ZIMEN BOXING

字門正宗
AUTHENTIC ZIMEN BOXING
附醫傷秘錄
including SECRET RECORDS OF INJURY MEDICINES
胡遺生
by Hu Yisheng
中央國術館審㝎
authorized by the Central Martial Arts Institute
[published March, 1933]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Oct, 2014]

書將付梓吟二絕代卷頭語
This book has been sent to the publishers with a couple of extra verses to start it off:

記曾請益侍蒲團祗覺高堅費仰鑽如是我聞茲盡述多聞那敢比阿難
無邊妙諦落言詮闡道權成十二篇幸有八廚王考在解囊欣貨刻書錢
I have written down what I was taught, attentively gathering it all up,
but I feel only that “the more I look up at his teaching, the higher it goes, and the more I drill into his teaching, the harder it gets”. [Lun Yu, 9.11]
I have told it as I have heard it,
so much have I heard that I dare compare myself to Ananda [Buddha’s main disciple].
     The art’s boundless subtle truths provoke interpretations,
and so I have elaborated upon the method, pushed to produce twelve essays.
I am blessed by the presence of one of the Eight Chefs, a Wang Kao
who contributed money toward the publishing of the book.

妺倩王繼椿貨余版資始克付梓
(This is in acknowledgement of Wang Jichun, who financed my printing costs.) [The “eight chefs” were eight wealthy gentleman in the Han Dynasty who put forth money to help others. (The other seven were Du Shang, Zhang Miao, Liu Ru, Hu Muban, Qin Zhou, Fan Xiang, and Wang Zhang.)]

壬申孟冬遺生題於蘭谿姚花塢
     – written by Hu Yisheng to Yao Huawu of Lanxi [in Zhejiang], first month of winter, 1932

字門正宗目錄
CONTENTS

著者之師可修禪師玉照
Portrait of the author’s teacher, Zen Master Kexiu
可修禪師小傳
Brief Bio of Zen Master Kexiu
著者小影
Portrait of the author
中央國術館覆函
Reply Letter from the Central Martial Arts Institute
中央國術館題字
Inscription from the Central Martial Arts Institute
浙江省國術館題字
Inscription from the Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute
褚民誼先生題字
Inscription by Chu Minyi
浙江省國術館蘇副館長題字
Inscription by Su Jingyou, Assistant Director of the Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute
說略
A Few Comments
饒序
Preface by Rao Caorong
自序
Author’s Preface
卷上
Part One
 統論
 General Discussion:
 出手珍訣
 Secrets of the [Eight Primary] Techniques
 十八字理訣
 Theory of the Eighteen Techniques
 七言歌訣
 Seven-Character Verses
 立步定式
 Stepping Into a Stable Posture
 分拆七言歌訣
 Seven-Character Verses About Specific Situations
 八字譜
 List of the Eight [Primary] Techniques
 十字譜
 List of the Ten [Secondary] Techniques
 殘字圖註
 Drawing & Explanation for TESTING
 推字圖註
 SENDING
 援字圖註
 AIDING
 奪字圖註
 SEIZING
 牽字圖註
 PULLING
 捺字圖註
 PUSHING
 逼字圖註
 CROWDING
 吸字圖註
 ABSORBING
 貼字圖註
 STICKING
 攛字圖註
 HOISTING
 圈字圖註
 CURVING
 插字圖註
 INSERTING
 拋字圖註
 THROWING
 托字圖註
 PROPPING
 擦字圖註
 RUBBING
 撒字圖註
 SCATTERING
 呑字圖註
 VANISHING
 吐字圖註
 EJECTING
 下盤八搧歌訣
 Song of the Eight Ground-Fighting Techniques
 獅子抖毛勢
 LION SHAKES ITS FUR
 大鵬展翅勢
 RUKH SPREADS ITS WINGS
 鐵牛耕地勢
 IRON OX PLOWS THE LAND
 蝴蝶合撲勢
 BUTTERFLY CLOSES ITS WINGS
 轅門左右勢
 OFFICIAL SLIPS INTO EACH OF HIS SLEEVES
 翻騰舒展勢
 TUCK & ROLL TO GAIN GROUND
 眠羊捲草勢
 SLEEPY SHEEP CURLS UP IN THE GRASS
 寒鷄抱𣎴勢
 SHIVERING CHICKEN WRAPS ITSELF IN DIRT
 下盤總訣墪
 Keys to the Ground-Fighting Techniques
卷下
Part Two
 闡微論
 Essays Elaborating Upon the Subtleties:
 第一章 持志
 Chapter One: Maintaining Willpower
 第二章 保精
 Chapter Two: Preserving Essence
 第三章 養氣
 Chapter Three: Cultivating Energy
 第四章 存神
 Chapter Four: Gathering Spirit
 第五章 取徑
 Chapter Five: Taking the Right Path
 第六章 出手
 Chapter Six: The Eighteen Techniques
 第七章 固椿
 Chapter Seven: Solidifying Your Stance
 第八章 消力
 Chapter Eight: Dispelling His Force
 第九章 鍊勁
 Chapter Nine: Developing Power
 第十章 輕身
 Chapter Ten: Lightening the Body
 第十一章 致用
 Chapter Eleven: Practical Application
 第十二章 靜坐
 Chapter Twelve: Meditation
附錄
Appendix
 醫傷秘錄
 Secret Records of Injury Medicines:
 律例
 Guidelines
 藥性槪論
 Generalized Effects of Medicines
 週身用藥歌訣
 Song of Medicines for the Whole Body
 應驗良方
 Effective Recipes

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - portrait 1

著者之師可修禪師玉照
Portrait of the author’s teacher, Zen Master Kexiu

可修禪師小傳
BRIEF BIO OF ZEN MASTER KEXIU

可修禪師俗姓劉。世居江西南昌。淸光緒間偕某武弁遊鉛山。武弁罷去。以技擊授徒自給。旋薙髮入鵝湖峯頂寺為僧。後為該寺方丈。今年近六十。猶矯健如昔。幼時聰穎活潑異常。為父執邵某所鍾愛。納為義子。九歲就某名僧習武術。未成。義父邵乃留其家親敎之。邵為少林嫡系。功力滿深。經其指點。藝乃大進。學成後年纔十四。人欲觀其藝。乃慫恿與當地拳師較。迭敗十餘舘。由是名大噪。後浪遊江湖。友其賢豪。義父更授以點穴術。藝益精而氣益歛。迨至鉛山時。有來較藝者。必再三婉諸之。迨不獲己而後較。勝無自矜色。其人體似尪弱。無魁梧奇偉之狀。然運勁於指。能洞墻壁。站樁旣定。令壯夫數人以繩曳其足。屹然不為動。又精傷科。凡折骨洞膚者皆往求治。治無不痊。故婦孺莫不知其名焉。
鵝湖饒草榮敬撰
Zen Master Kexiu has the secular surname of Liu. His family line has spent many generations in Nanchang, Jiangxi. During the reign of Emperor Guangxu [1875-1908], he accompanied a certain military man traveling to Yanshan county [about a hundred miles east of Nanchang]. The man then dismissed him and left him there, so he made his living through teaching martial arts. He soon shaved his head, entered the temple at Ehu Peak, and became a monk, later becoming the abbot of the temple. He is almost sixty as of this year [and was therefore born mid-1870s], and he is still as strong and healthy as he ever was.
     As a boy, he was unusually intelligent and energetic. His father’s friend Shao doted on him and accepted him as his adopted son. When he was nine years old, a certain monk trained him in martial arts. He did not get to finish the training, so foster father Shao, a formal student of Shaolin whose skill was very deep, had him move into his home and taught him personally. Through such guidance, his skill dramatically progressed. When he completed his training, he was only fourteen. People wished to see his skill, inspiring him to compete with local boxing experts. He won again and again, defeating teachers from a dozen schools. His fame thereupon grew to a crescendo.
     He then roamed all over the country, befriending many virtuous heroes. His foster father taught him further – on the art of striking acupoints. The more refined his skill became, the more density his internal power developed. When he arrived in Yanshan, challengers came to visit him, to whom he was always polite, never seeking to boost his reputation through these matches nor boasting of his victories.
     His body appears lame and weak, and he is not at all grand in stature, but when he sends power to his fingertips, he can make a hole in a wall. His stance is so stable, he calls for several robust men to pull his feet with ropes, but stands proud and immovable. He is also proficient at trauma medicine. Those with broken bones or skin punctures all seek him out for treatment, and they always recover. For this reason, his fame is known also to women and children.
     – respectfully written by Rao Caorong of Ehu

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - portrait 2

著者小影
Portrait of the author

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - letter

總理遺訓
FROM THE TEACHINGS OF SUN YAT-SEN:

人類要能够生存天天必須要做的第一件大事就是保保就是自衛無論是個人或團體或國家要有自衛的能力纔能够生存人類要在競爭中求生存便要奮鬥所以奮鬥這一件事是自有人類以來天天不息的由初生以至於現在天天都是在奮鬥之中
[This is a brief excerpt, selectively phrased, from Sun’s Three Principles of the PeopleIdentity of the People, Power of the People, Livelihood of the People – from his first speech on the Power of the People, delivered Mar 9, 1924.]
“People should be able to survive… Every day we must… Of the greatest importance is protection… By protection, I mean self-defense. Whether on the scale of individual, group, or nation, there should be the capacity for self-defense. Then there will be the ability to survive… In order for people to seek to survive in this competitive world, there will be struggle, and struggle will come to us daily without giving us any break… From the moment we are born to whatever age we are now, every day entails struggle…”

還復者項接来呈並字门拳術正宗一冊均悉查該拳術圖註詳明以練修並重為主旨與本館提倡國術宗旨正相脗合除准予審㝎並贈以練修並重之題詞外原書發還此係
順頌時祉 中央國術館啟二月一日
In reply to you about your manuscript of Authentic Zimen Boxing that you have recently presented to us, we have deeply studied its drawings and explanations, and we find that your sense of the equal importance of practice and cultivation fits perfectly with this school’s aim in promoting martial arts. The book has been examined and approved, and we have added to the original manuscript our own inscription of “practice and cultivation are both important” on the following page.
     – Respectfully yours, good fortune always, Central Martial Arts Institute, Feb 1 [1933]

[transparent words under text:]
自衛奮鬥
强種救國
Defend yourself when you find yourself in a fight.
Strengthen the masses to save the nation.

[right & left sides, upper:]
恢復固有技能
發揚民族精神
Recovering our inherent skills
will bolster our national spirit.

[right & left sides, lower:]
願全民衆
均國術化
We hope that everyone
will be transformed by martial arts.

中央國術館用牋
– from the Central Martial Arts Institute [in Nanjing]

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - callig 1

鍊脩並重
Practice and cultivation are both important.
中央國術館題〔中央國術館館長之章〕
– calligraphy by (the director of [張之江 Zhang Zhijiang]) the Central Martial Arts Institute

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - callig 2

民國二十有一年一月
Jan, 1932
昌明武學
To the flourishing of martial studies.
浙江省國術館題
– calligraphy [by the director (魯滌平 Lu Diping) of ] the Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute [in Hangzhou]

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - callig 3

健身強種
Strengthen the self to strengthen the masses.
褚民誼題
– calligraphy by Chu Minyi

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - callig 4

武術津梁
Martial arts are a bridge.
蘇景由題
– calligraphy by Su Jingyou [vice-director of Zhejiang Martial Arts Institute]

說略
A FEW COMMENTS

一、是書非研究文學之書。以能達意為主旨。雖間有俚俗之處。均係術語。不敢删改。致以辭害意。
This book is not a volume of scholarly research, merely a means of conveying thoughts. Although there are parts that are unrefined, every part has to do with technical terminology. I have not dared to abridge any of it, since attempting to improve the language might corrupt the ideas.

一、是書專言理訣。所繪各字手法及下盤八勢之圖。不過象其大槪。欲習斯舊者。須另訪名師。始可窺其奧妙。
This book focuses on discussion of principles, and so its drawings for the eighteen techniques and the eight ground-fighting postures give only a general idea. If you wish to practice this art, you must also seek out a noteworthy teacher, then you will be able to peer into its subtleties.

一、是書授受不苟。如禪宗之傳衣鉢。閱者毋以言簡圖略輕之。蓋片言隻字。均非向壁虛造。
The material in this book is given conscientiously, as in the Buddhist way of teaching everything that one knows [“passing down one’s robe and alms bowl”]. You should not treat its words or drawings as something trivial, because nothing in it is just some stuff I made up.

一、附驥之論文。作者非敢故殃梨棗。所言大半係得之經驗。餘則蒙師之提撕。爰公諸同好。以資觀摩。
I will not dare to ruin the masterful dissertation [in Part One] by adding my own ideas within it. Most of the words [in this book – i.e. Part Two] are from my own experience, but the rest are from my teacher’s guidance, and thus I am sharing them with all those who have interest so that you may study and gain from his teachings.

一、字門之外。尚有法門。吾師兼而長之。作者得其緒餘以立論。故其中稍有出入。然為挹彼注茲之意。
Beyond the Zimen art, Buddhist doctrine is also to be valued, and my teacher developed in both simultaneously. As I have obtained only the remnants of his views, this book will consequently have a few inconsistencies, but they can be cleared up through studying the book as a whole.

一、醫傷秘錄所載。均係應驗良方。惟宜依照律例行事。始可着手成春。
The “Secret Records of Injury Medicines” [in the Appendix] are all tried and true recipes, but they should be applied according to the proper guidelines for them to be effective.

饒序
PREFACE BY RAO CAORONG

歲辛未。故鄕罹浩刼。親朋星散。聞遺生在杭事著述。而未見其書。是冬。余亦休假湖上。獲觀所著字門闡微諸篇。精深博大。得末曾有。知其造詣深。用力勤。今年春。余旋信江。遺生來書索序。余不文。又於拳藝未嘗問津。安能自藩籬之外而妄議之。然余有不得已於言者。方今强隣肆虐。神州陸沉。有識之士。莫不謂非武力無以挽國運。彼乞憐國聯。求伸公理。不特可恥。亦且似癡人作夢。蓋今日之世界。猶一强權卽公理之世界也。然環顧國內人民。耽於逸樂。體氣日弱。通都大邑為尤甚。一旦有事。徵調所及。驅之疆場。安能執銳被堅。衝鋒陷陣。故吾以為在此非常時期。國家應有非常敎育。宜效昔日斯巴達之尚武。明令國人。其習武術。以振靡靡之風。用備干城之選。人民旣朝夕鍛鍊。則體格强健。手足矯捷。國家無事。不失為健全之國民。有事。則勁旅立成。衝鋒肉搏時。尤能操勝算。較之學校中之柔軟體操。效用實進一步。此卽書中所云以健身為體。自衞為用之意也。故吾以為吾國若任其日就沉淪。不加挽救則已。苟欲力求振拔以慰炎黃之靈。非於武術特加注意不可。果能注意而講求之。則遺生此書。正應時之實典。度針之秘鑰。人人不可不手一編者也。遺生且夙慧。且好學深思。以生長詩人蔣苕生故鄕。流風餘韻所被。發為篇章。淸新典雅。及就學第四師範。校址為舊日鵝湖書院。朱陸論辯異同之所。故於身心性命之學。浸潤亦深。其父永淸公酷愛吟咏。自署詩癖。有半畝齋詩集待梓。更精技擊。好賓客。多古俠士風。遺生稟先天之遺傳。故工詩外更好探討拳藝。余自四師與之判袂後。赴海上習美術。遺生北走燕京。就學師範大學。後聞執敎鵝中。就近與可修上人遊。拳藝益進。今讀其書信然。世之好拳勇者。類多粗率之輩。不能究其所以然。卽間有一得之長。又復秘不示人。因之我國武術。久而益晦。今遺生以達己達人立己立人之心。成為此著。蓋情宣洩無遺。苟因此而民壯可用。國威遠揚。則其功豈止闡明武學。保存國粹而已哉。是為序。
壬申饒草榮序於江西省立第六中學之課春草堂
Early this year, the city I call home suffered a catastrophe which sent relatives and friends scattering [the January 28th Incident]. I knew Hu Yisheng was in Hangzhou engaged in a writing project, but I had not yet seen his manuscript. In the winter, I happened to be vacationing at West Lake [in Hangzhou], and there I got to see the pages of this book with his “Essays Elaborating Upon the Subtleties of Zimen Boxing”. Penetrating, extensive, and detailed, I could tell it is a profound achievement born of a great deal of hard work.
     This spring, as I was circulating messages around the Jiangs [area comprising Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Anhui], Hu sent me a letter requesting I write a preface for him. I am not really that scholarly, nor have I received instruction in boxing arts, but I do have the ability to presumptuously discuss what is beyond me, though I could not make any words about it at the time due to the present devastation in my neighborhood.
     China is currently in chaos. There are men of vision who are all pointing out that it is not military power that is responsible for a nation’s destiny, who then appeal to the League of Nations for help in extending justice. This is not only shameful, it is more like the dream of an idiot. For in the modern world, it is still apparently the case that might makes right. Yet when I look around at the people of our nation, I see they are addicted to leisure and pleasure, and in body and spirit they grow weaker by the day, especially within the cities. If some morning there was trouble and men were called up to rush into battle, could they grasp sharpened blades and charge enemy lines? Therefore I believe that in this time of emergency, our nation is in need of a special system of education, one that esteems the martial quality, like that of the Spartans.
     I hereby call upon my countrymen to practice martial arts. Let us rouse the lazy and train good generals. People who train every day will have bodies that are strong and healthy, movement that is powerful and nimble. During peace, we should not fail to strengthen the citizenry, and then whenever a threat arrives, a mighty army is prepared. In charging forth and fighting hand-to-hand, we will be particularly able to grasp victory. The effectiveness of such exercise goes beyond the calisthenics now taught in schools anyway. The intent of the material in this book is bodily fitness in substance, self-defense in function.
     I believe that if we allow our nation to sink further each day into degradation and do nothing to remedy the situation, we will be lost. If on the other hand we decide to strive toward a return to the spirit of Shennong and the Yellow Emperor [i.e. the traditional Chinese soul], it will not work without special attention given to martial arts. So that it can be given such attention, Hu has made this book, the right book for the times, the secret key to our cure. Everyone ought to give it a readthrough.
     Hu is both intelligent and fond of thoughtful study. Where we grew up had been the hometown of the poet Jiang Tiaosheng [Ehu, Yanshan county, Jiangxi], who had a lasting influence upon us with his writings so refreshing and elegant. We studied at the Fourth Teacher-Training Institute, located in the old Ehu Classics Academy, where Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan had debated over similarities and differences. We were therefore steeped in the studies of body, mind, nature, and life.
     Hu’s father, Hu Yongqing, loved reciting verse. He even signed his name to his poetry addiction with the printing of his own collection of poems, A Half Acre of Purification. He furthermore excelled in martial arts and loved receiving many old-style heroes as his guests. Hu Yisheng received the “pre-nature” teachings. Thus beyond his work with poetry, he loved exploring into the boxing arts.
     After we went our separate ways from the Institute, I went to train in fine arts in Shanghai and he went north to study at Beijing Normal University. I later found out he had grabbed a teaching position back in Ehu, and as he neared the town, he met the monk Kexiu on the road, and so his boxing arts have since progressed even more. Lately I read in his letters of how the powerful boxers that the world so admires are typically of a crude and foolish type. He is unable to study anything of their methods because once some good idea has been brought up, they clam up and keep it from people. The result of this is that our nation’s martial arts have been getting increasingly obscured for a long time.
     Hu has now produced this book, having in mind that we should succeed both individually and together, and so we should stand both individually and together. He is determined to pour out everything he knows so that our people will become sturdy and ready. Our national prestige will spread far. His achievement will be not only to clarify a martial study, but also to preserve our cultural essence. Thus I have written this preface.
     – written by Rao Caorong at the Jiangxi 6th Provincial High School’s spring cottage, 1932

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

國術一道。昔日文人習之者寡。間有精於斯藝者。又皆深自韜晦。不肯著書立說。鐫之梨棗。以是拳譜刻本。乃如麟角鳳毛。無從可覓。而識字不多之拳師。偶得一抄本。輙不輕易示人。終於霉爛焚燬。於是抄本愈少。斯藝愈晦。洵可慨矣。今者國術昌明。此類書籍之出版者。不為不多。其間固不乏傑作。第敷衍成書者。亦數數見。良以通斯藝者。未必能著述。能著述者。又未必通斯藝。或有格格不吐之虞。或有紙上談兵之弊。遂使閱者生厭。心疑國術不過爾爾。而阻其練習之興趣。此與提倡國術實有所抵觸焉。僕不敏。習藝未精。以侍師側。獲聞名言。於理法頗有所悟。及受是書。益多領會處。爰於原文後立論以闡其微。使初習字門者。易於索解。藉收事半功倍之效。是則僕之微忱也。夫字門拳術。為江右之鉅派。贛省拳師。類多習此。惟全習全解者。寥寥無幾。傳者又隱其一二手法。秘不相授。輾轉遞變。遂失其眞。是書所論。皆扼其要義。不支不蔓。發揮無遺。凡屬同門。閱之自能獲益。然原文頗多訛字。更正之後。仍不免有魯魚亥豕之處。而附驥之文。或多紕繆。海內知音。幸有以敎我也。
辛未孟冬江右胡遺生序於西湖之濱
Martial arts used to be something rarely practiced by scholars. Those who were proficient in it kept quiet about it and were not willing to write books on the subject. Boxing manuals that were actually block-printed publications are as rare as unicorn horns or phoenix feathers, nowhere to be seen, but occasionally there were literate boxing teachers who produced handwritten texts. However, they did not lightly show them to people, and so those texts ended up rotting away or getting burned, and as a consequence, the handwritten manuals are rarer than they would otherwise be and these arts are left even more obscured. This is indeed a pity.
     Nowadays, martial arts are flourishing. The publishing of these kinds of books is no longer uncommon. Among them there is no lack of masterpieces, but lesser examples of expounding and publishing are more frequently seen. Those who have mastered one of these arts cannot necessarily write well about it, while those who can write have not necessarily mastered their art. The former runs the risk of being giggled at and the latter has the flaw of being mere armchair theory, either of which will cause readers to feel contempt for the material and to suspect that Chinese martial arts might not be very special after all, hindering their interest in practicing. In the promoting of Chinese martial arts, this is a real problem.
     I am neither bright nor have I yet practiced this art to the point of mastery. But I have devoted time to my teacher and listened to his words. Comprehending many of the principles, I noted them down, gaining greater and greater understanding. Following the main section of this book, I have written “Essays Elaborating Upon the Subtleties of the art”, so that those who are beginning their training in Zimen Boxing may easily find explanations and thereby gain twice the result for half the effort. This work is therefore a small token of my appreciation [for being taught the art].
     The Zimen [zi = “word”, men = “school”, i.e. “the school of the 18 words”, meaning the 18 techniques] boxing art is widespread in Jiangxi, practiced by many boxing instructors there, but very few of them have learned the whole art or understand it completely. Some teachers have also been keeping a few of the techniques secret rather than passing them on to students. As that process goes on through many generations of teaching, the art will get altered to the point that it will lose its authenticity. Though the discussion in this book strives to present the essentials of the system concisely and succinctly, it nevertheless expresses them fully and leaves nothing out. All students of the art will therefore automatically be able to gain by reading it.
     The original manuscript had several misprints, but even after the text was corrected, there are inevitably still some errors. Whether the writing be excellent or full of mistakes, I hope the knowledgeable throughout the nation will give me instruction.
     – written by Hu Yisheng of Jiangxi, at the shore of West Lake [in Hangzhou, Zhejiang], 1st month of winter, 1931

字門正宗卷上 總論 著者佚名 鵝湖胡遺生輯
PART ONE: GENERAL DISCUSSION (authorship unknown, compiled by Hu Yisheng)

[OVERVIEW OF THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES]

夫人體之至弱者。稟受先天之不足耳。旣先天不足當卽用後天培補之功。培補之道。在養其精神。精神一足。則氣血充盈於體。雖至弱之驅。可變為强矣。書曰。人之有生。惟精與神。精神不敝。四體長春。此謂强身之基。而吾之技。卽本乎是。學者能遵此金科玉律。必不至身有損矣。修弱為强之道旣明。再究其十八字藝。夫字藝之中。所重者筋勁之功也。若筋不撥則弛放痿攣。筋勁合健則伸縮不滯。筋勁之功旣備。當識虛實之道。要之。動則虛。靜則實。勞則虛。逸則實。偏則虛。正則實。知彼有力用力。無力用智。以吾內實緊動之軀。敵其剛猛之來勢。此知其虛實之藝也。虛實之道旣明。再按各字之手法。時時演習。務明其理。始為有得。其中
A body that is extremely weak has been inadequately equipped by what is innate, and this has to be compensated for by training that is acquired. The way of filling this gap lies in cultivating essence and spirit. Once essence and spirit are sufficient, energy and blood will be abundant in the body, and then even an extremely weak body can be changed into a strong one. It has been written [in the early Qing book Medical Realizations by Cheng Guopeng]: “Human life is a matter of essence and spirit. If the essence and spirit are not worn out, the body will long be youthful.” This is the foundation of a strong body, and our art is based on this. If you can abide by this precious precept, you will surely never bring harm to your body.
     Once the way of turning weakness into strength is understood, then study the eighteen techniques. What is emphasized within the techniques is the skill of tendon-based power. If the tendons are not worked, laziness will lead to atrophy and cramping. Tendon-based power merges with health, and thus flexibility will not be held back.
     Once the skill of tendon-based power has been achieved, you should learn the way of emptiness and fullness. To sum this up: movement is empty and stillness is full, effort is empty and leisureliness is full, leaning is empty and uprightness is full. Know that if the opponent has brawn, he will use it, and if he has no brawn, he will use his wits. My body is urged forth by internal fullness to match an opponent’s attack of hard fierceness. This is the art of knowing emptiness and fullness.
     Once the way of emptiness and fullness is understood, constantly practice it in accordance with each of the techniques. Strive to understand the theory, and then you will obtain the art. The techniques are:

殘字者。以吾手緊直。探其虛實。
[1] TESTING: I urgently put my hand straight out to feel for where the opponent is empty and full.

接以推字。相連其中。隱緊推之。無有不去者。此實推之意也。
[2] It continues into SENDING, which lies hidden within TESTING and ready to spring out from it. There is nothing that will not be sent away – this is the true intent of SENDING.

援字者。乃演吾手法。活效猿猴之捷。倘吾手失落。卽用此手法救之。
[3] AIDING: I perform my techniques as lively as an agile monkey, but if my hand misses, I use this technique to rescue the situation.

奪字者。乃奪其來力。為吾手用之也。
[4] SEIZING: I seize his incoming force so that I may make use of it.

牽字者。彼强我弱。恐難取勝。手交卽牽。使彼立止不定。為吾伸縮之用也。
[5] PULLING: If the opponent is stronger than me, I fear victory will be hard to achieve, but once our hands connect, I perform PULLING, causing him to stand unstably by way of my extending and contracting.

捺字者。乃吾手頭鍊就一股沉勁。沉按不離。使彼難變。為吾舒展之用也。
[6] PUSHING: When practicing, I put sinking energy into my [rear thigh] and heavily push down without losing connection, making it difficult for the opponent to adapt while leaving me able to apply techniques with ease.

逼字者。逼其身强力大。占彼半步。使其實變虛。為吾後勢之用也。
[7] CROWDING: If I encounter an opponent whose body is strong and force is powerful, I crowd in on him a half step, causing his fullness to switch to emptiness, giving me control of the situation.

圈吸明進吾身。在順勢一點之功。
[8] ABSORBING: When an opponent noticeably advances toward my body, this is a technique of slightly going along with his momentum.

貼者軟也。軟出手卽軟。隨意而去之。然有吾手緊疾之意。
[9] STICKING means “softening toward”. By putting out my hands with softness, I will go along with the opponent’s intention and send him away, having in my own hands an intention of techniques being ready to spring out.

攛者掇也。彼上部勇猛。本手難取。妙不與鬥。卽變此尅之。去其速也。
[10] HOISTING means “lifting”. If the opponent’s upper body is powerful and my hands can hardly do anything to him, effectiveness is a matter of not contending against him. I change to this technique to overcome him, sending him away quickly.

圈者順也。與吸字相連運用。
[11] CURVING means “going with”. It is to be applied together with ABSORBING.

插者堅也。以吾之實。去彼之實也。
[12] INSERTING means “hardening against”. I use my fullness to send away his fullness.

抛者擲也。驚彼慌張。為吾靜逸之用也。
[13] THROWING means “tossing away”. The effect of this technique is for him to be surprised and flustered while I am calm and at ease.

托者幫也。有幫佐諸字之功。
[14] PROPPING means “assisting”. This technique assists all the others.

擦者緊也。手出滯在何處。卽在何處用之。緊近推字之意。
[15] RUBBING means “tightening”. Whenever his hands get slowed down, they will be of little use. This is close in intention to SENDING.

撒者攩也。週身鍊熟。取其力猛。疾撒隱推。相連運用。出得速也。
[16] SCATTERING means “blocking”. Train your whole body until it is skillful and capture his ferocious force. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it is SENDING, which it is to be followed up with when applying it. Send out your hand with speed.

於中呑吐。更須熟鍊。其功浩大。用出使彼莫測。方為有得。
[17&18] VANISHING and EJECTING must be trained to proficiency. When your skill is great, an opponent will have no idea what you are doing as you put out your hands, and thus you will succeed.

若夫摽手乃諸字之主。變化無窮。筆難盡述。學者另細傳之。但後世能者。切勿傳於强梁比匪者。是為至要也。
It seems the “darting” [i.e. SENDING] technique is the major one, for it is transformed into in ways almost too numerous to describe. All of this material should be taught meticulously, but talented students have to be sure not to pass it on to cruel people. This is crucially important.

出手珍訣
SECRETS OF THE [EIGHT PRIMARY] TECHNIQUES

軟出手卽軟。隨意而去之。乃要直勁曲取。吐為吐出。遇至而吐也。常散豈能吐哉。救為急救。隨向而取。上部勇猛。方可變援。切須封他起手之變。心宜歸一。在小掌一點之功。牽在順勢。子午定向。勤演熟練。哪怕霸王之力。自有韓信之謀。捺要貼之。交手切勿離身。謹防失放。方無差悞。逼者起手卽閉。使彼不能進前。字字俱熟。方能為逼。吸近於呑。一呑便吐。此乃借勢分拆。自身自手。鬆力為主。八字之理。務宜審明。得之功多藝巧。八字循環。一字不通。便有掣肘之處矣。
I put out my hands with softness in order to go along with his intention and send him away, and so I should be flexible with the direction of my power.
     EJECTING [which is almost the same as SENDING] is what I do the opponent when I encounter him. Though I will not be able to if I am constantly in disarray.
     To rescue myself in an emergency, I go along with his direction to take control. If the opponent’s upper body is powerful, I should therefore change to AIDING, for I must seal off his raised hands to keep them from adapting. My mind should be concentrated upon the pointing of my curled-in palm.
     PULLING is a matter of going along with his momentum in line with its direction. Diligently practice to develop skill. Why fear the force of a Xiang Yu when you have the strategy of a Han Xin? [These are two Three Kingdoms era generals.]
     PUSHING should be sticky. Once I cross hands with the opponent, I must not lose connection with him. If I beware of breaking contact, I will then make no mistakes.
     CROWDING means I lift my hand then seal off the opponent, rendering him unable to advance. Once all of the techniques are skillful, CROWDING can then be performed.
     ABSORBING is almost the same as VANISHING. VANISHING changes easily into EJECTING. They form the maneuver of borrowing his momentum.
     My body and hands should be relaxed. The principles of these eight techniques should be studied until they are understood and practiced until they are skillful. The eight techniques [including TESTING and SEIZING, though not mentioned here] are interrelated. If one is not understood, they will all be hindered.

