an upward-facing palm, then go along with his momentum and lift. If he is going outward, I lift outward. If he is going inward, I lift inward, causing his incoming force to float up and become useless. The effectiveness of HOISTING is entirely a matter of not contending against him. If I encounter an opponent whose upper body is powerful, I change to this technique to overcome him. Compare this to a roof beam set at an angle to a vertical supporting beam. A vertical beam can support a ton, whereas a horizontal beam cannot. I make my hand into a bracing vertical beam so that his force, although fierce, seems to be pressing down on a roof beam. What can he do to me now? These are the subtleties of HOISTING. Study them.
 What is CURVING? It is “going with”. By going along with an incoming force that you meet, you will not end up frustrated by your opponent. It is like picking up a stick and striking it against the direction of the turning of gears in a machine. Your tiger’s mouth would be jolted painfully and you would feel the action to be very strenuous. This would not be the case if you struck the gears along the same direction they are moving. By going along with his momentum, I will not receive his force. Therefore while his crashing shoulder or jolting elbow are advancing upon my body, I should respond with CURVING to overcome them. Understand these subtleties.
 What is INSERTING? It is “hardening against”. I use hard power to overcome his fierce attack. The idea of INSERTING is to go downward from above. Compare it to chiseling through wood. You have to strike down aggressively for the tip to penetrate the wood. Therefore when INSERTING, I must use hard power coming down fiercely from above to be able to carve away his momentum. As my hand goes downward, my shoulder will touch to his shoulder, but I must not directly receive his force. My left hand assists by borrowing thirty percent of his force. These are the subtleties of INSERTING. Study them.
 What is THROWING? It is “tossing away”. It is like throwing an object. Power has to be wielded at your wrist and then the object is sent away like a shooting star, leaving your hand to fall down far away. When you change to this technique, you can look upon the opponent’s hand as an object you want to throw away. These are the subtleties of THROWING. Examine them.
 What is PROPPING? It is “assisting”. All the techniques are assisted by this one, thus it is a wonderful skill. However, your hands have to be soft and lively in order to perform it without error. Compare it to filling a bowl with water and holding it up. If you hold it too stiffly, water will spill over the sides. If you instead hold it up with more awareness, the water will not spill. Therefore when performing PROPPING, you must do so according to the opponent’s hands, in order to stick to him and not disconnect. These are the subtleties of PROPPING. Study them.
 What is RUBBING? It is “tightening”, or “anxiety-inducing”. When his hands come out and get slowed down, I immediately perform SENDING and send him away. Compare it to the act of carving wood. If you urgently push your gouge in, the wood will get carved. If you slowly push, there will be no effect. If I send my hand out and he steps to dodge away, I respond by pivoting my foot to follow him, and then I can perform this technique. If I am close to him, my power will be fierce. If I am far from him, I will not be in charge of the situation. Compare this to carving wood without standing close to it. Even if your gouge is sharp, what could it do to the wood? These are the essentials of RUBBING. Know them.
 What is SCATTERING? It is “blocking”. However, what we call blocking is not a stiff block that is unyielding to the opponent’s force. You must do it like a monkey seizing a stick, not an ox using its horns. Then you will have the right idea of blocking. Therefore when meeting the opponent’s advancing hand and incoming force, you must squarely wait for it and then angle yourself in order to melt it away. He will then be unable to endure your SCATTERING of his fierceness. These are the subtleties of SCATTERING. Examine them.
[17&18] What is VANISHING? It is “disappearing”. What is EJECTING? It is “appearing”. VANISHING and EJECTING are to be performed together. By disappearing and appearing, your technique will be completely incomprehensible to the opponent. Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 36]: “To get something, you must first give something. To weaken something, you must first strengthen something.” If you understand this, then you have obtained the subtleties of VANISHING and EJECTING. Compare it to a man using an oil press. He has to retreat and then advance in order to produce a large enough force upon the wood. Therefore VANISHING makes EJECTING easier and will make my power more fierce, and when an opponent meets it, he will always be defeated. But when applying it, I particularly have to emphasize speed, speed to the extent of appearing and disappearing like a shadow, causing the opponent to become alarmed and fall apart. When his incoming force is abundant, perform VANISHING. When his force has reached its limit and is diminishing, perform EJECTING. These are the keys to VANISHING and EJECTING. Examine them.
Now that the principles of the eighteen techniques are clear, and once you are skillful at them, then as soon as an opponent makes a move, you can respond according to the situation and have everything go your way. The applications are limitless and will happen without expectation.
CHAPTER SEVEN: SOLIDIFYING YOUR STANCE
鳥之飛也。必以足抵樹而後舉。獸之躍也。必以足抵地而後去。何也。足抵則力生也。今試以板鑿四洞。置貓於板上。納其足於洞中。則不能一躍而去。蓋其足懸空而無所抵也。昔聞有虎雪後誤躍於茅屋之上。四足透茅而過。於是憑空而力無所施。遂斃於屋上。由是觀之。人之有足。倚之者不亦重乎。今命力士懸空而坐。使足勿抵於地。則素能舉千斤者。不能舉其半矣。是故習拳之於足。尤不可輕之。然曰樁而不曰足。何也。蓋其足之不動。如樁之不搖也。夫欲樁之不搖。必求固樁之道。不觀乎壩上之水乎。其下流之力。固至猛也。然以樁深入而固樹之。則纍纍之石。不隨水力而下矣。是故吾人之足。必使勁貫於指踵。則立地能固。而推之不動。功之深者。則勁之入地亦必深。可一頓足而使地陷。姑無論敵之牽捺推擦矣。然則固樁之與出手。能不並重乎。今夫拳術之有樁。譬諸天平之有脚。苟使天平之脚鬆動而不固。則稱物之際必東俯西傾。而不得其平。故立樁而不固。則受力之時。吾身必隨勢以動搖。牽之則俯而前。推之則仰而後矣。蓋敵力之來。在力學（Mechanics）名之曰抵力（Resistance）。又名（Weight）。吾手之應。在力學名之曰生力（Effort）。又名（Power）。而固樁之支。在力學則名曰支點（Fulcrum）。支點在力學亦至為重要。如槓桿（Levers）之無支點。則不能以微力而起重物也。吾人之禦敵。欲以智取力。以巧取勢。亦必樁固而後可。所謂逼也。吸也。無不先固其樁。而後順其勢以消其勁。借其力以搖其身也。當敵手之猛進。吾知其牽矣。倘樁不固。則手受反動而身遂搖搖。敵若繼攻。而身必傾跌。當吾手之貼敵。吾知其推矣。倘樁不固。則敵之呑縮而吾必前傾。敵之攔格而吾必旁躥。理有自然。勢有必至。此樁之所以不得不固也。吾習技之初。開步之際。每一出手。則覺上重下輕。身隨手去。因念如此焉能致用。乃立志站樁。日必站一時許。屆乎盛夏。則汗流浹背。袴如溺水。然猶不敢間斷。蓋一曝十寒。為習技者之所最忌也。迨至半年之久。始可手出而足不浮。腰閃而臀不動。所謂手似浮雲出岫。脚如古樹盤根者。庶乎近之矣。吾師嘗以二繩繫於兩足。命數壯夫左右拉之。而不移分寸。其技則人驚為異。其理實亦無足奇。蓋氣灌於湧泉。勁透乎足底。使全體之重心（Center of gravity）在於指踵之間。習而久之。則立如泰山矣。聞師之習此。尚係童牙。其師禁之於室。飲食便溲。皆不令出。初站極感痛苦。然偷安則被撻。雖倦極欲睡。亦不敢稍移。久之能固立而成眠矣。常語余曰。膝緊襠消。為立樁之定式。必依乎此。始奏膚功。苟能腰以上旋轉如風。而腰以下分毫不動。則可以致用矣。且下盤八勢。全仗腿足之堅勁。樁不站。則勁不貫於下體。縱能滿地翻騰。亦如伶人之演戲而不切於實用。至於飛腿之際。尤須一足固立不動。然後腿力可猛。此皆與站樁有密切之關係。而為習者所不可不知者也。第有一極應注意之要點。不得不重事解釋。此要點為何。卽不可執著於固之意義也。蓋樁之宜固也固明矣。然不能通權達變。則守其法而未得其妙。彼執於固者則腿硬。腿硬則進退旣不自如。旋轉亦嫌呆笨。故練步之躱閃。尤貴乎脚軟如貓。着地不滯。始能左右盤旋。前後翻轉。使敵眼光撩亂。以收奇效。然則固樁之定義果何如哉。曰。抵地則硬。離地卽軟。抵地則固。離地卽活。心銘是言。必無悞矣。
For a bird to fly, it has to push its feet against the branch to then lift off. For a beast to leap, it has to push its feet against the ground to then spring away. This happens because the push of the feet generates force. To illustrate this, drill four holes through a board and place a cat on the board with its feet through the holes. It is unable to jump off, its feet hanging there with nothing it can do about it. I once heard of a tiger that misjudged a jump onto a thatched roof after it had been snowing and its feet went through the thatch. Hanging like that unable to use its strength, it then got killed while stuck on the roof. Looking at it from this point of view, are human feet not also important? If a weightlifter hangs by his seat so his feet cannot press against the ground, though his normal ability may be to lift a thousand pounds, he would now be unable to lift even half that.
Therefore in the practice of boxing arts, the feet particularly must not be neglected. Thus we are to think of them as posts rather than merely as legs. This is because when our legs are not moving, they should have the unswayable quality of posts stuck in the ground. If you wish to have this unswayable quality, you must strive to solidify your stance. Have you not seen water spilling over a dam? The force of its downward flow is indeed ferocious, but posts are deeply embedded to prevent trees and rocks from being carried along by the force of the water’s flow.
Therefore our feet must get power to course through to our toes and heels, then our standing upon the ground can be solid and we will be unmoved when attacked. For one whose skill is deep, his power will penetrate the ground deeply. With a stomp of his foot, he can make a pit in the dirt. He will be unaffected by an opponent’s techniques, whatever they may be – PULLING, PUSHING, SENDING, RUBBING, and so on. That being the case, how can the solidity of your stance not be given the same emphasis as the training of techniques?
These “posts” in boxing arts are like the base of a scale. If the base is loose rather than fixed into place, then when weighing an object, the scale will wobble around instead of obtaining a balance. Therefore if our stance has no solidity when receiving force, our bodies will sway along with the momentum. When receiving PULLING, we will lean forward. When receiving SENDING, we will lean back.
The opponent’s incoming force is known in mechanics as “resistance” or “weight”. The response of my hands is known in mechanics as “effort” or “power”. The brace for my stance’s solidity is known in mechanics as the “fulcrum”. The fulcrum is the most important thing in mechanics. If levers had no fulcrum, they would be incapable of lifting heavy objects.
When we deal with opponents, we wish to use strategy to defeat their force, skill to defeat their techniques. For this to work, the stance must first be made solid. Therefore when performing CROWDING or ABSORBING, I must first solidify my stance, then go along with his momentum to dispel his power, borrowing his force to sway his body. If the opponent fiercely advances, I will know when he is about to perform PULLING, but if my stance is not solid, my body will sway once my hands receive the reversal of motion. If he then continues to attack, my body will lean until I end up stumbling away. While my hands stick to the opponent, I will know when he is about to perform SENDING, but if my stance is not solid, then when he shrinks back with VANISHING, I will end up leaning forward. If he blocks me off to the side, I will end up hopping away to that side. The principle is natural and such outcomes would be inevitable. And this is why the stance has to be made solid.
In the beginning of our training, every time we take a step and perform a hand technique, we will feel top-heavy, our bodies following the actions of our hands. But because we want our actions to be applicable, we must be resolved to do stance training. Every day you need to stand for about an hour. This means that in midsummer you will be streaming with sweat until you appear to have wet your pants. But you must not dare to interrupt your training just because of this. Inconsistency of training [the phrase here being “one day in the sun, ten days in the cold” (from Mengzi, chapter 6a – describing how common plants will not grow with such treatment)] is the major thing to avoid in practicing this art. After about six months of this, you will be able to put out your hands without your feet floating and twist at the waist without your butt moving, fulfilling an image of “hands like mists floating out of a mountain cave, feet like the coiled roots of an old tree”, and you will be almost there.
My teacher has tied ropes to his legs and called for several robust men to pull from both sides, and he would not shift in his stance an inch. People are surprised by his unusual skill. His theories are real and are endlessly marvelous. Energy pours into the “bubbling spring” acupoint and power penetrates to the sole of the foot, causing the body’s center of gravity to fall between toes and heel. After practicing this for a long time, you will stand like Mt. Tai.
When my teacher practiced this as a boy, his teacher would not allow him to drink, eat, or go to the bathroom, nothing but stances during a session of stance work. In the beginning of the stance training, it was extremely arduous, but whenever he sought some temporary ease, he was struck with a stick. Even when was so exhausted that he wished to sleep, he did not dare move at all. After a long time, he was able to fall asleep while standing solidly.