十八字理訣
THEORY OF THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES

此法精奇。不用猛力。弱人文士。皆可學習。終究其理。十八手勢。按中上下。左右進取。舉手立步。切勿用力。步由子午。後曲前直。手十八字。各隨所宜。殘推援奪。牽捺逼吸。抛托擦撒。隨手順意。逼擦隨軟。借彼氣力。手到其胸。急推莫遲。任彼千變。我心歸一。彼來兇猛。圈插敵之。攛不與鬥。貼跌更奇。以柔尅剛。以疾尅遲。任彼騰挪。彼勞我逸。隨向進步。何勞氣力。勤演熟練。護身多益。其中玄妙。瀟洒脫離。八門手法。出手緊直。子午定向。看勢分拆。上中宜緊。下部當曲。勿輕勢力。呑吐便取。逼吸存心。時刻莫離。他身雖滿。吾手緊直。力來千斤。與捺方敵。來無踪影。去無形迹。不害吾身。何妨兩失。字字循環。一能尅一。你我俱成。尚觀虛實。彼來甚滿。我占其實。若變吾援。莫謂不奇。謹防失放。方無差悞。奸匪勿傳。切記莫違。
This art is an exquisite rarity, for it does not use brute force.
Weak-bodied scholars can all practice it.
Its theory is that of eighteen hand actions
which are applied to the middle, above, or below, or to the left or right.
     As I raise my hands and step into my stance, I make sure not to use effort.
I stand with my feet along a straight line, rear leg bent, front leg straight.
Among the eighteen techniques, the most important are [the first eight]:
TESTING, SENDING, AIDING, SEIZING, PULLING, PUSHING, CROWDING, ABSORBING.
     THROWING, PROPPING, RUBBING, SCATTERING – these will occur as needed.
CROWDING and RUBBING are soft techniques, borrowing the opponent’s force.
My hand reaches his chest, SENDING forward without hesitation.
I let him make a thousand adjustments, my mind focused on only one goal.
     If he attacks fiercely, CURVING or INSERTING will match him.
HOISTING does not contend against him. STICKING will help him fall even better.
I use softness to overcome hardness, decisiveness to overcome hesitation.
I let him become agitated until he is worn out and I am still performing leisurely.
     By going along with the direction of his attack, there is no energy expended.
By practicing diligently until skill is achieved, the body will be well-defended.
The subtleties within the eighteen are natural and distinct.
The eight basic techniques come out with urgency.
     Oriented in a straight line, I observe the opponent’s techniques.
My upper and middle body should have an urgency, while my lower body should be bent [i.e. be like a coiled spring].
By not underestimating his force, VANISHING and EJECTING will easily succeed.
CROWDING and ABSORBING are to be kept in mind, never for an instant forgotten.
     Even if his body is powerful, my hands are urgent.
His incoming force of a thousand pounds I will rival with PUSHING.
I come and go without a trace.
No harm is done to my body, no obstruction, not an ounce of failure.
     These techniques change from one to another, one of mine able to defeat ten of his.
We can all succeed through awareness of emptiness and fullness.
Suppose his incoming attack is powerful and I stand in the midst of his fullness.
If I switch to AIDING, all will comment the result is remarkable.
     As long as I guard against missing, I will be without error.
Treacherous people are not to be taught this art. Always remember this.

七言歌訣
SEVEN-CHARACTER VERSES

出手殘推勁緊直。逼捺三分借彼力。抛托擦撒隨手化。牽吸援奪下所宜。圈插能尅來者猛。呑吐兼撒跌更奇。手撒用攛當緊記。力弱卽貼任施為。舉手認胸休害怕。手旣貼身脚亦隨。立樁鞏固間明此。襠消膝緊世間稀。餘功妙用無阻滯。瀟洒脫離君須記。若欲練成稀有技。請君勤習為得計。
When your hands go out with TESTING and SENDING, the power must be urgent and direct.
When CROWDING or PUSHING, thirty percent of the technique is borrowing the opponent’s force.
When THROWING or PROPPING, RUBBING or SCATTERING, adjust according to the opponent’s hands.
When PULLING or ABSORBING, AIDING or SEIZING, there should be a downwardness to them.
     CURVING and INSERTING can overcome a fierce incoming force.
VANISHING, EJECTING, and SCATTERING will make him fall even more effectively.
When you perform SCATTERING or apply HOISTING, you have to pay urgent attention.
To his strength or weakness, you are STICKING, enabling you to carry out techniques.
     Raise your hand and aim for his chest, quelling all fear.
Your hand is already upon his body, your step following in.
Solidifying your stance, you become fully aware of what is happening.
Squeeze your knees and pull back your crotch to remove that area of yourself from the situation.
     Techniques that follow will thus succeed without obstruction.
You must remember to perform with a casual aloofness.
If you wish to develop unusual skill,
I advise you to practice diligently.

立步定式
STEPPING INTO A STABLE POSTURE

後脚略彎前脚鬆。雙眸緊緊觀其胸。舉手出殘休害怕。手旣貼身步亦從。手若拈緊須用力。相拈急推可搶功。出手最嫌用肩力。輕貼隨手西與東。
With rear leg slightly bent, front leg loose,
and eyes intent upon the opponent’s chest,
raise your hand to perform TESTING, quelling all fear.
Your hand is already upon his body, your step following in.
     The hand has to be pinched firmly into a pointer.
Once pinched, urge forward with SENDING, and thus you can grab success.
To put out just your hands would be very doubtful, so add the strength of your shoulders.
Lightly STICKING, follow his hands wherever they go.

分拆七言歌訣
SEVEN-CHARACTER VERSES ABOUT SPECIFIC SITUATIONS

雙手同起步逸移。左顧胸膛右抵其。手若拈時須用力。相拈急推莫待遲。內外兩門上中下。跟彼隨胸莫放離。外來上面傷耳項。右手横挑左攻之。腰脇之處彼來傷。反手藏身左取中。擒拏任彼雙單手。取其手筋自然鬆。披攔截砍手略歸。兩手上下一同追。我手忽然被砍落。本手復發急相推。撈足搶腿彼勢兇。落身進步對胸冲。下地落膝撈搶者。雙手推掇去無踪。內傷面目右急囘。反手吐出任掌追。左手往下捺亦可。本手急推莫待遲。彼我同門亦取胸。雙手横推可搶功。若還發出不多遠。反手補出疾如風。披攔截砍雙單擒。照外用法任施行。撈足搶腿皆同樣。須要改手取內門。步法每出不換移。右足隨手踏週圍。十八手法通鍊熟。臨時取用隨所宜。
I raise both my hands in unison and retreat into my stance.
With my chest inclining to the left, my right hand engages the opponent.
The hand has to be pinched firmly into a pointer.
Once pinched, I urge forward with SENDING, and with no hesitation.
     I go through his two gates, inner and outer, going above, middle, below.
I follow him, aligned toward his chest without being veered off course.
Through his outer gate I attack his head, injuring his ear or neck.
My right hand carries across while my left hand attacks.
     If he comes in with an attack to my waist or ribs,
I counter to cover my body, my left hand seeking the center.
I grab to deal with him, using one or both of my hands.
In seeking his tendons, I stay naturally loose.
     If he does a draping block or an intercepting chop, his hand will then slightly withdraw,
so I attack with both hands in unison, one high, one low.
If one of my hands gets suddenly chopped down,
the other will suddenly issue forth with SENDING.
     If he attacks fiercely, intent upon scooping up my foot or grabbing my leg,
I lower my body and advance, thrusting toward his chest.
As he then drops down all the way onto one knee to pick up my leg,
I use both hands to perform a lifting SENDING, which catches him by surprise and sends him away.
     If his right hand shoots through my inner gate to wound my face or eyes,
I counter with EJECTING, which I may also perform as a palm strike.
Or I can perform PUSHING downward with my left hand,
and my right hand suddenly performs SENDING without hesitation.
     If he and I go through the same gate, both aiming for the chest,
I can grab success by putting both my hands across with SENDING.
If he then returns a strike from not very far away,
I save myself by countering as fast as wind.
     Whether he does a draping block or intercepting chop, or a grab with one or both hands,
I go through his outer gate to be able to apply techniques.
If he goes to scoop my foot or grab my leg, it is still the same kind of situation,
except that I have to change my tactic to going through his inner gate.
     If his footwork never varies,
my right foot goes along with my right hand and I keep stepping around him.
The eighteen techniques are to be practiced to the point of skill,
so that when the time comes, they will be applied as is necessary.

八字譜
LIST OF THE EIGHT [PRIMARY] TECHNIQUES

殘 探也
[1] TESTING [can]: searching
推 摽也
[2] SENDING [tui]: darting
援 救也
[3] AIDING [yuan]: rescuing
奪 搶也
[4] SEIZING [duo]: snatching
牽 帶也
[5] PULLING [qian]: leading in
捺 按也
[6] PUSHING [na]: pushing down
逼 閉也
[7] CROWDING [bi]: sealing off
吸 縮也
[8] ABSORBING [xi]: shrinking back

十字譜
LIST OF THE TEN [SECONDARY] TECHNIQUES

貼 軟也
[9] STICKING [tie]: softening toward
攛 掇也
[10] HOISTING [cuan]: lifting
圈 順也
[11] CURVING [quan]: going with
插 堅也
[12] INSERTING [cha]: hardening against
抛 擲也
[13] THROWING [pao]: tossing away
托 幫也
[14] PROPPING [tuo]: assisting
擦 緊也
[15] RUBBING [ca]: tightening
撒 攩也
[16] SCATTERING [sa]: blocking
呑 沒也
[17] VANISHING [tun]: disappearing
吐 出也
[18] EJECTING [tu]: appearing

[THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES IN DETAIL]

殘字圖註
[1] TESTING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 1

此手出去。變法多端。起手週身俱要和軟。不可先行用力。用力難變。起手眼緊認其胸。心勿怯。怯則悞。舉手從腿邊起。以二指為主。如箭射紅心。不可虛發。左右要顧自身。樁帶逼吸二字。脚不丁不八。全要和軟。心歸一。胆放大。發出必無差悞。此殘之定勢。變化俱從此始。大用在推字詳之。
This technique transforms into a multitude of techniques. When lifting your hand, your whole body should be in a state of softness and must not begin by using effort. If you put forth effort, it will be difficult to switch from one technique to another. As you lift your hand, your eyes should be focused on the opponent’s chest. There must be no timidity in your mind, which would cause you to hesitate. Lift your hand from beside your thigh with a double finger like an arrow heading toward the bull’s eye. You must not veer off-target, yet be aware of everything around you. This technique leads into CROWDING or ABSORBING. The angle between your feet is between ninety and forty-five degrees. Your whole body should have softness. Your mind focuses and your courage magnifies. When you shoot your hand out, there must be no delay. This is the posture of TESTING. All transformations come from this, but its greatest effectiveness is revealed in the SENDING explanation below:

推字圖註
[2] SENDING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 2

十八字藝之中。所重者殘推二字。餘防世人不明。備而運用之。故殘者探也。惟推功莫大焉。字字循環。俱賴推字之功。得之功多藝巧。手法雖變化無窮。至終盡歸推字化用。致稱摽手。手出去。要拈緊。大用在小掌一點之功。肩要消。膝要緊。步要活穩。不宜立闊。闊難變。謹防失放。方無差悞。
Within the eighteen techniques, it is TESTING and SENDING that are the most emphasized, though this may prevent most people from understanding how to train and apply the rest. While TESTING seeks out opportunity, it is the skill of SENDING that is the most important. The eighteen techniques cycle one after another, but all depend on the skill of SENDING. In gaining many ingenious skills, although the hand techniques may transform without limit, ultimately they change back to SENDING, also called “darting”. The hand goes out pinched in tightly, the greatest effectiveness lying in shrinking the palm down to a pointer. Your shoulders should disappear and your knees should squeeze toward each other. Your stance should be stable and so you should not be standing wide. With a wide stance, it is difficult to maneuver. Guard against missing, and then you will be without error.

援字圖註
[3] AIDING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 3

援者救也。防外門披攔截砍。雙單擒拏。左右巡邊抖肘。來勢甚緊猛。卽變此救之。彼若將吾手托開。走邊門用老擔檻黃鶯抓肚勢。當卽向進步。舉手援住不放。左右亦托手肘。近一步。隱緊擦撒推疾去之。
AIDING means “rescuing”. I defend my outer gate with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or by grabbing with one or both hands, and I cover my flanks with shaking of elbows. If the opponent attacks with urgent ferocity, I save myself by switching to this technique. If he props my hand aside, I go to the side using a posture of “old man carrying a bird cage while gripping his belly”, then immediately advance. I raise my hand into AIDING and I do not disconnect from him, PROPPING up his hand or elbow to either side, then advancing. Hidden within this technique and ready to spring out from it are RUBBING, SCATTERING, and SENDING.

奪字圖註
[4] SEIZING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 4

此一手變法。與援字相仿。倘內門披攔截砍手。雙單擒拏。勾衝抖肘。卽變此取之。吾手一轉卽出。不可滯。隱緊擦撒推疾去之。
This is a method of adapting. It is similar to AIDING. If an opponent gets through to my inner gate with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or grabs with one or both hands, or uses an elbow to hook, crash, or jolt, I change to this technique to seize him. My hands will then rotate and shoot out, but I must not do so sluggishly. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it are RUBBING, SCATTERING, and SENDING.

牽字圖註
[5] PULLING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 5

牽者帶也。彼上部勇猛。本手難取。手拈卽變。使彼立止不定。變實為虛。為吾伸縮之用也。左手亦要幫取。自樁立穩。緊擦撒推疾相連去之。
PULLING means “leading in”. If an opponent makes an attack with his upper body so fiercely that I can hardly seize him, I switch to giving a pluck with my [right] hand to cause him to stand unstably, changing his fullness into emptiness by way of my extending and contracting. My left hand should assist so as to stabilize my own stance, and then I quickly continue into RUBBING, SCATTERING, or SENDING.

捺字圖註
[6] PUSHING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 6

捺者按也。乃演吾手練就一股沉勁至手堅緊。隨按不離。交手切莫離身。彼左亦左。彼右亦右。就其虛動之勢。隱撒推疾去其速也。
PUSHING means “pushing down”. When practicing, I put sinking energy into my [rear] thigh to give solidity to my hands, then push down without losing connection. Once I am crossing hands with an opponent, I must never lose connection with him. I he goes to the left, I also go to the left. I he goes to the right, I also go to the right. I thus turn his posture into empty movements. This technique can be quickly followed up with SCATTERING or SENDING.

逼字圖註
[7] CROWDING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 7

逼者閉也。遇其身强力大卽用之。舉手卽閉。一閉卽推。此借彼勢力。使其實為虛。為吾得勢之用也。
CROWDING means “sealing off”. If I encounter an opponent whose body is strong and force is powerful, I raise my hand and seal him off. Once I have sealed him, I will perform SENDING. This technique borrows his power and causes his fullness to become empty, giving me control of the situation.

吸字圖註
[8] ABSORBING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 8

吸者縮也。逼吸二字。相連運用。存心時刻莫離。有保救諸字之功。如吾手發出。倘有用雙擒手按住者。有想取我胸脇者。有想取我下部者。本手不能發出。勢在危急。當用此救之。學者仔細詳之可也。
ABSORBING means “shrinking back”. CROWDING and ABSORBING are to be applied together. Keep it in mind that they are not to be disconnected from each other for a moment. They are skills that are standing by to rescue the rest of the techniques. If when my hand shoots out, the opponent uses both hands to grab my hand and push it down, wanting to press it against my chest or ribs or against my lower body, making my hand unable to express, a critical situation, I immediately use this technique to save myself. Carefully study it.

貼字圖註
[9] STICKING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 9

此手用法。與逼吸二字相近。手出週身俱要和軟。軟出手卽軟。隨意而去之。乃要直勁曲取。重在疾近之功。使彼莫測。借他勢力。乘其虛之意也。
This technique is similar to CROWDING and ABSORBING. When my hands go out, my whole body should have softness. By putting out my hands with softness, I will go along with the opponent’s intention and send him away. Thus I should be flexible about the direction of my power and emphasize readiness to spring out techniques, causing the opponent to have no idea what I am doing. The intention is borrow his force and take advantage of his emptiness.

攛字圖註
[10] HOISTING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 10

此一手變法。彼上部勇猛。本手難取。卽變此用之。彼用左手一挑。右手想取我胸。或取我邊門。他手一挑時卽用。不可候他轉身。彼外跟外。彼內跟內。左手封住他。右手用推掇手去之。
This is a method of adapting. If the opponent’s upper body is powerful and my hands can hardly do anything to him, I change to this technique. His left hand carries upward and his right hand wants to get to my chest or through one of my side gates. As his hand carries upward, I apply this technique, but I must not wait for him to twist his body. If he is carrying outward, I go along with it to lift him outward. If he is carrying inward, I go along with it to lift him inward. Once I have sealed off his carrying hand, my right hand performs a lifting SENDING to send him away.

圈字圖註
[11] CURVING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 11

此一手變法。倘遇有肩峯坐肘。明進吾身。勢甚兇勇。本手不能發。卽變此尅之。乘其虛之意也。在順勢一點之功。
This is a method of adapting. If I encounter an opponent who advances upon me with an obvious shoulder or elbow attack, his posture is very fierce, and I am unable to issue with my hands, I then adapt with this technique to overcome it, taking advantage of a gap in his intention by slightly going along with his force.

插字圖註
[12] INSERTING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 12

此一手變法。倘外來披攔截砍手。雙蓋手。肩峯坐肘。來勢勇猛。舉手不能進取。卽變此尅之。全仗一股堅勁之功。手落時肩貼他肩。左手幫助同去。亦有三分借彼勢力乘其虛之意也。倘內來披攔截砍。雙單擒拏。卽變左插取之。
This is a method of adapting. If the opponent goes outward with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or if he covers over with both hands, or if he attacks fiercely with shoulder or elbow, and my hands are unable to find a way in, I change to this technique to defeat him. It entirely depends on hard power from my thighs. As my hand goes downward, my shoulder will touch to his shoulder. My left hand assists at the same time by borrowing thirty percent of his force to take advantage of his emptiness. If he comes in with a draping block or an intercepting chop, or grabs with one or both hands, I change to a left INSERTING to defeat him.

拋字圖註
[13] THROWING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 13

此一手變法。吾手一出。彼用披砍手明進吾身。想砍下吾手。重在相拈之時。用一浮字兜住彼手內轉。手頭收半手。左手封住彼身勢隱擦撒緊推。無有不去者。
This is a method of adapting. When I send my hand out and he uses a draping chop to my hand while noticeably advancing with a desire to chop my hand down, as the heaviness of it makes contact, I use a floating energy to wrap his hand inward, my forward hand withdrawing halfway [i.e. the right “tossing away” to the left] as my left hand seals off his body’s momentum. RUBBING and SCATTERING are contained within it, SENDING ready to spring out from it, and there is nothing that will not be sent away.

托字圖註
[14] PROPPING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 14

此手法有幫佐諸字之功。俱不能離。學者當熟習之。有奇妙之功。但有一手。例如吾手一出。彼用雙蓋手蓋住我手。意想取我上部。吾變重在相變之時。勿與彼蓋下去。手插進用一股軟勁兜住。左手封逼。使彼難變。隱緊推之。無有不去者。此借彼勢力。乘其虛之意也。
This technique assists all the others. None of them can depart from it. You should practice it to proficiency and thereby possess a wonderful skill though merely a gesture of a hand. If I send out a hand and the opponent uses both hands to cover over my hand with the intention of pushing it against my upper body, I change at that moment to this technique to keep from being sent downward. I then perform INSERTING, sending my hand forward while passively wrapping my thigh around his, my left hand sealing off with CROWDING to make it difficult for him to adapt. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it is SENDING, and there is nothing that will not be sent away. This is a method of borrowing the opponent’s force to take advantage of his emptiness.

擦字圖註
[15] RUBBING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 15

此手用法。倘吾手發出。彼用練步。躱閃身勢。吾當脚隨彼轉。手貼不離。浮在何處。卽在何處用之。或有用外雙擒手托住者。卽先分他虎口。身緊一步。手上帶按。隱緊逼撒推疾相連運用。無有不去者。此驚彼慌張。為吾勇猛之用也。或有用雙分手。將吾手托住。其頂意想取我胸脇。或想取我下部。吾當追進一步。卽在頂上。隱緊逼撒推疾去之。用牽字帶下。
In this method, if I shoot out my hand and the opponent steps to dodge away his body, I should pivot my feet to follow him, my hand sticking to him and not disconnecting. Whenever his hands get slowed down, they will be of little use. If he sends both his hands from outward to grab my hand and prop it up, then once he loosens one of his tiger’s mouths, I urgently step in with my hand above leading into a downward push. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it are CROWDING, SCATTERING, or SENDING, and there is nothing that will not be sent away. This technique surprises and flusters him, that I am using such aggressiveness. Or if he uses both hands to spread my hand aside and then prop my hand upward with the intention of getting to my chest or ribs, or to my lower body, I should chase forward with RUBBING to his headtop. Contained within this technique and ready to spring out from it are CROWDING, SCATTERING, or SENDING, or even PULLING to lead the opponent downward.

撒字圖註
[16] SCATTERING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 16

此一手與推字相近。彼若明取吾身。當卽用此。彼左卽左。彼右卽右。隨向進步。勿怯勢力。一吐便取。大有消散脫離之功。學者當熟練之。
This technique is similar to SENDING. If the opponent noticeably advances toward my body, I immediately use this. If he goes to the left, I go to the left. If he goes to the right, I go the right. I go along with the direction of his advance wherever he goes, not shying away from his force, easily capturing his attack, and having the effect of dispelling his force and stripping it away. You should practice it until you are skillful.

呑字圖註
[17] VANISHING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 17

呑者沒也。防內外上中下五門。用披攔截砍手。雙分手。雙蓋手。來勢兇猛。本手難取。卽變此尅之。使彼莫測。變實為虛。大用在吐字詳之。
VANISHING means “disappearing”. Defend the five gates – inner, outer, upper, middle, lower – by using a draping block or an intercepting chop, by spreading with both hands or covering with both hands. If his attack is fierce and his hands difficult to catch, subdue him by changing to this technique, which causes him to have no idea what you are up to and switch his fullness to emptiness. The greatest effectiveness of it lies in following up with EJECTING, explained below:

吐字圖註
[18] EJECTING

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 18

吐者伸也。呑吐二字。相連運用。出沒令彼莫測。方為得用。若遇身强力大。上部勇猛者。卽變此用之。此借彼勢知其虛之意也。
EJECTING is a matter of extending. VANISHING and EJECTING are to be applied together. Disappearing and appearing will cause an opponent to have no idea what you are doing, and thus you will succeed. If you face an opponent who is very powerful and has great upper body strength, switch to this combination of techniques, borrowing his force to find out where he is empty.

以上諸字。循環俱在推字之中。學者仔細詳之。無他論矣。
All of the techniques above cycle back to SENDING. By studying them carefully, nothing else will be required.

下盤八搧歌訣
SONG OF THE EIGHT GROUND-FIGHTING TECHNIQUES

獅子抖毛鵬展翅 鐵牛耕地蝴蝶撲
轅門左右襯緊身 翻騰舒展膝落速
眠羊捲草連根起 寒鷄抱𣎴久練熟
手似猿猴脚似貓 任彼剛强須讋服
LION SHAKES ITS FUR, then RUKH SPREADS ITS WINGS.
IRON OX PLOWS THE LAND, then BUTTERFLY CLOSES ITS WINGS.
OFFICIAL FOLDS HIS ROBE OVER LEFT & RIGHT, drawing it close around his body.
TUCK & ROLL TO GAIN GROUND, quickly bringing your knee down.
SLEEPY SHEEP CURLS UP IN THE GRASS will get the opponent’s root to lift up.
SHIVERING CHICKEN WRAPS ITSELF IN DIRT will be skillful after long practice.
With your hands like a monkey and your feet like a cat,
no matter how strong the opponent, he will lose.

獅子抖毛勢
LION SHAKES ITS FUR:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 19

大鵬展翅勢
RUKH SPREADS ITS WINGS:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 20

鐵牛耕地勢
IRON OX PLOWS THE LAND:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 21

蝴蝶合撲勢
BUTTERFLY CLOSES ITS WINGS:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 22

轅門左右勢
OFFICIAL FOLDS HIS ROBE OVER LEFT & RIGHT:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 23

翻騰舒展勢
TUCK & ROLL TO GAIN GROUND:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 24

眠羊捲草勢
SLEEPY SHEEP CURLS UP IN THE GRASS:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 25

寒鷄抱𣎴勢
SHIVERING CHICKEN WRAPS ITSELF IN DIRT:

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 26

下盤總訣
KEYS TO THE GROUND-FIGHTING TECHNIQUES

以上諸下盤勢。恐遇身强力大。上部勇猛。本手難取。故備此用之。尤宜熟練。方能應用。得之功多藝巧。學者習吾之字藝。不宜不效之也。
In case you encounter an opponent who is very strong, with a fierce upper body and hands that are too hard to seize, be prepared to use these techniques. You have to practice them to proficiency, then you will be able to apply them and will have obtained the skills of many arts. For those who practice my art of words, a technique that is not suitable will not be effective.

看來八勢眞奇巧 廣大神通盡在中
多少少年練不出 只因間斷滅前功
These eight postures seem to be truly ingenious,
full of incomprehensible magic.
So many youths practice it but get nothing out of it,
only because once they break from the training, all they had worked for melts away.

字門正宗卷上終
Here ends Part One.

字門正宗卷下 闡微論 鵝湖胡遺生著
PART TWO: ESSAYS ELABORATING UPON THE SUBTLETIES (by Hu Yisheng)

第一章 持志
CHAPTER ONE: MAINTAINING WILLPOWER

昔人有言曰。人而無恆。不可以作巫醫。夫習巫醫。猶必有恆。而况拳術之難成。且倍蓰於巫術醫道。故有恆二字。實為習拳術之無上上乘口訣。而應鐫之於心版者也。古今以絕技鳴者。必有堅决之意志。而不為人事所移易。其習技也。孜孜不倦。然後三年小成。十年大成。世有好鬥之徒。所志乃大異乎此。彼以為習數十日之久。卽可用以擊人。而鄕曲之拳師。其設舘授徒。亦竟以四十日為期。習之者遂謂已得其秘而可稱雄於一方。有請業於數師者。輙傲然語流輩曰。吾曾習數舘。然所謂數舘者。亦不過四十日之數倍而已也。或遇一老弱與鬥而勝之。則驕矜露於顏色。自以為萬夫莫敵也。一旦被扑於强壯。遂爾色沮而返。又自恨手法之莫展。口訣之不靈。猶不悟拳術之皮毛且未得焉。若而人者。惡足以語拳術。間有明達之輩。亦深知拳術以健身為體。自衞為用。而必朝夕練習。始克收其效焉。當其習技之始。未嘗不奮發有為。久之。或以好色渝其心。或以好貨昏其智。於是廢於半途者有之。虧於一簣者亦有之。此之謂不能持其志。是故能成絕技之倫。必有高人之抱。或遯跡於山谷。或和光於市廛。少艾不能移其操。榮枯不能動其念。惟以畢生之精神。兢兢焉肆力於斯技而已矣。由是觀之。不欲技成則已。欲成。則恆心不可不有也。不欲保其恆心則已。如欲保之。則所志不可不持也。夫志猶舵然。舟子之行舟。欲東。必緊持舵而之東。然則吾人之習技。亦必有堅决之志向。緊持而不肯或移。庶乎可達其目的。所謂目的者。蓋不外健身與自衞。昔達摩祖師駐錫少室。因其徒趺坐參禪之際。皆昏沉欲睡。乃授之拳法。以振刷其精神。此少林拳法之始也。後世僧人以山行野宿。爰習此以御暴徒猛獸。雖稍離祖意。要皆用以自衞。而不敢故意傷人。是故吾人對於拳術應有之認識有二。
Ancient people had a saying [Lun Yu, 13.22]: “A man without perseverance will not become a shaman.” If those training to become shamans needed to have perseverance, how much more difficult it will be to succeed in boxing arts, many times more than learning the skills and ways of medicine. Hence we say: “have perseverance”. Boxing arts are truly the highest of all knacks and have to be carved into the mind. In both ancient and modern times, those who have been celebrated as having consummate skill needed to have a firm determination that would not be altered by any ordinary human affairs. To practice the art, you have to be tirelessly hardworking. After three years you will have some small success. After ten years you will have great success.
     There are in the world practitioners who love to fight that have a very different kind of willpower. They think that after just a few weeks of practice, they will be able to use it to fight with people. They then approach local teachers who have set up schools, under the impression that after several weeks a practitioner will be able to say he has obtained the secrets and can claim dominance over the region.
     There is also the type who seeks some instruction from many different teachers,
then proudly mentions them by saying that he has studied in several schools. But what he means by several schools is nothing more than a month in each. When he meets some weak old man and defeats him in a fight, his face fills with pride and he thinks of himself as unbeatable. Then when one day he gets knocked down by a strong young man, he becomes depressed, hating himself for his undeveloped techniques and incomplete theories, feeling he has not grasped even a superficial level of boxing arts.
     Such a person is not adequate to the task of discussing boxing arts, but through the acquaintance of knowledgeable teachers, he will then come to deeply understand that health is the substance of boxing arts while self-defense is the function, and that daily practice is required to be able to gain results. Right from the beginning of the training, you should always and over a long period put all of yourself into it. One who has a love of sex that distracts his heart or a love of wealth that muddles his wits will quit halfway through, “lacking that last basket of materials [toward the building of a monument]” [Book of History, chapter 33]. These are descriptions of those who are unable to maintain willpower.
     Therefore to be able to achieve a consummate skill, you will have to embrace the qualities of a more noble sort of person, such as the hermit who lives in the mountain valley or the wise man who sets a virtuous example in the marketplace. The young cannot change their behavior and the old cannot change their ideas, but it is by way of a lifetime of spirit, of conscientiously doing one’s utmost, that one will succeed in this art.
     Looking at it from this point of view, if you do not desire to succeed in the art, then you won’t. If you do wish to succeed, then you have to have perseverance. If you do not wish to preserve your perseverance, then you are done. If you wish to preserve it, then you have to maintain your willpower. Willpower is like the rudder of a boat. If the boatman wants to drive his boat eastward, he has to firmly grab the rudder and make it point the boat to the east. Therefore when we train to develop skill, we must be resolutely determined, sticking to our decision and unwilling to shift, then we will be within reach of our goal.
     The goal is nothing more than health and self-defense. Long ago, Damo paid a visit to the Shaolin temple. Because the monks were all falling asleep during their meditation practice, he taught them boxing arts to invigorate their spirits. This was the beginning of the Shaolin boxing arts. Later generations of monks who traveled through the mountains or slept in the wilderness practiced the arts to defend themselves against villains and animals. Although already something of a departure from its original intention, we should only use the art for self-defense and never dare to intentionally harm people. Therefore we should recognize the two aspects of boxing arts:

一、健身
1. Bodily Health

呂氏春秋云。流水不腐。戶樞不蛀。形氣亦然。故胼手胝足者。常有健全之軀。席豐履厚者。類多孱弱之體。此其明證也。蓋四體不動。則氣血不流。益以油膩滯其臟腑。色慾削其元精。欲求强健。不亦難乎。是以拳勇之為技。習之得其道。則氣機內行於臟腑。外流於肌膚。內體充實。病不能侵。趺坐功深者。萃面盎背。一望可見。久行不懈。可致金剛之軀。又何况却病延年乎。余初習技時。師語我曰。斯技能療痼疾。同門有患嘔血者。習之半載遂愈。以事間斷月餘。其病復發。厥後乃不敢再曠業矣。初聞之。將信將疑。後亦獲奇效。先是。余鼻左孔。氣閉不通者數年。習技數月。遂豁然貫通。以此證之。拳術之足健身。功效實勝於補品。吾人之習拳術。固當以健身為主要之目標也。
It says in the Lu Shi Chunqiu [book 3, chapter 2]: “Running water never goes stale and a door that gets used does not get rusty hinges.” It is the same for our bodies and our energy. Thus those who live a life of physical toil [“calloused hands and feet” – Xunzi, chapter 29] typically have very fit bodies, whereas those who live a life of ease [“bounteous feasts and comfy shoes” – Wu Jianren’s Strange Things Witnessed Over Twenty Years, chapter 14] are often frail and weak. This is clear proof that unless the limbs are given movement, then energy and blood will not flow well, and that if you stuff your organs with greasy food or let sexual lust erode your primordial essence, a desire for health is not likely to be fulfilled.
     For powerful boxers who have become skillful, practicing until they have grasped its ways, the internal movement of energy to the organs continues outward to the flesh and skin. With the inner body strengthened, illness cannot invade. Those who are deeply skilled at meditation have energy that fills their faces, overflowing from behind, and this can be seen at a glance. By practicing for a long time without slackening, you can develop the body of a warrior, and moreover you will prevent illness and prolong life.
     When I began practicing this art, my teacher said to me: “This art can treat illness. One of my fellow students suffered from vomiting blood. After practicing for half a year, he finally recovered from this. But then he took a month off from the training and his illness returned. After that, he won’t dare take a break from practice.” When I first heard this, I was skeptical, but later I myself also obtained extraordinary effects. Previously, my left nostril had been blocked up for several years. After practicing this art for a few months, suddenly air was passing through. These examples demonstrate that boxing arts are sufficient to strengthen the body, and that the effects are in fact superior to tonics. In the practice of boxing arts, we assuredly should see the health of the body as the main objective.