He often said to me: “Squeeze your knees toward each other and pull in your crotch, then you will have a stable stance. You must practice in accordance with this, for it is the basis of the skill of striking acupoints [the actual phrase here being ‘playing the skin’, as if tapping at points with the dexterity of a pianist]. If above your waist you can turn like the wind while not moving at all below your waist, then you will be able to apply the art.”
The eight ground-fighting techniques entirely depend on hard power in your legs and feet. If your stance is not trained, then power will not course through to your lower body. Even if you can spin about all over the floor, it will be like an actor performing in a play instead of something that will be practical in reality. When you lash out with a kick, one leg has to stand solid and unmoving for the power of your kick to be fierce. These are things that are intimately related to stance training and have to be understood by practitioners.
However, there is an important point that should be given attention and must now be explained. What is this important point? It is that you must not be stubborn about the idea of being solid. The “solidity” of your stance has to be solidly understood. If you are unable to adapt to circumstances, you are preserving the method but not obtaining mastery. Those who are stubborn about solidity have stiff legs. With stiff legs, advancing and retreating will not be performed smoothly, and turning will be extremely awkward. When practicing evasive footwork, your legs in fact have to have the softness of a cat’s, touching down without any sluggishness, then you will be able to turn in all directions and confuse the opponent’s gaze. To receive these extraordinary effects, how should we define a “solid stance”? Let us say: “In pressing the ground, there is hardness. In leaving the ground, there is softness. In pressing the ground, there is rigidity. In leaving the ground, there is agility.” Remember these words and you will be without error.
CHAPTER EIGHT: DISPELLING HIS FORCE
Water is the softest substance, yet it can surge higher than your head. Iron is the hardest substance, yet it can be melted into a liquid state. How is this so? The water’s repression of the force acting against it generates its surging. The strategy used against iron enables us to do whatever we want with it. The way of boxing arts is no different. If the opponent wields hard power, making his hands as solid as iron, his posture a ferocious attack intent upon harming me, I then utilize skill to cause his power to return to nothingness. It is like smelting iron in a furnace. Even if he is vigorous, he cannot apply hardness. This is called “dispelling force”.
My body is like water. When a stone strikes water, the water will always accept it. When an opponent attacks me, I will always receive it. What I mean by “receive” is not to receive it with my body, but to receive it into nothingness. The stillness of my body is like the placidness of water. If the stone does not strike the water, the water will not splash. If the opponent does not attack me, my hands will not express. The power of my body is like a constant wave, whereas the opponent’s body is like the stone. Once the stone touches the water, the waves begin. Once the opponent’s body touches my palm, his power has arrived. Knowing this, I am able to talk of dispelling force. And what I mean by “dispelling force” is that I am going along with his momentum, borrowing his momentum, and taking advantage of his momentum.
What is meant by “going along with his momentum”? If the opponent’s upper body is powerful and his lower body is stable, I will be unable to suddenly find a way in, thus I go along with him and wait for the situation to change.
What is meant by “borrowing his momentum”? If the opponent’s upper body is powerful but his lower body is floating, the ferociousness of his attack is causing him to depart from his center of balance, thus I borrow his momentum to make him lean.
What is meant by “taking advantage of his momentum”? If the opponent advances fiercely, I perform PULLING. Once he has been pulled, his posture will want to hop forward, so he will inevitably sit back to stabilize his stance. His center of balance is now inclined to the rear, thus I take advantage of his momentum by performing SENDING and make him fall on his back. In this way, even if the opponent is forceful, I neutralize it to turn it into nothing, or I may perform SEIZING and make use of it.
Someone may doubt my words and say: “It doesn’t seem to be a sure thing. Give further examples to verify it.”
Well, the fierce force of a cannon can penetrate a steel plate and yet is unable to go through a sandbag. And this is because the steel plate resists and does not at all receive, whereas the sandbag receives and does not at all resist. Therefore the difficulty in dispelling energy lies between receiving and resisting. Thus you must make your hands like the sandbag, neither receiving nor not receiving, and thereby not resisting and yet resisting.
What do I mean by “neither receiving nor not receiving”? When the cannonball enters the sand, the sand does not initially obstruct it, but then it continues to increase the pressure around it, causing it to stop. The scenario emerges naturally. Therefore no matter the force from the cannon, ultimately it is dispelled. The force from the opponent must initially be fierce, therefore I go along with it rather than obstructing it. Then once it has weakened, I repress it. The gap between going along with and repressing is tiny. It is always difficult to get this to happen with naturalness. Hence those in the world who can dispel force are rare.
The ancients had a saying [Historical Records, bios – book 48]: “At the limit of a crossbow’s range, the bolt will not be able to penetrate silk.” There is a specific moment in which direct force arrives. When the moment passes, the force dispels and its momentum with it. The opponent’s hand shoots out like a crossbow bolt leaving the string, and as it can penetrate through seven boards of wood, how can I help but avoid it? Therefore I must wait for his force to get to the point that it “cannot penetrate silk”, then I boldly seize the moment, and he will not be able to carry out his aggression.
Considering the way of boxing arts always forbids underestimating the opponent, do not use the strength of your body or hands, which would render the skill of dispelling force useless. If the opponent is old, do not dismiss him as decrepit. If the opponent is young, do not dismiss him as wet behind the ears. If the opponent is short, do not dismiss him as a pygmy. If the opponent is emaciated, do not dismiss him as deathly ill. Why not? Even though I might have hard power and be as solid as seven boards of wood, I would be afraid to go up against a well-trained archer.
Whenever we dispel force, it is like the sound of the “Luo bell” [i.e. a situation of response]. [This is referencing an idiom: “A mountain avalanche in the west resonates the bell by the river in the east.” (originally from Liu Yiqing’s A New Account of Tales of the World, part 4)] The bigger the knock, the louder the sound. The smaller the knock, the quieter the sound. When applying techniques, you should focus your mind. Focusing your mind makes your brain alert. With your brain alert, you will sense things quickly. Sensing quickly, your body and hands become like springs. If you are slightly pressed, slightly shrink. If you are abruptly pressed, suddenly shrink. If you are slightly released, slightly extend. If you are abruptly released, suddenly extend. You must take things to their appropriate extent and then stop there. What I mean by “appropriate” is that my reception of his force in order to dispel it has to do with observing how the opponent’s situation is changing.
When the opponent’s force advances fiercely and I go slightly to the side or slightly withdraw to dispel it, the wonders of dispelling force lose their desired effect and I suddenly find myself in a frustrated position. When the opponent’s force slightly advances and I suddenly fall away or impatiently perform VANISHING in order to dispel it, the wonders of dispelling force again lose their desired effect. Why is this? Because of the error of disconnecting due to worry over losing. When I disconnect from him, I am unable to perform STICKING, creating a gap in which the opponent’s force finishes but starts up again, and I am unable to take advantage of it.
Therefore the method of dispelling force particularly emphasizes rapid sensitivity in the palm. If my palm sticks to him and does not disconnect from him, then when he adjusts, I always lift at the place my palm sticks to, for example when performing PROPPING to his elbow, in which case he will rotate inward to attack my belly, and my palm goes along with his momentum, rotates to be on top, and performs PUSHING. Now that my palm is covering his wrist, he will carry upward to attack my chest, and my palm goes along with his momentum, rotates to be underneath, and performs HOISTING. In this way, the opponent’s force will have no place to operate and I will be able to make use of it.
Carefully contemplate these things until realization dawns, and then you will understand one truth after another and that these words of mine are not exaggerations.
CHAPTER NINE: DEVELOPING POWER
Force is like iron. Power is like steel. But if force is not trained, you will be incapable of achieving power. If iron is not smelted, it cannot be made into steel. It says in Liezi [chapter 5]: “That blade of tempered steel cut through jade as though it was but mud.” Though the ancients had swords sharp enough to cut through iron, iron blades cannot cut through jade. Why is this? Because a single smelting does not make it tempered. A common saying goes: “To punch against force will not work, but to use force against power will not work either.” This means that if you have technique but no power, you will be unable to match a strong opponent, but if you have technique and also have power, then even if his force is like a tiger, there is nothing he can do with it. Therefore power can defeat force whereas force cannot defeat power, in the same way that steel can defeat iron whereas iron cannot defeat steel.
When using force, the ligaments [muscles] in the arms will contract and the blood vessels throughout the body will swell with the strain and may even lead to injury of oneself. This is not the case with power, which can injure an opponent with the pointing of a finger or the pressing of a palm without it being necessary to flex every muscle in the body. It therefore goes without saying that power is better than force. So how can practitioners not give priority to developing power?
Let us now discuss the kinds of power and the methods of training them. Power is hard yet passive, in the same way that steel is stiff yet supple. When crudely smelted, the steel becomes too hard, but when expertly smelted, it will have suppleness. An ancient saying goes [Jin Dynasty, from “Gift of a Poem from Liu Kun to Lu Chen”]: “Steel folded a hundred times becomes soft enough to wrap around your finger.” Therefore the more steel is tempered, the suppler gets. Power is likewise. If you do not meticulously study the methods and practice over a long period, you will be unable to achieve passive power and only get as far as hard power. You must give it a lot of time, and then you will be able to succeed.
To begin to develop power, practice stance work every morning and evening. You should squeeze your knees toward each other and pull back your crotch. Your feet are at an angle to each other that is more than forty-five degrees and less than ninety degrees. Then extend your arms to be perpendicular to your torso, forefingers pointing up, the other four fingers bent but not grasping, tiger’s mouths facing upward at shoulder level, elbows pointing somewhat behind you rather than directly downward, shoulders hanging down rather than sticking up. From shoulder to hand, there should be not the slightest intention of force, apart from at the forefinger. Done in this way, the pathway of power will be clear and power will easily be achieved.
If your shoulder sticks up, it will have the appearance of using force. Violating the method thus, power will be obstructed at the shoulder and not penetrate to the finger.
If the elbow is not pointing behind and the tiger’s mouth is not in line with the shoulder, the tendons will be twisted and uncomfortable, and the blood vessels will be constricted. Violating the method thus, power will not be easy to achieve.
If the other fingers grasp tightly while the forefinger is extended, power will be unable to be focused. Violating the method thus, you will be unable to strike the points on the opponent’s skin with precision.
The items above are all key essentials in the beginning of the training, things practitioners must pay attention to. When training to develop power, you especially must never subtract from these things nor change them. Every day after you wake up and before you go to sleep, you must practice for a while, the longer the better. However, you have to be persevering. You must not practice for a long time today and then only a short time tomorrow. In this way, you will then build a foundation.
Thereupon make a couple of sandbags, pour in sand until each carries five pounds, and hang one from each arm, the posture of your body and hands remaining as before. Your arms are to be extended and must not be curling in. Once you are at the point that your arms feel none of the weight, then slide them further along your arms until gradually they have reached your tiger’s mouths. But every time you slide the bags further along, they should at each point be hung until it becomes easy and after a long time you do not feel the weight to be restrictive. Once they have arrived to hang from your tiger’s mouths, and you are able to again feel it is easy, you must then add weight to the sandbags. Every time you add more sand, hang them from your arms until it again becomes easy and after a long time you do not feel the weight to be restrictive. In this way, add sand until the weight is thirty to forty pounds, then hard power will have been achieved.
Then make new sandbags, now of thicker fabric and with leather-wrapped corners, and pour in sand until they each carry forty to fifty pounds. Your hand holds it at a corner and tosses it up to be held in your palm or braced on your forearm. Sweep it with your leg or kick it with your foot. Practice this until you are so skillful at it that you are like a bear playing with a ball. Then gradually add more sand. Once the weight is at eighty pounds, a wave of your have can send a large opponent falling down more than ten feet away. When tossing sandbags, you have to be in a spacious and high-ceilinged room to practice it. If you are in a room that is narrow and low-ceilinged, you will be unable to engage in this method.
You may then take a bamboo or wooden stick that fits your full grip and nail its two ends to a pillar, making it firm and unwobbling. With the lower end at shoulder height, the stick is about a foot in length and is parallel to the pillar. There is enough space between stick and pillar to admit your hand grabbing around the stick. Now saw off a section of thick bamboo about a foot and a half in length and place it at the base of the pillar. To practice, a hand grips the stick above while a foot stands on the thick bamboo below, hand at shoulder level, foot causing the thick bamboo section to rotate. In the beginning, you will find this to be very difficult, but you will after a long time be able to rotate it naturally. Once you have become skillful at it, you can make the thick bamboo rotate without a foot ever touching the ground at all. Then kicking this platform away, you can stand suspended in the air. This power in your fingers and palm is now sufficient to alarm an opponent. However, the force of the left hand is typically inferior to that of the right hand. When practicing, you should more often use your left hand to hold the stick in order to equalize the power of both hands.
The descriptions above give the general idea for developing hard power. As for the method of developing passive power, it is altogether different from this. What makes passive power so distinct from hard power that it gets to be called “passive”? This has to be discussed.
When passive power comes out, you will feel with clarity where it begins and at what place it ends, and you will know it to be exactly correct. But this is not the case with hard power.