一、自衞
1. Self Defense

老子曰。柔者、生之徒。剛者、死之徒。又曰。强梁者、不得其死。吾人之處世。無拳無勇。固不當暴戾恣睢。行法强梁。卽使身懷絕技。亦應和光同塵。慈藹待物。切不可自恃藝高。目無餘子。須知學無止境。天下之能者頗多。若剛愎無禮。卽是取死之道。縱至不得已之時。亦應審情察勢以禦之。愼勿出手以〔卽〕喪人命。致傷天和。一言以蔽之。吾人處無可退步之時。卽拳術致用之日。例如盜賊以白刃相加。則奪其刃以戮之可也。至若市井無賴。詬我毀我。儘可掩耳而走。苟捉而重創之。斯為過矣。以此類推。則自衞之義明矣。夫自衞、不常遘之事也。而身體之强健。則為吾人時刻不可缺乏之要素。故吾人之習拳術。必以健身為本。而以自衞為末。
Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 75]: “Softness accords with life. Hardness accords with death.” And also said [chapter 41]: “A cruel king will not die a natural death.” Our conduct within society is “without fight, without boldness” [Book of Poems, poem 198]. It is indeed inappropriate to be tyrannical and overbearing – the behavior of the “cruel king”. To get your body to achieve a consummate skill, you should be indifferent to worldly success, compassionate and amiable toward others. You have to also be sure not to become overconfident in your level of skill, looking down on everyone else. You must understand there is no end to learning and that there are a great many capable practitioners in the world. If you are headstrong and impertinent, that is the way to seek out death. If you end up in a moment in which you have no choice, you should examine your situation in order to defend against it. Be careful not to send out your hands to kill people, merely injure with graceful moderation.
     The sum of this is that when we find ourselves in circumstances we cannot retreat from, this is a moment in which boxing arts have practical use. For instance, when thieves put their blades to you, you have permission to wrest away their weapons and slaughter them. But as for typical urban rogues, they can go ahead and hurl abuse at me, for I know how to cover my ears and walk away, whereas to grab one of them and seriously injure him would be excessive. Based on this, the meaning of self-defense is clear: it is for dealing with unusual occurrences. However, our bodies have to be strong and healthy so that when the instant comes, we will be equipped with everything we need. Therefore when practicing boxing arts, we must use the strengthening of the body as the foundation and defending of the self as the fulfillment.

吾人對於拳術之槪念旣明。則練習之志向宜堅。而應守之條件有四。
Once we are clear about boxing arts concepts, the training of the willpower should then be solidified. There are four things to guard against:

一、戒色
1. Restrain your lust.

色之為害。罄竹難書。習技者遭之。輒滅其前功。墮其意志。故列為首戒。
Lust is harmful, and in ways too numerous to write down. One who trains in this art but descends into debauchery extinguishes all he has so far worked for. It dissolves determination, and therefore it is listed as the first of the things to restrain.

一、戒貪
2. Restrain your greed.

古人有言。人咬得菜根。則百事可做。能存是念。自可安貧。若慕繁華。貪名利。所習勢必中輟。
Ancient people had a saying: “A person who eats vegetable roots can do anything.” If you can keep this in mind, you will naturally lead a simple life. If you envy opulence, coveting fame and wealth, you will probably end up quitting halfway through your training.

一、戒酒
3. Abstain from alcohol.

酒以成禮。飲少許不無裨益。然過量則亂性。如素不狎妓者。醉後亦竟破戒。故習拳術者。不若戒飲之為愈也。
Wine is used for ceremonial purposes and the drinking of small quantities of it may be of some benefit. However, drinking excessive amounts will result in mental chaos. For instance, one who is sworn against visiting brothels may suddenly break his rules after getting drunk. Thus for practitioners of boxing arts, it would be better to avoid alcohol altogether.

一、防病
4. Prevent Illness.

諺云。病從口入。禍從口出。欲預防疾病。必以愼飲食為主。次之。則起居有恆。寒暑無忽。蓋初習技時。體未堅實。偶一忽略。遂遭病魔。所習亦勢必中輟。
There is a saying: “Illness comes in through the mouth [because of the foolish things we eat]. Trouble comes out through the mouth [because of the stupid things we say].” If you wish to prevent illness, you must first of all be careful about what you eat and drink, and then live a consistent lifestyle, regardless of winter or summer. In the beginning of the training, when your body is not yet robust, you will occasionally be careless and make yourself ill. In these circumstances also, you would probably end up quitting halfway through your training.

今夫色也。貪也。酒也。病也。於吾身心一無所染。持之有恆。修之不輟。可養成健全之身體。且可養成高尚之人格。又豈特習技之成功哉。
Let us be in no way polluted in body and mind by lust, greed, alcohol, or illness, and perseveringly maintain such a condition, cultivating ourselves unceasingly. If we can cultivate soundness of body and nobleness of character, we will be especially successful in our training of the art.

第二章 保精
CHAPTER TWO: PRESERVING ESSENCE

世有採戰之流。謂其術本乎容成廣御少女而不洩精。以為卽採陰補陽之道。夫人身自有陰陽。何須取之於外。若而人者。誠所謂逆路伽耶陀。而吾道之保精。則非此之謂也。蓋精之為物。藏於骨內。鎭乎坎宮。若慾火一發。則元精一點離位而被燒。雖得女人陰濁之氣。何足償其所失。設遇强敵。則一敗塗地。性命不保、又何陽之可補乎。故吾道以不御婦女。惜精如命為主旨。然不孝有三。無後為大。習拳術者。豈能胥皆終身不娶。是以童眞之習技。必待成功而後婚。旣娶妻矣。則以節慾為要。至若先娶而後習者。則必絕慾以保精。始可收效於桑榆。今試舉火車以喩之。人身猶機器也。精猶煤也。精少則體力不强。煤少則火力不足。火力不足。則機器不靈轉。體力不足則身軀不活潑。以不活潑之身軀。而欲習拳術。譬如以不靈轉之機器。而欲開快車。是皆不可能之事也。是故習技者。於其陽精必惜之保之。使之充盈於骨隙。固結於坎宮。一如道家之塞漏築基然。始可望其成功焉。且也。精之於人體。尤有特殊之奇妙。若吾人有天癸後。未洩少許。積十數年。眞火必旺。設遇必要時。以武火鍊之。則骨軟如飴。可屈而不折。然必跌坐不間。始克臻此。昔六祖慧能避難山中。適追者已至乃隱身石罅。載在壇經。確鑿可考。事非神異。理有必然。蓋以童眞之身。鍊成如飴之骨。石罅雖狹。何能阻之。閱者至此。亦將有所懷疑乎。今更取諸近以證之。老人之骨硬。孩童之骨軟。此為人所共知也。江湖賣藝童子。其體可屈曲如環。此人所共見也。至若眞火之說。普通人士。尤所不解。今試以煤火喩眞火。以玻璃喩人骨。夫人骨與玻璃。皆至脆之物。碰堅物則碎。遇凡火則裂。若置玻璃於勢熾之煤火中。則可見其軟化如飴。故人骨鍊以至盛之眞火。自當如玻璃之遇煤火矣。就此論之。精之在人身中。實為至重要之物。然與拳術究有何種密切關係。請詳言之。夫拳術之所尚者。勁也。勁者何。卽由氣所生之抵力也。吾人呼力亦曰氣力。蓋力必由氣生。氣衰則力弱。氣盛則力强。試以繩縛藝高者之手。彼一提氣。則繩可寸寸斷。旁觀者必動。容相告曰。何勁之大也。孰知其氣之盛。乃百倍於常人。然則其氣何以若是其盛也。此無他。保精而已矣。道云。鍊精化炁。鍊炁化神。習技者雖不能至於鍊炁化神之境。然保其神〔精〕而鍊為炁。則為不可少之工夫也。蓋積一分之精。卽增一分之氣。增一分之氣。卽生一分之力。日積月累。生生不己。於是化成至剛至猛之勁。其功深者。可禦刀槍。卽所謂金鐘罩、鐵布衫、是也。惟金鐘罩、鐵布衫、必以童體鍊之。於此可知精氣關係之密切矣。故習技者之體。如足球然。其始也空空無所有。及其積精而增氣。則如壓氣筒之打氣矣。及其精足而氣盛。則如足球之打足氣矣。球中氣足。則生最高之彈力。體中氣盛。遂生至剛至猛之勁。此勢所必至而毫無疑義者也。曷觀於伶人之習唱乎。其藝將成。師必謹防其破體。設一破體。則嗓音陡壞。伶界名曰倒倉。極難復原。從此不能高唱入雲以歡顧客矣。夫伶人之唱戲。所恃者中氣之足。以是猶不得不保其精。而况吾人之習技乎。習技之初。必從事跕〔站〕樁。跕〔站〕樁愈久。則下部愈穩。昔同門有能久跕〔站〕者。一日跕〔站〕不片刻。師卽斥其犯戒。注目觀之。見其腿膝顫動不已。於是知洩精之為害至烈。而不敢不兢兢焉引為炯戒矣。昔有拳師與隣婦私。敎以死穴之部位。使乘其夫洩精之際。故意調笑以傷之。夫死而不露跡。後自洩於人。始發其奸。由是觀之。精也者。固不可須臾離乎身也。而人於洩精後。偶不經意。輙致難療之疾。蓋乘其虛以入也。如夾陰傷寒。治之若不得法。未有不死者矣。噫嘻。後之學者。苟欲其技之底於成。於保精之說。豈可忽乎哉。
There is in the world the tradition of gaining strength by taking someone else’s energy.
It is said this art began with Rong Cheng’s teaching that men should have sex with young women but avoid ejaculating, and thereby use her passive aspect to nourish his active aspect. But as the human body naturally possesses both the passive and active aspects, it is not necessary to take it from someone else, and if a person instead approached it this way, he could then certainly be considered anti-materialist [vama-lokayata].
     Our method is to preserve the essence. Essence is a substance that is stored in the bones and then condensed in the “water palace” [i.e. the kidneys]. If a burning desire is expressed, then a little bit of your primordial essence leaves its place and gets cooked. Even if you obtained a woman’s passive energy, how would it be sufficient to compensate for the loss? If you encountered a strong opponent, you would then suffer a humiliating defeat. And if you are not even preserving the substance that gives you life, how then could your active aspect be nourished anyway?
     Therefore our method does not use sex with women, simply the cherishing of our essence as the main substance of life. It is said that [from Mengzi, chapter 4a] “the most unfilial thing of all is to not sire a next generation”, and so practitioners of boxing arts cannot all go their entire lives without marrying. But in training the art as a novice, you must wait until you have succeeded at it and then marry, and once you have taken a wife, it is then important to restrain yourself sexually. For one who marries first and later trains, you must from that point on forego sex in order to preserve your essence, for only then can you get results in your old age.
     Let us compare it to trying to drive a train. The human body is like a machine. Essence is like the coal that fuels it. With too little essence, the body will not be strong, just as with too little coal, the fire would not be sufficient. When the fire is insufficient, the engine will not function. When the body’s strength is insufficient, the body will not be lively. To have a body that is not lively and yet wish to practice boxing arts is like an engine that will not function and yet is expected to run at full power. These are impossible situations. Therefore a practitioner of the art must cherish and preserve his masculine essence. Make it plentiful within the bones and gathering densely in the kidneys, just like the Daoist notion of “stopping up leakages to build a foundation”, then you can look forward to success.
     Moreover, essence in the human body has especially marvelous qualities. If once we hit puberty we then never ejaculate, accumulating it for several decades, “genuine fire” will flourish. Then when the time comes, it will be used to train the “martial fire”, and then the joints will soften like taffy, meaning there can be bending without breaking. However, you must consistently engage in meditation to be able to achieve this.
     Long ago, the Six Patriarchs of Zen were cleverly able to take refuge in the mountains,
throwing off their pursuers by disappearing into the cracks and the channels in the rock formations. This is verifiable because it is not something magical, but a true principle. The body of a Buddhist novice goes through training that makes his joints as soft as taffy, and even though a crack through rocks may be narrow, it cannot obstruct his way. The reader may still have doubts about this, so I will now present more evidence.
     The bones of the old are hard. The bones of children are soft. This is obvious to all. Children within groups of traveling performers can contort their bodies into a ring shape, which has been witnessed by everyone. When we talk of “genuine fire”, the ordinary person really does not understand. Let us test our comparison of a coal fire to a “genuine fire” by comparing glass to human bones. Human bones and glass are both brittle things that will break when crashed against hard objects or split when thrown in a fire. If you place glass in a blazing coal fire, you can then see it soften like taffy. Therefore when human bones are trained to the point that they contain “genuine fire”, they naturally will be like glass put in a coal fire.
     Regarding these descriptions, essence within the human body is indeed a crucial substance. But what is the intimate relationship between it and the study of boxing arts? Let me explain in detail. What is valued in boxing arts is power. What is power? It is the resistant force that is generated from energy. When we exhale forcefully, it is also called “energized force”. Force has to come from energy. If the energy is feeble, the force will be weak. If the energy is abundant, the force will be strong. Try using a rope to tie up someone who is at a high level of skill. With a single rousing of energy, the rope can be broken into pieces, to the undoubted surprise of onlookers. Rong Cheng tells us: “What makes his power great? It is that no one knows his energy is a hundred times more abundant than that of an ordinary person.”
     That being the case, how can energy be that abundant? This is due to nothing more than the preserving of essence. Daoists say: “Train the essence and transform it into energy. Train the energy and transform it into spirit.” Even if those who practice these arts are unable to transform energy into spirit, they can at least preserve their essence so as to train their energy, an indispensable part of the training. This is because accumulating ten percent essence will give you ten percent energy, which will then produce ten percent force. Accumulating it over a long period, producing it unceasingly, it will consequently transform until one’s power is hard and fierce. Those who are at a deep level can resist sabers and spears, what is called “golden bell” or “iron shirt”. However, the skills of golden bell and iron shirt must be trained from childhood. From this can be understood the intimate relationship between essence and energy.
     The body of a practitioner is resilient like a soccer ball. It starts out empty and insubstantial, then with the accumulating of essence and increasing of energy it is as though it has been pumped up with air. When essence is sufficient, energy will be abundant, like when a soccer ball is inflated with enough air that it can be kicked. Once there is sufficient air in the ball, this generates the maximum of bounciness. When energy is abundant within the body, then the power generated will be extremely hard and fierce. That this condition will be achieved is beyond doubt.
     What about when we see an actor practicing his singing? To accomplish such a skill, the maestro must guard against damaging his body. If his body gets damaged, his voice will be spoiled. In the acting world, this is called “tipping over the granary”, for it is very difficult to restore to its original condition, and thereupon he is unable to loudly project his voice for the pleasure of customers. What actors in traditional opera depend on is that their energy be sufficient, therefore it seems they have to preserve their essence, and thus how much more so for us practitioners.
     In the beginning of the training, we must engage in stance practice. The longer you practice stance work, the more stable your lower body will be. One of my fellow students used to be able to stand for a very long time, but one day he could stand for not even a short while and our teacher scolded him for violating the rules. Observing him closely, we saw his knees incessantly shaking. We thereupon understood how extremely harmful ejaculating is and fervently took heed of such a clear warning.
     There was once a boxing teacher who secretly taught the position of the lethal acupoints to a neighbor’s wife. She applied them while her husband was ejaculating, intending only to hurt him as a prank, but he then died, and without a mark on him. Later his discharge was noticed and she was then cursed for her treachery. Looking at it from this point of view, essence is something that must never leave the body, for if a man is not careful after he ejaculates, he will contract illness that is difficult to treat. Illness will take advantage of his weakened state and enter, such as being oppressed by a desperate chill, and without getting treatment the result will be death, alas. And so for this latest generation of students, if you want your skill to build up to success, how can the preserving of essence be ignored?

第三章 養氣
CHAPTER THREE: CULTIVATING ENERGY

人無氣則死。氣盛則强。氣之宜盛者固無疑矣。然水能行舟。亦能覆舟。故氣能强體。亦能毀體。何則。以其盛極而不養。猶夫水之澎湃而不平也。孔子曰。血氣方剛。戒之在鬥。夫氣剛之夫。且有好鬥之弊。而况精足氣盛躍躍欲試之習技者乎。顧鬥於弱者則傷人。鬥於能者則受傷。傷人或至於論抵。受傷或至於喪命。故曰。氣盛亦足毀其體也。蓋氣於人身。為最易馳散而最易僨事之物。是以古人與酒、色、財、並列為炯戒。而釋氏之忍辱波羅密。卽對此痛下針砭也。第釋氏言空。其忍辱也。乃使意氣務歸烏有。吾儒不能遺世離俗。或有氣貫斗牛之時。故曰。我善養吾浩然之氣也。曷謂氣貫斗牛之時。如古之忠臣義士。殺身成仁。舍生取義是也。當其成仁取義之際。從容就死。不改其色。若非養之有素。未有不氣亂血沸而至於觳觫者也。嗚呼。氣盛而知養。則為忠臣。為義士。反是。則為兇徒。為亡命。何若是其截然不同也。或曰。若子之言。毋乃太迂乎。夫拳術所尚者勇耳。而責以儒者之養氣。何也。曰。惟能養氣者。然後能勇也。昔者曾子謂子襄曰。子好勇乎。吾嘗聞大勇於夫子矣。自反而不縮。雖褐寬博吾不惴焉。自反而縮。雖千萬人吾往矣。曷謂自反而縮。蓋此至大至剛之氣。以直養而無害。則塞乎天地之間。雖千萬人吾何懼焉。故曰。仁者必有勇。異苑載楊豐為虎所啣。其女香年十四。手無刀刃。直前搤虎頭。免父難。夫虎、至可畏之獸也。懦者談之而變色。楊香何以搤之若貓然。此無他。積其平日之孝忱。發為冲天之浩氣也。斯時也。知有父而不知有虎也。設有人焉。行素遠仁。際乎斯時。偶動天性。雖欲救之。必趦趄而不敢矣。是故習技者果能若儒者之養氣。則際於至險之時。踏於至危之機。亦可如楊香之搤虎矣。或曰。習技者之養氣。亦有說以約之乎。曰。躬自厚而薄責於人。惡聲至可以不反矣。學而時習之。人不知而不慍。則技高而不矜矣。言寡尤。行寡悔。則不忤於物矣。夫如是。則充於體者。惟道與義。一旦發之。卽所謂浩然之氣。孟子曰。夫志、氣之帥也。氣、體之充也。故氣無志帥。則亂氣。亂則神馳。神馳則心慌。心慌則手滯。然則無所養者。必無志以帥氣。其遇勁敵也必敗。此養氣之與臨敵。尤有莫大之關係。而為習技者不可不知者也。昔師語吾曰。往者有求較技者。我必接之以禮。婉言以謝。雖惡言相加。不敢稍動無明。不得已而後較。未嘗有失。以此證之。則前言為不虛矣。更有進者。點穴之技未臻上乘者。其傷人也。必乘其張脈僨興而入之。蓋氣狡僨於外。則血脈必隨氣張動。周身而作。順其勢以閉之。則不行而死。較技者可不注意乎。釋氏謂無明一發。可焚三界。道流謂妄動無明。必致走丹。吾昔不信。後習坐功。偶與人諍。心忿氣動。不禁引吭大叫。俄覺腹中有物蒸蒸而上。腰間遂爾若有所失。感不舒暢者數日。於是知動氣之無益。不如涵養之為佳。吾故曰。習技者旣知保精矣。尤必知養氣。其肺腑之中。肝胆之內。必鐫以二語曰。敏於事而愼於言。持其志毋暴其氣。
A person without energy dies, but with an abundance of energy, one is strong. Those with appropriately abundant energy truly have nothing to worry about, yet just as water can both float and capsize boats, energy can both strengthen the body or destroy it. Why is this? Because when energy is overabundant, it ceases to be good for you, like when water is turbulent rather than placid. Confucius said [Lun Yu, 16.7]: “[When a gentleman is in his prime,] his blood and energy are indomitable, and so he avoids fighting.” A man with indomitable energy will also have the flaw of loving to fight. And so one with ample essence and abundant energy will wish even more to try a bout with practitioners of these arts. Consider that when fighting a weak person, you may injure him, and when fighting an expert, you may get injured. If injuring someone, you will be chided for overdoing it. In getting injured, you may even get killed. Therefore we can say that abundant energy is also sufficient to ruin the body.
     The energy of the human body is the easiest thing to waste or spoil. Thus ancient people urgently warned against alcohol, sex, and wealth. One of the Buddhist perfections is “tolerance” [kshanti paramita], which is an admonishment against these harmful vices. When Buddhists talk of “emptiness” [sunyata], it is this “tolerance” that they mean and that one’s temperament should be reset at zero. We Confucians cannot withdraw from the world, indeed we perhaps have an energy that reaches farther than the constellations [as per Mengzi’s comment: “By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted, and thus will fill the whole universe.”]. Thus it is said [Mengzi, also from chapter 2a]: “I am good at nurturing my noble energy.”
     Why do I say “an energy that reaches farther the constellations”? Some examples:
     “Consider the loyal officials and righteous men of old, [how there came a day when they died for their country.]” [Records of the Three Kingdoms, book 19 of Wei]
     “[A man of honor…] will sacrifice his life for honor.” [Lun Yu, 15.9]
     “[If I cannot have both,] I would choose righteousness over life.” [Mengzi, chapter 6a]
     This sacrificing for honor or choosing of righteousness, this calm in the face of death without changing one’s countenance, if not for a solid foundation in cultivation, would instead be a chaos of energy, a boiling of blood, a trembling from fear. Alas, although when energy is abundant and cultivation is understood this produces “loyal officials and righteous men”, when the opposite is the case the result is cutthroats and desperadoes. How can there be such a complete difference?
     Someone may say: “Talking in this way, are you not overanalyzing? Boxing arts value courage, whereas a Confucian sensibility is to cultivate energy. Right?”
     But it is one who can cultivate energy who will then be able to have courage. [from Mengzi, 2a:] “As Zengzi said to Zixiang: ‘You are in love with courage. I once heard Confucius talk of great courage: “Were I to examine myself and find I am not restrained by righteousness, I would be afraid of a bum on the street. Were I to examine myself and find that I am restrained by righteousness, I could face down a grand army all alone.”’”
     What is meant by “were I to examine myself and find that I am restrained by righteousness”? This refers to the “greatness and indomitability” [Mengzi, 2a] of energy. “By nurturing it with integrity, it will not be corrupted, and thus will fill the whole universe.” What would one then have to fear even from a grand army? Thus it is said [Lun Yu, 14.4]: “Compassion requires courage.”
     For instance, it says in Strange Occurrences [book 10]: “Yang Feng [while harvesting grains] got chomped on by a tiger. His daughter Xiang, who was fourteen years old and had not even a short blade with her, immediately pounced upon the tiger’s neck barehanded and saved her father.”
     A tiger is a terrifying beast that would make any coward gibber and go pale. So how did Yang Xiang seize the animal is if it were more meager feline? For no other reason than due to her accumulation of ordinary filial feeling, her noble spirit went higher than the sky. In that moment, she was aware only of her father and not of the tiger.
     People during their ordinary behavior are not very compassionate, but in such a moment they are moved by instinct, and even if they wish for safety, they will be undistracted by the thought. Therefore if practitioners of the art can cultivate their energy as the Confucianists did, then in moments of danger they can step right into peril and be like Yang Xiang seizing the tiger.
     Someone may say: “For practitioners cultivating energy, are there not also some restrictions to be discussed?’
     To which I answer from these quotes:
     “If you are demanding of yourself and do not expect much from others…” [Lun Yu, 15.15] No matter how abusive someone’s language, do not respond to it.
     “To learn something and then practice it always… To be unknown and yet unbothered by it…” [Lun Yu, 1.1] When at a high level of skill, do not be a braggart.
     “If your speech and conduct are without reproach or regret…” [Lun Yu, 2.18] Do not be argumentative with people.
     Behaving in this way, energy will fill your body, and the Way and righteousness will soon express as “noble energy”. Mengzi said [Mengzi, 2a]: “The mind leads the energy. The energy leads the body.” Therefore without the mind leading, the energy will be in chaos. With your energy in chaos, your spirit will be distracted. With your spirit distracted, your emotions will be in a panic. With your emotions panicking, your hands will become stagnant. That being the case, one who does not cultivate his energy will not use mind to lead energy, and then when he encounters a powerful opponent, he is sure to lose. Thus the cultivation of energy is greatly involved in defense against opponents, and practitioners have to understand this.
     My teacher once told me: “When someone comes to challenge me, I must welcome him courteously and thank him with tactful words. Even if he gives me abusive language, I do not dare to even slightly act impulsively. It is only when I have no choice that I fight, and thus I have never lost.” With this testimony, the words that here have preceded it are not empty.
     To expound on the theme further, if your skill in striking acupoints is not at the highest level, you may injure someone. You must take advantage of his position and attack where his veins are popping out from exertion. When his energy comes forth deviously, his vessels will swell along with his energy, affecting his whole body. Follow his momentum and seal him off, but do not act to kill him. When challenging others, how can this be ignored?
     Buddhists say that a single utterance of ignorance [avidya] can destroy the world. Daoists say that to take rash action without understanding will result in loss of elixir. I used to not believe this until I practiced meditation. Once while criticizing someone, my emotions turned to anger, my energy became activated, and there was nothing to stop me from shouting. I suddenly felt a raging rising from my belly, a disconnection from within my torso, and I then felt uncomfortable for several days. Thereupon I knew that such movement of energy was useless and quite inferior to the beauty of self-restraint. Therefore I say that practitioners who have understood the protecting of essence must then also understand the cultivating of energy. Within our lungs [where the breath for our shouting moves] and inside our liver and gallbladder [where our courage dwells], we must carve these words:

I am sensitive to events and cautious in my speech,
keeping control over my ideals and not getting short-tempered with my energy.

第四章 存神
CHAPTER FOUR: GATHERING SPIRIT

道經曰。神能入石。神能飛形。大矣哉。神之為用也。往古有一旅客。孤行曠野。遇盗刧其財物。投之於眢井。掩之以磨石。其人悲號呼救。野無應者。天狐過而憫之。授以凝神之法。令其注視磨孔。遂得飛身而上。有一緇流。欲習其法。置身於井。使人亦以磨石掩之。此人遠去。緇流遂斃。夫居井則一。而生死不同。何也。是蓋存神之得法與否有以别之也。蓋神之為用雖大。存之無法則不驗。然則果何法以存之乎。此無他。有能毋意毋必。勿忘勿助者則可矣。彼緇流之入井。故意習其法也。掩之以磨石。心必飛其身也。念念不忘。而執著於相。則如宋人之揠其苗而助長也。是皆所謂非其法。若之何不死也。或曰。是乃不經之談。無稽之事。不足信也。曰。稽之古籍。亦有可引證者載焉。昔者楚熊渠子夜行。見寢石以為伏虎。彎弓而射。沒金飲羽。下視知其為石。李廣出獵。見草中石。以為虎而射之。中石沒矢。視之石也。夫石、至堅之物也。石巨而如虎。雖以今日至精之火器。實彈而擊之。猶且不能洞之也。古人雖善射。又烏能沒其金而飲其羽哉。蓋彼善射者。遇虎可一矢而洞之。當其見石以為虎之時。固毫不知虎之為石也。斯時也。神在虎而不在石。故一發而沒矢。乃如平昔之射虎然。設明知其為石。而有必穿之意。奮臂而引弓。助力以發矢。必激而反之。雖至於矢盡弓折。猶不能洞之矣。今夫知之而不執。則得毋意之道矣。由之而不著。則得毋必之道矣。念之而不縈。則得勿忘之道矣。行之而不勉。則得勿助之道矣。反是。則太過而不中。不中則不得其自然。其神將何所存之哉。釋氏有言曰。三界唯心。萬法唯識。蓋天下之萬事萬物。皆由識流性海所生。山河大地。亦依建立。三昧六通。由兹發現。故以石為虎。射之則沒矢。苟以虎為石。射之且折弓。何則。存其神則神全。神全則物唯心造。履水而不溺。入火而不焚。遇石而無阻。被刃而無傷。又何况射石而沒其矢乎。是故習技者。苟欲不為下駟而躋上乘。則舍存神之外。誠無他道矣。世有高手。戟指可洞牛腹。側掌可碎牛首。下乘羡之。實不足異。蓋其習技得法於存神而已矣。其法若何。請詳言之。凡吾人之習技。必須有舂容大雅之槪。勿徒示赳赳武夫之雄。其眼雖外觀而實內視。其耳雖外聞而實內聽。其鼻張而口閉。其舌撟而抵腭。其身如當春楊柳而生機勃勃。其意如一泓止水而心氣和平。移步則神存於足。舉手則神存於指。不故意用力。不必其勁來。念常覺而不忘。勁已至而不助。以至於行住坐臥。無不存其神焉。其行也步緩而不急。臂垂而不舉。目視不過一丈。手搖不過半尺。食指伸而不屈。直而不挺。餘四指屈而不握。鬆而不緊。於是神存於食指之尖。久之神隨氣至。氣隨念至。抵於指尖。而成陰勁。其住也。如塔之高聳。不仰不俯。不左欹右傾。耳不亂聽。目不四顧。意不外馳。而守於一。於是神存於食指之尖。而指之姿勢。一如行時。若所立之處。有几案在傍。亦可以指尖擱其上。或傍有較低之物。則以指竪立可也。其坐也。頭正身直。脊骨常挺。目視於三尺之內。兩足距可盈尺。膝不亂搖。體不亂動。肩臂之筋。舒而不縮。三關骨節。鬆而不緊。其神存於食指之尖。指之姿勢。仍與行住同。竪立於坐具。但不可猛力抵之。其臥也。身側而不仰。曲而不直。口不多言。心不妄念。其神存於食指之尖。而指勢如前。竪立於席上。務使臂腕無所依倚。始必麻木。宜堅忍之。左脇貼席。則以右指竪。右脇貼席。則以左指竪。初習者。眼欲合則指卽傾。務宜卽時竪起。一如前勢。久之雖睡熟亦可不傾。而其功效勝於行住坐時。實不止倍蓰。益之以抓繃子。則陰勁之成功。不逾乎一年之久矣。
It says in the Daoist classics [from the “Jade Emperor’s Inner Truth Classic”]: “Spirit can penetrate stone. Spirit can take flight.” The use of spirit is great indeed. Once upon a time, there was a man traveling alone in the wilderness. He encountered thieves who stole his belongings and threw him down a dry well, then covered it over with a millstone. He piteously cried out for help, but there was no one in the wilderness to answer him. A “divine fox” passed by and pitied him, and so taught him the method of gathering spirit. He was told to stare a hole through the millstone, and then his body flew up out of the well.
     There was a Buddhist monk who wished to practice this method. He put himself down a well and told people to cover it with a millstone. They then left him there and the monk died. To go down a well is one thing, but to make it a matter of life and death is another. Why is this? Because there is a distinction between obtaining the method of gathering spirit and not obtaining it. Although the use of spirit is great, it is useless without the method of gathering it. That being the case, what then is the method? It is nothing other than these abilities: “no expectation”, “no requiring”, “no distractions”, and “no helping”. Then it will work.
     That monk went into the well intentionally to practice the method. Once the millstone had covered over him, his mind was “requiring” his body to fly. His mind was not distracted, but he was rigid in his goal, like the farmer who pulled on his plants to help them grow [Mengzi, chapter 2a]. These are the wrong methods. Of course he died.
     Someone may say: “Such tales are ludicrous and unbelievable.” To which I reply that there is still more evidence in ancient texts:
     [From Master Han’s Outer Commentary to the Poems, book 6, relating to Poem 263:]
“While Xiong Quzi of Chu was traveling at night, he thought a rock at rest was a tiger crouching, so he drew his bow and shot an arrow at it. The arrow went all the way through it from tip to feathers, but when he looked down upon it, he then realized it was a rock.”
     [From Historical Records, chapter 109:] “While Li Guang was out hunting, he saw a rock in the grass, thought it was a tiger, and shot an arrow at it. The arrow disappeared right through it, and then he saw that it was a rock.”
     A rock is an extremely hard object. A large rock may resemble a tiger, even in broad daylight or by strong lamplight, but if a bullet strikes it, it would still be unable to bore through it. Although these ancient men were experts at archery, how were they able to shoot an arrow all the way through from tip to feathers? When those experts in archery encountered tigers, they could penetrate with an arrow. Then when they saw a rock and thought it was a tiger, they did not at all know the tiger was actually a rock. Within those moments, their spirits were focused on tigers rather than rocks, therefore when they shot, their arrows went right through just as if they were shooting at tigers as they were used to. If they knew clearly it was a rock and had an intention of making an arrow go through, they would have raised their arms and drawn their bows with added effort to shoot their arrows, sharply pulling back, and even with their arrows pulled back all the way so tip meets bow and their bows are on the verge of snapping, it would still unable to go through the rock.
     If your awareness is not stubborn, you will have achieved the way of “no expectation”.
If your motive is without agenda, you will have achieved the way of “no requiring”. If your mind is not ensnared, you will have achieved the way of “no distractions”. If your practice has no effort, you will have achieved the way of “no helping”. Otherwise you will overdo it and miss the mark, and in so doing, you will not achieve naturalness and your spirit will not be gathered anywhere. The Buddha had a saying: “All the layers of the world are just mind. All the methods in the world are just knowledge.” All the events and things in the world are born from the “river of knowledge and ocean of emotion”. This is the source of the mountains, rivers, and earth. And from this understanding comes the finding of enlightenment and transcendence.
     Therefore taking a rock to be a tiger, their arrows shot right through. Whereas if they took a tiger to be a rock, they would snap their bows in trying to shoot it. Why is this? With the gathering of spirit, the spirit is made complete. When the spirit is complete, then things are merely mental constructs. You can “go into water without being drowned, go into fire without being burned” [lines from “Jade Emperor” that follow upon the previous ones]. You will not be blocked by boulders nor harmed by blades, not to mention able to shoot arrows through rocks.
     Therefore if practitioners wish to dispense with their “third-rate horses” and ascend to the highest level, then apart from gathering spirit, truly there is no other way. There are experts in the world who can penetrate a cow’s belly with a pointed finger or smash a cow’s skull with a chop of a palm. Lesser practitioners admire them, but really they are not that unique. They have simply practiced their skill having obtained the method of gathering spirit. What is the method? I shall now explain it:
     Whenever we practice these skills, we must strive to be elegant rather than imitating the imposing stature of the “valiant martial man” [Book of Poems, poem 7]. Although your eyes outwardly see, inwardly observe. Although your ears outwardly hear, inwardly listen. With nose open and mouth closed, touch your tongue to the upper palate. Your body is full of vitality, like the poplars and willows in spring. Your mind is emotionally calm, like an expanse of still water. When shifting a step, spirit gathers in the foot. When raising a hand, spirit gathers in the fingers. Do not have any expectation or use any effort. By not requiring it, power will come. Do not be distracted from simply feeling it. Power will manifest without any help. Even when walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, you may always gather spirit.
     When walking, step slowly rather than quickly, with shoulders dropped rather than raised, eyes not watching more than ten feet away, hands not swaying off more than half a foot, forefingers extended rather than curled up, though not stiffly straight, the rest of the fingers curled up, though loosely rather than grasping tight. The result is that spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. After a long time, spirit will follow energy, energy will follow thought, and each will arrive in the fingertips. You will be building passive power.
     When standing, be as erect as a pagoda, not leaning forward or back, or to the left or right. Your ears are not to listen distractedly. Your eyes are not to look all around. Your mind is not to run off to things outside of you, but instead hold to doing this one thing. The result is that spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. The posture of the fingers is the same as with walking. If where you are standing there is a small table nearby, you can touch your fingertips to it, or if there is an object with the height slightly lower, you can touch it with your fingers stood vertically over it.
     When sitting [ordinary chair-sitting in this case rather than lotus position], make your head upright, your body erect, your spine straight. Your eyes are to gaze no more than three feet away. Your feet can be as much as a foot apart. Your knees should not be trembling, nor your body swaying. The muscles of your shoulders are to be loose rather than contracted, each of the three joints in your arms relaxed rather than tight. Spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. The posture of the fingers is the same as with walking or standing. You are to sit up straight, but you must not be forcefully propping yourself up.
     When lying down, be on your side rather than facing upward, slightly curled in rather than straightened out. Your mouth should not be saying much, your mind not rashly thinking. Spirit will be gathered at the tips of your forefingers. The posture of the fingers is the same as before and should stand perpendicular to the bedroll. Make sure you are not pressing down with arm and wrist, for then they will become numb, and yet you should stay steadfast in the posture. When it is your left ribs that are touching down, your right forefinger [with the arm extended along your right side] will stand straight. When it is your right ribs that are touching down, your left forefinger [with the arm extended along your left side] will stand straight. In the beginning of the practice, your eyes will want to close and your forefinger will then droop. You should immediately stand it up again so that it is as before. After a long time, you will be able to sleep soundly without your forefinger drooping. The effect of this will be greater than when walking, standing, or sitting, for more time will get put into it than for the other versions.
     Add the squeezing of embroidery hoops [explained below in Chapter Nine, akin to the finger training devices used by guitarists], and then passive power will be achieved within a year.

第五章 取徑
CHAPTER FIVE: TAKING THE RIGHT PATH

曷觀於文人之吟詩乎。有下里巴人之歌。有白雪陽春之曲。淸拔也。鄙俗也。乃如淸渭濁涇。不可或混焉。今夫拳術之有軟硬。實無異詩意之有雅俗也。然則果何故以致之歟。曰。是亦取徑之不同而已矣。彼自命為天才卓異之詩人。其入門也。不求淸高而趨鄙俚。於是下劣詩魔。盤踞於肺腑之間。終其身焉。不可驅去。迄其下筆。則躍然於紙上。彼且自謂如斯傑句。壽世無疑鄕塾冬烘。從而欣賞。於是擬付手民。思災梨棗。若夫以示於大方之家。法眼一矚。則如溫嶠之燃犀照水。奇形異狀。無不畢露。彼或知羞。翻然悔悟。求正法眼藏。一掃夙障。然後得知昔者不擇正道。致入歧途。從此吟咏必重事揣摩。而昔之所謂佳章。乃不敢用其一字。嗟呼。彼所謂硬勁功深之拳師。又何以異乎此哉。其揮拳也。每出一手。難卽收囘。彼則曰。吾拳可擊傾泰山。每移一步。難於靈轉。彼則曰。吾脚可踏翻世界。然其骨剝剝有聲。頗足動聽。其體距躍作勢。亦有可觀。常人覩之。贊嘆不已。彼乃自滿。矜為絕技。或有名家。從旁嗤之。彼必恚怒。叱而與較。轉瞬之間。身仆數步。始知己技。遠不如人。彼或請業。獲知正宗。則知昔日所習。不能用其一手。昔日所長。不能取其一勢。何也。蓋已誤於取徑。而前功不可不盡棄也。譬諸將之閩。必取道於南。將之燕。必取道於北。旣已北矣。而又欲南。則必返自北。然後可達於南。吾故曰。習拳之始。斷乎不能昧於取徑也。且夫拳術之鍊勁。自應遵乎正鵠。固無所謂軟硬也。彼不得其法以鍊。遂自命曰硬。異於已者。則强名曰軟。後世因之。乃成二派。今仍舊稱。試舉其利弊而比較之。庶乎知軟勁之不可硬。而硬勁之遜於軟矣。蓋吾技之所謂軟者。以貴柔而不貴剛。貴靈轉而不貴呆笨。呼吸以鼻而不以口。舉止存神而不奮力。何則。柔則氣流而不阻。血行而不滯。靈轉則敵手將變。而吾手卽變。敵手旣變。而吾手已入。呼吸以鼻。則氣息均匀。而冷氣不能入肺以傷營衞。舉止存神。則神氣合一。而陰勁貫於指末以摧强敵。彼則不然。務剛以阻其氣機。使血不暢流而致疾。務呆而失於生硬。以致敵手一變而不能卽應。及其將應。則已居下風。其口開而不閉。且大聲吆喝。迨至汗流氣喘。口益哆然而張。於是冷風湧入。挾氣以游於臟腑。其為害也。不言可喩。且也。距踴之時。塵埃四起。內羼病菌。實不能免。故閉口而張鼻。則鼻有阻菌之毛。復有殺菌之液。開口而不閉。則病菌雜塵。長驅直入。體中薄於抵抗力者。遂有採薪之憂焉。至於彼之奮力而不存神。則勁阻於肩。而不透於指。譬諸秤然。肩猶秤本。肘猶秤中。而指猶秤末。勁則猶秤之有錘也。夫秤之稱重物也。必推錘而至於末。今固繫其錘於秤本。則秤之可稱千斤者。且不能稱百兩。故習拳而使力。是繫錘於秤本矣。
Why is it that when we hear scholars reciting poetry, there are popular folk songs as well as poems of highbrow artistry? One style is distinguished while the other is common, just like the clear water of the Wei River and the muddy water of the Jing River, which cannot be confused. Boxing arts have softness and hardness. This is really no different than the notion of poetry being either refined or crude. What is the reason for it? It is simply that there are different paths to take.
     Some poet decides he will be a preeminent talent. He has learned the fundamentals, but then instead of striving toward the dignified, he tends toward the common, and is consequently inferior in style, a style he could get stuck in for the rest of his life. He cannot drive it away until he earnestly puts pen to paper and declares that his phrases are outstanding, certain to be immortal, admired by the pedants in the private schools, and he then takes his work to a publisher to have all his exciting ideas put in print to show to connoisseurs. Once he gazes upon his finished insights, it then seems to him like the mountaintop has cleared of mist and is now starkly reflected in the water, and his “remarkable and unique” style is finally fully revealed to him. Feeling ashamed, he suddenly realizes his error as he looks for any correct insights, skimming through for anything that deserves to be kept. He then knows he did not choose the right way and had wandered down the wrong path. Henceforth when he recites verse, he will ponder weightily upon what he used to consider to be a beautiful composition and no longer dares to use one word of, woe is he.
     How is the appraisal of boxing instructors in terms of hard power versus deep skill any different from this scenario? Some practitioner throws out his punches and they are hardly pulled back before going out again. He then says: “My punch could collapse Mt. Tai.” Every step he takes is at a high level of difficulty and his spins are so quick. He then says: “My kick could turn the world.” The sounds of his body are pleasantly like pecking, and his leaps are so impressive. Ordinary people watch him and are full of praise. He thus becomes full of himself and brags about his skill. Then some notable expert sneers about him from the sidelines, and so he of course becomes furious about this and shouts out a challenge. Then in the blink of an eye, his body falls down several paces away, and it at last dawns on him that his own skill is greatly inferior to others. He asks to be taught so he can learn authentic material, now aware that he is incapable of using a single technique of what he had practiced or adopt a single posture from what he had trained. Why is this? Because he took the wrong path and he now has to entirely throw out his previous training.
     Compare this to going to Fujian [from Hangzhou]. You must take the road that goes south. Whereas to go to Hebei, you must take the road that goes north. But if you are already in the north and you wish to go to the south, you must turn around and go from the north to then be able to reach the south. I therefore say that in the beginning of the training, you cannot afford to be ignorant as to which path to take.
     To develop power in boxing arts, you should keep to the correct goals, regardless of hardness or softness. One who does not obtain the training method will then of course be considered hard, whereas one who does will be strongly proclaimed as being soft. Because of this, later generations came up with the two branches [internal and external], and their names remain to this day. When we try to compare them for their advantages and disadvantages, everyone knows that soft power is lacking in hardness, yet hard power is inferior to soft.
     My art is considered to be soft, for it values softness rather than hardness, nimble adaptation rather than awkward stiffness, breathing through the nose rather than the mouth, poise of spirit rather than vigorous effort. Why so? With softness, energy will flow without obstruction and blood will circulate without stagnancy. Nimbly adapting means that when the opponent’s hands are about to adjust, my hands are adjusting, and then by the time he has adjusted, I have already found a way in. By breathing through my nose, the breath stays even, thereby preventing cool air from entering my lungs and damaging my “constructive and defensive” energy. With poise of spirit, spirit and energy are merged into one, and passive power courses through to my fingertips to destroy a strong opponent.
     A practitioner of the other arts is not like this. He emphasizes hardness, which obstructs the movement of his energy, as well as keeping his blood from flowing smoothly, and will result in illness. He becomes stiff, thus making the mistake of generating hardness, with the result that when his opponent’s hand makes an adjustment, he is unable to respond, and when he is about to respond, he is already in a disadvantageous position. With his mouth open instead of closed, he grunts loudly, and he ends up sweating and panting, his mouth opening wider still, whereupon cold air will pour in and its influence will make its way to the organs, causing such harm as cannot be described in words. Moreover, while lunging in to close the distance, dust will be thrown up all around him and will be full of bacteria that cannot really be avoided. Therefore close your mouth and use your nose, for your nose has hairs that block bacteria and mucus that eliminates germs. If your mouth is open rather than closed, bacteria mixed into the dust will rush straight in, weakening your body’s power of resistance until you give way to illness.
     As for one who puts forth effort instead of gathering spirit, power will be obstructed at the shoulder and not penetrate to the fingertips. Compare this to a steelyard scale. The shoulder is like the lever point, the elbow the middle section, the fingers the end section, and the power is like the counterpoise. For the steelyard to weight a heavy object, the counterpoise must be slid down toward the end section. The weight hung on the other end can now be weighed if it is very heavy but not if it is very light. Therefore practitioners of boxing arts who exert strength are hanging their weight at the other end of the steelyard [instead of letting the power flow all the way out to their fingers like the overpowering weight of the counterpoise being slid all the way to the end].

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 27

設A為本體所能生之力。為此秤所能秤之物。設B為肩。為秤紐。設C為指尖。為秤末。設D為勁。為秤錘。今習拳而故意使力。則勁阻於肩。本體縱有千斤之力。亦無大用。如稱物時繫錘於紐。則此秤雖可以稱千斤之物。亦不能顯出其能力。故必將勁透於指末。則本體所有之力。可顯出而用之。如推錘於秤末。則此秤之所能稱者。卽可以稱之矣。
The force the body can generate is A, the object to be weighed by the steelyard. The shoulder is B, the lever point. The fingertip is C, the end section of the steelyard. The power is D, the counterpoise. When practitioners deliberately use force, power gets stuck at the shoulder. Even if your body has a thousand pounds of force, it will not of much use, like all the weight being hung from the lever point. Even if this steelyard could weigh an object of a thousand pounds, you would in such a situation be unable to express the power you are capable of. Therefore you must send power penetrating to your fingertips so that the power of your whole body can manifest and be of use. With the counterpoise pushed all the way to the end, the steelyard can weigh objects to the full weight that it is capable of.

嗟呼。彼習硬勁之流。咯血者有之。患咳者有之。察其病之所由。皆傷氣之所致也。不急療治。且致其死。洵可慨也。是以體弱之夫。望門却步。懼其體力不健之不能習。而不知彼之非法之不能習焉。顧習彼技。則可致病。習吾技且可療之者。何也。此無他。我順彼逆而已矣。蓋氣、猶水也。夫水疏之則暢流。逆之則泛濫。泛濫則禍作。此必然之勢也。今也於其氣。阻之使不暢。激之使亂冲。然而不病者鮮矣。嗚呼。取徑者。可不愼之又愼乎。
Alas, he who practices hard power in this way will sometimes spit blood or have a worrying cough. Examining for the source of such ailments, they are all the result of damaging one’s energy. If not urgently treated, the result may be death, truly a pitiable situation. Therefore a weak-bodied man will shy away from that sort of school, fearing that his body is not healthy enough to be practicing, not knowing that they are using an improper method that should not be practiced anyway.
     I have seen that practicing those kinds of arts can result in illnesses, whereas practicing my art can cure them. Why is this? For no other reason than that my energy is smooth whereas their energy is coarse. Energy is like water. When water is unhindered, it flows. But if obstructed, it overflows. And when there is flood, there is disaster, an inevitable outcome. When energy is obstructed, it will not flow smoothly, and when it surges, it will lead to chaos. Either way, health would be a sadly rare event. So choose your path very cautiously.

第六章 出手
CHAPTER SIX: THE EIGHTEEN TECHNIQUES

今夫宗派之繁雜。乃如百川之分流。以師承之各異。而手法遂不同矣。然則字門之出手。果何如乎。曰。貴軟而忌硬。貴疾而忌遲。貴靈巧而忌呆笨。貴圓轉而忌散漫。其發也。如離弦之矢。其轉也。如迅轉之輪。其動也。如香象渡河。其靜也。如羚羊掛角。自始至終。如韓潮蘇海之超超玄箸。不著形迹。是則其大槪也。
The variety of martial systems is like the branching of countless rivers. The different transmissions from teachers to students have resulted in different techniques. What then are the Zimen techniques like? They emphasize softness instead of stiffness, quickness instead of slowness, dexterity instead of clumsiness, roundness instead of sloppiness. Its issuing is like an arrow leaving a bowstring. Its turning is like the rapid rotation of a wheel. Its movement is like “the fragrant elephant crossing the Ganges”. [This refers to the Buddhist parable of a rabbit, horse, and elephant crossing the river. The rabbit floats across, symbolizing a superficial experience of existence. The horse sinks halfway, symbolizing a closer relationship to truth but still not quite there. The elephant sinks all the way down and walks along the river bottom, symbolizing enlightenment, i.e. getting right to the bottom of things. The meaning here is thus that the Zimen movements are of the “no nonsense” variety.] Its stillness is like “the gazelle hanging up its horns”. [This refers to the classical idea of a gazelle sleeping with its horns put up in a tree so that only its hind legs are touching the ground. The phrase was used to describe poetry that was enchantingly aloof. The Zimen stillness is thus fearlessly aloof toward opponents.] From beginning to end it has the surpassing power of “Han’s tides and Su’s seas” [i.e. the potent writings of Han Yu and Su Dongpo] which leave nothing in their wake. This gives the general idea.

至若臨敵之時。其始也必以殘字探之。何也。蓋所謂探者。探其虛實之謂也。如用兵然。必探悉敵情。始知何方可入。何地可乘。故起後之際。毋存卽勝之心。須審其勢。以展吾手。如其可乘。則逕乘之。否則變更手法。以誘其進。務使彼力為吾所用。此所謂量敵而後進也。苟一鼓作氣。奮臂而擊之。則如昧於敵情。而孤軍深入。其不敗者鮮矣。是以週身須軟。手發卽收。收速則吾力不為彼奪。柔軟則姿勢易於更換。心務歸一而勿亂。則彼雖萬變。而吾應之。如庖丁之解牛。恢恢乎遊刃有餘矣。
[1] When encountering an opponent, you must begin with TESTING, or “searching”. What does this mean? Searching means to feel for where the opponent is empty and full. It is like when employing an army you must ascertain the enemy’s situation in order to know from which direction you can attack and what ground you can exploit. Therefore once I lift my hand, I do not yet set my mind on victory. I must examine his situation, so I extend my hand. If I can take advantage of his position, I will do so immediately. If not, I will switch to a different technique. I lure him into advancing to ensure that I can make use of his force. This is called “estimate your opponent, then attack” [Mengzi, chapter 2a].
     If I were to lift my arm and strike in a single action, this would be like being blind to the enemy’s situation and penetrating deep into enemy territory with an isolated force. Such a maneuver would rarely be a masterstroke. Therefore my whole body has to be soft. My hand shoots out, then withdraws. But if I withdraw quickly, my force cannot capture his. If I am soft, then my posture can easily transform. My mind should be focused and not scattered, then even if he goes through countless transformations, I will respond like Zhuangzi’s famous butcher cutting up a cow [Zhuangzi, chapter 3]: “Swish, swish, the blade glides through with room to spare.”

於是繼之以推字。推者。摽也。摽者何。卽襲而擊之也。譬夫用兵。有隙必乘。若擁兵不動。則兵雖精銳。亦不可摧敵。故善用兵者。待時而動。相機而入。或攻其縱。或攻其橫。或掠其外。或亂其內。或左誘而右擊之。或前誘而後擊之。務使敵人瓦解。而决不敢因循自誤。夫字門之以推為主。猶用兵之以攻為主也。故必將推字之妙理。存乎心而運用之。否則守有餘而攻不足。其勁雖猛。無能為矣。若夫其餘之字藝。則用以待時。用以相機。用以攻縱。用以攻橫。用以掠外。用以亂內。用以左誘右擊。用以前誘後擊者也。是故字字循環。大用終歸於推。而推之要訣。可一言以蔽之。曰。貼敵而後推。否則其失也如强弩之末。且使敵人易察覺而先封閉。蓋一鼓作氣者。難免於再而衰。三而竭。故推之於旣貼。則勁之勢盛而强。且使防不勝防。驚慌無措。如用兵然。使敵驚為飛將軍之天外飛來。斯則得乎推之大用。孟子曰。雖有智慧。不如乘勢。雖有鎡基。不如待時。三復是言。則推字之理明矣。今推法旣詳。而餘字之理亦不可不悟。請逐次述明而備載之。
[2] Then continue into SENDING. SENDING means “darting”. What is darting? It is to strike suddenly. When using an army, an opening has to be exploited. If troops are amassed but not put into action, then even if the army is made of crack troops, it will be incapable of destroying the enemy. Therefore an expert commander waits for the right moment then acts, watches for the right opportunity then attacks, sometimes attacking directly, sometimes attacking from the side, sometimes plundering to the outside, sometimes creating chaos within, sometimes feinting to the left then attacking to the right, sometimes feinting in front then attacking to the rear, ensuring that his enemy falls apart, and never daring to procrastinate and ruin his own position.
     SENDING is as essential in Zimen Boxing as “attack” is in the use of an army. Therefore you must keep the subtle principles of SENDING in mind in order to apply it. Otherwise your defense would be more than is necessary and your offense would be insufficient, and no matter how fearsome your power is, you would be unable to do anything with it. Keeping in mind the principles for the rest of the techniques, you will thus apply them by way of waiting for the moment and watching for the opportunity, attacking directly or from the side, plundering without or creating chaos within, feinting to the left to attack to the right or feinting in front to attack to the rear. The techniques can cycle one after another, but are most effective when returning to SENDING.
     The key to it can be summed up as STICKING to the opponent and then performing SENDING. Otherwise you would fail to catch your opportunity. It would be like a crossbow that has already shot off its bolt. You would cause the opponent to easily perceive what you are doing and then seal you off before you can do it. If you try to do everything in a single action, it will be difficult to avoid being weakened in the next movement and spent in the movement after that. Therefore SENDING is based in STICKING, which will cause your power to be abundant and vigorous, impossible to defend against, surprising him into disorder, like on a battlefield when the best of the enemy generals flee as far away as they can go. This then is the best use of SENDING. It says in Mengzi [chapter 2a]: “Even if one possesses wisdom, it does not compare to taking advantage of opportunity. Even if one possesses a large hoe, it does not compare to waiting for the moment to use it.” Read this statement several more times and then the theory of SENDING will be clear. Now that the method of SENDING has been explained, the principles for the rest of the techniques have to be understood. Please gradually study through them until they are clear and you are prepared to perform them.

援者何。救之也。如用兵然。為敵所困。必調援師以解之。蓋吾手倘被披脫。或被砍落。敵手乘隙驟入。勢極可危。斯時卽以援字救之。則彼手仍被拈於吾之指掌。而可應其變以挫之。故援手貴捷。一如援師之貴速也。夫援手何以能捷。以其圓轉自如。而不散漫。又如援師之近在咫尺。而可驟至。苟手法散漫。則援之不及。遂如援師過遠。則救之已遲矣。然所謂圓轉者何。以其手之轉動。必成圓形也。蓋上下包於圓。四方包於圓。天之圓也。乃無所不包。今吾手之圓轉自如。則敵手不能出此圓圈之外。何則。以其手進之時。吾轉於外則可牽。轉於內則可撒。轉於上則可捺。轉於下則可托。而彼之來力。仍為吾用。此為援字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[3] What is AIDING? It is “rescuing”. When using an army, if the enemy has us in a difficult situation, the general must be given aid to get him out of it. If my hand has been stripped aside or chopped away downward, the opponent’s hand will take advantage of the gap and charge in, a situation which can be very dangerous. At this moment, I use AIDING to rescue myself, and so his hand is again picked away by my pointing palm and I can respond to his changes by frustrating them. Therefore the AIDING technique emphasizes quickness, in the same way that bringing reinforcements to the general has to be carried out speedily.
     How is AIDING to be done quickly? By way of smooth roundness and not being disorganized. It is the same way that a general can be reinforced quickly when his reinforcements are nearby. If my technique is disorganized, then AIDING will have no effect. It will then be like the general’s reinforcements being too far away – they will bring help too late.
     What is meant by roundness? The rotating of the hand must make a round shape, encircling upward or downward with roundness, to all four directions [left, right, forward, back] with roundness, a magical roundness. Then there will be nothing that is not encircled. My hand now moving with smooth roundness, the opponent’s hand is not able to escape from this roundness. Why is this so? Because as his hand comes in, by rotating outward I can perform PULLING, by rotating inward I can perform SCATTERING, by rotating upward I can perform PUSHING, or by rotating downward I can perform PROPPING, and thereby I can still make use of his incoming force. These are the subtleties of AIDING. Examine them.

奪者何。搶之也。如用兵然。占其險要。刧其糧重。則敵勢衰氣懾而走。故敵手之來力。猶夫敵軍之險要與糧重也。若搶之以為吾用。則敵必讋服。然欲搶其來力。又在乎順其勢以分拆。故吾身正以迎之。偏以取之。不逢其猛。第借其力。此為奪字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[4] What is SEIZING? It is “snatching”? It is like when using an army there is occupying of strategic ground by plundering the enemy’s supplies so that his morale plummets and he leaves it. Therefore the incoming force of the opponent’s hand is like an enemy army’s strategic ground and his supplies. If I snatch the opponent’s force and make use of it, he is sure to fear defeat. But if I want to snatch his incoming force, I also have to go along with his momentum in order to apply the technique. Therefore my body faces his force directly, then inclines to one side to seize it. I do not meet his ferocity, instead I borrow his force. These are the subtleties of SEIZING. Examine them.

牽者何。帶之也。帶之意義。為順其勢以帶往吾之後方。蓋敵强我弱。心恐有失。故手交卽牽。使彼立止不定。分力於下部而難於以全力對我。則吾可從容伸縮。然何以知敵强而我弱也。今繪圖以譬喩。詳註以明之。細審其理。則知牽字之妙用矣。
[5] What is PULLING? It is “leading in”. The meaning of leading in is going along with the opponent’s momentum in order to lead it to my rear. If the opponent is stronger than me, I fear I will lose, but once our hands connect, I perform PULLING, causing him to stand unstably, separating his force from his lower body and making it difficult for his entire force to oppose me, and then I can be extending and contracting at my leisure. In what way then is the opponent stronger than me? Below is an analogous drawing with clarifying explanation. With careful examination of these principles, you will then know the subtleties of PULLING.

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 28

設A為敵力。為大秤所稱之物。設B為我勁。為小錘。故須借其力牽動彼下部。使立止不定。如滑頭稱物。以足抵物使上浮。則錘卽下墜。此物雖有百斤。而秤上所顯出之重量。僅有八十斤矣。
The opponent’s force is A, the object being weighed by the steelyard. My power is B, the counterpoise. I must borrow his force with PULLING to affect his lower body and cause his stance to become unstable. If he is crafty, he will use his leg to help press the weight up and bring the counterpoise back down. Although the object weighs a hundred pounds, the steelyard would then show the weight to be only eighty. [i.e. He sits back into his rear leg to prevent him being pulled forward, counterbalancing my pull sufficiently to nullify it (and giving me with the reversal of his momentum an opportunity to go forward with an attack).]

捺者何。按之也。按之意義。為自上往下而沉按也。故必以吾掌覆於敵手。隨向以按。尤須以大指掛在敵手。則不致失脫。而敵手難變。然指掌之間。須有沉勁。始為得用。若夫吾腕尤貴圓活。其演習也。必搓一圓圈。務使腕骨如飴。勿稍生硬。則應用之際。可以貼而不離。惟捺時多在敵腕。亦有至理。蓋敵手如秤。吾勁如錘。置錘秤末。則可稱重也。此為捺字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[6] What is PUSHING? It is “pushing down”. The meaning of pushing down is to heavily push down from above. Therefore I must cover the opponent’s hand with my palm and then proceed to push down. I particularly need to hang my thumb over his hand, which will keep me from slipping off and make it difficult for his hand to adapt. However, between my fingers and palm, there has to be a sinking energy for the technique to be applicable. My wrist needs to be especially flexible. To train such flexibility, I must twist my hand in an arc so that the wrist joint becomes like taffy. There should not be the slightest bit of stiffness, so that when I apply the technique, I will be able to stick and not disconnect. Since PUSHING will often be done on the opponent’s wrist, there is also an analogy that can be used: the opponent’s arm is like a steelyard and my power is like the counterpoise that I place along the end of the steelyard to determine how heavy something is [as in the drawing below]. These are the subtleties of PUSHING. Examine them.

《字門正宗》 胡遺生 (1933) - drawing 29

設A為敵力。為此秤所能稱之重量。設B為吾勁。為另一秤錘。則所得之現象。必不出乎三種之外。一、勁相等。如錘等重。則捺不費力。二、勁大於敵。如大錘置小秤。則彼椿動前傾。三、勁小於敵。如小錘置大秤。則我覺吃力。
The opponent’s force is A, the object being weighed by the steelyard. My power is B, the counterpoise. The result will fall into no more than three situations:
     1. If my power is equal to his, it will be like the two weights are balanced, hence PUSHING will be effortless.
     2. If my power is greater than his, it will be like a large counterpoise placed at the end of the steelyard, causing his stance to lean forward.
     3. If my power is less than his, it will be like a small counterpoise placed near the lever point, causing me to feel the strain of effort.

逼者何。閉之也。倘遇敵人身强力大。卽變此尅之。法為占彼半步。使敵手不便施展。則必變實為虛。乃順勢借力。以封閉其手。譬如良馬雖能絕塵而馳。若禁之園囿。亦無能展足。然必下部穩固。而上部柔軟。且字字俱能領會。始可用之。譬如禁馬之園。若門不堅閉。牆有罅缺。必致冲牆毀戶而出矣。此為逼字之妙理。習者不可不詳之。
[7] What is CROWDING? It is “sealing off”. If I encounter an opponent whose body is strong and force is powerful, I subdue him by changing to this technique. The method is to crowd in on him a half step, making it difficult for his hands to easily extend and forcing his fullness to switch to emptiness. I then go along with his momentum and borrow his force in order to seal off his hands. Compare this to a fast-running horse that is confined to a stable and unable to make a stride. The opponent is sure to firm up his lower body, but will soften in his upper body. If you can understand this reaction in all of the techniques, you will then be able to apply them. For the confined horse, if the door is not sealed firmly or if there is crack in the wall, he will kick his way out. These are the subtleties of CROWDING. Examine them.

吸者何。縮之也。倘遇敵手明進吾身。吾手難以急救。卽變此避之。法為胸腹深凹。而脊彎如弓。則與彼欲擊之目的地。相距可五寸矣。惟一吸便進。務與逼字相連運用。使吾身若小孩所玩之皮人然。壓之則隨勢而凹。放之則隨手而滿。運用之際。尤宜心神專一。不卽不離。脚跟穩立。全身柔和。方能得心應手。不致差悞。此為吸字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[8] What is ABSORBING? It is “shrinking back”. If I encounter an opponent who noticeably advances toward my body and it is difficult for my hand to quickly prevent it, I change to this technique of evading, which is a method of hollowing my chest and belly, of bending my back like a bow, taking the target he wishes to strike a good half a foot away from him. All it takes is a single ABSORBING and then it will be easy to advance upon him, and should be followed up with CROWDING. This technique makes my body seem as though in a childlike game of pretending to be a man made of rubber. If the opponent presses down on me, I go along with his momentum by hollowing. If he strikes toward me, I yield to his hand so that it extends to its full reach. When I use this technique, I especially have to focus my mind, neither making contact nor disconnecting from him, my heels standing stable and my whole body in a state of softness, and then my hands can perform according to what is in my mind without there being any error. These are the subtleties of ABSORBING. Examine them.

貼者何。軟也。夫出手之所重者軟。軟則貼敵而不離。可隨勢以翻轉。彼欲上則仰而掇之。欲下則覆而捺之。欲內則曲而牽之。欲外則翻而撒之。如籐之纏樹。終不令其脫。是故手愈軟則功愈奇。譬諸釣魚然。繫纖絲於柔竿。可釣巨魚而不斷。蓋以竿之能軟。遂順魚力而彎曲。今繫絲於木捧〔棒〕。則魚受餌而絲必斷。何則。以其硬而不軟也。然必指掌之間。鍊有陰勁。始能消納其來力。反是。則如付釣竿於未習釣者。魚至則絲斷矣。何則。以其素未習此。而腕無陰勁也。故軟而無勁。則貼必終離。此所謂知其理而不能用其法。習者不可不察之。
[9] What is STICKING? It is “softening toward”. When I put out my hands, I emphasize softness. By being soft, I stick to the opponent rather than disconnecting. I can thereby go along with his momentum and turn his attack back to him. If he wishes to catch me above, I look upward and perform HOISTING. If he wishes to catch me below, I cover over and perform PUSHING. If he wishes to catch me at my inner gate, I bend and perform PULLING. If he wishes to catch me at my outer gate, I turn and perform SCATTERING. I am like a vine twining around a tree. He is never able to peel me away.
     Therefore the softer your hands, the better your skill. For example, if a fishing line is tied to a flexible fishing rod, a larger fish can be hooked without the line breaking. A flexible rod will bend along with the fish’s force. If a line is tied to a wooden stick, then when the fish takes the bait, the line is sure to break. This is because the structure is hard rather than soft. You must train passive power in the area between finger and palm, then you will be able to dissipate incoming force. Otherwise you will be like the inexperienced fisherman whose line breaks when the fish bites. The reason for this is simply that you have not yet practiced it and your wrist has no passive power. To have the softness but not the power, your STICKING will always be disconnecting. This is to know the principle but not be able to apply the method. Examine it.