When passive power comes out, your channels are energized and your sound is like a whispering. As it reaches your fingertips, it is an inhalation that makes the posture. But this is not the case with hard power.
When passive power comes out, a single pointing of passive energy can penetrate through wood or iron. Therefore through an opponent’s clothing you can also penetrate to his energy channels and organs. But this is not the case with hard power.
Right after a practice session, hold your fingertips under sunlight or lamplight, and you will see they appear as transparent as beeswax, no sign of blood color. The deeper your skill, the longer this transparency lasts. If you point a finger perpendicular into your thigh and send power to the fingertip, you will feel at that spot a cool breeze running through from above to below that passes through your thigh and out the other side, and immediately there is a numbness. You should then use your fingers to gently rub it away. This kind of test will be enough to verify that passive power has been achieved. After this, your fingers must not play randomly all over an opponent’s body, for fear of injuring his vital points and inducing his mood to unconsciously fall into a state of “Bitter Miles” [a lamentation poem about battlefield death by Cao Cao – i.e. make the opponent feel he is about to die].
The method of training this power focuses mainly on the squeezing of embroidery hoops. It should be done whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, and as those practices have already been explained in Chapter Four, it is not necessary to repeat them here. Below is the method of squeezing embroidery hoops in detail so that practitioners will have something to work from.
When using embroidery hoops, choose those that have a great deal of springiness to them. They should to be about five inches long and about half an inch thick, made of ox horn or bamboo. Those made of bamboo have to be switched each time to another one, otherwise the springiness will gradually diminish and it will become rather inappropriate to use. Therefore you should have many of them at hand. Those made of ox horn should also be in large supply. This is because ox horn will soften as it heats up, and therefore you cannot squeeze them for very long and must frequently switch to another one.
In the beginning of the training, they should be thin, then your fingertips will be lively and power will not be obstructed from getting to the tiger’s mouth. You should tie some string to both sides of it, pulling the sides into more of a bow shape, so that if it slips out of your hand, it will not result in shooting away from you and injuring someone’s face or eyes. Later when you are skillful at it, it will not be necessary to tie them with string. You also must have thin and thick ones ready for multiple squeezings. Start by squeezing the thin ones dozens of times, then squeeze the thick ones dozens of times. When your fingers are sore, stop. It is not necessary to force it.
Do it in this way, alternating left hand and right, alternating grabs of thick and thin, several times every day without interruption. Each time, silently count the number and do not allow it to reduce. Squeeze hoops before you go to bed and after you wake up, then at noon and at sunset, all the time. With the thumb pressing at one side and the other four fingers pressing at the other, the fingers and tiger’s mouth will make a curved shape. The fingertips will slightly use force, but the rest of the hand should not. If you train without this method, you will have labored in vain. You need to be mindful of this.
Once passive power has been achieved, then seek out a noteworthy teacher for training below the scale of your hand, refining the flow of blood and energy down to the size of an acupoint. Then once you are practicing at the level of your fingertip, you can use it to injure an opponent, or you can also use it to treat injury. Its effects are unusual, truly beyond the expectations of ordinary people. If we wish to achieve consummate skill, how can we not train in this way?
CHAPTER TEN: LIGHTENING THE BODY
The light-body skill has always been secret and untransmitted. Practitioners of it are therefore seldom seen. It may look almost the same as the modern high jump, but the substance of it is actually different. To perform the high jump, one must rouse one’s courage, aggressively lifting and landing, hitting the ground heavily like a boulder dropping down. The veins pop out from the strain. It is strong on the outside but hollow on the inside. The slightest moment of carelessness and the organs will be injuriously jolted. For one who has the light-body ability, it is different. He rises like a bird taking to the air and lands like a dragonfly touching the water, taking off without a sound and landing without a sound. How? He fills his body with floating energy.
It says in the History of the Northern Dynasties [book 78]: “At Tranquil Meditation Temple, the [hundred-foot high] flagpole rope broke… Shen Guang took the end in his mouth, gave the pole a pat, and went upward right to the top. Once he had reattached it, he went up into the air and came down, gave a stroke to the ground with his palm, and went backwards more than ten paces… People then called him the ‘Physically Flying Immortal’.” Shen was not born with this ability, he had to train it until it had become his habit. By practicing to the point of habit, floating energy filled his limbs and he went into the air and came down like a winged bird.
When an object falls down, always this is due to the force of gravity from the center of the Earth. If we use a method to resist this force, then we can ascend and descend unenslaved by its pull. The wings of an airplane take it through the air, as everyone can see. Though the body of the machine is heavier than air, it can nevertheless ascend and descend smoothly, for it has the power to defy the Earth’s gravity. How does it come by this power? It is because its engine generates a forward force.
Our bodies are many times heavier than air. An ordinary man’s body certainly cannot rise up onto a rooftop. And if he were to jump down from the roof, it is also certain he would break bones or damage tendons, getting injured if not killed. Why is this? He lacks the power to defy Earth’s gravity. Therefore if we wish to defy Earth’s gravity, we must train to develop a kind of floating energy in order to be able to do so. We possess this energy just as much as an airplane has an engine, and therefore we too can ascend and descend smoothly, with the result that we will appear very unique.
As the human body does not possess wings, it is unable to stay in the air for very long. Those who practice the high jump are not without floating energy, but they train without knowing the right method. Therefore if one’s floating energy is not great, it would be like the horsepower of an airplane being insufficient to carry a cargo. Taking off would truly not be easy and landing would be just as difficult, and it would be hard to keep from getting killed. The method for developing floating energy is explained below. If you practice according to these principles, you will surely be able to lighten your body.
If we wish to train this skill, we must select a very spacious room with floorboards. Just over a foot apart, we nail bamboo bows into place. The bows are to be a foot and a half long, their strings a foot long. One end of a bow is fixed to the floorboards so that string is at a ninety-degree angle to the floorboards. In the beginning of the training, they should be somewhat thicker bows so they can bear weight. To each side is placed a bamboo pole that is parallel to the floorboards. The height of them in relation to the standing bows is such as to be a convenient place to put your hands for support. This is because you will in the beginning of the training be unable to walk as you please on top of the bows, and so you must support yourself with your hands in this way to then be able to step.
While practicing this, you must wear special pants, rather like a modern soldier’s riding breeches. From knee to ankle, they are to be sewed up tightly. By being closely bound to your legs, they will not get in your way or caught on the bows as you walk, preventing you from falling down. The surface of the pants must be also painted with lacquer to make it as hard as cowhide. Because bamboo is very springy, it is not stable to step on, and in that moment you would fall down. If your pants have not been lacquered and you slip, they would inevitably get torn and would cause your legs to receive pain.
When walking, your feet step on the bow tips. Step down just a little, then right away walk off, for you must not stand on a tip for long. In the beginning, support yourself along the bamboo poles with your hands, then once your stepping is skillful, you can dispense with them. Once you able to walk as though you are flying, then switch to thinner bamboo bows, and then later, when your stepping is very skillful, thick-soled shoes can be switched to thin-soled. You must step on the bow tips but not feel the bows bending. As soon you step on one, step off of it. Walk back and forth as though you are flying. The building of a foundation in developing floating energy has now begun.
Then put on lead anklets. They should be tightly tied on, for loose weights will be ineffective. You can switch to thicker bows to make it easier to carry the load. Once you are no longer noticing the anklets while walking, add more of them, then more, until they go all the way up to your knees. When you are finally stepping as if flying, no sensation of weight at all, then you must again switch to thinner bows. Once you are again no longer noticing the anklets while walking, then your training of walking on the bows can be considered complete and you may now practice jumping.
This type of jumping is entirely different from the high jump in school sporting events. When jumping, your knees must be bound up so they cannot bend, and thus your strength will be lifted up into your upper body, in the same way a plane’s engine is placed in the front and not in the tail. Although you will find the training to be arduous, once you have succeeded, the nimbleness of your body will truly astonish people. With a push of your foot against the ground, you can ascend to a rooftop without it being necessary to squat down first. For the height of such jumps in the beginning, five inches is appropriate, and thereafter you can gradually increase the height. If you can jump beyond three feet, take off the lead anklets and you will then be able to jump beyond thirty feet.
These are the secret teachings of the light-body skill. If you have never witnessed the things written of here, it will be as is said by practitioners of Wuzu Boxing: “All teachers pass on the real stuff in secret.” Students who have an ambition toward this must cut away their doubts and believe in it. As long as you practice perseveringly, you can look forward to success.
CHAPTER ELEVEN: PRACTICAL APPLICATION
Practical application is the most difficult part, especially when dealing with an opponent who is using hard energy, even more so when he is the type who has put a lot of hard work into developing his skill. Taking a look at his tendencies, there is so much to be observed, and then when facing him, your hands and feet get lost, a matter of your hand techniques, footwork, and body maneuverings completely departing from what is in your mind. When encountering an opponent who is an ordinary person, you fight against him like an ordinary person. But when encountering an opponent who is skillful, you are toppled immediately and do not know how he did it.
There are always practitioners like this who have trained for many years but are unable to apply any part of the art. Is this not a pity? Someone may say: “Such a person has the errors of undiscerning gaze and slow hands.” But the way I see it, that is not the real reason. Whether or not one can apply boxing skills is a matter of the switchings among one’s ordinary techniques.
I have also practiced the techniques of those hard-energy styles. What they emphasize is practice sets. Every posture has a fixed technique which cannot be altered and there is a fixed number of techniques which cannot be added to, and most of all, the sequence of the techniques cannot be changed, nor can the transformations of body maneuvering and footwork be adjusted without permission. You must go through the actions step by step like actors performing a fight scene in an opera, then you will be able to fight calmly rather than falling apart. When applying the individual techniques, if one of the people involved cannot perform the scene in accordance with its fixed choreography, changes the techniques, adds techniques, rearranges the sequence, or screws around with the body maneuverings and footwork, his partner will surely have jittery hands, confused feet, and a panicky awkwardness. The result of these errors will not only be a change from the normal situation, but also a person falling to the ground or getting injured.
When fighting or sparring, the opponent’s incoming attack will not be a fixed hand technique nor use fixed footwork, but you must use a programmed behavior to respond to it for the effectiveness of your practical application to be realized. I once saw a boxing instructor in a match in which the victor and loser were clear after the first exchange. After the second exchange, it was apparent who was the stronger and who was the weaker. It took no more than three or four exchanges and he was knocked him. Why was this? His experience with his ordinary techniques was unable to be used when fighting. When his opponent adapted, he was incapable of dealing with it.
The techniques in our system are very different from his, and are thus easier to apply. For our techniques, there is no choreographed practice set, no fixed pattern of footwork. We attack boldly when facing opponents, advancing as we please into his three sections [above, middle, below] and through his two gateways [outer and inner], the movements of our hands not restricted by prescribed ways of how techniques should follow or precede each other. When our hands cross, I stick to him, meaning not disconnecting from him. Once the training has reached the point of skill, ingenuity emerges.
Even in a dark room we can apply techniques, or even in the daytime with our eyes covered. Once when my teacher had finished a session of his own practice, he had a siesta in which he was heavily dreaming. Someone moved to nudge him awake and was surprised to discover his leg was being picked up and he was shot away. My teacher then awoke and found the man had fainted to the ground. First aid was administered to revive him and then it was explained to him what had happened. Another time, when my teacher was walking to a city market, someone happened to bump into his hand and promptly fell down unconscious. When he afterwards entered the market, he had to hold onto his own hands so as not to cause accidents.
Once these techniques are skillful, then as an opponent’s hand arrives, my hand lifts up. If his hand turns, mine also adjusts. If he goes upward, I go upward. If he goes downward, I go downward. If he goes to the left, I go to the left. If he goes to the right, I go to the right. Movements will emerge naturally and without any thinking. Although he wishes to guide my movement, he is unable to and ends up being guided. Although he wishes to take advantage of my position, he is unable to and his ends up being exploited.
My teacher explained this to someone who then suspected him of bragging, so he put on a white robe, pushed up his sleeves, and told the man to cover his hands in ink and then to attack him as he pleased. Though an adept martial artist, the man was even after a long time unable to get one touch, so he gave up, sweating and panting. With the robe as spotlessly white as before, he conceded defeat, but then advanced one more time, by bowing down and asking to learn the theory. Our teacher took a seat and said: “The way of practical application depends on individual techniques. The way of individual techniques depends on the teacher giving good guidance. Therefore the techniques in our system can never be thought of as separate from the teacher.”
In the beginning of practicing the techniques, your hands will be rigid. The teacher will then methodically guide you and make you more dexterous. Once you can follow along with an opponent’s changes, he will then reveal his flaws. Wait for the right moment and attack, and if you are still not detecting the moment, lure in his hands to attack you. To take advantage of the situation, you must not be stubborn about the way it is to be done.
After a long period, your hands will naturally be able to stick rather disconnect, and when there is a gap, you will enter. At that point, you must not raise your hands only to seal off the opponent, nor to lure him in to attack you. Why not? Because once your hands have become lively, to seal off is only half a technique. With half techniques, you will know how to defend but not how to attack, and in this way, the techniques would not live up to practical application.