攛者何。掇也。掇之意義為自下而向上。法以掌仰貼於敵手。隨勢以掇。彼外則外。彼內則內。使其來力浮而無用。故攛之妙用。全在故不與鬥。倘遇敵人上部勇猛。卽變此尅之。譬諸屋樑將傾。則支以直木。蓋直木可支千斤。橫木則否。今使吾手效直木之支。彼手雖猛如屋樑之壓。其奈我何哉。此為攛字之妙理。習者不可不詳之。
[10] What is HOISTING? It is “lifting”. The idea of “lifting” is to go upward from below. The method is stick to the opponent’s arm with an upward-facing palm, then go along with his momentum and lift. If he is going outward, I lift outward. If he is going inward, I lift inward, causing his incoming force to float up and become useless. The effectiveness of HOISTING is entirely a matter of not contending against him. If I encounter an opponent whose upper body is powerful, I change to this technique to overcome him. Compare this to a roof beam set at an angle to a vertical supporting beam. A vertical beam can support a ton, whereas a horizontal beam cannot. I make my hand into a bracing vertical beam so that his force, although fierce, seems to be pressing down on a roof beam. What can he do to me now? These are the subtleties of HOISTING. Study them.

圈者何。順也。順之。則不當其來力。而不被挫於敵人。譬諸機輪之轉也。持捧〔棒〕逆其向而擊之。則虎口震痛而覺吃力。若順擊則否。蓋順其勢則不受其力也。故當肩峯斗肘猛進吾身。應卽以圈字尅之。此為習者不可不知之妙用也。
[11] What is CURVING? It is “going with”. By going along with an incoming force that you meet, you will not end up frustrated by your opponent. It is like picking up a stick and striking it against the direction of the turning of gears in a machine. Your tiger’s mouth would be jolted painfully and you would feel the action to be very strenuous. This would not be the case if you struck the gears along the same direction they are moving. By going along with his momentum, I will not receive his force. Therefore while his crashing shoulder or jolting elbow are advancing upon my body, I should respond with CURVING to overcome them. Understand these subtleties.

插者何。堅也。以吾之堅勁。尅彼之勇猛也。插之意義為自上而下。譬諸鑿木然。必自上猛擊。而後鑿鋒可入於木。故插時必以堅勁。自上猛落。而後吾手可挫其勢。手落時肩貼敵肩。而不可逕受其力。助以左手。亦有三分借勢之意。此為插字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[12] What is INSERTING? It is “hardening against”. I use hard power to overcome his fierce attack. The idea of INSERTING is to go downward from above. Compare it to chiseling through wood. You have to strike down aggressively for the tip to penetrate the wood. Therefore when INSERTING, I must use hard power coming down fiercely from above to be able to carve away his momentum. As my hand goes downward, my shoulder will touch to his shoulder, but I must not directly receive his force. My left hand assists by borrowing thirty percent of his force. These are the subtleties of INSERTING. Study them.

拋者何。擲也。如擲物然。必勁運於腕而去若飛星。然後物脫手而落於遠地。變此之際。可視敵手如欲拋之物。斯則得乎拋字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[13] What is THROWING? It is “tossing away”. It is like throwing an object. Power has to be wielded at your wrist and then the object is sent away like a shooting star, leaving your hand to fall down far away. When you change to this technique, you can look upon the opponent’s hand as an object you want to throw away. These are the subtleties of THROWING. Examine them.

托者何。幫也。諸字得此以幫助。則愈可收其奇功。然手務柔活。始無差誤。譬諸注水盈碗而托之。苟矜持過度。則水必蕩動而四溢於碗外。今隨意而托。則水可不溢矣。故用托之際。須隨手而去。則貼而不離。此為托字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[14] What is PROPPING? It is “assisting”. All the techniques are assisted by this one, thus it is a wonderful skill. However, your hands have to be soft and lively in order to perform it without error. Compare it to filling a bowl with water and holding it up. If you hold it too stiffly, water will spill over the sides. If you instead hold it up with more awareness, the water will not spill. Therefore when performing PROPPING, you must do so according to the opponent’s hands, in order to stick to him and not disconnect. These are the subtleties of PROPPING. Study them.

擦者何。緊也。換而言之。急也。手出滯在何處。卽緊推而去之。譬諸刨木然。緊推則木受刨。緩則無功。倘吾手一出。彼用練步躱閃。應卽脚隨彼轉。然後可用。蓋逼近則勁猛。遠離則鞭長莫及。譬如刨木而立不近木。其刨雖利。其如木何。此為擦字之要點。習者不可不知之。
[15] What is RUBBING? It is “tightening”, or “anxiety-inducing”. When his hands come out and get slowed down, I immediately perform SENDING and send him away. Compare it to the act of carving wood. If you urgently push your gouge in, the wood will get carved. If you slowly push, there will be no effect. If I send my hand out and he steps to dodge away, I respond by pivoting my foot to follow him, and then I can perform this technique. If I am close to him, my power will be fierce. If I am far from him, I will not be in charge of the situation. Compare this to carving wood without standing close to it. Even if your gouge is sharp, what could it do to the wood? These are the essentials of RUBBING. Know them.

撒者何。攩也。然所謂攩者。非呆攩而不避其力也。須如猿之奪棍。勿如牛之用角。則得乎攩之意義矣。故當敵手之進。敵力之來。必正以待之。偏以銷之。然後撒之力猛而彼不能受。此為撒字之妙用。習者不可不審之。
[16] What is SCATTERING? It is “blocking”. However, what we call blocking is not a stiff block that is unyielding to the opponent’s force. You must do it like a monkey seizing a stick, not an ox using its horns. Then you will have the right idea of blocking. Therefore when meeting the opponent’s advancing hand and incoming force, you must squarely wait for it and then angle yourself in order to melt it away. He will then be unable to endure your SCATTERING of his fierceness. These are the subtleties of SCATTERING. Examine them.

呑者何。沒也。吐者何。出也。呑吐相連。則出沒有鬼神莫測之機。老子目〔曰〕。將欲取之。必固與之。將欲弱之。必固强之。知乎此。則得呑吐之妙用矣。譬如鄕人之榨油。必退而後進。則撞木之力巨。故一呑便吐。則吾勁愈猛。敵人當之。無不挫焉。然運用之際。尤貴乎速。速則神出鬼沒。令彼驚慌無措。當其力來勢盛。則呑。迨其力過勢衰。卽吐。此為呑吐之要訣。習者不可不記之。
[17&18] What is VANISHING? It is “disappearing”. What is EJECTING? It is “appearing”. VANISHING and EJECTING are to be performed together. By disappearing and appearing, your technique will be completely incomprehensible to the opponent. Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 36]: “To get something, you must first give something. To weaken something, you must first strengthen something.” If you understand this, then you have obtained the subtleties of VANISHING and EJECTING. Compare it to a man using an oil press. He has to retreat and then advance in order to produce a large enough force upon the wood. Therefore VANISHING makes EJECTING easier and will make my power more fierce, and when an opponent meets it, he will always be defeated. But when applying it, I particularly have to emphasize speed, speed to the extent of appearing and disappearing like a shadow, causing the opponent to become alarmed and fall apart. When his incoming force is abundant, perform VANISHING. When his force has reached its limit and is diminishing, perform EJECTING. These are the keys to VANISHING and EJECTING. Examine them.

今夫十八字藝之理訣旣明。而手法又熟。則敵手一動。卽能隨機應變。左右逢源。用之不窮。斯所謂不期然而自然矣。
Now that the principles of the eighteen techniques are clear, and once you are skillful at them, then as soon as an opponent makes a move, you can respond according to the situation and have everything go your way. The applications are limitless and will happen without expectation.

第七章 固椿
CHAPTER SEVEN: SOLIDIFYING YOUR STANCE

鳥之飛也。必以足抵樹而後舉。獸之躍也。必以足抵地而後去。何也。足抵則力生也。今試以板鑿四洞。置貓於板上。納其足於洞中。則不能一躍而去。蓋其足懸空而無所抵也。昔聞有虎雪後誤躍於茅屋之上。四足透茅而過。於是憑空而力無所施。遂斃於屋上。由是觀之。人之有足。倚之者不亦重乎。今命力士懸空而坐。使足勿抵於地。則素能舉千斤者。不能舉其半矣。是故習拳之於足。尤不可輕之。然曰樁而不曰足。何也。蓋其足之不動。如樁之不搖也。夫欲樁之不搖。必求固樁之道。不觀乎壩上之水乎。其下流之力。固至猛也。然以樁深入而固樹之。則纍纍之石。不隨水力而下矣。是故吾人之足。必使勁貫於指踵。則立地能固。而推之不動。功之深者。則勁之入地亦必深。可一頓足而使地陷。姑無論敵之牽捺推擦矣。然則固樁之與出手。能不並重乎。今夫拳術之有樁。譬諸天平之有脚。苟使天平之脚鬆動而不固。則稱物之際必東俯西傾。而不得其平。故立樁而不固。則受力之時。吾身必隨勢以動搖。牽之則俯而前。推之則仰而後矣。蓋敵力之來。在力學(Mechanics)名之曰抵力(Resistance)。又名(Weight)。吾手之應。在力學名之曰生力(Effort)。又名(Power)。而固樁之支。在力學則名曰支點(Fulcrum)。支點在力學亦至為重要。如槓桿(Levers)之無支點。則不能以微力而起重物也。吾人之禦敵。欲以智取力。以巧取勢。亦必樁固而後可。所謂逼也。吸也。無不先固其樁。而後順其勢以消其勁。借其力以搖其身也。當敵手之猛進。吾知其牽矣。倘樁不固。則手受反動而身遂搖搖。敵若繼攻。而身必傾跌。當吾手之貼敵。吾知其推矣。倘樁不固。則敵之呑縮而吾必前傾。敵之攔格而吾必旁躥。理有自然。勢有必至。此樁之所以不得不固也。吾習技之初。開步之際。每一出手。則覺上重下輕。身隨手去。因念如此焉能致用。乃立志站樁。日必站一時許。屆乎盛夏。則汗流浹背。袴如溺水。然猶不敢間斷。蓋一曝十寒。為習技者之所最忌也。迨至半年之久。始可手出而足不浮。腰閃而臀不動。所謂手似浮雲出岫。脚如古樹盤根者。庶乎近之矣。吾師嘗以二繩繫於兩足。命數壯夫左右拉之。而不移分寸。其技則人驚為異。其理實亦無足奇。蓋氣灌於湧泉。勁透乎足底。使全體之重心(Center of gravity)在於指踵之間。習而久之。則立如泰山矣。聞師之習此。尚係童牙。其師禁之於室。飲食便溲。皆不令出。初站極感痛苦。然偷安則被撻。雖倦極欲睡。亦不敢稍移。久之能固立而成眠矣。常語余曰。膝緊襠消。為立樁之定式。必依乎此。始奏膚功。苟能腰以上旋轉如風。而腰以下分毫不動。則可以致用矣。且下盤八勢。全仗腿足之堅勁。樁不站。則勁不貫於下體。縱能滿地翻騰。亦如伶人之演戲而不切於實用。至於飛腿之際。尤須一足固立不動。然後腿力可猛。此皆與站樁有密切之關係。而為習者所不可不知者也。第有一極應注意之要點。不得不重事解釋。此要點為何。卽不可執著於固之意義也。蓋樁之宜固也固明矣。然不能通權達變。則守其法而未得其妙。彼執於固者則腿硬。腿硬則進退旣不自如。旋轉亦嫌呆笨。故練步之躱閃。尤貴乎脚軟如貓。着地不滯。始能左右盤旋。前後翻轉。使敵眼光撩亂。以收奇效。然則固樁之定義果何如哉。曰。抵地則硬。離地卽軟。抵地則固。離地卽活。心銘是言。必無悞矣。
For a bird to fly, it has to push its feet against the branch to then lift off. For a beast to leap, it has to push its feet against the ground to then spring away. This happens because the push of the feet generates force. To illustrate this, drill four holes through a board and place a cat on the board with its feet through the holes. It is unable to jump off, its feet hanging there with nothing it can do about it. I once heard of a tiger that misjudged a jump onto a thatched roof after it had been snowing and its feet went through the thatch. Hanging like that unable to use its strength, it then got killed while stuck on the roof. Looking at it from this point of view, are human feet not also important? If a weightlifter hangs by his seat so his feet cannot press against the ground, though his normal ability may be to lift a thousand pounds, he would now be unable to lift even half that.
     Therefore in the practice of boxing arts, the feet particularly must not be neglected. Thus we are to think of them as posts rather than merely as legs. This is because when our legs are not moving, they should have the unswayable quality of posts stuck in the ground. If you wish to have this unswayable quality, you must strive to solidify your stance. Have you not seen water spilling over a dam? The force of its downward flow is indeed ferocious, but posts are deeply embedded to prevent trees and rocks from being carried along by the force of the water’s flow.
     Therefore our feet must get power to course through to our toes and heels, then our standing upon the ground can be solid and we will be unmoved when attacked. For one whose skill is deep, his power will penetrate the ground deeply. With a stomp of his foot, he can make a pit in the dirt. He will be unaffected by an opponent’s techniques, whatever they may be – PULLING, PUSHING, SENDING, RUBBING, and so on. That being the case, how can the solidity of your stance not be given the same emphasis as the training of techniques?
     These “posts” in boxing arts are like the base of a scale. If the base is loose rather than fixed into place, then when weighing an object, the scale will wobble around instead of obtaining a balance. Therefore if our stance has no solidity when receiving force, our bodies will sway along with the momentum. When receiving PULLING, we will lean forward. When receiving SENDING, we will lean back.
     The opponent’s incoming force is known in mechanics as “resistance” or “weight”. The response of my hands is known in mechanics as “effort” or “power”. The brace for my stance’s solidity is known in mechanics as the “fulcrum”. The fulcrum is the most important thing in mechanics. If levers had no fulcrum, they would be incapable of lifting heavy objects.
     When we deal with opponents, we wish to use strategy to defeat their force, skill to defeat their techniques. For this to work, the stance must first be made solid. Therefore when performing CROWDING or ABSORBING, I must first solidify my stance, then go along with his momentum to dispel his power, borrowing his force to sway his body. If the opponent fiercely advances, I will know when he is about to perform PULLING, but if my stance is not solid, my body will sway once my hands receive the reversal of motion. If he then continues to attack, my body will lean until I end up stumbling away. While my hands stick to the opponent, I will know when he is about to perform SENDING, but if my stance is not solid, then when he shrinks back with VANISHING, I will end up leaning forward. If he blocks me off to the side, I will end up hopping away to that side. The principle is natural and such outcomes would be inevitable. And this is why the stance has to be made solid.
     In the beginning of our training, every time we take a step and perform a hand technique, we will feel top-heavy, our bodies following the actions of our hands. But because we want our actions to be applicable, we must be resolved to do stance training. Every day you need to stand for about an hour. This means that in midsummer you will be streaming with sweat until you appear to have wet your pants. But you must not dare to interrupt your training just because of this. Inconsistency of training [the phrase here being “one day in the sun, ten days in the cold” (from Mengzi, chapter 6a – describing how common plants will not grow with such treatment)] is the major thing to avoid in practicing this art. After about six months of this, you will be able to put out your hands without your feet floating and twist at the waist without your butt moving, fulfilling an image of “hands like mists floating out of a mountain cave, feet like the coiled roots of an old tree”, and you will be almost there.
     My teacher has tied ropes to his legs and called for several robust men to pull from both sides, and he would not shift in his stance an inch. People are surprised by his unusual skill. His theories are real and are endlessly marvelous. Energy pours into the “bubbling spring” acupoint and power penetrates to the sole of the foot, causing the body’s center of gravity to fall between toes and heel. After practicing this for a long time, you will stand like Mt. Tai.
     When my teacher practiced this as a boy, his teacher would not allow him to drink, eat, or go to the bathroom, nothing but stances during a session of stance work. In the beginning of the stance training, it was extremely arduous, but whenever he sought some temporary ease, he was struck with a stick. Even when was so exhausted that he wished to sleep, he did not dare move at all. After a long time, he was able to fall asleep while standing solidly.
     He often said to me: “Squeeze your knees toward each other and pull in your crotch, then you will have a stable stance. You must practice in accordance with this, for it is the basis of the skill of striking acupoints [the actual phrase here being ‘playing the skin’, as if tapping at points with the dexterity of a pianist]. If above your waist you can turn like the wind while not moving at all below your waist, then you will be able to apply the art.”
     The eight ground-fighting techniques entirely depend on hard power in your legs and feet. If your stance is not trained, then power will not course through to your lower body. Even if you can spin about all over the floor, it will be like an actor performing in a play instead of something that will be practical in reality. When you lash out with a kick, one leg has to stand solid and unmoving for the power of your kick to be fierce. These are things that are intimately related to stance training and have to be understood by practitioners.
     However, there is an important point that should be given attention and must now be explained. What is this important point? It is that you must not be stubborn about the idea of being solid. The “solidity” of your stance has to be solidly understood. If you are unable to adapt to circumstances, you are preserving the method but not obtaining mastery. Those who are stubborn about solidity have stiff legs. With stiff legs, advancing and retreating will not be performed smoothly, and turning will be extremely awkward. When practicing evasive footwork, your legs in fact have to have the softness of a cat’s, touching down without any sluggishness, then you will be able to turn in all directions and confuse the opponent’s gaze. To receive these extraordinary effects, how should we define a “solid stance”? Let us say: “In pressing the ground, there is hardness. In leaving the ground, there is softness. In pressing the ground, there is rigidity. In leaving the ground, there is agility.” Remember these words and you will be without error.

第八章 消力
CHAPTER EIGHT: DISPELLING HIS FORCE

夫水、至柔之物也。激之可使過顙。鐵、至剛之物也。鎔之可使成液。何則。以力抑之。則激而生變。以智取之。則從心所欲也。拳術之道。不外乎是。當敵運至剛之勁。使手堅如鐵。作勢猛攻以傷我。我則運其智巧。使敵勁歸於太虛。如鎔鐵於爐中。敵雖奮。焉得剛。是名曰消力。吾身猶水也。石擊水而水無不納。敵擊吾而吾無不受。所謂受者。非以身受。以太虛受之也。吾身之靜。猶水之平也。石不擊則水不濺。敵不擊則手不發。吾身之勁。猶永之浪。敵體猶石也。石旣沾水則浪起。敵體貼掌則勁至。知乎此。始可與言消力也。蓋所謂消力者。順其勢也。借其勢也。乘其勢也。曷謂順其勢。例如敵人上部勇猛。下部穩固。斯時不能驟入。則順之以待其變。曷謂借其勢。例如敵人上部雖猛。而下部甚浮。當其猛撲。已離重心。則借勢以仆之。曷謂乘其勢。例如敵人猛進。吾卽牽之。彼被牽時。勢欲前躥。彼必後蹲。以固其椿。斯時重心後傾。則乘勢推之使仰跌。夫如是。敵雖有力。亦化為無。吾且得奪而用之矣。或疑吾言。謂不若是其確然。今更引物以證之。夫砲力之猛。可洞鋼板而不能穿沙包者。何也。蓋鋼板之拒而不受卒受。沙包之受而不拒卒拒。故消力之難。難於受拒之間。故必使手如沙之亦受亦不受。則不拒而拒矣。曷謂亦受亦不受。譬如砲彈之入沙。沙始不阻。繼而擠之使住。其勢出乎自然。故砲力雖猛。卒為所消。今敵力之初來必猛。則順之而不阻。旣而衰。卽抑之。順抑之間不容髮。手勢每難出乎自然。故世之能消力者。亦寥寥也。古人有言曰。强弩之末。不能穿魯縞。蓋直力之至。有一定之時間。時過力消。勢所必然。今敵手方發。如弩矢離弦。可徹七札。寧能不避。故必待其力過而至於不能穿魯縞之時。則吾放胆以取之。彼又惡能施其猛乎。顧拳術之道。切戒輕敵。勿以身手之强。遂置消力之術而不用。倘敵之年邁。毋以老態龍鍾輕之。敵之幼稚。毋以乳臭未乾輕之。敵之短小。毋以體如侏儒輕之。敵之瘦弱。毋以垂死病夫輕之。何則。吾身雖有至剛之勁而堅如七札。恐遇養由基之善射也。是故吾人之消力。知〔如〕洛鐘之發響。大扣則大鳴。小扣則小應。當應用之際。務宜心神歸一。心神歸一。則腦筋靈敏。腦筋靈敏。則感覺迅速。感覺迅速。則身手如彈簧然。微壓之則微縮。驟壓之則驟縮。微放之則微伸。驟放之則驟伸。必至於適可而後正〔止〕。所謂適可者。吾之消納。視敵勢為轉移之謂也。敵力之猛進。而吾微側或微呑以消之。則消力之妙用失其效驗。而吾身被挫不旋踵矣。敵力之微進。而吾陡跌或猛呑以消之。則消力之妙用亦失其效驗。何則。患失脫之病也。失脫則手不能貼。而授之以隙。斯時敵力過而復生。吾無從乘之矣。是故消力之道。尤貴乎掌心之感覺迅速。蓋吾掌貼敵而不離。則敵之變化。多於掌貼之處起。例知〔如〕掌托於敵肘。敵手必內轉而取吾腹部。吾掌則隨其勢轉於上以捺之。掌覆於敵腕之後。敵手必上挑而取吾胸部。吾掌則隨其勢轉於下以掇之。如是。則敵力無所施而為吾用。習者細思以徹悟之。則知一眞一切眞。吾言為不謬矣。
Water is the softest substance, yet it can surge higher than your head. Iron is the hardest substance, yet it can be melted into a liquid state. How is this so? The water’s repression of the force acting against it generates its surging. The strategy used against iron enables us to do whatever we want with it. The way of boxing arts is no different. If the opponent wields hard power, making his hands as solid as iron, his posture a ferocious attack intent upon harming me, I then utilize skill to cause his power to return to nothingness. It is like smelting iron in a furnace. Even if he is vigorous, he cannot apply hardness. This is called “dispelling force”.
     My body is like water. When a stone strikes water, the water will always accept it. When an opponent attacks me, I will always receive it. What I mean by “receive” is not to receive it with my body, but to receive it into nothingness. The stillness of my body is like the placidness of water. If the stone does not strike the water, the water will not splash. If the opponent does not attack me, my hands will not express. The power of my body is like a constant wave, whereas the opponent’s body is like the stone. Once the stone touches the water, the waves begin. Once the opponent’s body touches my palm, his power has arrived. Knowing this, I am able to talk of dispelling force. And what I mean by “dispelling force” is that I am going along with his momentum, borrowing his momentum, and taking advantage of his momentum.
     What is meant by “going along with his momentum”? If the opponent’s upper body is powerful and his lower body is stable, I will be unable to suddenly find a way in, thus I go along with him and wait for the situation to change.
     What is meant by “borrowing his momentum”? If the opponent’s upper body is powerful but his lower body is floating, the ferociousness of his attack is causing him to depart from his center of balance, thus I borrow his momentum to make him lean.
     What is meant by “taking advantage of his momentum”? If the opponent advances fiercely, I perform PULLING. Once he has been pulled, his posture will want to hop forward, so he will inevitably sit back to stabilize his stance. His center of balance is now inclined to the rear, thus I take advantage of his momentum by performing SENDING and make him fall on his back. In this way, even if the opponent is forceful, I neutralize it to turn it into nothing, or I may perform SEIZING and make use of it.
     Someone may doubt my words and say: “It doesn’t seem to be a sure thing. Give further examples to verify it.”
     Well, the fierce force of a cannon can penetrate a steel plate and yet is unable to go through a sandbag. And this is because the steel plate resists and does not at all receive, whereas the sandbag receives and does not at all resist. Therefore the difficulty in dispelling energy lies between receiving and resisting. Thus you must make your hands like the sandbag, neither receiving nor not receiving, and thereby not resisting and yet resisting.
     What do I mean by “neither receiving nor not receiving”? When the cannonball enters the sand, the sand does not initially obstruct it, but then it continues to increase the pressure around it, causing it to stop. The scenario emerges naturally. Therefore no matter the force from the cannon, ultimately it is dispelled. The force from the opponent must initially be fierce, therefore I go along with it rather than obstructing it. Then once it has weakened, I repress it. The gap between going along with and repressing is tiny. It is always difficult to get this to happen with naturalness. Hence those in the world who can dispel force are rare.
     The ancients had a saying [Historical Records, bios – book 48]: “At the limit of a crossbow’s range, the bolt will not be able to penetrate silk.” There is a specific moment in which direct force arrives. When the moment passes, the force dispels and its momentum with it. The opponent’s hand shoots out like a crossbow bolt leaving the string, and as it can penetrate through seven boards of wood, how can I help but avoid it? Therefore I must wait for his force to get to the point that it “cannot penetrate silk”, then I boldly seize the moment, and he will not be able to carry out his aggression.
     Considering the way of boxing arts always forbids underestimating the opponent, do not use the strength of your body or hands, which would render the skill of dispelling force useless. If the opponent is old, do not dismiss him as decrepit. If the opponent is young, do not dismiss him as wet behind the ears. If the opponent is short, do not dismiss him as a pygmy. If the opponent is emaciated, do not dismiss him as deathly ill. Why not? Even though I might have hard power and be as solid as seven boards of wood, I would be afraid to go up against a well-trained archer.
     Whenever we dispel force, it is like the sound of the “Luo bell” [i.e. a situation of response]. [This is referencing an idiom: “A mountain avalanche in the west resonates the bell by the river in the east.” (originally from Liu Yiqing’s A New Account of Tales of the World, part 4)] The bigger the knock, the louder the sound. The smaller the knock, the quieter the sound. When applying techniques, you should focus your mind. Focusing your mind makes your brain alert. With your brain alert, you will sense things quickly. Sensing quickly, your body and hands become like springs. If you are slightly pressed, slightly shrink. If you are abruptly pressed, suddenly shrink. If you are slightly released, slightly extend. If you are abruptly released, suddenly extend. You must take things to their appropriate extent and then stop there. What I mean by “appropriate” is that my reception of his force in order to dispel it has to do with observing how the opponent’s situation is changing.
     When the opponent’s force advances fiercely and I go slightly to the side or slightly withdraw to dispel it, the wonders of dispelling force lose their desired effect and I suddenly find myself in a frustrated position. When the opponent’s force slightly advances and I suddenly fall away or impatiently perform VANISHING in order to dispel it, the wonders of dispelling force again lose their desired effect. Why is this? Because of the error of disconnecting due to worry over losing. When I disconnect from him, I am unable to perform STICKING, creating a gap in which the opponent’s force finishes but starts up again, and I am unable to take advantage of it.
     Therefore the method of dispelling force particularly emphasizes rapid sensitivity in the palm. If my palm sticks to him and does not disconnect from him, then when he adjusts, I always lift at the place my palm sticks to, for example when performing PROPPING to his elbow, in which case he will rotate inward to attack my belly, and my palm goes along with his momentum, rotates to be on top, and performs PUSHING. Now that my palm is covering his wrist, he will carry upward to attack my chest, and my palm goes along with his momentum, rotates to be underneath, and performs HOISTING. In this way, the opponent’s force will have no place to operate and I will be able to make use of it.
     Carefully contemplate these things until realization dawns, and then you will understand one truth after another and that these words of mine are not exaggerations.

第九章 鍊勁
CHAPTER NINE: DEVELOPING POWER

力、猶鐵也。勁、猶鋼也。力不鍊則不能成勁。鐵不鍊則不能成鋼。列子云。鍊鋼赤刃。用之切玉知〔如〕切泥焉。故古有削鐵之利劍。而無切玉之鐵刀。何則。一鍊一未鍊也。俗語云。拳打力不開。力打勁不開。此云得法而無勁。不能以敵力士。得法而有勁。則彼力如虎。亦無所施。是故勁可以尅力。而力不能尅勁。猶夫鋼可以尅鐵。而鐵不能尅鋼。蓋用力之際。手臂之韌帶(Ligaments)必須收縮。全身之血脈必須僨興。用之過當。且可致傷。勁則不然。一戟指一按掌之間。卽可中傷敵人。無須牽動全部之肌肉也。然則勁之優於力者。自不待言。習技者之鍊勁。能不視為先務哉。今試論勁之種類而述其鍊習之法度。夫勁之有剛與陰。亦猶鋼之有堅與柔也。鋼粗鍊之則堅精鍊之則柔。古語有云。百鍊鋼化為繞指柔。故鍊之愈精則愈柔。勁亦猶是。苟不精究其法而久鍊。則不能成陰勁。至若剛勁。亦必假以時日。始可成功。其始鍊也。每日早晚固立一樁。務使膝緊襠消。兩足不丁不八。然後伸張兩臂。使與軀幹成一十字。食指上指。餘四指屈而不握。虎口朝上。令與肩骨成水平線。肘骨向後。勿使朝下。肩骨落下。勿使墳起。自肩至手。除食指外。不可意稍用力。如是。則勁路易通。而勁易致。蓋肩骨墳起。乃運用肩力之現象。犯此。則勁阻於肩而不透於指。肘骨不令朝後。虎口不與肩骨成一直線。則筋扭而不舒。脈結而不透。犯之。則勁不易致。食指雖伸而餘指緊握。則勁不能歸一。犯之。則不克奏其膚切。以上皆初鍊之要訣。習者務宜注意。至於鍊勁之時間。尤不可減短或更移。每日晨起及將睡。須鍊一時許。愈久則愈佳。惟宜持之有恆。不可今日久而明日暫。夫如是。則基礎成矣。於是製沙囊二。始置沙五斤。懸於兩臂。身手姿勢。仍與前同。張臂之時間亦不可減短。迨至兩臂毫不覺重。則推之向外。漸漸達於虎口。然每次推移沙囊之期。均以懸之自如。久而不感沉重為限。迨至懸於虎口。亦能久而自如。卽須將沙逐次加重。每次加沙之期。亦以懸之自如。久而不感沉重為限。如是。添沙至三四十斤。則剛勁成矣。復次。用厚布製一沙囊。四角以革裹之。實沙四五十斤。手持其角向上拋之。承之以掌。或格以臂。以腿掃之。或蹴以足。練之純熟。如熊宜僚之弄丸。然後逐次加沙。加至八十斤時。一揮手可使魁偉之敵。顚覆於丈外矣。惟拋沙囊一事。須於空闊之高厦中習之。如有房屋狹矮不能行此法者。可將盈握之竹棍或木棒。釘其兩端於柱上。務令穩固不搖。下端高與肩齊。長約尺許。與柱成兩平行線。棍與柱之距離。以能入手握棍為度。再鋸巨竹一段。長約尺五。置於柱下。鍊時手握竹棍。足踏竹筒。手與肩骨成水平線。足踏筒令轉。初感困難。久之自能轉動。鍊之純熟。可使筒如輪轉而足不着地。厥後將筒蹴遠。亦可懸空而立。斯時指掌之勁。已足驚人。惟左手之力。多遜於右手。鍊時宜用左手握棍。則兩手之勁可以平均。以上所述。為鍊剛勁之大槪。至若陰勁之鍊法。則又異乎此也。夫陰勁胡為別乎剛勁。而名之曰陰。是則不可不論。蓋陰勁之來。起於何所。止於何處。寸心明明知之甚確。而剛勁則不然。陰勁之來。筋脈緊張。其聲嘰咕。達於指頭。歙張作勢。而剛勁則不然。陰勁之來。一線陰氣。可透木鐵。故人衣皮棉。亦可入其經絡臟腑。而剛勁則不能。當其鍊成之後。以指頭就日下或燈下照之。則見透明如黃蠟。而毫無血色。功愈深則透明之部分亦愈長。若竪指於腿上。而運勁於指末。則覺着指之處。有涼風一線。自上而下。穿腿而過。頓時麻木不仁。宜卽以指頭徐徐推動。此種試驗。足證陰勁之已告成功。此後指頭不可亂着人身。恐傷要害。令人不知不覺魂歸蒿里。若夫鍊之之法。則以抓繃子為主。而行住坐臥。亦宜持法。其法已揭櫫於存神之論。不必贅述。茲將繃子之抓法。一一詳言。俾習者有所遵守焉。蓋繃子之為用。取其富於彈性也。長約五寸。寬約五分。以牛角或毛竹為之。竹製者須每次數換。否則彈性漸失。頗不適用。故宜多備。角製者亦宜備數事。因角質遇熱則軟。故不可久抓。而必迭次更換也。初鍊宜薄。則指頭活動。而勁不阻於虎口。宜以線繫其兩端。使成弓形。則脫手之時。不致彈出傷人面目。厥後手法純熟。可不必繫之以線。並須厚薄各備數事。先取薄者抓之數十。乃取厚者亦抓數十。指酸卽止。不必勉强。如是左右更換。厚薄迭抓。每日數次。不可間斷。每次默數其數。不令減少。臨睡必抓。夢醒卽抓。日中日暮。俱宜抓之。法以拇指抵其一端。食中二指合抵一端。指與虎口必成弧形。指末微以力抓。其餘部分切勿用力。若行之非法。則勞而無功。不可不愼也。迨至陰勁旣已成功。然後訪名師。習小手。精究氣血之流行與乎穴道之所在。則小小之指頭。可用以傷敵。亦可用以推傷。其功效之奇特。誠出乎常人之意表。吾人欲成絕技。可不習此乎。
Force is like iron. Power is like steel. But if force is not trained, you will be incapable of achieving power. If iron is not smelted, it cannot be made into steel. It says in Liezi [chapter 5]: “That blade of tempered steel cut through jade as though it was but mud.” Though the ancients had swords sharp enough to cut through iron, iron blades cannot cut through jade. Why is this? Because a single smelting does not make it tempered. A common saying goes: “To punch against force will not work, but to use force against power will not work either.” This means that if you have technique but no power, you will be unable to match a strong opponent, but if you have technique and also have power, then even if his force is like a tiger, there is nothing he can do with it. Therefore power can defeat force whereas force cannot defeat power, in the same way that steel can defeat iron whereas iron cannot defeat steel.
     When using force, the ligaments [muscles] in the arms will contract and the blood vessels throughout the body will swell with the strain and may even lead to injury of oneself. This is not the case with power, which can injure an opponent with the pointing of a finger or the pressing of a palm without it being necessary to flex every muscle in the body. It therefore goes without saying that power is better than force. So how can practitioners not give priority to developing power?
     Let us now discuss the kinds of power and the methods of training them. Power is hard yet passive, in the same way that steel is stiff yet supple. When crudely smelted, the steel becomes too hard, but when expertly smelted, it will have suppleness. An ancient saying goes [Jin Dynasty, from “Gift of a Poem from Liu Kun to Lu Chen”]: “Steel folded a hundred times becomes soft enough to wrap around your finger.” Therefore the more steel is tempered, the suppler gets. Power is likewise. If you do not meticulously study the methods and practice over a long period, you will be unable to achieve passive power and only get as far as hard power. You must give it a lot of time, and then you will be able to succeed.
     To begin to develop power, practice stance work every morning and evening. You should squeeze your knees toward each other and pull back your crotch. Your feet are at an angle to each other that is more than forty-five degrees and less than ninety degrees. Then extend your arms to be perpendicular to your torso, forefingers pointing up, the other four fingers bent but not grasping, tiger’s mouths facing upward at shoulder level, elbows pointing somewhat behind you rather than directly downward, shoulders hanging down rather than sticking up. From shoulder to hand, there should be not the slightest intention of force, apart from at the forefinger. Done in this way, the pathway of power will be clear and power will easily be achieved.
     If your shoulder sticks up, it will have the appearance of using force. Violating the method thus, power will be obstructed at the shoulder and not penetrate to the finger.
     If the elbow is not pointing behind and the tiger’s mouth is not in line with the shoulder, the tendons will be twisted and uncomfortable, and the blood vessels will be constricted. Violating the method thus, power will not be easy to achieve.
     If the other fingers grasp tightly while the forefinger is extended, power will be unable to be focused. Violating the method thus, you will be unable to strike the points on the opponent’s skin with precision.
     The items above are all key essentials in the beginning of the training, things practitioners must pay attention to. When training to develop power, you especially must never subtract from these things nor change them. Every day after you wake up and before you go to sleep, you must practice for a while, the longer the better. However, you have to be persevering. You must not practice for a long time today and then only a short time tomorrow. In this way, you will then build a foundation.
     Thereupon make a couple of sandbags, pour in sand until each carries five pounds, and hang one from each arm, the posture of your body and hands remaining as before. Your arms are to be extended and must not be curling in. Once you are at the point that your arms feel none of the weight, then slide them further along your arms until gradually they have reached your tiger’s mouths. But every time you slide the bags further along, they should at each point be hung until it becomes easy and after a long time you do not feel the weight to be restrictive. Once they have arrived to hang from your tiger’s mouths, and you are able to again feel it is easy, you must then add weight to the sandbags. Every time you add more sand, hang them from your arms until it again becomes easy and after a long time you do not feel the weight to be restrictive. In this way, add sand until the weight is thirty to forty pounds, then hard power will have been achieved.
     Then make new sandbags, now of thicker fabric and with leather-wrapped corners, and pour in sand until they each carry forty to fifty pounds. Your hand holds it at a corner and tosses it up to be held in your palm or braced on your forearm. Sweep it with your leg or kick it with your foot. Practice this until you are so skillful at it that you are like a bear playing with a ball. Then gradually add more sand. Once the weight is at eighty pounds, a wave of your have can send a large opponent falling down more than ten feet away. When tossing sandbags, you have to be in a spacious and high-ceilinged room to practice it. If you are in a room that is narrow and low-ceilinged, you will be unable to engage in this method.
     You may then take a bamboo or wooden stick that fits your full grip and nail its two ends to a pillar, making it firm and unwobbling. With the lower end at shoulder height, the stick is about a foot in length and is parallel to the pillar. There is enough space between stick and pillar to admit your hand grabbing around the stick. Now saw off a section of thick bamboo about a foot and a half in length and place it at the base of the pillar. To practice, a hand grips the stick above while a foot stands on the thick bamboo below, hand at shoulder level, foot causing the thick bamboo section to rotate. In the beginning, you will find this to be very difficult, but you will after a long time be able to rotate it naturally. Once you have become skillful at it, you can make the thick bamboo rotate without a foot ever touching the ground at all. Then kicking this platform away, you can stand suspended in the air. This power in your fingers and palm is now sufficient to alarm an opponent. However, the force of the left hand is typically inferior to that of the right hand. When practicing, you should more often use your left hand to hold the stick in order to equalize the power of both hands.
     The descriptions above give the general idea for developing hard power. As for the method of developing passive power, it is altogether different from this. What makes passive power so distinct from hard power that it gets to be called “passive”? This has to be discussed.
     When passive power comes out, you will feel with clarity where it begins and at what place it ends, and you will know it to be exactly correct. But this is not the case with hard power.
     When passive power comes out, your channels are energized and your sound is like a whispering. As it reaches your fingertips, it is an inhalation that makes the posture. But this is not the case with hard power.
     When passive power comes out, a single pointing of passive energy can penetrate through wood or iron. Therefore through an opponent’s clothing you can also penetrate to his energy channels and organs. But this is not the case with hard power.
     Right after a practice session, hold your fingertips under sunlight or lamplight, and you will see they appear as transparent as beeswax, no sign of blood color. The deeper your skill, the longer this transparency lasts. If you point a finger perpendicular into your thigh and send power to the fingertip, you will feel at that spot a cool breeze running through from above to below that passes through your thigh and out the other side, and immediately there is a numbness. You should then use your fingers to gently rub it away. This kind of test will be enough to verify that passive power has been achieved. After this, your fingers must not play randomly all over an opponent’s body, for fear of injuring his vital points and inducing his mood to unconsciously fall into a state of “Bitter Miles” [a lamentation poem about battlefield death by Cao Cao – i.e. make the opponent feel he is about to die].
     The method of training this power focuses mainly on the squeezing of embroidery hoops. It should be done whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, and as those practices have already been explained in Chapter Four, it is not necessary to repeat them here. Below is the method of squeezing embroidery hoops in detail so that practitioners will have something to work from.
     When using embroidery hoops, choose those that have a great deal of springiness to them. They should to be about five inches long and about half an inch thick, made of ox horn or bamboo. Those made of bamboo have to be switched each time to another one, otherwise the springiness will gradually diminish and it will become rather inappropriate to use. Therefore you should have many of them at hand. Those made of ox horn should also be in large supply. This is because ox horn will soften as it heats up, and therefore you cannot squeeze them for very long and must frequently switch to another one.
     In the beginning of the training, they should be thin, then your fingertips will be lively and power will not be obstructed from getting to the tiger’s mouth. You should tie some string to both sides of it, pulling the sides into more of a bow shape, so that if it slips out of your hand, it will not result in shooting away from you and injuring someone’s face or eyes. Later when you are skillful at it, it will not be necessary to tie them with string. You also must have thin and thick ones ready for multiple squeezings. Start by squeezing the thin ones dozens of times, then squeeze the thick ones dozens of times. When your fingers are sore, stop. It is not necessary to force it.
     Do it in this way, alternating left hand and right, alternating grabs of thick and thin, several times every day without interruption. Each time, silently count the number and do not allow it to reduce. Squeeze hoops before you go to bed and after you wake up, then at noon and at sunset, all the time. With the thumb pressing at one side and the other four fingers pressing at the other, the fingers and tiger’s mouth will make a curved shape. The fingertips will slightly use force, but the rest of the hand should not. If you train without this method, you will have labored in vain. You need to be mindful of this.
     Once passive power has been achieved, then seek out a noteworthy teacher for training below the scale of your hand, refining the flow of blood and energy down to the size of an acupoint. Then once you are practicing at the level of your fingertip, you can use it to injure an opponent, or you can also use it to treat injury. Its effects are unusual, truly beyond the expectations of ordinary people. If we wish to achieve consummate skill, how can we not train in this way?

第十章 輕身
CHAPTER TEN: LIGHTENING THE BODY

輕身之術。皆秘而不傳。習之者遂亦罕見。今日之跳高。雖形式略同。而內容實異。蓋跳高必奮勇作勢。猛起猛落。抵地沉重。如石下墜。張脉僨興。外强中乾。稍一不愼。臟腑震傷。能輕身者則不然。其起也。如飛燕之掠空。其落也。如蜻蜒之點水。着瓦不響。抵地無聲。何則。浮勁充於一身也。北史載禪定寺幡竿繩絕。沈光口銜索拍竿。直上龍頭。繫畢。透空而下。以掌拓地。倒行十餘步。人號為肉飛仙。夫沈光非生而能之者。以其習之有素也。彼習之有素。則浮勁充於四體。透空而下。乃如鳥之有翼矣。蓋物體之下墜。皆由於地心之有吸力(Gravity。)吾人若以方法除去此種吸力。則上昇下降。均可不受其牵制。飛機之飛。行於空中。人皆見之矣。其體質本重於空氣。然所以能昇降自如者。以其有排除地心吸力之力量也。此力重〔量〕為何。卽發動機所生之前進力也。吾人之體質。重於空氣者多矣。常人之軀。固不能上昇於屋。設自屋下墜。亦必骨折筋斷。非死卽傷。何則。無力以排除地心之吸力也。故吾人欲排除地心吸力。必練成一種浮勁而後可。吾人有此浮勁。譬如飛機之有發動機。則上昇下降。亦可操縱自如。所以異者。人身無翼。不能久住於空中耳。彼習跳高者。不無浮勁。第鍊之而不得其法。故浮勁不大。譬如飛機之馬力不足。而欲載重。上昇固不易。下降亦為艱。欲求不僨事者難矣。兹將浮勁之練法詳述於下。學者果依法行持。必能輕其身矣。凡吾人之欲習是術者。須擇一寬大之室。下舖以地板。板面每距尺餘。釘一竹弓。弓長尺五。弦長一尺。以一端固定於板上。使弦與地板成一九十度之直角。初鍊弓宜稍厚。庶可乘重。兩旁各置一竹竿。使與地板成平行線。高度在站立弓。上便於扶手之處。因初時不能隨意行走於弓上。須扶此始可開步也。鍊時須穿特製之袴。略如今日軍人之馬袴。膝下至踝。釘以密扣。以便緊縳於腿上。庶使行時無所罥罣。而免傾跌。袴面須用生漆髹之。務令堅如牛革。蓋竹富彈性。履之不穩。卽時下墜。若穿未漆之袴。遭彈必破。且令腿受痛苦。行時足履弓梢。稍踏卽行。不可久站。初扶竹竿。步法旣熟。可撤去勿用。迨至已能行走如飛。則換較薄之竹弓。待至步法純熟。如履厚弓。復換更薄之弓。必至足踏弓梢。不覺其軟。一踏卽去。往返如飛。斯時浮勁基礎始成。乃將鉛鐲束於踝上。束時宜緊。鬆則無效。可換稍厚之弓。以便載重。行之若無鐲時。卽須添束一鐲。添之復添。至於膝下。待至步履如飛。毫不覺重。卽須仍換薄弓。行之若無鐲然。則踏弓之能事畢矣。斯時可習距躍。此種距躍。與學校跳高之姿勢。絕對不同。躍時腿灣必須束緊。令不能彎。則力提於上部。如飛機之發動機置於首而不置於尾。鍊時雖感困難。及其成功。則身體之靈便。實足令人驚異。足一按地。卽可登屋。而無須下蹲作勢矣。初躍之高度。以五寸為宜。厥後可逐漸增高。若能躍過三尺。除其鉛鐲。便可躍過三丈。此為秘傳之輕身術。從未見諸於文字。殆五祖所謂師師密付本心。學人有志於斯。必須斷疑生信。習之不懈。則其成功可逆覩矣。
The light-body skill has always been secret and untransmitted. Practitioners of it are therefore seldom seen. It may look almost the same as the modern high jump, but the substance of it is actually different. To perform the high jump, one must rouse one’s courage, aggressively lifting and landing, hitting the ground heavily like a boulder dropping down. The veins pop out from the strain. It is strong on the outside but hollow on the inside. The slightest moment of carelessness and the organs will be injuriously jolted. For one who has the light-body ability, it is different. He rises like a bird taking to the air and lands like a dragonfly touching the water, taking off without a sound and landing without a sound. How? He fills his body with floating energy.
     It says in the History of the Northern Dynasties [book 78]: “At Tranquil Meditation Temple, the [hundred-foot high] flagpole rope broke… Shen Guang took the end in his mouth, gave the pole a pat, and went upward right to the top. Once he had reattached it, he went up into the air and came down, gave a stroke to the ground with his palm, and went backwards more than ten paces… People then called him the ‘Physically Flying Immortal’.” Shen was not born with this ability, he had to train it until it had become his habit. By practicing to the point of habit, floating energy filled his limbs and he went into the air and came down like a winged bird.
     When an object falls down, always this is due to the force of gravity from the center of the Earth. If we use a method to resist this force, then we can ascend and descend unenslaved by its pull. The wings of an airplane take it through the air, as everyone can see. Though the body of the machine is heavier than air, it can nevertheless ascend and descend smoothly, for it has the power to defy the Earth’s gravity. How does it come by this power? It is because its engine generates a forward force.
     Our bodies are many times heavier than air. An ordinary man’s body certainly cannot rise up onto a rooftop. And if he were to jump down from the roof, it is also certain he would break bones or damage tendons, getting injured if not killed. Why is this? He lacks the power to defy Earth’s gravity. Therefore if we wish to defy Earth’s gravity, we must train to develop a kind of floating energy in order to be able to do so. We possess this energy just as much as an airplane has an engine, and therefore we too can ascend and descend smoothly, with the result that we will appear very unique.
     As the human body does not possess wings, it is unable to stay in the air for very long. Those who practice the high jump are not without floating energy, but they train without knowing the right method. Therefore if one’s floating energy is not great, it would be like the horsepower of an airplane being insufficient to carry a cargo. Taking off would truly not be easy and landing would be just as difficult, and it would be hard to keep from getting killed. The method for developing floating energy is explained below. If you practice according to these principles, you will surely be able to lighten your body.
     If we wish to train this skill, we must select a very spacious room with floorboards. Just over a foot apart, we nail bamboo bows into place. The bows are to be a foot and a half long, their strings a foot long. One end of a bow is fixed to the floorboards so that string is at a ninety-degree angle to the floorboards. In the beginning of the training, they should be somewhat thicker bows so they can bear weight. To each side is placed a bamboo pole that is parallel to the floorboards. The height of them in relation to the standing bows is such as to be a convenient place to put your hands for support. This is because you will in the beginning of the training be unable to walk as you please on top of the bows, and so you must support yourself with your hands in this way to then be able to step.
     While practicing this, you must wear special pants, rather like a modern soldier’s riding breeches. From knee to ankle, they are to be sewed up tightly. By being closely bound to your legs, they will not get in your way or caught on the bows as you walk, preventing you from falling down. The surface of the pants must be also painted with lacquer to make it as hard as cowhide. Because bamboo is very springy, it is not stable to step on, and in that moment you would fall down. If your pants have not been lacquered and you slip, they would inevitably get torn and would cause your legs to receive pain.
     When walking, your feet step on the bow tips. Step down just a little, then right away walk off, for you must not stand on a tip for long. In the beginning, support yourself along the bamboo poles with your hands, then once your stepping is skillful, you can dispense with them. Once you able to walk as though you are flying, then switch to thinner bamboo bows, and then later, when your stepping is very skillful, thick-soled shoes can be switched to thin-soled. You must step on the bow tips but not feel the bows bending. As soon you step on one, step off of it. Walk back and forth as though you are flying. The building of a foundation in developing floating energy has now begun.
     Then put on lead anklets. They should be tightly tied on, for loose weights will be ineffective. You can switch to thicker bows to make it easier to carry the load. Once you are no longer noticing the anklets while walking, add more of them, then more, until they go all the way up to your knees. When you are finally stepping as if flying, no sensation of weight at all, then you must again switch to thinner bows. Once you are again no longer noticing the anklets while walking, then your training of walking on the bows can be considered complete and you may now practice jumping.
     This type of jumping is entirely different from the high jump in school sporting events. When jumping, your knees must be bound up so they cannot bend, and thus your strength will be lifted up into your upper body, in the same way a plane’s engine is placed in the front and not in the tail. Although you will find the training to be arduous, once you have succeeded, the nimbleness of your body will truly astonish people. With a push of your foot against the ground, you can ascend to a rooftop without it being necessary to squat down first. For the height of such jumps in the beginning, five inches is appropriate, and thereafter you can gradually increase the height. If you can jump beyond three feet, take off the lead anklets and you will then be able to jump beyond thirty feet.
     These are the secret teachings of the light-body skill. If you have never witnessed the things written of here, it will be as is said by practitioners of Wuzu Boxing: “All teachers pass on the real stuff in secret.” Students who have an ambition toward this must cut away their doubts and believe in it. As long as you practice perseveringly, you can look forward to success.

第十一章 致用
CHAPTER ELEVEN: PRACTICAL APPLICATION

甚矣致用之難也。而彼硬勁派之致用。則尤覺其難也。且彼輩之習技。亦不為不勤矣。觀其平時之身手。亦頗有可觀。及其臨敵。則手足無措。所謂手法步法身法之印象。胥已離其腦海矣。其遇常人也。則與之扭打。一如常人。其遇能人也。身仆於轉瞬之間。而不知敵手之如何發。每有習之數年且不能一用者。不亦可慨乎。或曰。若而人者。病在眼之不明。手之不快耳。然以吾觀之。皆非其癥結之所在也。夫拳技之能應用與否。視乎平日之分拆為轉移也。彼硬勁派之分拆。吾亦嘗習之矣。彼所重者架式。每一式有固定之手勢而不可移易。每一式有固定之手數而不可增加。至若出手之次第。尤不可變更。身法步法之轉換。亦不可擅自紊亂。必按步驟。如伶人之演全武行。然後可從容交手。不致有失。故分拆之際。苟有一人不能依法行持。或移易其手勢。或增加其手數。或變更其次第。或隨意轉換其身法步法。則對方必手忙脚亂。驚慌無措。其弊不僅改其常態。且有一人仆地或受傷矣。今夫爭鬥之時。較技之際。敵人之來攻。不能有固定之手法。亦不能有固定之步驟。而必以固定之架式應之。其致用之效果可以想見矣。吾嘗見拳師之過盤。或手一交而勝負分。或手再交而强弱見。至多不過三四手必倒其一。何也。彼輩平日分拆之經驗。不能用於過盤之時也。是以敵手一變。卽無能為矣。吾門之分拆則大異乎彼。故吾門之致用亦較易焉。其分拆也。無固定之架式。亦無固定之步驟。放胆攻擊。如臨敵然。三部兩門。任意進取。運用手法。不拘後先。手交卽貼。貼卽不離。鍊之至熟。智巧出焉。雖在暗室。亦可分拆。白日蒙目。亦可為之。昔吾師習技旣成。嘗於午夢正酣之際。有人推之令醒。詎知手一拈腿。而腿卽發。迨師旣醒。其人已昏厥臥地。急救令甦。始悉其故。又嘗行於鬧市。有人偶碰其手。其人隨卽倒地厥。後入市必自握其手。不令肇禍。蓋吾門分拆旣熟。若人手一至。吾手卽起。人手一轉。吾手卽變。彼上卽上。彼下卽下。彼左卽左。彼右卽右。運用出於自然。絲毫不假思索。故敵雖欲誘我。不得而誘之。雖欲乘我。不得而乘之。吾師嘗以是語人。或疑其夸。師乃衣白色之衣。揎袖於臂。令彼指掌偏塗墨汁。然後任意進攻。其人素嫻技擊。良久不能一指着衣上。汗流氣喘而罷。視衣潔白如故。於是讋服。爾時門下有新進者。再拜叩問。願聞其理。師乃登座而言曰。致用之道。在於分拆。分拆之道。在於其師之善誘。故吾門之分拆。决不可離其師也。蓋初習分拆。手必生硬。師乃循循誘之。使其圓活。及其已能跟手轉變。則必故露破綻。以待其入。或猶不知。則引其手擊於己身。因勢利導。不可固執。久之自能手貼不離。有隙卽入。斯時不可手起便閉。不令著於己身。何則。當手活之際。一閉卽成半手。半手者。知救而不知發之謂也。如是分拆。亦非致用之道。故吾門之為人師者。决不可不吃虧。若存一師體不可被擊之觀念。則其徒之技藝永無成功之希望矣。昔有同門。偶觸師怒。師於分拆之時。封閉其手。不令發出。厥後雖欲發手。不能從心。學人於此。亦應引為殷鑒。是故欲求致用者。不可離師。尤不可輕師也。
Practical application is the most difficult part, especially when dealing with an opponent who is using hard energy, even more so when he is the type who has put a lot of hard work into developing his skill. Taking a look at his tendencies, there is so much to be observed, and then when facing him, your hands and feet get lost, a matter of your hand techniques, footwork, and body maneuverings completely departing from what is in your mind. When encountering an opponent who is an ordinary person, you fight against him like an ordinary person. But when encountering an opponent who is skillful, you are toppled immediately and do not know how he did it.
     There are always practitioners like this who have trained for many years but are unable to apply any part of the art. Is this not a pity? Someone may say: “Such a person has the errors of undiscerning gaze and slow hands.” But the way I see it, that is not the real reason. Whether or not one can apply boxing skills is a matter of the switchings among one’s ordinary techniques.
     I have also practiced the techniques of those hard-energy styles. What they emphasize is practice sets. Every posture has a fixed technique which cannot be altered and there is a fixed number of techniques which cannot be added to, and most of all, the sequence of the techniques cannot be changed, nor can the transformations of body maneuvering and footwork be adjusted without permission. You must go through the actions step by step like actors performing a fight scene in an opera, then you will be able to fight calmly rather than falling apart. When applying the individual techniques, if one of the people involved cannot perform the scene in accordance with its fixed choreography, changes the techniques, adds techniques, rearranges the sequence, or screws around with the body maneuverings and footwork, his partner will surely have jittery hands, confused feet, and a panicky awkwardness. The result of these errors will not only be a change from the normal situation, but also a person falling to the ground or getting injured.
     When fighting or sparring, the opponent’s incoming attack will not be a fixed hand technique nor use fixed footwork, but you must use a programmed behavior to respond to it for the effectiveness of your practical application to be realized. I once saw a boxing instructor in a match in which the victor and loser were clear after the first exchange. After the second exchange, it was apparent who was the stronger and who was the weaker. It took no more than three or four exchanges and he was knocked him. Why was this? His experience with his ordinary techniques was unable to be used when fighting. When his opponent adapted, he was incapable of dealing with it.
     The techniques in our system are very different from his, and are thus easier to apply. For our techniques, there is no choreographed practice set, no fixed pattern of footwork. We attack boldly when facing opponents, advancing as we please into his three sections [above, middle, below] and through his two gateways [outer and inner], the movements of our hands not restricted by prescribed ways of how techniques should follow or precede each other. When our hands cross, I stick to him, meaning not disconnecting from him. Once the training has reached the point of skill, ingenuity emerges.
     Even in a dark room we can apply techniques, or even in the daytime with our eyes covered. Once when my teacher had finished a session of his own practice, he had a siesta in which he was heavily dreaming. Someone moved to nudge him awake and was surprised to discover his leg was being picked up and he was shot away. My teacher then awoke and found the man had fainted to the ground. First aid was administered to revive him and then it was explained to him what had happened. Another time, when my teacher was walking to a city market, someone happened to bump into his hand and promptly fell down unconscious. When he afterwards entered the market, he had to hold onto his own hands so as not to cause accidents.
     Once these techniques are skillful, then as an opponent’s hand arrives, my hand lifts up. If his hand turns, mine also adjusts. If he goes upward, I go upward. If he goes downward, I go downward. If he goes to the left, I go to the left. If he goes to the right, I go to the right. Movements will emerge naturally and without any thinking. Although he wishes to guide my movement, he is unable to and ends up being guided. Although he wishes to take advantage of my position, he is unable to and his ends up being exploited.
     My teacher explained this to someone who then suspected him of bragging, so he put on a white robe, pushed up his sleeves, and told the man to cover his hands in ink and then to attack him as he pleased. Though an adept martial artist, the man was even after a long time unable to get one touch, so he gave up, sweating and panting. With the robe as spotlessly white as before, he conceded defeat, but then advanced one more time, by bowing down and asking to learn the theory. Our teacher took a seat and said: “The way of practical application depends on individual techniques. The way of individual techniques depends on the teacher giving good guidance. Therefore the techniques in our system can never be thought of as separate from the teacher.”
     In the beginning of practicing the techniques, your hands will be rigid. The teacher will then methodically guide you and make you more dexterous. Once you can follow along with an opponent’s changes, he will then reveal his flaws. Wait for the right moment and attack, and if you are still not detecting the moment, lure in his hands to attack you. To take advantage of the situation, you must not be stubborn about the way it is to be done.
     After a long period, your hands will naturally be able to stick rather disconnect, and when there is a gap, you will enter. At that point, you must not raise your hands only to seal off the opponent, nor to lure him in to attack you. Why not? Because once your hands have become lively, to seal off is only half a technique. With half techniques, you will know how to defend but not how to attack, and in this way, the techniques would not live up to practical application.
     The teachers in our system have to endure suffering. If a teacher cannot handle the idea of being hit, then the student’s skill will never achieve the level that is hoped for. A fellow student of mine once lashed out at our teacher in anger. When our teacher applied his techniques, it was to seal off the student’s hands so he could not shoot them out. Afterwards, even when the student wanted to attack, he was no longer able to get caught up in his emotion. Students in such moments should take heed. When seeking to apply techniques, you must not forget they came your from teacher, and especially must not think lightly of the teacher.