The teachers in our system have to endure suffering. If a teacher cannot handle the idea of being hit, then the student’s skill will never achieve the level that is hoped for. A fellow student of mine once lashed out at our teacher in anger. When our teacher applied his techniques, it was to seal off the student’s hands so he could not shoot them out. Afterwards, even when the student wanted to attack, he was no longer able to get caught up in his emotion. Students in such moments should take heed. When seeking to apply techniques, you must not forget they came your from teacher, and especially must not think lightly of the teacher.
CHAPTER TWELVE: MEDITATION
What is valued in martial arts is movement, but what is to be displayed is meditation. Why is this? Because while practicing the techniques, even if your body is externally hard, internally it would actually be brittle. You must rely on meditation to solidify internally. Those who have not yet practiced meditation move energy externally and are not yet able to move energy internally. Though their bodies are solid, they can only perform the fierce striking of strong people and cannot handle a finger strike from an expert, for their organs within are still no different from an ordinary person’s. The body of an ordinary person has not undergone training. His energy does not flow and his body has not been hardened. When he is struck, he is injured. Therefore those who have not solidified internally will be injured internally as easily as an ordinary person would be injured externally.
Someone may disagree with this by saying: “With solidity outside, the organs inside are already protected. How is there no solidity?”
To which I say: “A glass stored away in an iron safe can withstand an attack from a stick, but give the safe a strong shake and the glass will break.” Therefore we can say that unless there is solidity internally, you can perform the fierce striking of a strong person yet be unable to handle a finger strike from an expert. A finger strike can penetrate directly to your inner body. It is equivalent to the shock within the safe. Even if you are as hard on the outside as an iron safe, your glassy innards can still be smashed. If we do not wish our organs to be as brittle as glass, then methods of meditation have to be understood and the training of meditation has to be engaged in.
The Daoist Zhang Ziyang said [preface to the poem “Four Hundred Words About the Golden Elixir”]: “When the eyes are not watching, the earthly soul remains in the liver. When the ears are not listening, essence remains in the kidneys. When the nose is not smelling, the ethereal soul remains in the lungs. When the tongue is not talking, spirit remains in the heart. When the limbs are not moving, intention remains in the spleen. This is called ‘the five energies returning to their original state’.”
Without watching, listening, smelling, talking, or moving, one is in a state of the utmost quietude. In the utmost quietude, vitality fills the organs. What has been diminished will be replenished. What has been spent will be recompensed. If this way, your body will become internally solid rather than brittle. But you must work at it every day, accumulating over the days, months, and many years for your skill to deepen, and then you can say you have achieved. It says in the Daoist scriptures [Pure Stillness Classic, chapter 3]: “If you can in your mind be pure and still, comprehension of Nature will come to you.”
The function of “stillness” cannot be fully explained, and moreover, this is not only a matter of solidifying internally. The longer we go through life, the more numerous our desires become. To make ourselves sit is doable, but to quiet ourselves is difficult, and to get ourselves to reach a state of not watching, not listening, not smelling, not talking, and not moving is very hard indeed. However, difficult does not mean impossible. As the old saying goes: “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.” [The Chinese version is closer to: “With willpower, you will succeed.” Before becoming a standard idiom, it originally appeared in Books of Later Han, Bio of Geng Yan, in which Emperor Guangwu praised General Geng Yan in front of the army and royal officials, and would there be rendered: “Having willpower, he succeeded.”] It is all a matter of maintaining your ambition. When a student who has such ambition asks for an explanation of the method, masters tend to be cautious and guard their secrets, and he will likely face some difficulty in getting the information.
Generally when you sit down to meditate, dawn is the best time. First undo your shirt buttons, then loosen your belt and remove your shoes. You must then set aside all thoughts till not one iota of an idea is staining your mind. Once your mind is at peace, start to slowly sit down. Your gaze must not be distant, for gazing far away will damage your spirit. Your head must not droop, which would make you drowsy. Your back must not hunch, which would cause your Ren [down the front] and Du [up the spine] meridians to become obstructed.
In the beginning of sitting practice, distracting ideas will frequently be generated and your thoughts will repeatedly wander. Even if you wish to get rid of every single one, unfortunately they will rise up unconsciously. The method lies in settling your watchfulness on your “sea of energy” [same idea as “contemplating your navel”], then you can gradually dispel them. The “sea of energy” point is below the navel and above the Ling Gui [i.e. Guan Yuan] acupoint. Our minds halt there and observe inwardly. With your mind looking within the acupoint, it and the energy guard each other. Your breathing returns to what is basic, conforming to the natural method, and you become aloof and unmoving. This is the mysterious “pure stillness” linking together the thread of your mind’s light with the thread of your authentic energy. The mind lies within the energy, but is unaware that the energy is wrapped around the mind and does not sense how densely it does so. This integration leads to the generating of a void, in which stillness is not sought and is instead automatic.
When your San Yang acupoints [at outer part of the forearm about four inches from the wrist between the two bones] feel full, this will surely make you change the blank expression on your face. At this time, you must not be alarmed, but instead stay as calm as before, mind steady and unmoving, and then your project will be thriving. However, every time you sit down to meditate, you must wait for your spirit to become pure and clear, like waking from a dream. When your limbs are elated, as though you have just taken a bath, you will then have proof that the project is progressing well. It says in the Book of Changes [commentary to the Kun hexagram]: “Beauty lies within and courses through to the four limbs.” This is the idea.
At this time, you should continue to sit quietly for a while and wait for your energy to return to its original state, then slowly undo your cross-legged position and slowly stand. After sitting, you must not suddenly rush off to urinate, nor speak in a loud voice. When sitting, be as you were at the beginning of the training. You must on no account abruptly unwind your position and stand up.
Long ago, when You Cu and Yang Shi first paid a visit to Cheng Yi, Cheng was sitting with his eyes closed. Instead of leaving, they simply waited. When Cheng woke, he said to them: “You gentlemen are still here? It’s late. Come in and rest.” They were outside his door under three feet of snow. [This story became compressed into an idiom: “standing in the snow at Cheng’s door”, representing being respectful toward one’s teacher.] These Song Dynasty philosophers often practiced seated meditation, and were sometimes unable to stop. If Cheng had been able to stop in his meditation, then allowing men to stand under three feet of snow would have been rather inhuman of him and not like the Way of his philosophy.
While practicing silent meditation, you must get rid of desires, otherwise it would be like steaming sand to make rice, futile and useless. We damage our bodies through five kinds of “leakings” [earthly soul, essence, ethereal soul, spirit, and intention leaking out through our eyes, ears, nose, speech, and movement]. Unless you seal off these leakings and replenish what has been lost, your foundation cannot be built and your project will never make progress. For example, if you want to construct a skyscraper but have not built a foundation, there would be no point even discussing whether the project can be completed or not. The drawbacks of leakage have already been explained in Chapter Two. For those who do not practice seated meditation, it seems they should change their ways. Otherwise how could they ever hope to achieve internal skill? I hope students of this art will not neglect it.
Here ends Part Two.
字門正宗附錄 醫傷祕錄 鵝湖胡遺生輯
APPENDIX: SECRET RECORDS OF INJURY MEDICINES (compiled by Hu Yisheng)
Which medicines are to be applied depends on the part of the body that is injured.
Forehead: Sichuan lovage, Chinese angelica, Chinese poppy, Chinese lovage.
Left temple: Chinese angelica, Chinese wild ginger root, parsnip root, bugbane.
Right temple: catnip, peppermint, angelica, anise.
Eye: feverfew, areca catechu, cicada slough, jingzi, safflower.
Back of the ear: moschus, Chinese angelica, Chinese wild ginger root.
Philtrum: moschus, gypsum, chishi, akebi, horsetail, squirrel’s foot fern, Chinese honeylocust seeds, red peony root, areca catechu.
Tooth: parsnip root, Chinese wild ginger root, frankincense.
Throat: orange peel, gentian, Chinese bellflower, licorice root.
Back of the head: Sichuan lovage, flatsedge tuber, dried bitter orange.
Injured hand: cassia twig, angelica, mulberry bark, cinnamon.
Injured foot: papaya skin, angelica, ox-knee root.
Injured ribs: orange peel, gentian, chaiming, turmeric.
Injured lower back: eucommia bark, guzhi beans, teasel root, woolly-fern root, daodougen.
Solar plexus area: sweet flag, shell ginger, costus root.
Injured back: Sichuan bulb of fritillary, spicebush root, clematis root.
Injured breast: rijin, Chinese bellflower, peucedanum root.
Injured heart: cinnabar, amber, shenjin, polygala.
Injured lung: yiren, jinchai, walnut, Chinese angelica, bletilla striata.
Injured gallbladder: Chinese arborvitae, gentian.
Upper abdomen: star anise, spicebush root, lingzhi, costus root, raw atractylodes, Chinese poppy.
Lower abdomen: anise, spicebush root, lingzhi, areca catechu, sweet flag, Sichuan hackberry, dried bitter orange, costus root, moschus.
There is no remedy for injury to the liver.
Forearm: zhuling, water plantain root, chiling, akebi, Chinese plantain seeds.
Bladder: jiehong, Indian mulberry root, anise, guzhi beans, spicebush root, tangerine seeds, fenugreek.
Tailbone: red peony root, qinjiao, teasel root, seahorse, monkey bone, tiger bone.
Qi Men acupoint: mother clove, bur-reed tuber, white turmeric, areca catechu, spicebush root, orange peel, dried orange peel, costus root.
Sole of foot: yiren, parsnip root, parasitic loranthus, monkey-grass tuber, costus root.
For nausea: small cardamom, Chinese bellflower, mother clove, huoxiang, ginger.
Spitting blood: jingmo, shanqi, roasted catnip.
Madness: cinnabar, polygala.
Thirst: trichosanthes root, spicebush root, powdered kudzu vine root.
Fecal incontinence: lotus seeds, Chinese goldthread.
Urinal incontinence: talcum, chiling, water plantain root.
Coma: ginseng, tuckahoe, crow-dipper.
Inability to defecate: rhubarb root, Glauber’s salt, Sichuan hackberry.
Inability to urinate: Chinese plantain seeds, akebi, zhuling, chiling, water plantain root.
Joints: rosin, bamboo joint, teasel root, nianjian.
Cough: Chinese bellflower, peucedanum root.
Injured chest, male or female: bupleurum, orange peel, red peony root, costus root.
For pregnant women, the most important thing is to prevent miscarriage and keep her energy balanced, and so she must not be wearying her blood.
She should use Four Ingredient Soup, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
In those with weak bodies, Six-Flavor Pills should be used, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
In those of age fifty or sixty, the blood circulation is no longer vigorous, and so Eight-Flavor Pills should be used, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
In the elderly, the blood and energy are extremely weak, and so Total Repair Soup should be used, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
When using strong medicine, it is necessary to observe the severity of the ailment and the strength of the body. They cannot be used in exactly the same way for everyone.
When the whole body has to be given anesthetics, the strength of the body’s energy should be examined to judge the amount to be applied.
When one is hurt by medicine, it is difficult to then prevent illness from being generated, and therefore the general effects of medicines must be known. These are listed below and should be kept in mind.
For the most part, there are certain medicines for certain illnesses. Novice physicians find it hard to memorize them, and thus was composed the “Song of Medicines for the Whole Body”, which should be learned by heart.
GENERALIZED EFFECTS OF MEDICINES
一、止痛 赤芍 五加皮 乳香 柴胡 石菖蒲 金毛狗 八稜麻 元胡索 白芍 土別 靈仙 肉桂 虎骨 胆草 獨脚連 地骨皮 金石斛 紅蚯蚓 龜甲 木瓜 猴骨
For stopping pain: red peony root, Siberian ginseng, frankincense, bupleurum, Japanese sweet flag, woolly-fern root, balengma, Chinese poppy, white peony root, tubie, clematis root, cinnamon, tiger bone, gentian, dujiaolian, medlar root bark, noble dendrobium, red earthworm, tortoise shell, papaya skin, monkey bone.
一、破血 降香 三稜 紅花 桃仁 莪朮 靈仙 三七 丹皮 當歸尾 牽牛 蘇木 然同 芒硝 靈砂 附子 射干 牛子 熟大地 桑寄生 七葉一枝花
For exhausted blood: fragrant rosewood, bur-reed tuber, safflower, taoren nuts, white turmeric, clematis root, pseudo-ginseng, peony root bark, dong quai, Japanese morning glory, sapanwood, rantong, Glauber’s salt, lingsha, Chinese wolfsbane, tiger lily, niuzi, cooked dadi, parasitic loranthus, paris polyphylla.