第十二章 靜坐
CHAPTER TWELVE: MEDITATION

夫技擊之所尚者。動也。而示之以靜坐。何也。蓋習技之流。外部雖堅。而內體實脆。必賴靜坐以堅其內也。彼未習靜功者。氣機行於外而不能行於內。其肢體堅則堅矣。然僅可任壯夫之猛擊。而不能受能手之一指。以其臟腑之間。仍無以異於常人也。常人之軀。未經鍛鍊。氣機不暢。肢體不堅。受擊則傷矣。故未堅其內者。內體之易於傷。亦如常人外部之易於傷也。或難曰。外旣堅矣。則藏於內者已受其保護。又何必堅也。曰。玻璃之貯於鐵櫃。可敲之以木棒矣。然以巨力震之。則玻璃必破。故曰。未堅其內者。可任壯夫之猛擊而不能受能手之一指也。夫能手一指之勁。可直透於內體。等於巨力之震於櫃中。彼外部雖堅如鐵櫃。而內之玻璃能不破乎。苟吾人不欲臟腑之為玻璃。則靜坐之道。不可不明。而靜坐之功。不可不習矣。張紫陽眞人曰。以眼不視而魂在肝。以耳不聞而精在腎。以鼻不臭而魄在肺。以舌不聲而神在心。以四肢不動而意在脾。是謂之五炁朝元。蓋不視、不聞、不臭、不聲、不動、靜之極也。靜極則元氣充於臟腑。損者補之。虛者益之。以此內體遂堅而不脆矣。然非一朝一夕之故。必日積月累。年久功深。而後可致也。道經曰。人心能淸靜。天地悉皆歸。故靜之為用。不可盡述。又豈僅堅其內體也哉。第吾人入世愈久。私欲愈多。使之坐則可。使之靜則難。使之至於不視、不聞、不臭、不聲、不動、則尤難矣。然所謂難者。非謂其必不能也。古人云。有志者事竟成。是又在乎持其志而已矣。學人有志於斯。請言其法。兢兢守之。庶乎難關可度也。凡跌坐之時。以拂曉為最佳。先解項下之鈕。次鬆腰間之帶。足繫有帶。亦宜除之。斯時心中務須萬緣放下。一塵不染。待至心氣和平。始徐徐坐下。眼不可遠視。遠則傷神。頭不可低垂。低則欲睡。脊骨不可彎曲。彎曲則任督不通。初坐之際。妄念時生。遊思迭起。雖欲一槪屏去。無如起於不覺。法在止觀於氣海。乃可漸漸消除。氣海者。臍堂下靈龜上之空穴也。吾心止於是而內觀之。心照穴中。與氣相守。息息歸根。合自然之造化。巍巍不動。參淸靜之玄機。於是一線心光。與一縷眞炁相接。心在炁中。而不知炁包心外。而不覺氤氤氲氲。打成一片。直造於杳冥。不求靜而自靜矣。迨其三陽旣充。必現異象。此時不可驚惶。仍須鎭靜如常。心定不動。厥後工程卽蒸蒸日上。惟每次趺坐。必待精神淸爽。如夢初醒。四肢暢然。如浴已畢。始為工程圓滿之憑證。易曰。美在其中。暢於四支。卽此之謂也。此時務宜再靜坐片刻。待氣復歸原位。然後徐徐散盤。徐徐起立。坐後不可遽行便溺。或高聲大叫。坐時若在工程發動之際。尤不可擅自散盤起立。昔游酢楊時。初見程伊川。伊川瞑目而坐。二子侍立不去。旣覺。謂二子曰。賢輩尚在此乎。今旣晚。且休。及出門。門外雪深三尺。蓋宋儒多習靜坐。而靜坐實有欲罷不能之時。如其可罷。則任人之立深三尺。殊屬不近人情。尚何理學之足道乎。若夫旣習靜坐。則務須絕慾。否則如蒸沙作飯。徒勞而無益也。吾人旣破體矣。卽屬五漏之軀。苟不塞其漏而補之。則基不能築。而工程永無進步之日。譬諸欲建摘星之樓。而無鞏固之基。其工程之能否告竣。亦無庸辯之矣。且下漏之弊。已詳於保精之說。不習靜坐者猶宜戒之。而况欲成內功者乎。學人於此。幸毋忽焉。
What is valued in martial arts is movement, but what is to be displayed is meditation. Why is this? Because while practicing the techniques, even if your body is externally hard, internally it would actually be brittle. You must rely on meditation to solidify internally. Those who have not yet practiced meditation move energy externally and are not yet able to move energy internally. Though their bodies are solid, they can only perform the fierce striking of strong people and cannot handle a finger strike from an expert, for their organs within are still no different from an ordinary person’s. The body of an ordinary person has not undergone training. His energy does not flow and his body has not been hardened. When he is struck, he is injured. Therefore those who have not solidified internally will be injured internally as easily as an ordinary person would be injured externally.
     Someone may disagree with this by saying: “With solidity outside, the organs inside are already protected. How is there no solidity?”
     To which I say: “A glass stored away in an iron safe can withstand an attack from a stick, but give the safe a strong shake and the glass will break.” Therefore we can say that unless there is solidity internally, you can perform the fierce striking of a strong person yet be unable to handle a finger strike from an expert. A finger strike can penetrate directly to your inner body. It is equivalent to the shock within the safe. Even if you are as hard on the outside as an iron safe, your glassy innards can still be smashed. If we do not wish our organs to be as brittle as glass, then methods of meditation have to be understood and the training of meditation has to be engaged in.
     The Daoist Zhang Ziyang said [preface to the poem “Four Hundred Words About the Golden Elixir”]: “When the eyes are not watching, the earthly soul remains in the liver. When the ears are not listening, essence remains in the kidneys. When the nose is not smelling, the ethereal soul remains in the lungs. When the tongue is not talking, spirit remains in the heart. When the limbs are not moving, intention remains in the spleen. This is called ‘the five energies returning to their original state’.”
     Without watching, listening, smelling, talking, or moving, one is in a state of the utmost quietude. In the utmost quietude, vitality fills the organs. What has been diminished will be replenished. What has been spent will be recompensed. If this way, your body will become internally solid rather than brittle. But you must work at it every day, accumulating over the days, months, and many years for your skill to deepen, and then you can say you have achieved. It says in the Daoist scriptures [Pure Stillness Classic, chapter 3]: “If you can in your mind be pure and still, comprehension of Nature will come to you.”
     The function of “stillness” cannot be fully explained, and moreover, this is not only a matter of solidifying internally. The longer we go through life, the more numerous our desires become. To make ourselves sit is doable, but to quiet ourselves is difficult, and to get ourselves to reach a state of not watching, not listening, not smelling, not talking, and not moving is very hard indeed. However, difficult does not mean impossible. As the old saying goes: “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.” [The Chinese version is closer to: “With willpower, you will succeed.” Before becoming a standard idiom, it originally appeared in Books of Later Han, Bio of Geng Yan, in which Emperor Guangwu praised General Geng Yan in front of the army and royal officials, and would there be rendered: “Having willpower, he succeeded.”] It is all a matter of maintaining your ambition. When a student who has such ambition asks for an explanation of the method, masters tend to be cautious and guard their secrets, and he will likely face some difficulty in getting the information.
     Generally when you sit down to meditate, dawn is the best time. First undo your shirt buttons, then loosen your belt and remove your shoes. You must then set aside all thoughts till not one iota of an idea is staining your mind. Once your mind is at peace, start to slowly sit down. Your gaze must not be distant, for gazing far away will damage your spirit. Your head must not droop, which would make you drowsy. Your back must not hunch, which would cause your Ren [down the front] and Du [up the spine] meridians to become obstructed.
     In the beginning of sitting practice, distracting ideas will frequently be generated and your thoughts will repeatedly wander. Even if you wish to get rid of every single one, unfortunately they will rise up unconsciously. The method lies in settling your watchfulness on your “sea of energy” [same idea as “contemplating your navel”], then you can gradually dispel them. The “sea of energy” point is below the navel and above the Ling Gui [i.e. Guan Yuan] acupoint. Our minds halt there and observe inwardly. With your mind looking within the acupoint, it and the energy guard each other. Your breathing returns to what is basic, conforming to the natural method, and you become aloof and unmoving. This is the mysterious “pure stillness” linking together the thread of your mind’s light with the thread of your authentic energy. The mind lies within the energy, but is unaware that the energy is wrapped around the mind and does not sense how densely it does so. This integration leads to the generating of a void, in which stillness is not sought and is instead automatic.
     When your San Yang acupoints [at outer part of the forearm about four inches from the wrist between the two bones] feel full, this will surely make you change the blank expression on your face. At this time, you must not be alarmed, but instead stay as calm as before, mind steady and unmoving, and then your project will be thriving. However, every time you sit down to meditate, you must wait for your spirit to become pure and clear, like waking from a dream. When your limbs are elated, as though you have just taken a bath, you will then have proof that the project is progressing well. It says in the Book of Changes [commentary to the Kun hexagram]: “Beauty lies within and courses through to the four limbs.” This is the idea.
     At this time, you should continue to sit quietly for a while and wait for your energy to return to its original state, then slowly undo your cross-legged position and slowly stand. After sitting, you must not suddenly rush off to urinate, nor speak in a loud voice. When sitting, be as you were at the beginning of the training. You must on no account abruptly unwind your position and stand up.
     Long ago, when You Cu and Yang Shi first paid a visit to Cheng Yi, Cheng was sitting with his eyes closed. Instead of leaving, they simply waited. When Cheng woke, he said to them: “You gentlemen are still here? It’s late. Come in and rest.” They were outside his door under three feet of snow. [This story became compressed into an idiom: “standing in the snow at Cheng’s door”, representing being respectful toward one’s teacher.] These Song Dynasty philosophers often practiced seated meditation, and were sometimes unable to stop. If Cheng had been able to stop in his meditation, then allowing men to stand under three feet of snow would have been rather inhuman of him and not like the Way of his philosophy.
     While practicing silent meditation, you must get rid of desires, otherwise it would be like steaming sand to make rice, futile and useless. We damage our bodies through five kinds of “leakings” [earthly soul, essence, ethereal soul, spirit, and intention leaking out through our eyes, ears, nose, speech, and movement]. Unless you seal off these leakings and replenish what has been lost, your foundation cannot be built and your project will never make progress. For example, if you want to construct a skyscraper but have not built a foundation, there would be no point even discussing whether the project can be completed or not. The drawbacks of leakage have already been explained in Chapter Two. For those who do not practice seated meditation, it seems they should change their ways. Otherwise how could they ever hope to achieve internal skill? I hope students of this art will not neglect it.

字門正宗卷下終
Here ends Part Two.

字門正宗附錄 醫傷祕錄 鵝湖胡遺生輯
APPENDIX: SECRET RECORDS OF INJURY MEDICINES (compiled by Hu Yisheng)

律例
GUIDELINES

一、凡傷某處。宜加某藥為引。
Which medicines are to be applied depends on the part of the body that is injured.
一、天門。加川芎、白芷、玄胡索、西芎。
Forehead: Sichuan lovage, Chinese angelica, Chinese poppy, Chinese lovage.
一、太陽。加白芷、北細辛、防風、升麻。
Left temple: Chinese angelica, Chinese wild ginger root, parsnip root, bugbane.
一、太陰。加荊芥、薄荷葉、羗活、小茴。
Right temple: catnip, peppermint, angelica, anise.
一、眼目。加白菊花、梹榔、蟬蛻、京子、紅花。
Eye: feverfew, areca catechu, cicada slough, jingzi, safflower.
一、耳背。加射香、白芷、北細辛。
Back of the ear: moschus, Chinese angelica, Chinese wild ginger root.
一、人中。加射香、石膏、赤石、木通、木賊、骨碎補、牙皂、赤芍、梹榔。
Philtrum: moschus, gypsum, chishi, akebi, horsetail, squirrel’s foot fern, Chinese honeylocust seeds, red peony root, areca catechu.
一、牙齒。加北防風、北細辛、乳香。
Tooth: parsnip root, Chinese wild ginger root, frankincense.
一、咽喉。加靑皮、龍胆艸。桔梗、甘艸。
Throat: orange peel, gentian, Chinese bellflower, licorice root.
一、頭背。加川芎、香附、只壳。
Back of the head: Sichuan lovage, flatsedge tuber, dried bitter orange.
一、傷手。加桂枝、羗活、桑皮、肉桂。
Injured hand: cassia twig, angelica, mulberry bark, cinnamon.
一、傷脚。加木瓜、羗活、牛膝。
Injured foot: papaya skin, angelica, ox-knee root.
一、傷脇。加靑皮、龍胆艸、柴明、黃姜。
Injured ribs: orange peel, gentian, chaiming, turmeric.
一、傷腰。加杜仲、故紙、續斷、金毛狗、刀豆根。
Injured lower back: eucommia bark, guzhi beans, teasel root, woolly-fern root, daodougen.
一、中腕。加菖蒲、良姜、木香。
Solar plexus area: sweet flag, shell ginger, costus root.
一、傷背。加川貝母、烏藥、靈仙。
Injured back: Sichuan bulb of fritillary, spicebush root, clematis root.
一、傷乳。加日金、桔梗、前胡。
Injured breast: rijin, Chinese bellflower, peucedanum root.
一、傷心。加硃砂、琥珀、神金、遠志肉。
Injured heart: cinnabar, amber, shenjin, polygala.
一、傷肺。加以仁、金釵、核桃、白芷、白及。
Injured lung: yiren, jinchai, walnut, Chinese angelica, bletilla striata.
一、傷胆。加柏子仁、龍胆艸。
Injured gallbladder: Chinese arborvitae, gentian.
一、大肚。加大茴、烏藥、靈脂、木香、生白朮、玄胡索。
Upper abdomen: star anise, spicebush root, lingzhi, costus root, raw atractylodes, Chinese poppy.
一、小肚。加小茴、烏藥、靈脂、梹榔、菖蒲、川朴、只壳、木香、射香。
Lower abdomen: anise, spicebush root, lingzhi, areca catechu, sweet flag, Sichuan hackberry, dried bitter orange, costus root, moschus.
一、傷肝不治。
There is no remedy for injury to the liver.
一、下腎。加朱苓、澤瀉、赤苓、木通、車前子。
Forearm: zhuling, water plantain root, chiling, akebi, Chinese plantain seeds.
一、膀胱。加桔紅、巴戟天、小茴、故紙、烏藥、桔核、胡蘆。
Bladder: jiehong, Indian mulberry root, anise, guzhi beans, spicebush root, tangerine seeds, fenugreek.
一、燕尾。加赤芍、秦交、續斷、海馬、猴骨、虎骨。
Tailbone: red peony root, qinjiao, teasel root, seahorse, monkey bone, tiger bone.
一、氣門。加母丁香、三稜、莪朮、梹榔、烏藥、靑皮、陳皮、木香。
Qi Men acupoint: mother clove, bur-reed tuber, white turmeric, areca catechu, spicebush root, orange peel, dried orange peel, costus root.
一、脚胃。加以仁、防風、桑寄生、麥冬、木香。
Sole of foot: yiren, parsnip root, parasitic loranthus, monkey-grass tuber, costus root.
一、作嘔。加砂仁、桔梗、母丁香、霍香、老姜。
For nausea: small cardamom, Chinese bellflower, mother clove, huoxiang, ginger.
一、吐血。加京墨、山七、炒荊芥。
Spitting blood: jingmo, shanqi, roasted catnip.
一、發狂。加硃砂、遠志肉。
Madness: cinnabar, polygala.
一、作渴。加天花粉。烏藥。粉干葛。
Thirst: trichosanthes root, spicebush root, powdered kudzu vine root.
一、出糞。加蓮子、黃連。
Fecal incontinence: lotus seeds, Chinese goldthread.
一、出尿。加滑石、赤苓、澤瀉。
Urinal incontinence: talcum, chiling, water plantain root.
一、昏沉不省人事。加人參、茯苓、半夏。
Coma: ginseng, tuckahoe, crow-dipper.
一、大便不通。加大黃、皮硝、川朴。
Inability to defecate: rhubarb root, Glauber’s salt, Sichuan hackberry.
一、小便不通。加車前仁、木通、朱苓、赤苓、澤瀉。
Inability to urinate: Chinese plantain seeds, akebi, zhuling, chiling, water plantain root.
一、骨節。加松香、竹節、續斷、年健。
Joints: rosin, bamboo joint, teasel root, nianjian.
一、咳嗽。加桔梗、前胡。
Cough: Chinese bellflower, peucedanum root.
一、不論男婦傷胸膛。左加柴胡、靑皮。右加赤芍、木香。
Injured chest, male or female: bupleurum, orange peel, red peony root, costus root.
一、婦人有胎者。安胎順氣為主。不可破血。
For pregnant women, the most important thing is to prevent miscarriage and keep her energy balanced, and so she must not be wearying her blood.
一、婦人以四物湯為君。再加傷處之藥。
She should use Four Ingredient Soup, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
一、身體虛弱者。以六味丸為君。然後再加打藥。
In those with weak bodies, Six-Flavor Pills should be used, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
一、五六十歲者。血脉不旺。須以八味丸為君。再加傷處之藥。
In those of age fifty or sixty, the blood circulation is no longer vigorous, and so Eight-Flavor Pills should be used, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
一、年老之人。血氣大虛。須以十全大補湯為君。再加傷處之藥。
In the elderly, the blood and energy are extremely weak, and so Total Repair Soup should be used, with additional medicine for sickened areas.
一、凡下猛藥。須察傷之輕重。體之虛實。不可一例重用。
When using strong medicine, it is necessary to observe the severity of the ailment and the strength of the body. They cannot be used in exactly the same way for everyone.
一、整骨遇必須用麻藥時。務宜審其體氣之强弱。以別分量之多寡。
When the whole body has to be given anesthetics, the strength of the body’s energy should be examined to judge the amount to be applied.
一、醫傷之際。難免他症發生。故於藥性須知大槪。後載藥性槪論。務宜緊記。
When one is hurt by medicine, it is difficult to then prevent illness from being generated, and therefore the general effects of medicines must be known. These are listed below and should be kept in mind.
一、凡傷某處有某處之藥引。初行醫者。每難悉記。所撰之週身用藥歌訣。務宜讀熟。
For the most part, there are certain medicines for certain illnesses. Novice physicians find it hard to memorize them, and thus was composed the “Song of Medicines for the Whole Body”, which should be learned by heart.

藥性槪論
GENERALIZED EFFECTS OF MEDICINES

一、止痛 赤芍 五加皮 乳香 柴胡 石菖蒲 金毛狗 八稜麻 元胡索 白芍 土別 靈仙 肉桂 虎骨 胆草 獨脚連 地骨皮 金石斛 紅蚯蚓 龜甲 木瓜 猴骨
For stopping pain: red peony root, Siberian ginseng, frankincense, bupleurum, Japanese sweet flag, woolly-fern root, balengma, Chinese poppy, white peony root, tubie, clematis root, cinnamon, tiger bone, gentian, dujiaolian, medlar root bark, noble dendrobium, red earthworm, tortoise shell, papaya skin, monkey bone.
一、破血 降香 三稜 紅花 桃仁 莪朮 靈仙 三七 丹皮 當歸尾 牽牛 蘇木 然同 芒硝 靈砂 附子 射干 牛子 熟大地 桑寄生 七葉一枝花
For exhausted blood: fragrant rosewood, bur-reed tuber, safflower, taoren nuts, white turmeric, clematis root, pseudo-ginseng, peony root bark, dong quai, Japanese morning glory, sapanwood, rantong, Glauber’s salt, lingsha, Chinese wolfsbane, tiger lily, niuzi, cooked dadi, parasitic loranthus, paris polyphylla.
一、破氣 降香 三稜 莪朮 必澄茄 澤蘭 熟大黃 牽牛 芒硝 附子 梹榔 桑寄生 靈砂 牛子 香附 玉金 茯苓皮 射干
For exhausted energy: fragrant rosewood, bur-reed tuber, white turmeric, tailed pepper, thoroughwort, cooked rhubarb root, Japanese morning glory, Glauber’s salt, Chinese wolfsbane, areca catechu, parasitic loranthus, lingsha, niuzi, flatsedge tuber, yujin, tuckahoe, tiger lily.
一、走表 桂枝 北秦交
Ridding external illness: cassia twig, northern qinjiao.
一、走頭角 防風 蒿本 川芎 羗活 靑龍標
Ridding headache: parsnip root, wormwood root, Sichuan lovage, angelica, qinglongbiao.
一、走肚角 白芍 仙茅根 野燈心兜
Ridding stomachache: white peony root, weevil-wort root, wild dengxin.
一、退紅 靑皮
Reducing redness: orange peel.
一、補腎 故紙 杜仲 兔絲子 枸𣏌 伏神 福圓 
Kidney repair: guzhi beans, eucommia bark, dodder seeds, Chinese wolfberry, fushen, fuyuan.
一、鎭心 朱砂 神金 珍珠 金砂 銀硃
Calming the mind: cinnabar, shenjin, pearl, gold dust, silver dust.
一、通大便 大黃
Relieving constipation: rhubarb root.
一、消風 羗活 防風
Dispelling internal wind: angelica, parsnip root.
一、去舊生新 川芎
Ridding staleness and generating freshness: Sichuan lovage.
一、止心痛 沉香
Stopping distress: aloeswood.
一、順氣 陳皮 桔梗 沉香 靑皮 丁香 棗皮 石菖蒲
Smoothing energy: dried orange peel, Chinese bellflower, aloeswood, orange peel, clove, date skin, Japanese sweet flag.
一、去老損 寸香
Ridding decrepitude: musk.
一、開胸 桔梗 只壳 石菖蒲 厚朴
Opening the chest: Chinese bellflower, dried bitter orange, Japanese sweet flag, magnolia bark.
一、生精 故紙 杜仲 牡力 龍骨
Generating essence: guzhi beans, eucommia bark, muli, fossil fragments.
一、補脾 米仁 黃實 紅棗 棗皮 山
Repairing the spleen: rice grains, huangshi, red date, date skin, goat’s blood.
一、走腰 故紙 杜仲 龍骨 牡力
Ridding illness from the lower back: guzhi beans, eucommia bark, fossil fragments, muli.
一、壯筋 甘艸
Strengthening tendons: licorice root.
一、活氣 猴骨 虎骨
For livening energy: monkey bone, tiger bone.
一、止血 棉灰 側柏葉 三七 山羊血
Stopping bleeding: cotton ash, Chinese arborvitae leaves, pseudo-ginseng, goat’s blood.
一、消水腫 蒼朮 茵陳
Dispelling edema: atractylodes root, capillary artemisia.
一、走腎 柯子
Ridding illness from kidneys: pasania seeds.
一、走脚 過江龍 地南蛇 獨脚連 龜甲 蒼朮 金石斛 五加皮 矮脚樟 老觀艸
Ridding illness from the feet: guojianglong, dinanshe, dujiaolian, tortoise shell, atractylodes root, noble dendrobium, Siberian ginseng, aijiaozhang, geranium.
一、止冷痛 必解
Stopping painful cold feeling: bijie.
一、走筋骨 骨碎補 土別 八爪龍 虎骨 猴骨 製艸烏
Ridding illness from joints: squirrel’s foot fern, tubie, bazhaolong, tiger bone, monkey bone, processed monkshood root.
一、走脚心 追地蜂
Ridding illness from the soles of the feet: low-flying bees.
一、散筋骨寒 獨活
Dispelling cold from muscle and bones: angelica.
一、補元氣 白茯苓
For repairing primordial energy: white tuckahoe.
一、補內水 白茯苓
For repairing internal water: white tuckahoe.
一、補氣 熟地 烏藥 龜膠 鹿膠
For repairing energy: cooked Chinese foxglove, spicebush root, turtle glue, deer glue.
一、通血 續斷
For blood flow: teasel root.
一、通氣 續斷
For energy flow: teasel root.
一、伸筋 米仁 桑寄生 地南蛇 鹿筋 八稜麻 過江龍
Increasing flexibility: rice grains, parasitic loranthus, dinanshe, deer tendon, balengma, guojianglong.
一、消脹 梹榔 茯苓皮
Reducing bloating: areca catechu, tuckahoe.
一、消腫 澤蘭
Reducing swelling: thoroughwort.
一、下氣 只壳 甘艸 木香
Releasing gas: dried bitter orange, licorice root, costus root.
一、走脇 胆艸 柴胡 靑皮
Ridding illness from the ribs: gentian, bupleurum, orange peel.
一、走手 桑枝 桂枝 南籐 勾籐
Ridding illness from the hands: mulberry branch, cassia twig, southern vine, cat’s claw.
一、通關節 過江龍 地南蛇 北秦交 松節 牛膝 獨脚連
Opening blockages in joints: guojianglong, dinanshe, northern qinjiao, songjie, ox-knee root, dujiaolian.
一、補中氣 人參 熟黃芪
Repairing central energy: ginseng, cooked astragalus.
一、補六腑 人中白
Repairing the six bag-organs: renzhongbai.
一、淸肝火 茘枝 山甲
Purging liver fire: lychee, pangolin scales.
一、淸心火 麥冬
Purging heart fire: monkey-grass tuber.
一、淸肺火 北杏仁 核桃
Purging lung fire: northern almonds, walnut.
一、化痰 桔紅 法半夏 牛黃 南星 良姜
Reducing phlegm: jiehong, processed crow-dipper, ox bezoar, nanxing, shell ginger.
一、和血 槐角
Easing blood: Japanese sophora root.
一、定魂 神金
Stabilizing mood: shenjin.
一、通小便 鳳尾艸 鐵索肘 七葉一枝花 車前 澤瀉 朱苓 木通
Relieving inability to urinate: ferns, tiesuozhou, paris polyphylla, Chinese plantain seeds, water plantain root, zhuling, akebi.
一、寬大腸 熟大黃 牽牛
Relieving the large intestine: cooked rhubarb root, Japanese morning glory.
一、去油滯 山查 麥牙
Ridding stagnant fat deposits: Chinese hawthorn, maiya.
一、止臍痛 桔紅 艾葉
Stopping abdominal pain: jiehong, mugwort leaves.
一、消食 神曲
Helping digestion: medicated leaven.

週身用藥歌訣
SONG OF MEDICINES FOR THE WHOLE BODY

當歸及生地。梹榔赤芍施。四味甚為主。任君千動移。手上加桂枝。勾籐升麻宜。頭上加羗活。防風白芷隨。胸中只壳去。菖蒲中腕宜。更有良姜在。兩味可兼之。兩脇柴胡進。胆艸與靑皮。肚角而有患。靑皮白芍宜。不通在大便。大黃正及時。不通在小便。車前乃進之。背上加烏藥。靈仙效不虛。苧麻一錢進。燒灰存性宜。若還不止痛。更加毛狗奇。腰間加杜仲。故紙並大茴。若是處處腫。澤蘭不可離。若還傷得久。桃仁七粒隨。兩足加牛膝。然麻木瓜皮。此是眞妙訣。後學細心為。
Make use of dong quai, Chinese foxglove, areca catechu, and red peony root –
these four are the most important, allowing you to shift countless ailments.
     For the hands: cassia twig, cat’s claw, or bugbane.
For the head: angelica, parsnip root, or Chinese angelica.
For the chest: dried bitter orange. For the solar plexus area: sweet flag.
Adding shell ginger can work simultaneously with both of them.
     For the ribs: bupleurum, gentian, or orange peel.
For stubborn stomach ache: orange peel or white peony root.
If unable to defecate, rhubarb root is a good laxative.
If unable to urinate, Chinese plantain seeds are a good diuretic.
     For the back: spicebush root, but clematis root will also have a substantial effect,
as will 5 grams of ramie reduced to ash.
If there is still no cessation of pains, adding woolly-fern root will work splendidly.
For the lower back: eucommia bark, or guzhi beans with star anise.
     If there is swelling all over, have thoroughwort at hand.
If the pain persists for a long time, eating seven taoren nuts will ease it.
For the feet: ox-knee root, or comfort them by way of papaya skin.
These are authentic secrets. Give them careful attention.

應驗良方
EFFECTIVE RECIPES

萬應膏 又名太乙散
[1] Ten-Thousand Uses Paste (also called Great Unity Powder):
川烏四錢 白朮四錢 白皮四錢 艸烏四錢 白芷四錢 大黃四錢 當歸四錢 連翹四錢 烏藥四錢 官桂八錢 木別八錢 苦參四錢 皂角五錢 皂次五錢 乳香五錢
chuanwu – 20 grams, atractylodes – 20 grams, mulberry bark – 20 grams, monkshood root – 20 grams, Chinese angelica – 20 grams, rhubarb root – 20 grams, dong quai – 20 grams, forsythia – 20 grams, spicebush root – 20 grams, cinnamon – 40 grams, mubie – 40 grams, sophora flavescens root – 20 grams, Chinese honeylocust seeds – 25 grams, zaoci – 25 grams, frankincense – 25 grams.
右藥十五味。用麻油一斤浸之。春秋浸五日。夏浸三日。冬則十日。用文武火熬至枯黑。試挑一點入水。若成珠不散。卽用夏布濾去粗渣。乃備桑桃槐柳棗木五枝。置於鍋旁。將油稱過。然後再用文武火熬。以五色枝攪不停手。挑一點入水。捻之如綢。始為不老不嫩之候。卽將黃丹並萆麻子油密陀參加入。如油一兩。加黃丹五兩。萆麻子油二錢。陀參七錢。調匀後以少許入水。若能捻之成團。卽可將鍋拿起。用罐裝好。封口待用。凡跌打損傷風寒暑濕一切無名腫毒。均可貼之。瀉肚痢疾。貼在肚臍。咳嗽貼在背心。腦痛貼在太陽。
These fifteen medicines are to be soaked in half a kilogram of sesame oil for five days if in spring or autumn, three days in summer, ten days in winter. Then cook at medium heat until shriveled and blackened. Test it by putting a little bit in some water. If it forms into pellets instead of spreading uniformly, filter with a ramie cloth until a thick sludge is left. Then put five kinds of twigs – mulberry, peach tree, locust tree, willow, jujube tree – into the oil and again cook at medium heat. When you can stir the twigs without any resistance, pick one out, put it into water, and twist it like silk. When it is neither overcooked nor undercooked, add in huangdan – 250 grams, castor oil – 10 grams, tuocan – 35 grams. Once mixed evenly, add a little water. If you can twist the twigs into round lumps, you can now take the contents of the pot and seal it all into a container to await use. Whether for trauma injury or weather-related illness, it can deal with all afflictions – painful diarrhea, a deep cough, a profound headache…

接氣囘生丹
[2] “Receiving Energy to Restore Life” Elixir:
紅地龍黃土山出用小便略浸卽拑起焙乾研末一錢 人參一錢 當門子五分 神金二百張扒下金來研末 
red earthworms (from loess hills, slightly soaked in urine, then dried with tongs over a fire and pestled into a powder) – 5 grams, ginseng – 5 grams, moschus – 2.5 grams, shenjin – 200 sheets (pestled into powder under gold foil).
右四味共研細末。
Pestle these four ingredients into a powder.

吹鼻通關散
[3] Snuff powder for clearing internal obstruction:
猪牙皂扇紅炭火用鐵鉗夾住四圍烘爆研末一錢 馬尾辛一錢 寸香一錢
Chinese honeylocust seeds (held in tongs and toasted over a bellows-driven charcoal fire, then pestled into a powder) – 5 grams, maweixin – 5 grams, musk – 5 grams.
共研細末。
Pestle them into a powder.

沉香散 
[4] Aloeswood Powder:
沉香一錢 血結一錢 降香一錢 陳皮一錢 只壳酒浸去瓤切片焙乾一錢 必澄茄一錢 三七一錢 公丁香一錢 
aloeswood – 5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, fragrant rosewood – 5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, dried bitter orange – 5 grams (soaked in wine, then pulp removed and roasted), tailed pepper – 5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, common clove – 5 grams.
共研細末。
Pestle them into a powder.

五虎丹
[5] Five Tigers Elixir:
馬前子用童便浸七日扒去毛冷水浸三日水一日一換濾乾水露四十九日焙乾一兩 陳只壳酒浸去瓤切片焙乾一兩 自然銅炭煆紅七次醋浸黑七次七錢 牛角笋用炭將笋烘乾六錢 朱砂水飛過四錢
Chinese plantain seeds – 50 grams (soaked in child’s urine for seven days, then pulled out for seed hairs to be removed, then soaked in cold water for three days, set in a water strainer to dry for a day, water distilled for forty-nine days, then dried over a fire), dried bitter orange – 50 grams (wine soaked, then cut into slices and dried over a fire), native copper – 35 grams (that has been seven times charcoal-heated until glowing and seven times soaked in vinegar until blackened), oxhorn bamboo shoots – 30 grams (dried in a charcoal fire cooking bamboo shoots), cinnabar – 20 grams (cleaned by water and wind).
右五味共研細末。
Pestle these five ingredients into a powder.

大寶紅藥丹
[6] Treasured Red Medicine Elixir:
眞琥珀用水豆腐一塊將琥珀插入豆腐內水煑一枝香久拿起過性研末四錢 上血結四錢 箭頭砂水飛凈五分 眞金砂二錢 眞銀砂三錢 川三七三錢 紅地龍黃土山出小便略浸拑起焙乾五錢 上肉桂五錢 自然銅炭煆紅七次醋浸黑七次三錢 大土別用燒酒醉一日露一夜醉七日露七夜然後焙乾五錢 土人參三錢 半兩錢製法同自然銅三錢 八爪龍焙乾一兩 
genuine amber (placed within a lump of tofu soaking in water, the water then boiled for as long as a stick of incense, the amber then removed and pestled into a powder) – 20 grams, high quality bloodclotter – 20 grams, arrowhead sand (cleaned by water and wind) – 2.5 grams, genuine gold dust – 10 grams, genuine silver dust – 15 grams, Sichuan pseudo-ginseng – 15 grams, red earthworms (from loess hills, slightly soaked in urine, then dried with tongs over a fire) – 25 grams, cinnamon – 25 grams, native copper (that has been seven times charcoal-heated until glowing and seven times soaked in vinegar until blackened) – 15 grams, large tubie (soaked in cooking wine all day then distilled overnight, for seven days and nights, then dried over a fire) – 25 grams, fameflower – 15 grams, banliang coin (processed in the same way as the native copper) – 15 grams, dried bazhaolong – 50 grams.
共研細末。每服三分。酒引。
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 1.5 grams, wine soaked.

刀傷血出不止用此方
[7] Recipe for knife wound that produces unceasing bleeding:
寸香一錢 神金一百張 熊胆一錢
musk – 5 grams, shenjin – 100 sheets, bear’s gallbladder – 5 grams.
共研細末。
Pestle them into a powder.

刀傷妙方
[8.1] Marvelous recipe for knife wounds:
生南星三錢 三七一錢 上片五分 黃連一錢 石止一錢 龍骨一錢 生半夏三錢 古墓灰卽古墓中之磚用硬炭煉紅過性研末一錢
raw nanxing – 15 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, shang pian – 2.5 grams, Chinese goldthread – 5 grams, shizhi – 5 grams, fossil fragments – 5 grams, raw crow-dipper – 15 grams, tomb dust (from the hard bricks getting heated and pestled into a powder) – 5 grams.
共研細末。
Pestle them into a powder.

又方
[8.2] Another method:
燈心一兩用濃飲湯浸半日晒乾研末 白芷一兩
dengxin (soaked in gruel for half a day, dried in the sun, then pestled into a powder) – 50 grams, Chinese angelica – 50 grams.
共研細末。
Pestle them into a powder.

又方
[8.3] Another method:
生南星五錢 生半夏五錢 烏藥五錢 地虱五錢 龍骨五錢 金毛狗五錢略炒
raw nanxing – 25 grams, raw crow-dipper – 25 grams, spicebush root– 25 grams, pill bugs – 25 grams, fossil fragments – 25 grams, woolly-fern root – 25 grams, slightly roasted.
共研細末。
Pestle them into a powder.

洗傷去惡血方
[9] Recipe for rinsing away scabbed blood:
防風 蟬退 甘艸 金銀花
parsnip root, cicada slough, licorice root, honeysuckle.

打翻肚角方
[10] Recipe for countering stomachache:
仙茅根 野燈心兜
weevil-wort root, wild dengxin.
用酒煑服
Boil in wine.

四物湯 婦人尊此為君。再加傷處之藥。
[11] Four Ingredient Soup (This is mainly for women. Other medicines can also be added to it.):
當歸 川芎 赤芍 熟地
dong quai, Sichuan lovage, red peony root, cooked Chinese foxglove.

六味丸 身體虛弱者。尊此為君。然後再加打藥。
[12] Six-Flavor Pills (This is mainly for those with weak bodies. Other medicines can be added.):
熟地 山藥 杜仲 故紙 白茯苓 丹皮
cooked Chinese foxglove, Chinese yam, eucommia bark, guzhi beans, white tuckahoe, peony root bark.

八味丸 五六十歲者。血脉不足。尊此為君。再加傷處之藥。
[13] Eight-Flavor Pills (This is mainly for those in their fifties or sixties whose blood circulation is inadequate. Specific medicine for sickened areas of the body can be added.):
澤瀉 棗皮 熟地 山藥 茯苓 杜仲 故紙 丹皮
water plantain root, date skin, cooked Chinese foxglove, Chinese yam, tuckahoe, eucommia bark, guzhi beans, peony root bark.