一、破氣 降香 三稜 莪朮 必澄茄 澤蘭 熟大黃 牽牛 芒硝 附子 梹榔 桑寄生 靈砂 牛子 香附 玉金 茯苓皮 射干
For exhausted energy: fragrant rosewood, bur-reed tuber, white turmeric, tailed pepper, thoroughwort, cooked rhubarb root, Japanese morning glory, Glauber’s salt, Chinese wolfsbane, areca catechu, parasitic loranthus, lingsha, niuzi, flatsedge tuber, yujin, tuckahoe, tiger lily.
一、走表 桂枝 北秦交
Ridding external illness: cassia twig, northern qinjiao.
一、走頭角 防風 蒿本 川芎 羗活 靑龍標
Ridding headache: parsnip root, wormwood root, Sichuan lovage, angelica, qinglongbiao.
一、走肚角 白芍 仙茅根 野燈心兜
Ridding stomachache: white peony root, weevil-wort root, wild dengxin.
Reducing redness: orange peel.
一、補腎 故紙 杜仲 兔絲子 枸𣏌 伏神 福圓
Kidney repair: guzhi beans, eucommia bark, dodder seeds, Chinese wolfberry, fushen, fuyuan.
一、鎭心 朱砂 神金 珍珠 金砂 銀硃
Calming the mind: cinnabar, shenjin, pearl, gold dust, silver dust.
Relieving constipation: rhubarb root.
一、消風 羗活 防風
Dispelling internal wind: angelica, parsnip root.
Ridding staleness and generating freshness: Sichuan lovage.
Stopping distress: aloeswood.
一、順氣 陳皮 桔梗 沉香 靑皮 丁香 棗皮 石菖蒲
Smoothing energy: dried orange peel, Chinese bellflower, aloeswood, orange peel, clove, date skin, Japanese sweet flag.
Ridding decrepitude: musk.
一、開胸 桔梗 只壳 石菖蒲 厚朴
Opening the chest: Chinese bellflower, dried bitter orange, Japanese sweet flag, magnolia bark.
一、生精 故紙 杜仲 牡力 龍骨
Generating essence: guzhi beans, eucommia bark, muli, fossil fragments.
一、補脾 米仁 黃實 紅棗 棗皮 山
Repairing the spleen: rice grains, huangshi, red date, date skin, goat’s blood.
一、走腰 故紙 杜仲 龍骨 牡力
Ridding illness from the lower back: guzhi beans, eucommia bark, fossil fragments, muli.
Strengthening tendons: licorice root.
一、活氣 猴骨 虎骨
For livening energy: monkey bone, tiger bone.
一、止血 棉灰 側柏葉 三七 山羊血
Stopping bleeding: cotton ash, Chinese arborvitae leaves, pseudo-ginseng, goat’s blood.
一、消水腫 蒼朮 茵陳
Dispelling edema: atractylodes root, capillary artemisia.
Ridding illness from kidneys: pasania seeds.
一、走脚 過江龍 地南蛇 獨脚連 龜甲 蒼朮 金石斛 五加皮 矮脚樟 老觀艸
Ridding illness from the feet: guojianglong, dinanshe, dujiaolian, tortoise shell, atractylodes root, noble dendrobium, Siberian ginseng, aijiaozhang, geranium.
Stopping painful cold feeling: bijie.
一、走筋骨 骨碎補 土別 八爪龍 虎骨 猴骨 製艸烏
Ridding illness from joints: squirrel’s foot fern, tubie, bazhaolong, tiger bone, monkey bone, processed monkshood root.
Ridding illness from the soles of the feet: low-flying bees.
Dispelling cold from muscle and bones: angelica.
For repairing primordial energy: white tuckahoe.
For repairing internal water: white tuckahoe.
一、補氣 熟地 烏藥 龜膠 鹿膠
For repairing energy: cooked Chinese foxglove, spicebush root, turtle glue, deer glue.
For blood flow: teasel root.
For energy flow: teasel root.
一、伸筋 米仁 桑寄生 地南蛇 鹿筋 八稜麻 過江龍
Increasing flexibility: rice grains, parasitic loranthus, dinanshe, deer tendon, balengma, guojianglong.
一、消脹 梹榔 茯苓皮
Reducing bloating: areca catechu, tuckahoe.
Reducing swelling: thoroughwort.
一、下氣 只壳 甘艸 木香
Releasing gas: dried bitter orange, licorice root, costus root.
一、走脇 胆艸 柴胡 靑皮
Ridding illness from the ribs: gentian, bupleurum, orange peel.
一、走手 桑枝 桂枝 南籐 勾籐
Ridding illness from the hands: mulberry branch, cassia twig, southern vine, cat’s claw.
一、通關節 過江龍 地南蛇 北秦交 松節 牛膝 獨脚連
Opening blockages in joints: guojianglong, dinanshe, northern qinjiao, songjie, ox-knee root, dujiaolian.
一、補中氣 人參 熟黃芪
Repairing central energy: ginseng, cooked astragalus.
Repairing the six bag-organs: renzhongbai.
一、淸肝火 茘枝 山甲
Purging liver fire: lychee, pangolin scales.
Purging heart fire: monkey-grass tuber.
一、淸肺火 北杏仁 核桃
Purging lung fire: northern almonds, walnut.
一、化痰 桔紅 法半夏 牛黃 南星 良姜
Reducing phlegm: jiehong, processed crow-dipper, ox bezoar, nanxing, shell ginger.
Easing blood: Japanese sophora root.
Stabilizing mood: shenjin.
一、通小便 鳳尾艸 鐵索肘 七葉一枝花 車前 澤瀉 朱苓 木通
Relieving inability to urinate: ferns, tiesuozhou, paris polyphylla, Chinese plantain seeds, water plantain root, zhuling, akebi.
一、寬大腸 熟大黃 牽牛
Relieving the large intestine: cooked rhubarb root, Japanese morning glory.
一、去油滯 山查 麥牙
Ridding stagnant fat deposits: Chinese hawthorn, maiya.
一、止臍痛 桔紅 艾葉
Stopping abdominal pain: jiehong, mugwort leaves.
Helping digestion: medicated leaven.
SONG OF MEDICINES FOR THE WHOLE BODY
Make use of dong quai, Chinese foxglove, areca catechu, and red peony root –
these four are the most important, allowing you to shift countless ailments.
For the hands: cassia twig, cat’s claw, or bugbane.
For the head: angelica, parsnip root, or Chinese angelica.
For the chest: dried bitter orange. For the solar plexus area: sweet flag.
Adding shell ginger can work simultaneously with both of them.
For the ribs: bupleurum, gentian, or orange peel.
For stubborn stomach ache: orange peel or white peony root.
If unable to defecate, rhubarb root is a good laxative.
If unable to urinate, Chinese plantain seeds are a good diuretic.
For the back: spicebush root, but clematis root will also have a substantial effect,
as will 5 grams of ramie reduced to ash.
If there is still no cessation of pains, adding woolly-fern root will work splendidly.
For the lower back: eucommia bark, or guzhi beans with star anise.
If there is swelling all over, have thoroughwort at hand.
If the pain persists for a long time, eating seven taoren nuts will ease it.
For the feet: ox-knee root, or comfort them by way of papaya skin.
These are authentic secrets. Give them careful attention.
 Ten-Thousand Uses Paste (also called Great Unity Powder):
川烏四錢 白朮四錢 白皮四錢 艸烏四錢 白芷四錢 大黃四錢 當歸四錢 連翹四錢 烏藥四錢 官桂八錢 木別八錢 苦參四錢 皂角五錢 皂次五錢 乳香五錢
chuanwu – 20 grams, atractylodes – 20 grams, mulberry bark – 20 grams, monkshood root – 20 grams, Chinese angelica – 20 grams, rhubarb root – 20 grams, dong quai – 20 grams, forsythia – 20 grams, spicebush root – 20 grams, cinnamon – 40 grams, mubie – 40 grams, sophora flavescens root – 20 grams, Chinese honeylocust seeds – 25 grams, zaoci – 25 grams, frankincense – 25 grams.
These fifteen medicines are to be soaked in half a kilogram of sesame oil for five days if in spring or autumn, three days in summer, ten days in winter. Then cook at medium heat until shriveled and blackened. Test it by putting a little bit in some water. If it forms into pellets instead of spreading uniformly, filter with a ramie cloth until a thick sludge is left. Then put five kinds of twigs – mulberry, peach tree, locust tree, willow, jujube tree – into the oil and again cook at medium heat. When you can stir the twigs without any resistance, pick one out, put it into water, and twist it like silk. When it is neither overcooked nor undercooked, add in huangdan – 250 grams, castor oil – 10 grams, tuocan – 35 grams. Once mixed evenly, add a little water. If you can twist the twigs into round lumps, you can now take the contents of the pot and seal it all into a container to await use. Whether for trauma injury or weather-related illness, it can deal with all afflictions – painful diarrhea, a deep cough, a profound headache…
 “Receiving Energy to Restore Life” Elixir:
紅地龍黃土山出用小便略浸卽拑起焙乾研末一錢 人參一錢 當門子五分 神金二百張扒下金來研末
red earthworms (from loess hills, slightly soaked in urine, then dried with tongs over a fire and pestled into a powder) – 5 grams, ginseng – 5 grams, moschus – 2.5 grams, shenjin – 200 sheets (pestled into powder under gold foil).
Pestle these four ingredients into a powder.
 Snuff powder for clearing internal obstruction:
猪牙皂扇紅炭火用鐵鉗夾住四圍烘爆研末一錢 馬尾辛一錢 寸香一錢
Chinese honeylocust seeds (held in tongs and toasted over a bellows-driven charcoal fire, then pestled into a powder) – 5 grams, maweixin – 5 grams, musk – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder.
 Aloeswood Powder:
沉香一錢 血結一錢 降香一錢 陳皮一錢 只壳酒浸去瓤切片焙乾一錢 必澄茄一錢 三七一錢 公丁香一錢
aloeswood – 5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, fragrant rosewood – 5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, dried bitter orange – 5 grams (soaked in wine, then pulp removed and roasted), tailed pepper – 5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, common clove – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder.
 Five Tigers Elixir:
馬前子用童便浸七日扒去毛冷水浸三日水一日一換濾乾水露四十九日焙乾一兩 陳只壳酒浸去瓤切片焙乾一兩 自然銅炭煆紅七次醋浸黑七次七錢 牛角笋用炭將笋烘乾六錢 朱砂水飛過四錢
Chinese plantain seeds – 50 grams (soaked in child’s urine for seven days, then pulled out for seed hairs to be removed, then soaked in cold water for three days, set in a water strainer to dry for a day, water distilled for forty-nine days, then dried over a fire), dried bitter orange – 50 grams (wine soaked, then cut into slices and dried over a fire), native copper – 35 grams (that has been seven times charcoal-heated until glowing and seven times soaked in vinegar until blackened), oxhorn bamboo shoots – 30 grams (dried in a charcoal fire cooking bamboo shoots), cinnabar – 20 grams (cleaned by water and wind).
Pestle these five ingredients into a powder.
 Treasured Red Medicine Elixir:
眞琥珀用水豆腐一塊將琥珀插入豆腐內水煑一枝香久拿起過性研末四錢 上血結四錢 箭頭砂水飛凈五分 眞金砂二錢 眞銀砂三錢 川三七三錢 紅地龍黃土山出小便略浸拑起焙乾五錢 上肉桂五錢 自然銅炭煆紅七次醋浸黑七次三錢 大土別用燒酒醉一日露一夜醉七日露七夜然後焙乾五錢 土人參三錢 半兩錢製法同自然銅三錢 八爪龍焙乾一兩
genuine amber (placed within a lump of tofu soaking in water, the water then boiled for as long as a stick of incense, the amber then removed and pestled into a powder) – 20 grams, high quality bloodclotter – 20 grams, arrowhead sand (cleaned by water and wind) – 2.5 grams, genuine gold dust – 10 grams, genuine silver dust – 15 grams, Sichuan pseudo-ginseng – 15 grams, red earthworms (from loess hills, slightly soaked in urine, then dried with tongs over a fire) – 25 grams, cinnamon – 25 grams, native copper (that has been seven times charcoal-heated until glowing and seven times soaked in vinegar until blackened) – 15 grams, large tubie (soaked in cooking wine all day then distilled overnight, for seven days and nights, then dried over a fire) – 25 grams, fameflower – 15 grams, banliang coin (processed in the same way as the native copper) – 15 grams, dried bazhaolong – 50 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 1.5 grams, wine soaked.
 Recipe for knife wound that produces unceasing bleeding:
寸香一錢 神金一百張 熊胆一錢
musk – 5 grams, shenjin – 100 sheets, bear’s gallbladder – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder.
[8.1] Marvelous recipe for knife wounds:
生南星三錢 三七一錢 上片五分 黃連一錢 石止一錢 龍骨一錢 生半夏三錢 古墓灰卽古墓中之磚用硬炭煉紅過性研末一錢
raw nanxing – 15 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, shang pian – 2.5 grams, Chinese goldthread – 5 grams, shizhi – 5 grams, fossil fragments – 5 grams, raw crow-dipper – 15 grams, tomb dust (from the hard bricks getting heated and pestled into a powder) – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder.
[8.2] Another method:
dengxin (soaked in gruel for half a day, dried in the sun, then pestled into a powder) – 50 grams, Chinese angelica – 50 grams.
Pestle them into a powder.
[8.3] Another method:
生南星五錢 生半夏五錢 烏藥五錢 地虱五錢 龍骨五錢 金毛狗五錢略炒
raw nanxing – 25 grams, raw crow-dipper – 25 grams, spicebush root– 25 grams, pill bugs – 25 grams, fossil fragments – 25 grams, woolly-fern root – 25 grams, slightly roasted.
Pestle them into a powder.
 Recipe for rinsing away scabbed blood:
防風 蟬退 甘艸 金銀花
parsnip root, cicada slough, licorice root, honeysuckle.
 Recipe for countering stomachache:
weevil-wort root, wild dengxin.
Boil in wine.
 Four Ingredient Soup (This is mainly for women. Other medicines can also be added to it.):
當歸 川芎 赤芍 熟地
dong quai, Sichuan lovage, red peony root, cooked Chinese foxglove.
 Six-Flavor Pills (This is mainly for those with weak bodies. Other medicines can be added.):
熟地 山藥 杜仲 故紙 白茯苓 丹皮
cooked Chinese foxglove, Chinese yam, eucommia bark, guzhi beans, white tuckahoe, peony root bark.
 Eight-Flavor Pills (This is mainly for those in their fifties or sixties whose blood circulation is inadequate. Specific medicine for sickened areas of the body can be added.):
澤瀉 棗皮 熟地 山藥 茯苓 杜仲 故紙 丹皮
water plantain root, date skin, cooked Chinese foxglove, Chinese yam, tuckahoe, eucommia bark, guzhi beans, peony root bark.
 Total Repair Soup (This is mainly for old people for whom the blood and energy is weak. Specific medicine for sickened areas of the body can be added.):
人參 炒黃苓 澤瀉 棗皮 白茯苓 山藥 杜仲 故紙 丹皮 熟地黃
ginseng, roasted huangling, water plantain root, date skin, white tuckahoe, Chinese yam, eucommia bark, guzhi beans, peony root bark, cooked Chinese foxglove.
 Eight Treasures Elixir:
珍珠 瑪瑙 象皮切片炒後卽時研末 地虱 黃連 石止 龍骨 三七
pearl, agate, elephant skin (roasted then pestled into a powder), pill bugs, Chinese goldthread, shizhi, fossil fragments, pseudo-ginseng.
Pestle these eight ingredients into a powder, but keep the elephant skin apart. It is to be added after the other ingredients are in the mouth.
[16.1] Powder for clearing internal obstruction:
猪牙皂四錢 北細辛二錢五分 寸香三分另下 荊芥穗一錢五分 江子心一分
Chinese honeylocust seeds – 20 grams, Chinese wild ginger root – 12.5 grams, musk – 1.5 grams (or more), catnip grains – 7.5 grams, jiangzixin – 0.5 grams.
Pestle these five ingredients into a powder. Use as a snuff, left nostril for men, rght nostril for women.
[16.2] Another method:
白芷 牙皂 雄黃 細辛
Chinese angelica, Chinese honeylocust seeds, realgar, Chinese wild ginger root.
Pestle them into a powder. Use as a snuff.
 Crowing Rooster Powder:
大黃一兩酒炒 桃仁五錢去皮 當歸五錢
rhubarb root – 50 grams, taoren nuts – 25 grams, dong quai – 25 grams.
Use with wine, total of five doses.
 “Death-Defying Fight-for-Life” Triumphant Immortality Elixir:
人參四錢 硃砂四錢 琥珀四錢 兒茶四錢 沉香四錢 乳香五錢 血結五錢 製大黃五錢 黃柏五錢 紅花五錢 當歸五錢 木香五錢 神金五百張
ginseng – 20 grams, cinnabar – 20 grams, amber – 20 grams, black catechu – 20 grams, aloeswood – 20 grams, frankincense – 25 grams, bloodclotter – 25 grams, processed rhubarb root – 25 grams, amur cork bark – 25 grams, safflower – 25 grams, dong quai – 25 grams, costus root – 25 grams, shenjin – 500 sheets.
Pestle these thirteen ingredients into a powder. Use in doses of 5 grams soaked in wine or child’s urine.
 Death Reversal Elixir:
羗活一兩 獨活一兩 防風一兩 黃柏五錢 三稜五錢 莪朮五錢 梹榔五錢 桔梗五錢 乳香二錢 沒藥二錢 琥珀八錢 木香一錢 靑皮一錢 蘇木三錢 元胡一兩 沉香三錢 紅花三錢 辰砂三錢 歸尾三錢 甘艸四錢 血結三錢 日金五錢 虎骨一兩
angelica – 50 grams, angelica – 50 grams, parsnip root – 50 grams, amur cork bark – 25 grams, bur-reed tuber – 25 grams, white turmeric – 25 grams, areca catechu – 25 grams, Chinese bellflower – 25 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, amber – 40 grams, costus root – 5 grams, orange peel – 5 grams, sapanwood – 15 grams, Chinese poppy – 50 grams, aloeswood – 15 grams, safflower – 15 grams, cinnabar – 15 grams, dong quai – 15 grams, licorice root – 20 grams, bloodclotter – 15 grams, rijin – 25 grams, tiger bone – 50 grams.
Pestle them into a powder and soak in water. Put 5 grams of gingered scallion on the lower teeth, then use with child’s urine.
 “Reversing Death & Restoring Life” Elixir:
佛指甲卽貼脚草取葉三十片 老人霜一錢 寸香三分
sedum multicaule – 30 blades of the grassy leaves from the base of the plant, laorenshuang – 5 grams, musk – 1.5 grams.
Pestle these three ingredients into a powder. For one who has fainted, put dengxin in the nostrils to rouse him. If that has an effect on him, he is still able to breathe and can be treated. Mix this medicine into a quantity of child’s urine and watered wine, then pour into his mouth. After reviving him thus, use a dose of Fight-for-Life Elixir cooked in wine.
 Resurrection Elixir:
猪牙皂三分 南星三分 白芷三分 三七一錢 沉香三分 大丁香一錢 琥珀一錢 乳香一錢 沒藥一錢 神金卅張 珍珠五分 土別三錢 寸香三分 人參一錢 木香一錢
Chinese honeylocust seeds – 1.5 grams, nanxing – 1.5 grams, Chinese angelica – 1.5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, aloeswood – 1.5 grams, giant clove – 5 grams, amber – 5 grams, frankincense – 5 grams, myrrh – 5 grams, shenjin – 30 sheets, pearl – 2.5 grams, tubie – 15 grams, musk – 1.5 grams, ginseng – 5 grams, costus root – 5 grams.
Mix these fifteen ingredients with child’s urine or wine. Use only 0.5-1.5 grams each time.
 Recipe for stopping pain and reducing swelling:
獨活五錢 枳實五錢 歸尾一兩 羗活三錢 紅花一兩 大黃一兩 靑皮五錢 莪朮七錢 木香一兩 赤芍五錢 黃柏五錢 乳香七錢 沒藥五錢 兒茶五錢 三稜七錢
angelica – 25 grams, dried citron – 25 grams, dong quai – 50 grams, angelica – 15 grams, safflower – 50 grams, rhubarb root – 50 grams, orange peel – 25 grams, white turmeric – 35 grams, costus root – 50 grams, red peony root– 25 grams, amur cork bark – 25 grams, frankincense – 35 grams, myrrh – 25 grams, black catechu – 25 grams, bur-reed tuber – 35 grams.
All of these medicines should be combined as a powder. Others can also be added to it.
 “Life Over Death” Elixir (for serious injury that incapacitates speech):
當歸 川芎 白芷 白芍 烏藥 只壳 肉桂 乳香 木香 生地 粟壳 碎補
dong quai, Sichuan lovage, Chinese angelica, white peony root, spicebush root, dried bitter orange, cinnamon, frankincense, costus root, Chinese foxglove, poppy capsule, squirrel’s foot fern.
Mix with gingered scallions. Fry in child’s urine and wine. There will be a constant improvement after three doses.
 “Invigorate the Blood to Stop Pain” Elixir (for treating all kinds of afflictions, such as long-standing excessive thinness, edema, excessive phlegm, asthma, numbness in the limbs, a sense of lightness during the day but heaviness at night, passive energy expressive while active energy is subdued…):
當歸一錢 川芎一錢 白芷一錢 杜仲一錢 穿山甲一錢土炒成珠 甘艸五錢 羗活五錢 羗活五錢 木瓜五錢 小茴五錢炒 肉桂七錢 川烏一個製 射香二分另研
dong quai – 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 5 grams, Chinese angelica – 5 grams, eucommia bark – 5 grams, pangolin scales – 5 grams (roasted in soil and shaped into pellets), licorice root – 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, papaya skin – 25 grams, anise – 25 grams, cinnamon – 35 grams, chuanwu – 1 piece prepared, moschus – 1 gram.
共研細末。每服五錢。童便合好酒調服。服後如不見效。再加 乳香 血結 角茴 虎脛骨 人參 骨碎補 木香 沉香 自然銅 各一錢。入前藥服之。神效。
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 25 grams mixed with child’s urine or good wine. If no effects are then seen, add frankincense, bloodclotter, anise tree bark, tiger tibia, ginseng, squirrel’s foot fern, costus root, aloeswood, native copper – 5 grams each. Joined to the initial medicines, the effects will now be miraculous.
 Nation-Defeating Elixir (After receiving an injury, taking this into your mouth and swallowing it down will then make you feel as though you have been possessed by a demon.):
虎骨一兩 烏藥八錢 川牛膝七錢 杜仲七錢 獨活七錢 甘艸七錢 黑豆七錢 姜虫七錢 羗活七錢 天麻七錢 荊芥七錢 角茴七錢 自然銅七錢 肉桂七錢 寄生五錢 連翹五錢 梹榔五錢 木瓜五錢 乳香五錢 沒藥五錢 金銀花五錢 故紙五錢 勾籐五錢 南星五錢 木香五錢 五加皮五錢 防己五錢 紫荊皮五錢 碎補五錢 川烏三錢 首烏三錢 姜三錢
tiger bone – 50 grams, spicebush root– 40 grams, ox-knee root – 35 grams, eucommia bark – 35 grams, angelica – 35 grams, licorice root – 35 grams, black soybeans – 35 grams, ginger worm – 35 grams, angelica – 35 grams, gastrodia tuber – 35 grams, catnip – 35 grams, anise tree bark – 35 grams, native copper – 35 grams, cinnamon – 35 grams, jisheng – 25 grams, forsythia – 25 grams, areca catechu – 25 grams, papaya skin – 25 grams, frankincense – 25 grams, myrrh – 25 grams, honeysuckle – 25 grams, guzhi beans – 25 grams, cat’s claw – 25 grams, nanxing – 25 grams, costus root – 25 grams, Siberian ginseng – 25 grams, fangji – 25 grams, Chinese redbud bark – 25 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 25 grams, chuanwu – 15 grams, knotweed tuber – 15 grams, ginger – 15 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 15 grams. Wind is to be avoided throughout the treatment, as is the eating of raw, cold, sour, or fishy foods.
 Powder for relieving pain after fracture-setting:
乳香一兩 蘇木一兩 降香一兩 川烏一兩去皮尖 松節一兩 自然銅一兩 龍骨五錢 地龍土去凈淸油炒五錢 血結三錢 土別八個
frankincense – 50 grams, sapanwood – 50 grams, fragrant rosewood – 50 grams, chuanwu – 50 grams, songjie – 50 grams, native copper – 50 grams, fossil fragments – 25 grams, earthworms – 25 grams (washed off and cooked in vegetable oil), bloodclotter – 15 grams, tubie – eight pieces.
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 15 grams.
 Triple Panacea
馬前子八兩酒蒸去皮童便浸春初一七將夏五日夏秋三日冬天一七洗凈切片 陳只壳一斤童便浸七日七夜去瓤切片 醉仙丹一兩略炒
Chinese plantain seeds – 400 grams (wine steamed, then soaked in child’s urine for seven days if in spring or winter, five in summer, three in autumn, then washed and cut into slices), dried bitter orange – 500 grams (soaked for seven days and nights in child’s urine, then cut into slices), “drunken panacea” [a tonic made of Chinese ephedra, nanxing, Chinese wolfsbane, and earthworm] – 50 grams slightly heated.
Pestle these three ingredients into a powder, but without overheating them. Use in doses of 1.5 grams, applied externally to the injured area.
 Seven Hair-Widths Powder (also called Dragon & Tiger Elixir):
馬前子一兩酒蒸去皮小便浸一七一日一煥然後用姜挖一孔置馬前於其中以紙包裹入火煨之聞姜香又換一姜連製七次 陳只壳一兩酒蒸一夜去瓤切片炒乾為末露一七 眞熊胆一錢
Chinese plantain seeds – 50 grams (wine steamed, then soaked in child’s urine for seven days or until shining, then ginger is pressed in the middle and the whole is baked wrapped in paper until it smells of ginger, this gingering process done to it seven times), dried bitter orange – 50 grams (wine steamed overnight, pulp sliced into pieces, dry roasted and powdered, then distilled over seven days), genuine bear’s gallbladder – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. After one is knocked unconscious in a fall and awakening with pain in the throat, this is to be used as a snuff to deal with it.
 Stomach Purge Soup (for those who have developed throat pain after taking trauma medicine):
丹皮 川芎 熟地 當歸 元參 石菖蒲 粉干葛 白茯苓 只壳 川朴 桔梗 陳皮 艸烏 支子 燈心引
peony root bark, Sichuan lovage, cooked Chinese foxglove, dong quai, aged ginseng, Japanese sweet flag, powdered kudzu vine root, white tuckahoe, dried bitter orange, Sichuan hackberry, Chinese bellflower, dried orange peel, monkshood root, cape jasmine fruit, dengxin.
 “Fight-for-Life Death-Defying” Elixir:
三稜一兩 莪朮一兩 歸尾一兩 桔梗一兩 牛膝一兩 紅花一兩 赤芍一兩 姜黃一兩 川芎一兩 大黃三兩 澤蘭三兩 紫蘇五錢 桂枝五錢 羗活五錢 車前五錢 斑蟊五錢
bur-reed tuber – 50 grams, white turmeric – 50 grams, dong quai – 50 grams, Chinese bellflower – 50 grams, ox-knee root – 50 grams, safflower – 50 grams, red peony root – 50 grams, turmeric – 50 grams, Sichuan lovage – 50 grams, rhubarb root – 150 grams, thoroughwort – 150 grams, purple perilla – 25 grams, cassia twig– 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, Chinese plantain seeds – 25 grams, Spanish fly – 25 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. This must not be used randomly. It is for when one is on the edge of death. Apply it by of drips into the mouth to awaken him.
 Pain Treating Elixir (for managing the post-injury influence that brings pain to your limbs):
生蒼朮八兩 碎補八兩 故紙八兩 穿山甲八兩 製艸烏八兩
raw atractylodes root – 400 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 400 grams, guzhi beans – 400 grams, pangolin scales – 400 grams, processed monkshood root – 400 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Soak with wine and shape into pellets, each dose about fifty grains worth. It will quickly produce numbness in the body where pain could not otherwise be prevented.
 Secret recipe for Energizing Scallion Pills:
生川烏四兩 生艸烏四兩 生川芎四兩 生白芷四兩 生姜一斤 香葱一斤
raw chuanwu – 200 grams, raw monkshood root – 200 grams, Sichuan lovage – 200 grams, raw Chinese angelica – 200 grams, raw ginger – 500 grams, scallions – 500 grams.
Pound into a pulp and make into pellets. Place in a jar, then seal the jar and bury it in the ground for three days if in spring, one day in summer, five days in autumn, seven days in winter. Remove from jar and dry in the sun. Use in doses of 7.5 grams.
 The Daoist Xiong’s Secret Recipe:
生艸烏一兩五錢五分 靈仙根三錢三分 骨碎補三錢三分 天台烏三錢三分 當歸尾三錢三分 香小茴二錢 正安桂一錢五分
raw monkshood root – 57.5 grams, clematis root – 19.5 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 19.5 grams, tiantaiwu – 19.5 grams, dong quai – 19.5 grams, fragrant anise – 10 grams, authentic angui – 7.5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Mix into a watered liquor. Use 7.5 grams for a new illness, 10 grams for a chronic illness. After taking a dose, there will be a coma-like fainting which will be awakened from a short while later and the illness will suddenly be cured.
 Recipe of medicinal rinse for injury to the eye:
生大黃二錢 生黃柏二錢 生甘艸二錢 金銀花三錢 九節茶二錢 老陳茶一錢
raw rhubarb root – 10 grams, raw amur cork bark – 10 grams, raw licorice root – 10 grams, honeysuckle – 15 grams, sarcandra glabra – 10 grams, laochencha – 5 grams.
These six ingredients should be stewed in water, then applied as a rinse.
 Recipe for emergency stopping of pain caused by knife or spear:
雄猪油 明松香 白麫粉 凈黃蠟 片樟腦 上冰片 眞血結 寒兒茶 的乳香 明沒藥 紫艸茸 眞射香六分另下
hog lard, clear rosin, white flour, pure beeswax, sliced camphor, high quality borneol, genuine bloodclotter, chilled black catechu, frankincense, bright myrrh, shellac, genuine moschus – 3 grams or more.
These twelve ingredients, except for the moschus, are each measured at 150 grams. They are to be pestled into a powder [except for the hog lard, rosin, and beeswax]. First the dregs are boiled out of the hog lard, then out of the rosin and beeswax. Wait until cooled, then stir in the powder evenly. Store in a porcelain jug that will let no air escape. This is the foremost medicine for knife or spear wounds. When a slash from an ax blade causes blood to flow, applying this medicine to the wounded area immediately stops the bleeding and stabilizes the pain, and will produce no pus. It is superior to most other medicines, even better than water itself.
 Fragrant powder for injurious strike to the belly that has caused vomiting or urinating:
母丁香五分 小茴香八分 大茴香八分 南沉香一錢 的乳香八分 眞降香八分 黃木香一錢 甘松香八分 上射香二分另入 白芸香八分 花木通一錢 尖桃仁八分
mother clove – 2.5 grams, anise – 4 grams, star anise – 4 grams, southern aloeswood – 5 grams, frankincense – 4 grams, genuine fragrant rosewood – 4 grams, costus root – 5 grams, gansongxiang – 4 grams, moschus – 1 gram, white rue – 4 grams, akebi – 5 grams, pointed taoren nuts – 4 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Use on an empty stomach.
 Powder for recovery from a strike to the testicles that has produced swelling:
大茴香二錢 小茴香二錢 茘枝核一錢 靑皮一錢 海藻一錢 昆布一錢 川練子一錢 桔梗一錢 梹榔八分 莪朮一錢 香附一錢 沉香一錢 遠志一錢 金櫻子一錢 木香一錢 白芸香一錢
star anise – 10 grams, anise – 10 grams, lychee nut – 5 grams, orange peel – 5 grams, seaweed – 5 grams, kelp – 5 grams, melia toosendan – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, areca catechu – 4 grams, white turmeric – 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, aloeswood – 5 grams, polygala – 5 grams, fruit of Cherokee rose – 5 grams, costus root – 5 grams, white rue – 5 grams.
Boil in wine. Use on an empty stomach.
 Six Magics Elixir (medicine for reducing trauma-induced swelling):
紅花二錢 靑代一錢 馬前子二錢去毛麻油浸過 綠豆粉二錢 人中白一錢
safflower – 10 grams, qingdai – 5 grams, Chinese plantain seeds – 10 grams (soaked in sesame oil), powdered mung beans – 10 grams, renzhongbai – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Apply with egg whites or vinegar.
 Recipe for fracture-setting medicine:
鷄公一隻扭死全隻搗爛 生姜四兩 生川烏一兩 白芷一兩 生香葱一把
rooster comb – 1 piece (twisted off and pounded to pulp), raw ginger – 200 grams, raw chuanwu – 50 grams, Chinese angelica – 50 grams, raw scallions – 1 handful.
Pound them into mush. Cook in 150 grams of honey and shape into cakes. Apply with cloth strips for two or three days.
 Trauma medicine recipe:
肉桂二錢 田七一錢 小茴五錢 杜仲二錢 法夏二錢 黃柏一錢 香附一兩 生艸烏三錢
cinnamon – 10 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, anise – 25 grams, eucommia bark – 10 grams, pinellia root – 10 grams, amur cork bark – 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 50 grams, raw monkshood root – 15 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Bake with wine into cakes, adding a handful of scallions. Pound to mush and apply as a hot compress.
[41.1] Recipe for treating knife wounds:
靑花龍骨二錢 雄精五分 鷄肫皮一隻 墨魚骨五分 冰片三分 寒水石一錢 脚魚骨二錢
fossil fragments – 10 grams, realgar – 2.5 grams, chicken gizzard membrane – 1 piece, moyugu – 2.5 grams, borneol – 1.5 grams, hanshuishi – 5 grams, jiaoyugu – 10 grams.
Pestle them into a powder with your mouth covered.
[41.2] Another method:
蒲黃二錢 黃丹一錢 洋參一錢五分 珍珠一錢 白蠟三錢 姜炭一錢五分 黃柏三錢 射香一分 琥珀一錢 冰片一錢 大黃三錢 黃連二錢 竹黃二錢 白芷二錢 干石二錢
cattail pollen – 10 grams, huangdan – 5 grams, ginseng – 7.5 grams, pearl – 5 grams, white wax – 15 grams, jiangtan – 7.5 grams, amur cork bark – 15 grams, moschus – 0.5 grams, amber – 5 grams, borneol – 5 grams, rhubarb root – 15 grams, Chinese goldthread – 10 grams, zhuhuang – 10 grams, Chinese angelica – 10 grams, ganshi – 10 grams.
Pestle them into a powder.
 Muscle-Growth Powder:
冰片 線丹 象皮和老壁土炒存性研末
borneol, xiandan, elephant skin (cooked with aged clay and ground down).
Pestle them into a powder.
[43.1] Recipe for applied compress:
生南星一錢 生艸烏一錢五分 吳茱萸一錢五分 杭靑皮一錢 生半夏一錢五分 生川烏一錢 細辛一錢五分 炒沒藥一錢五分 生皂角一錢五分 生支子一錢 老只壳一錢 生大黃一錢 骨碎補一錢 乳香一錢 川紅花一錢 北防風一錢
raw nanxing – 5 grams, raw monkshood root – 7.5 grams, evodia ruticarpa – 7.5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, raw crow-dipper – 7.5 grams, raw chuanwu – 5 grams, Chinese wild ginger root – 7.5 grams, roasted myrrh – 7.5 grams, raw Chinese honeylocust seeds – 7.5 grams, raw cape jasmine fruit – 5 grams, dried bitter orange – 5 grams, raw rhubarb root – 5 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 5 grams, frankincense – 5 grams, Sichuan safflower – 5 grams, northern parsnip root – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Add 100 grams of raw ginger. Pound into mush and cook with wine. Add wheat flour and make into cakes. Apply as a hot compress to injured area.
[43.2] Another method:
fetal hair – 25 grams (reduced to ash), borneol – 20 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Apply to injured area.
 Recipe for promoting muscle growth:
象皮二錢 干石二錢 化石二錢 血結二錢 乳香二錢 沒藥二錢 冰片一錢 兒茶一錢
elephant skin – 10 grams, ganshi – 10 grams, fossil fragments – 10 grams, bloodclotter – 10 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, borneol – 5 grams, black catechu – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder with your mouth covered.
 Iron Shirt Recipe (After eating this, one is unharmed when struck.):
然同三錢 名異三錢 乳香二錢 沒藥二錢 田七二錢 蘇木二錢 歸尾五錢 木別二錢 地輪二錢 熊胆一錢
rantong – 15 grams, mingyi – 15 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 10 grams, sapanwood – 10 grams, dong quai – 25 grams, mubie – 10 grams, dilun – 10 grams, bear’s gallbladder – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Soak in water and form into pellets. Use in doses of 15 grams.
 “Knife-Wounded Flesh” Powder:
川烏一錢 艸烏一錢 兒茶一錢五分 血結一錢 象皮一錢 夫凡五分 丹黃一錢 川連一錢 冰片四分 琥珀一錢 射香三分 珍珠五分
chuanwu – 5 grams, monkshood root – 5 grams, black catechu – 7.5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, elephant skin – 5 grams, fufan – 2.5 grams, danhuang – 5 grams, chuanlian – 5 grams, borneol – 2 grams, amber – 5 grams, moschus – 1.5 grams, pearl – 2.5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Apply to wound with dried candle wax.
 Recipe for medical alcohol (for use on bruises and abrasions, not for drinking):
紅花 歸尾 艸烏 川烏 乳香 沒藥 生地 澤蘭 續斷
safflower, dong quai, monkshood root, chuanwu, frankincense, myrrh, Chinese foxglove, thoroughwort, teasel root.
Combine these nine ingredients into doses of 10 grams, soaked in alcohol for seven days.
 Body Relaxant Liquor (for martial arts practitioners to drink):
桂枝五錢 續斷八錢 虎掌一兩 碎補五錢 當歸八錢 白芷三錢 酒芍五錢 正桑寄五錢 鹿筋一兩 熟地一兩 川芎六錢 靈仙五錢 紅花三錢 然同二錢 加皮五錢 寬筋藤三錢 血結四錢 生地八錢 靈脂五錢 土別三錢
cassia twig – 25 grams, teasel root – 40 grams, tiger paw pinellia – 50 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 25 grams, dong quai – 40 grams, Chinese angelica – 15 grams, jiu shao – 25 grams, parasitic loranthus – 25 grams, deer tendon – 50 grams, cooked Chinese foxglove – 50 grams, Sichuan lovage – 30 grams, clematis root – 25 grams, safflower – 15 grams, rantong – 10 grams, Siberian ginseng – 25 grams, Chinese tinospora – 15 grams, bloodclotter – 20 grams, Chinese foxglove – 40 grams, lingzhi – 25 grams, tubie – 15 grams.
Mix these twenty ingredients into boiling wine. Wait for it to cool, then pour into a double helping of watered liquor.
 Recipe for Nine Ingredients Drunken Peach of Immortality (or “Running Horse”):
(1) sapanwood – Fry and stir, place on a polished fresh tile and dry over a fire.
(2) safflower – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
(3) child’s urine – Stir, dry on a tile over fire.
(4) dong quai – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
(5) “wood ear” fungus – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
(6) white wax – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
(7) balled-up fetal hair – Rinse clean, dry over fire, pestle into a powder, steam on top of rice, stir, dry on a tile over fire.
(8) taoren nuts – Peel and pestle into pieces, steam on top of rice, stir, dry on a tile over fire.
(9) wine yeast – Stir, dry on a tile over fire, then give seven soaks in child’s urine, seven soaks in water that has washed rice, again dry over fire.
Once the nine ingredients are each prepared, pestle them into a powder. Store in a porcelain jug. Use in doses of 3.5 grams, mixed into heated wine. Avoid during that time eating millet gruel or drinking cold water.
 Throat-Opening Powder (Injury to the throat may cause such swelling that one is unable to take in food after a few days. In such an emergency, use this remedy.):
燕子窼泥二錢 明雄黃一錢 冰片五分 月石一錢 山豆根一錢 製番別三錢
swallow’s nest mud – 10 grams, realgar – 5 grams, borneol – 2.5 grams, borax – 5 grams, shandougen – 5 grams, processed fanbie – 15 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Mix with cooking wine or egg whites to apply it.
 Recipe for treating a child’s illness:
勾藤 云皮 半夏 防風 細辛 乳香 沒藥 羗活 薄荷 南星 甘艸
cat’s claw, yunpi, crow-dipper, parsnip root, Chinese wild ginger root, frankincense, myrrh, angelica, peppermint, nanxing, licorice root.
The strength of the dosage depends on the age of the child.
 Recipe for left hand:
上桂二錢 紅花一錢 冰片一錢 木通一錢 桃仁一錢 射香三分 陳皮一錢 靈仙二錢 故紙二錢 木瓜一錢 桂枝二錢 碎補二錢 虎骨一錢 母丁一錢 香附一錢 沒藥三錢 梹榔一錢 紅硝一錢 然同二錢 甘艸八分
high quality cinnamon – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, borneol – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 5 grams, moschus – 1.5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, clematis root – 10 grams, guzhi beans– 10 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, cassia twig – 10 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 10 grams, tiger bone – 5 grams, mother clove– 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, myrrh – 15 grams, areca catechu – 5 grams, hongxiao – 5 grams, rantong – 10 grams, licorice root – 4 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.
 Recipe for right hand:
虎骨二錢 木通一錢 桃仁二錢 然同一錢 桂枝二錢 紅硝一錢 香附一錢 木瓜一錢 碎補二錢 上桂二錢 紅花二錢 沒藥二錢 歸尾二錢 靈仙一錢 桔梗二錢 乳香二錢 甘艸八分 射香三分 川芎二錢 明七一錢
tiger bone – 10 grams, akebi – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 10 grams, rantong – 5 grams, cassia twig – 10 grams, hongxiao – 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 10 grams, high quality cinnamon – 10 grams, safflower – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, dong quai – 10 grams, clematis root – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 10 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, licorice root – 4 grams, moschus – 1.5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 10 grams, mingqi – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.
 Recipe for left foot:
故紙一錢 香附一錢 土別一對醋製 紅花一錢 木通一錢 桃仁一錢 然同一錢 當歸一錢 廣皮八分 虎骨一錢 母丁一錢 杜仲一錢 菖蒲一錢 甘艸八分
guzhi beans– 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, tubie – 1 pair soaked in vinegar, safflower – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 5 grams, rantong – 5 grams, dong quai – 5 grams, guangpi – 4 grams, tiger bone – 5 grams, mother clove – 5 grams, eucommia bark – 5 grams, sweet flag – 5 grams, licorice root – 4 grams.
Cook in wine. Use on an empty stomach.
 Recipe for right foot:
杜仲一錢 當歸一錢 然同一錢 木瓜一錢 母丁一錢 加皮一錢 桃仁八分 廣皮八分 虎骨一錢 木通一錢 石大公八分 牛膝一錢 菖蒲一錢 土別一對 香附一錢 紅花一錢 小茴一錢 大茴一錢 鹿膠一錢
eucommia bark – 5 grams, dong quai – 5 grams, rantong – 5 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, mother clove – 5 grams, Siberian ginseng – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 4 grams, guangpi – 4 grams, tiger bone – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, shidagong – 4 grams, ox-knee root – 5 grams, sweet flag – 5 grams, tubie – 1 pair, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, safflower – 5 grams, anise – 5 grams, star anise – 5 grams, deer glue – 5 grams.
Cook in wine. Use on an empty stomach.
 Recipe for left side of body:
紅花一錢 梹榔一錢 故紙一錢 木瓜一錢 木通一錢 丹皮二錢 廣皮一錢 小茴一錢 吳工一錢 甘艸八分 碎補一錢 射香五分 土別一對 桃仁一錢 冰片五分
safflower – 5 grams, areca catechu – 5 grams, guzhi beans– 5 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, peony root bark – 10 grams, guangpi – 5 grams, anise – 5 grams, wugong – 5 grams, licorice root – 4 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 5 grams, moschus – 2.5 grams, tubie – 1 pair, taoren nuts – 5 grams, borneol – 2.5 grams.
Cook in wine. Use on a half empty stomach.
 Recipe for right side of body:
梹榔八分 甘艸八分 射香五分 土別一對 乳香一錢 肉桂二錢 母丁三錢 廣皮八分 沒藥二錢 丹皮一錢 紅花二錢 故紙一錢 然同二錢 大茴二錢 木通一錢 虎骨二錢 木瓜一錢 田七二錢 桃仁一錢 川芎二錢 碎補一錢 桔梗一錢 神曲二錢 石大公八分
areca catechu – 4 grams, licorice root – 4 grams, moschus – 2.5 grams, tubie – 1 pair, frankincense – 5 grams, cinnamon – 10 grams, mother clove – 15 grams, guangpi – 4 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, peony root bark – 5 grams, safflower – 10 grams, guzhi beans– 5 grams, rantong – 10 grams, star anise – 10 grams, akebi – 5 grams, tiger bone – 10 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 10 grams, taoren nuts – 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 10 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, medicated leaven – 10 grams, shidagong – 4 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.
 Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to whole body:
當歸二錢 生地一錢 白芷一錢 紫艸一錢 羗活一錢 桔梗一錢 胆艸一錢 杜仲一錢 故紙一錢 川芎一錢 防風一錢 桂枝一錢 牛膝一錢 血結一錢 加皮一錢 麥冬二錢 田七一錢 靈仙二錢 烏藥一錢
dong quai – 10 grams, Chinese foxglove – 5 grams, Chinese angelica – 5 grams, shellac – 5 grams, angelica – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, gentian – 5 grams, eucommia bark – 5 grams, guzhi beans– 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 5 grams, parsnip root – 5 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, ox-knee root – 5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, Siberian ginseng – 5 grams, monkey-grass tuber – 10 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, clematis root – 10 grams, spicebush root– 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.
 Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to upper body:
當歸二錢 生地一錢 白芷一錢 茯苓一錢 田七一錢 兒茶一錢 熟地二錢 紅花一錢 天麻一錢 羗活一錢 桂枝一錢 甘艸八分
dong quai – 10 grams, Chinese foxglove – 5 grams, Chinese angelica – 5 grams, tuckahoe – 5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, black catechu – 5 grams, cooked Chinese foxglove – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, gastrodia tuber – 5 grams, angelica – 5 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, licorice root – 4 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.
 Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to middle body:
杜仲二錢 故紙二錢 熟地二錢 山七二錢 桂枝一錢 靈仙一錢 川芎二錢 紅花一錢 陳皮一錢 獨活一錢 靈脂一錢 桔梗一錢 白芍一錢 茜艸一錢
eucommia bark – 10 grams, guzhi beans– 10 grams, cooked Chinese foxglove – 10 grams, shanqi – 10 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, clematis root – 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, angelica – 5 grams, lingzhi – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, white peony root – 5 grams, madder root – 5 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.
 Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to lower body:
牛膝二錢 加皮二錢 木瓜二錢 白朮二錢 紅花一錢 血結一錢 黃芪一錢 歸尾一錢 生地一錢 茯苓一錢 桂枝一錢 桔梗一錢 米仁一錢 陳皮二錢
ox-knee root – 10 grams, Siberian ginseng – 10 grams, papaya skin – 10 grams, atractylodes – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, astragalus – 5 grams, dong quai – 5 grams, Chinese foxglove – 5 grams, tuckahoe – 5 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, rice grains – 5 grams, dried orange peel – 10 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.
 Clearing-Passages Powder:
北細辛一錢 牙皂二錢 雄精二錢 神金十張 石鐘乳二錢
Chinese wild ginger root – 5 grams, Chinese honeylocust seeds – 10 grams, realgar – 10 grams, shenjin – 10 sheets, stalactite – 10 grams.
Pestle them into a powder. Apply it onto the body. If you get the wind knocked out of you, you may use it as a snuff, left nostril for men, right nostril for women.
 A miraculous pill-making recipe:
自然銅三錢 製川烏三錢 香白芷四錢 京赤芍四錢 荆芥穗三錢 製乳香四錢 大土別三錢 製艸烏三錢 大石燕二對 凈紅花五錢 京山稜五錢 製沒藥四錢
大海馬二對 公丁香三錢 母丁香三錢 用厚朴四錢 蓬莪朮五錢 白茯苓四錢 甘松香五錢 山羊血五錢 花木通三錢 嫩桂枝三錢 牙皂角三錢 川續斷五錢
生蒲黃六錢 白桔梗三錢 閙楊花五錢 當歸尾五錢 花梹榔三錢 廣陳皮四錢 老只壳三錢 破故紙三錢 銀杜仲三錢 北枸𣏌三錢 上節參二錢 廣木香四錢
川羗活五錢 玉獨活五錢 北蟾腿五錢 上血結三錢 廣桔紅三隻 灰沉香二錢 上洋參三錢 眞日金三錢 眞虎骨五錢 眞猴骨五錢 正琥珀五錢 北細辛三錢
正七田三錢 台烏藥三錢 穿山甲三錢 正西芎五錢 川山七二錢 遠志肉三錢 北防風三錢 正川芎五錢 正珍珠二錢 正瑪瑙二錢 正二枚一錢 正射香一錢
native copper – 15 grams, processed chuanwu – 15 grams, fragrant Chinese angelica – 20 grams, red peony root – 20 grams, catnip grains – 15 grams, processed frankincense – 20 grams, large tubie – 15 grams, processed monkshood root – 15 grams, dashiyan – 2 pairs, pure safflower – 25 grams, jingshanleng – 25 grams, processed myrrh – 20 grams, large seahorse – 2 pairs, common clove – 15 grams, mother clove – 15 grams, magnolia bark – 20 grams, white turmeric – 25 grams, white tuckahoe – 20 grams, gansongxiang – 25 grams, goat’s blood – 25 grams, akebi – 15 grams, tender cassia twig – 15 grams, Chinese honeylocust seeds – 15 grams, Sichuan teasel root – 25 grams, raw cattail pollen – 30 grams, white Chinese bellflower – 15 grams, naoyanghua – 25 grams, dong quai – 25 grams, areca catechu – 15 grams, Guangdong orange peel – 20 grams, dried bitter orange – 15 grams, crushed guzhi beans – 15 grams, silvery eucommia bark – 15 grams, northern wolfberry – 15 grams, high quality jieshen – 10 grams, costus root – 20 grams, Sichuan angelica – 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, northern toad legs – 25 grams, high quality bloodclotter – 15 grams, Guangdong jiehong – 3 of them, ashed aloeswood – 10 grams, high-quality ginseng – 15 grams, genuine rijin – 15 grams, genuine tiger bone – 25 grams, genuine monkey bone – 25 grams, genuine amber – 25 grams, Chinese wild ginger root – 15 grams, genuine qitian – 15 grams, spicebush root – 15 grams, pangolin scales – 15 grams, Chinese lovage – 25 grams, Sichuan shanqi – 10 grams, polygala – 15 grams, northern parsnip root – 15 grams, Sichuan lovage – 25 grams, genuine pearl – 10 grams, genuine agate – 10 grams, genuine ermei – 5 grams, genuine moschus – 5 grams.
Pestle these sixty ingredients into a powder. Mix with wheat flour into pellets of 7.5 grams each.
Here ends the Appendix.