十全大補湯 年老之人。血氣大虛。以此為主。再加患處之藥。
[14] Total Repair Soup (This is mainly for old people for whom the blood and energy is weak. Specific medicine for sickened areas of the body can be added.):
人參 炒黃苓 澤瀉 棗皮 白茯苓 山藥 杜仲 故紙 丹皮 熟地黃
ginseng, roasted huangling, water plantain root, date skin, white tuckahoe, Chinese yam, eucommia bark, guzhi beans, peony root bark, cooked Chinese foxglove.

八寶丹
[15] Eight Treasures Elixir:
珍珠 瑪瑙 象皮切片炒後卽時研末 地虱 黃連 石止 龍骨 三七
pearl, agate, elephant skin (roasted then pestled into a powder), pill bugs, Chinese goldthread, shizhi, fossil fragments, pseudo-ginseng.
右八味共研細末。惟象皮不可先用。須待合口之時。再行加入。
Pestle these eight ingredients into a powder, but keep the elephant skin apart. It is to be added after the other ingredients are in the mouth.

開關散
[16.1] Powder for clearing internal obstruction:
猪牙皂四錢 北細辛二錢五分 寸香三分另下 荊芥穗一錢五分 江子心一分 
Chinese honeylocust seeds – 20 grams, Chinese wild ginger root – 12.5 grams, musk – 1.5 grams (or more), catnip grains – 7.5 grams, jiangzixin – 0.5 grams.
右五味共研細末吹鼻。男左女右。
Pestle these five ingredients into a powder. Use as a snuff, left nostril for men, rght nostril for women.

又方
[16.2] Another method:
白芷 牙皂 雄黃 細辛
Chinese angelica, Chinese honeylocust seeds, realgar, Chinese wild ginger root.
共研細末。吹入鼻內。
Pestle them into a powder. Use as a snuff.

鷄鳴散
[17] Crowing Rooster Powder:
大黃一兩酒炒 桃仁五錢去皮 當歸五錢
rhubarb root – 50 grams, taoren nuts – 25 grams, dong quai – 25 grams.
用酒五更服。
Use with wine, total of five doses.

爭魂奪命勝金丹
[18] “Death-Defying Fight-for-Life” Triumphant Immortality Elixir:
人參四錢 硃砂四錢 琥珀四錢 兒茶四錢 沉香四錢 乳香五錢 血結五錢 製大黃五錢 黃柏五錢 紅花五錢 當歸五錢 木香五錢 神金五百張
ginseng – 20 grams, cinnabar – 20 grams, amber – 20 grams, black catechu – 20 grams, aloeswood – 20 grams, frankincense – 25 grams, bloodclotter – 25 grams, processed rhubarb root – 25 grams, amur cork bark – 25 grams, safflower – 25 grams, dong quai – 25 grams, costus root – 25 grams, shenjin – 500 sheets.
右十三味。共研細末。每服一錢。酒或童便調服。
Pestle these thirteen ingredients into a powder. Use in doses of 5 grams soaked in wine or child’s urine.

返魂丹
[19] Death Reversal Elixir:
羗活一兩 獨活一兩 防風一兩 黃柏五錢 三稜五錢 莪朮五錢 梹榔五錢 桔梗五錢 乳香二錢 沒藥二錢 琥珀八錢 木香一錢 靑皮一錢 蘇木三錢 元胡一兩 沉香三錢 紅花三錢 辰砂三錢 歸尾三錢 甘艸四錢 血結三錢 日金五錢 虎骨一兩
angelica – 50 grams, angelica – 50 grams, parsnip root – 50 grams, amur cork bark – 25 grams, bur-reed tuber – 25 grams, white turmeric – 25 grams, areca catechu – 25 grams, Chinese bellflower – 25 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, amber – 40 grams, costus root – 5 grams, orange peel – 5 grams, sapanwood – 15 grams, Chinese poppy – 50 grams, aloeswood – 15 grams, safflower – 15 grams, cinnabar – 15 grams, dong quai – 15 grams, licorice root – 20 grams, bloodclotter – 15 grams, rijin – 25 grams, tiger bone – 50 grams.
共研細末。水送下。牙關緊加姜葱一錢。童便和服。
Pestle them into a powder and soak in water. Put 5 grams of gingered scallion on the lower teeth, then use with child’s urine.

返魂接命丹
[20] “Reversing Death & Restoring Life” Elixir:
佛指甲卽貼脚草取葉三十片 老人霜一錢 寸香三分
sedum multicaule – 30 blades of the grassy leaves from the base of the plant, laorenshuang – 5 grams, musk – 1.5 grams.
右三味共研細末。昏厥者以燈心就鼻試之。燈心若動。有氣可治。卽將童便一鐘。酒合水一鐘。調藥灌入口內。甦後用奪命丹調熱酒服。
Pestle these three ingredients into a powder. For one who has fainted, put dengxin in the nostrils to rouse him. If that has an effect on him, he is still able to breathe and can be treated. Mix this medicine into a quantity of child’s urine and watered wine, then pour into his mouth. After reviving him thus, use a dose of Fight-for-Life Elixir cooked in wine.

起死囘生丹
[21] Resurrection Elixir:
猪牙皂三分 南星三分 白芷三分 三七一錢 沉香三分 大丁香一錢 琥珀一錢 乳香一錢 沒藥一錢 神金卅張 珍珠五分 土別三錢 寸香三分 人參一錢 木香一錢
Chinese honeylocust seeds – 1.5 grams, nanxing – 1.5 grams, Chinese angelica – 1.5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, aloeswood – 1.5 grams, giant clove – 5 grams, amber – 5 grams, frankincense – 5 grams, myrrh – 5 grams, shenjin – 30 sheets, pearl – 2.5 grams, tubie – 15 grams, musk – 1.5 grams, ginseng – 5 grams, costus root – 5 grams.
右十五味。以童便或酒調服。每次只服一分至三分。
Mix these fifteen ingredients with child’s urine or wine. Use only 0.5-1.5 grams each time.

止痛散腫方
[22] Recipe for stopping pain and reducing swelling:
獨活五錢 枳實五錢 歸尾一兩 羗活三錢 紅花一兩 大黃一兩 靑皮五錢 莪朮七錢 木香一兩 赤芍五錢 黃柏五錢 乳香七錢 沒藥五錢 兒茶五錢 三稜七錢
angelica – 25 grams, dried citron – 25 grams, dong quai – 50 grams, angelica – 15 grams, safflower – 50 grams, rhubarb root – 50 grams, orange peel – 25 grams, white turmeric – 35 grams, costus root – 50 grams, red peony root– 25 grams, amur cork bark – 25 grams, frankincense – 35 grams, myrrh – 25 grams, black catechu – 25 grams, bur-reed tuber – 35 grams.
各藥俱要生合為末。引外加。
All of these medicines should be combined as a powder. Others can also be added to it.

定魂養命丹 傷重不能言者用之。
[23] “Life Over Death” Elixir (for serious injury that incapacitates speech):
當歸 川芎 白芷 白芍 烏藥 只壳 肉桂 乳香 木香 生地 粟壳 碎補
dong quai, Sichuan lovage, Chinese angelica, white peony root, spicebush root, dried bitter orange, cinnamon, frankincense, costus root, Chinese foxglove, poppy capsule, squirrel’s foot fern.
姜葱為引。童便和酒煎服。日進三劑。
Mix with gingered scallions. Fry in child’s urine and wine. There will be a constant improvement after three doses.

活血應痛丹治諸般損傷。遠年近日黃瘦浮腫。痰壅氣喘。肢體麻痺。日輕夜重。陰發陽按。
[24] “Invigorate the Blood to Stop Pain” Elixir (for treating all kinds of afflictions, such as long-standing excessive thinness, edema, excessive phlegm, asthma, numbness in the limbs, a sense of lightness during the day but heaviness at night, passive energy expressive while active energy is subdued…):
當歸一錢 川芎一錢 白芷一錢 杜仲一錢 穿山甲一錢土炒成珠 甘艸五錢 羗活五錢 羗活五錢 木瓜五錢 小茴五錢炒 肉桂七錢 川烏一個製 射香二分另研
dong quai – 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 5 grams, Chinese angelica – 5 grams, eucommia bark – 5 grams, pangolin scales – 5 grams (roasted in soil and shaped into pellets), licorice root – 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, papaya skin – 25 grams, anise – 25 grams, cinnamon – 35 grams, chuanwu – 1 piece prepared, moschus – 1 gram.
共研細末。每服五錢。童便合好酒調服。服後如不見效。再加 乳香 血結 角茴 虎脛骨 人參 骨碎補 木香 沉香 自然銅 各一錢。入前藥服之。神效。
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 25 grams mixed with child’s urine or good wine. If no effects are then seen, add frankincense, bloodclotter, anise tree bark, tiger tibia, ginseng, squirrel’s foot fern, costus root, aloeswood, native copper – 5 grams each. Joined to the initial medicines, the effects will now be miraculous.

剪邦丹 打傷後口中呢喃如被邪魔者用之。
[25] Nation-Defeating Elixir (After receiving an injury, taking this into your mouth and swallowing it down will then make you feel as though you have been possessed by a demon.):
虎骨一兩 烏藥八錢 川牛膝七錢 杜仲七錢 獨活七錢 甘艸七錢 黑豆七錢 姜虫七錢 羗活七錢 天麻七錢 荊芥七錢 角茴七錢 自然銅七錢 肉桂七錢 寄生五錢 連翹五錢 梹榔五錢 木瓜五錢 乳香五錢 沒藥五錢 金銀花五錢 故紙五錢 勾籐五錢 南星五錢 木香五錢 五加皮五錢 防己五錢 紫荊皮五錢 碎補五錢 川烏三錢 首烏三錢 姜三錢
tiger bone – 50 grams, spicebush root– 40 grams, ox-knee root – 35 grams, eucommia bark – 35 grams, angelica – 35 grams, licorice root – 35 grams, black soybeans – 35 grams, ginger worm – 35 grams, angelica – 35 grams, gastrodia tuber – 35 grams, catnip – 35 grams, anise tree bark – 35 grams, native copper – 35 grams, cinnamon – 35 grams, jisheng – 25 grams, forsythia – 25 grams, areca catechu – 25 grams, papaya skin – 25 grams, frankincense – 25 grams, myrrh – 25 grams, honeysuckle – 25 grams, guzhi beans – 25 grams, cat’s claw – 25 grams, nanxing – 25 grams, costus root – 25 grams, Siberian ginseng – 25 grams, fangji – 25 grams, Chinese redbud bark – 25 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 25 grams, chuanwu – 15 grams, knotweed tuber – 15 grams, ginger – 15 grams.
共研細末。每服三錢。忌風。禁食生冷酸腥。
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 15 grams. Wind is to be avoided throughout the treatment, as is the eating of raw, cold, sour, or fishy foods.

接骨止痛散
[26] Powder for relieving pain after fracture-setting:
乳香一兩 蘇木一兩 降香一兩 川烏一兩去皮尖 松節一兩 自然銅一兩 龍骨五錢 地龍土去凈淸油炒五錢 血結三錢 土別八個
frankincense – 50 grams, sapanwood – 50 grams, fragrant rosewood – 50 grams, chuanwu – 50 grams, songjie – 50 grams, native copper – 50 grams, fossil fragments – 25 grams, earthworms – 25 grams (washed off and cooked in vegetable oil), bloodclotter – 15 grams, tubie – eight pieces.
共研細末。每服三錢。
Pestle them into a powder. Use in doses of 15 grams.

三仙丹
[27] Triple Panacea
馬前子八兩酒蒸去皮童便浸春初一七將夏五日夏秋三日冬天一七洗凈切片 陳只壳一斤童便浸七日七夜去瓤切片 醉仙丹一兩略炒
Chinese plantain seeds – 400 grams (wine steamed, then soaked in child’s urine for seven days if in spring or winter, five in summer, three in autumn, then washed and cut into slices), dried bitter orange – 500 grams (soaked for seven days and nights in child’s urine, then cut into slices), “drunken panacea” [a tonic made of Chinese ephedra, nanxing, Chinese wolfsbane, and earthworm] – 50 grams slightly heated.
右三味。製時不可傷火。共研細末。每服三分。外加傷處之藥為引。
Pestle these three ingredients into a powder, but without overheating them. Use in doses of 1.5 grams, applied externally to the injured area.

七厘散 又名龍虎丹
[28] Seven Hair-Widths Powder (also called Dragon & Tiger Elixir):
馬前子一兩酒蒸去皮小便浸一七一日一煥然後用姜挖一孔置馬前於其中以紙包裹入火煨之聞姜香又換一姜連製七次 陳只壳一兩酒蒸一夜去瓤切片炒乾為末露一七 眞熊胆一錢
Chinese plantain seeds – 50 grams (wine steamed, then soaked in child’s urine for seven days or until shining, then ginger is pressed in the middle and the whole is baked wrapped in paper until it smells of ginger, this gingering process done to it seven times), dried bitter orange – 50 grams (wine steamed overnight, pulp sliced into pieces, dry roasted and powdered, then distilled over seven days), genuine bear’s gallbladder – 5 grams.
共研細末。凡打死跌危。服之卽醒。咽喉作痛。吹之卽應。
Pestle them into a powder. After one is knocked unconscious in a fall and awakening with pain in the throat, this is to be used as a snuff to deal with it.

淸胃湯 跌打服藥後咽喉疼痛者。服之可解。
[29] Stomach Purge Soup (for those who have developed throat pain after taking trauma medicine):
丹皮 川芎 熟地 當歸 元參 石菖蒲 粉干葛 白茯苓 只壳 川朴 桔梗 陳皮 艸烏 支子 燈心引
peony root bark, Sichuan lovage, cooked Chinese foxglove, dong quai, aged ginseng, Japanese sweet flag, powdered kudzu vine root, white tuckahoe, dried bitter orange, Sichuan hackberry, Chinese bellflower, dried orange peel, monkshood root, cape jasmine fruit, dengxin.

奪命追魂丹
[30] “Fight-for-Life Death-Defying” Elixir:
三稜一兩 莪朮一兩 歸尾一兩 桔梗一兩 牛膝一兩 紅花一兩 赤芍一兩 姜黃一兩 川芎一兩 大黃三兩 澤蘭三兩 紫蘇五錢 桂枝五錢 羗活五錢 車前五錢 斑蟊五錢
bur-reed tuber – 50 grams, white turmeric – 50 grams, dong quai – 50 grams, Chinese bellflower – 50 grams, ox-knee root – 50 grams, safflower – 50 grams, red peony root – 50 grams, turmeric – 50 grams, Sichuan lovage – 50 grams, rhubarb root – 150 grams, thoroughwort – 150 grams, purple perilla – 25 grams, cassia twig– 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, Chinese plantain seeds – 25 grams, Spanish fly – 25 grams.
共研細末。不可亂用。凡臨危氣急。將藥滴入口內卽醒。
Pestle them into a powder. This must not be used randomly. It is for when one is on the edge of death. Apply it by of drips into the mouth to awaken him.

應痛丹 治傷後為氣所侵。手足疼痛。
[31] Pain Treating Elixir (for managing the post-injury influence that brings pain to your limbs):
生蒼朮八兩 碎補八兩 故紙八兩 穿山甲八兩 製艸烏八兩
raw atractylodes root – 400 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 400 grams, guzhi beans – 400 grams, pangolin scales – 400 grams, processed monkshood root – 400 grams.
共研細末。酒調為丸。每服五十粒。片時肢體麻閉無防。
Pestle them into a powder. Soak with wine and shape into pellets, each dose about fifty grains worth. It will quickly produce numbness in the body where pain could not otherwise be prevented.

敏葱丸祕方
[32] Secret recipe for Energizing Scallion Pills:
生川烏四兩 生艸烏四兩 生川芎四兩 生白芷四兩 生姜一斤 香葱一斤
raw chuanwu – 200 grams, raw monkshood root – 200 grams, Sichuan lovage – 200 grams, raw Chinese angelica – 200 grams, raw ginger – 500 grams, scallions – 500 grams.
搗爛為丸。置於壜內。壜口封固。埋於地中。春三夏一。秋五冬七。起出晒乾。每個重一錢五分。
Pound into a pulp and make into pellets. Place in a jar, then seal the jar and bury it in the ground for three days if in spring, one day in summer, five days in autumn, seven days in winter. Remove from jar and dry in the sun. Use in doses of 7.5 grams.

熊道人祕方
[33] The Daoist Xiong’s Secret Recipe:
生艸烏一兩五錢五分 靈仙根三錢三分 骨碎補三錢三分 天台烏三錢三分 當歸尾三錢三分 香小茴二錢 正安桂一錢五分
raw monkshood root – 57.5 grams, clematis root – 19.5 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 19.5 grams, tiantaiwu – 19.5 grams, dong quai – 19.5 grams, fragrant anise – 10 grams, authentic angui – 7.5 grams.
共研細末。水酒冲服。新傷一錢五。老傷二錢。服後昏沉如死。逾一時卽醒。其傷霍然而愈矣。
Pestle them into a powder. Mix into a watered liquor. Use 7.5 grams for a new illness, 10 grams for a chronic illness. After taking a dose, there will be a coma-like fainting which will be awakened from a short while later and the illness will suddenly be cured.

打傷眼目洗藥方
[34] Recipe of medicinal rinse for injury to the eye:
生大黃二錢 生黃柏二錢 生甘艸二錢 金銀花三錢 九節茶二錢 老陳茶一錢
raw rhubarb root – 10 grams, raw amur cork bark – 10 grams, raw licorice root – 10 grams, honeysuckle – 15 grams, sarcandra glabra – 10 grams, laochencha – 5 grams.
右六味熬水洗。
These six ingredients should be stewed in water, then applied as a rinse.

急救刀鎗止痛方
[35] Recipe for emergency stopping of pain caused by knife or spear:
雄猪油 明松香 白麫粉 凈黃蠟 片樟腦 上冰片 眞血結 寒兒茶 的乳香 明沒藥 紫艸茸 眞射香六分另下
hog lard, clear rosin, white flour, pure beeswax, sliced camphor, high quality borneol, genuine bloodclotter, chilled black catechu, frankincense, bright myrrh, shellac, genuine moschus – 3 grams or more.
右十二味。除射香外。各三兩。共研細末。先將猪油熬好去渣。然後放松香黃蠟熬化去渣。待涼。將藥末攪匀。磁壜收貯。不可洩氣。此第一刀鎗藥也。凡刀斧砍傷。跌打流血。敷上患處。立時止血定痛。並不作膿。勝於他藥多矣。傷處不可見水為要。
These twelve ingredients, except for the moschus, are each measured at 150 grams. They are to be pestled into a powder [except for the hog lard, rosin, and beeswax]. First the dregs are boiled out of the hog lard, then out of the rosin and beeswax. Wait until cooled, then stir in the powder evenly. Store in a porcelain jug that will let no air escape. This is the foremost medicine for knife or spear wounds. When a slash from an ax blade causes blood to flow, applying this medicine to the wounded area immediately stops the bleeding and stabilizes the pain, and will produce no pus. It is superior to most other medicines, even better than water itself.

打傷小肚嘔尿用十香散
[36] Fragrant powder for injurious strike to the belly that has caused vomiting or urinating:
母丁香五分 小茴香八分 大茴香八分 南沉香一錢 的乳香八分 眞降香八分 黃木香一錢 甘松香八分 上射香二分另入 白芸香八分 花木通一錢 尖桃仁八分
mother clove – 2.5 grams, anise – 4 grams, star anise – 4 grams, southern aloeswood – 5 grams, frankincense – 4 grams, genuine fragrant rosewood – 4 grams, costus root – 5 grams, gansongxiang – 4 grams, moschus – 1 gram, white rue – 4 grams, akebi – 5 grams, pointed taoren nuts – 4 grams.
共研細末。調酒空心服。
Pestle them into a powder. Use on an empty stomach.

跌打下陰外腎腫大用化氣散
[37] Powder for recovery from a strike to the testicles that has produced swelling:
大茴香二錢 小茴香二錢 茘枝核一錢 靑皮一錢 海藻一錢 昆布一錢 川練子一錢 桔梗一錢 梹榔八分 莪朮一錢 香附一錢 沉香一錢 遠志一錢 金櫻子一錢 木香一錢 白芸香一錢
star anise – 10 grams, anise – 10 grams, lychee nut – 5 grams, orange peel – 5 grams, seaweed – 5 grams, kelp – 5 grams, melia toosendan – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, areca catechu – 4 grams, white turmeric – 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, aloeswood – 5 grams, polygala – 5 grams, fruit of Cherokee rose – 5 grams, costus root – 5 grams, white rue – 5 grams.
酒煑。空心服。
Boil in wine. Use on an empty stomach.

六神丹 跌打消腫敷藥
[38] Six Magics Elixir (medicine for reducing trauma-induced swelling):
紅花二錢 靑代一錢 馬前子二錢去毛麻油浸過 綠豆粉二錢 人中白一錢
safflower – 10 grams, qingdai – 5 grams, Chinese plantain seeds – 10 grams (soaked in sesame oil), powdered mung beans – 10 grams, renzhongbai – 5 grams.
共研末。鷄蛋白調敷。用醋調亦可。
Pestle them into a powder. Apply with egg whites or vinegar.

接骨敷藥方
[39] Recipe for fracture-setting medicine:
鷄公一隻扭死全隻搗爛 生姜四兩 生川烏一兩 白芷一兩 生香葱一把
rooster comb – 1 piece (twisted off and pounded to pulp), raw ginger – 200 grams, raw chuanwu – 50 grams, Chinese angelica – 50 grams, raw scallions – 1 handful.
合共搗爛。和蜂蜜三兩炒熱。作餅敷上。用布札緊。敷二三日卽愈。
Pound them into mush. Cook in 150 grams of honey and shape into cakes. Apply with cloth strips for two or three days.

跌打敷藥方
[40] Trauma medicine recipe:
肉桂二錢 田七一錢 小茴五錢 杜仲二錢 法夏二錢 黃柏一錢 香附一兩 生艸烏三錢
cinnamon – 10 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, anise – 25 grams, eucommia bark – 10 grams, pinellia root – 10 grams, amur cork bark – 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 50 grams, raw monkshood root – 15 grams.
共研末。酒調作餅。入四季葱一把。搗爛烘熱敷上。
Pestle them into a powder. Bake with wine into cakes, adding a handful of scallions. Pound to mush and apply as a hot compress.

治刀傷方
[41.1] Recipe for treating knife wounds:
靑花龍骨二錢 雄精五分 鷄肫皮一隻 墨魚骨五分 冰片三分 寒水石一錢 脚魚骨二錢
fossil fragments – 10 grams, realgar – 2.5 grams, chicken gizzard membrane – 1 piece, moyugu – 2.5 grams, borneol – 1.5 grams, hanshuishi – 5 grams, jiaoyugu – 10 grams.
共研細末掩口。
Pestle them into a powder with your mouth covered.

又方
[41.2] Another method:
蒲黃二錢 黃丹一錢 洋參一錢五分 珍珠一錢 白蠟三錢 姜炭一錢五分 黃柏三錢 射香一分 琥珀一錢 冰片一錢 大黃三錢 黃連二錢 竹黃二錢 白芷二錢 干石二錢
cattail pollen – 10 grams, huangdan – 5 grams, ginseng – 7.5 grams, pearl – 5 grams, white wax – 15 grams, jiangtan – 7.5 grams, amur cork bark – 15 grams, moschus – 0.5 grams, amber – 5 grams, borneol – 5 grams, rhubarb root – 15 grams, Chinese goldthread – 10 grams, zhuhuang – 10 grams, Chinese angelica – 10 grams, ganshi – 10 grams.
共研細末。
Pestle them into a powder.

生肌散
[42] Muscle-Growth Powder:
冰片 線丹 象皮和老壁土炒存性研末
borneol, xiandan, elephant skin (cooked with aged clay and ground down).
共研細末。掩口。一夜卽生肌肉。
Pestle them into a powder.

敷藥方
[43.1] Recipe for applied compress:
生南星一錢 生艸烏一錢五分 吳茱萸一錢五分 杭靑皮一錢 生半夏一錢五分 生川烏一錢 細辛一錢五分 炒沒藥一錢五分 生皂角一錢五分 生支子一錢 老只壳一錢 生大黃一錢 骨碎補一錢 乳香一錢 川紅花一錢 北防風一錢
raw nanxing – 5 grams, raw monkshood root – 7.5 grams, evodia ruticarpa – 7.5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, raw crow-dipper – 7.5 grams, raw chuanwu – 5 grams, Chinese wild ginger root – 7.5 grams, roasted myrrh – 7.5 grams, raw Chinese honeylocust seeds – 7.5 grams, raw cape jasmine fruit – 5 grams, dried bitter orange – 5 grams, raw rhubarb root – 5 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 5 grams, frankincense – 5 grams, Sichuan safflower – 5 grams, northern parsnip root – 5 grams.
共研末。用生姜二兩。搗爛和酒炒。再用麵粉調匀作餅。烘熱敷傷處。
Pestle them into a powder. Add 100 grams of raw ginger. Pound into mush and cook with wine. Add wheat flour and make into cakes. Apply as a hot compress to injured area.

又方
[43.2] Another method:
胎髮煆灰五錢 冰片四錢
fetal hair – 25 grams (reduced to ash), borneol – 20 grams.
共研末。敷患處卽愈。
Pestle them into a powder. Apply to injured area.

生肌方
[44] Recipe for promoting muscle growth:
象皮二錢 干石二錢 化石二錢 血結二錢 乳香二錢 沒藥二錢 冰片一錢 兒茶一錢
elephant skin – 10 grams, ganshi – 10 grams, fossil fragments – 10 grams, bloodclotter – 10 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, borneol – 5 grams, black catechu – 5 grams.
共研細末掩口。
Pestle them into a powder with your mouth covered.

鐵布衫 食後任打不妨
[45] Iron Shirt Recipe (After eating this, one is unharmed when struck.):
然同三錢 名異三錢 乳香二錢 沒藥二錢 田七二錢 蘇木二錢 歸尾五錢 木別二錢 地輪二錢 熊胆一錢
rantong – 15 grams, mingyi – 15 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 10 grams, sapanwood – 10 grams, dong quai – 25 grams, mubie – 10 grams, dilun – 10 grams, bear’s gallbladder – 5 grams.
共研細末。水調為丸。每個重三錢。
Pestle them into a powder. Soak in water and form into pellets. Use in doses of 15 grams.

刀傷生肌散
[46] “Knife-Wounded Flesh” Powder:
川烏一錢 艸烏一錢 兒茶一錢五分 血結一錢 象皮一錢 夫凡五分 丹黃一錢 川連一錢 冰片四分 琥珀一錢 射香三分 珍珠五分
chuanwu – 5 grams, monkshood root – 5 grams, black catechu – 7.5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, elephant skin – 5 grams, fufan – 2.5 grams, danhuang – 5 grams, chuanlian – 5 grams, borneol – 2 grams, amber – 5 grams, moschus – 1.5 grams, pearl – 2.5 grams.
共研細末。用陳蠟燭油和搽傷口。
Pestle them into a powder. Apply to wound with dried candle wax.

藥酒方 擦傷所用。不可飲。
[47] Recipe for medical alcohol (for use on bruises and abrasions, not for drinking):
紅花 歸尾 艸烏 川烏 乳香 沒藥 生地 澤蘭 續斷
safflower, dong quai, monkshood root, chuanwu, frankincense, myrrh, Chinese foxglove, thoroughwort, teasel root.
右九味各二錢。用火酒浸七日。
Combine these nine ingredients into doses of 10 grams, soaked in alcohol for seven days.

寬筋骨藥酒 習武藝所飲
[48] Body Relaxant Liquor (for martial arts practitioners to drink):
桂枝五錢 續斷八錢 虎掌一兩 碎補五錢 當歸八錢 白芷三錢 酒芍五錢 正桑寄五錢 鹿筋一兩 熟地一兩 川芎六錢 靈仙五錢 紅花三錢 然同二錢 加皮五錢 寬筋藤三錢 血結四錢 生地八錢 靈脂五錢 土別三錢
cassia twig – 25 grams, teasel root – 40 grams, tiger paw pinellia – 50 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 25 grams, dong quai – 40 grams, Chinese angelica – 15 grams, jiu shao – 25 grams, parasitic loranthus – 25 grams, deer tendon – 50 grams, cooked Chinese foxglove – 50 grams, Sichuan lovage – 30 grams, clematis root – 25 grams, safflower – 15 grams, rantong – 10 grams, Siberian ginseng – 25 grams, Chinese tinospora – 15 grams, bloodclotter – 20 grams, Chinese foxglove – 40 grams, lingzhi – 25 grams, tubie – 15 grams.
右二十味。拌酒蒸之。待冷後。用雙料水酒浸。
Mix these twenty ingredients into boiling wine. Wait for it to cool, then pour into a double helping of watered liquor.

九製醉仙桃法 卽馬前子
[49] Recipe for Nine Ingredients Drunken Peach of Immortality (or “Running Horse”):
一製。用蘇木煎汁拌藥。取新瓦一片。磨光煉過。將藥置瓦上焙乾。
(1) sapanwood – Fry and stir, place on a polished fresh tile and dry over a fire.
二製。用紅花煎汁拌藥。置瓦上焙乾。
(2) safflower – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
三製。用童便拌藥。置瓦上焙乾。
(3) child’s urine – Stir, dry on a tile over fire.
四製。用歸尾煎汁拌藥。置瓦上焙乾。
(4) dong quai – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
五製。用木耳煎汁拌藥。置瓦上焙乾。
(5) “wood ear” fungus – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
六製。用白蠟煎汁拌藥。置瓦上焙乾。
(6) white wax – Fry and stir, dry on a tile over fire.
七製。用胎髮一團。洗凈焙乾研末。置飯上蒸熱。再拌藥置瓦上焙乾。
(7) balled-up fetal hair – Rinse clean, dry over fire, pestle into a powder, steam on top of rice, stir, dry on a tile over fire.
八製。用桃仁去皮研碎。置飯上蒸熱。再拌藥置瓦上焙乾。
(8) taoren nuts – Peel and pestle into pieces, steam on top of rice, stir, dry on a tile over fire.
九製。用酒酵拌藥。置瓦上焙乾。再用童便浸七次。米泔水洗七次。然後焙乾。
(9) wine yeast – Stir, dry on a tile over fire, then give seven soaks in child’s urine, seven soaks in water that has washed rice, again dry over fire.
九製完善。研末。用磁瓶收貯。每服七分。熱酒送下。忌食茶湯冷水。
Once the nine ingredients are each prepared, pestle them into a powder. Store in a porcelain jug. Use in doses of 3.5 grams, mixed into heated wine. Avoid during that time eating millet gruel or drinking cold water.

開喉散 打傷咽喉。腫痛閉塞。數日不能進食。急用此數之。
[50] Throat-Opening Powder (Injury to the throat may cause such swelling that one is unable to take in food after a few days. In such an emergency, use this remedy.):
燕子窼泥二錢 明雄黃一錢 冰片五分 月石一錢 山豆根一錢 製番別三錢
swallow’s nest mud – 10 grams, realgar – 5 grams, borneol – 2.5 grams, borax – 5 grams, shandougen – 5 grams, processed fanbie – 15 grams.
共研末。用燒酒調敷。或用鷄蛋白調敷亦可。
Pestle them into a powder. Mix with cooking wine or egg whites to apply it.

小兒受傷方
[51] Recipe for treating a child’s illness:
勾藤 云皮 半夏 防風 細辛 乳香 沒藥 羗活 薄荷 南星 甘艸
cat’s claw, yunpi, crow-dipper, parsnip root, Chinese wild ginger root, frankincense, myrrh, angelica, peppermint, nanxing, licorice root.
視年齡之大小。分藥量之重輕。
The strength of the dosage depends on the age of the child.

左手方
[52] Recipe for left hand:
上桂二錢 紅花一錢 冰片一錢 木通一錢 桃仁一錢 射香三分 陳皮一錢 靈仙二錢 故紙二錢 木瓜一錢 桂枝二錢 碎補二錢 虎骨一錢 母丁一錢 香附一錢 沒藥三錢 梹榔一錢 紅硝一錢 然同二錢 甘艸八分
high quality cinnamon – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, borneol – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 5 grams, moschus – 1.5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, clematis root – 10 grams, guzhi beans– 10 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, cassia twig – 10 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 10 grams, tiger bone – 5 grams, mother clove– 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, myrrh – 15 grams, areca catechu – 5 grams, hongxiao – 5 grams, rantong – 10 grams, licorice root – 4 grams.
共研細末。熱酒送下。
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.

右手方
[53] Recipe for right hand:
虎骨二錢 木通一錢 桃仁二錢 然同一錢 桂枝二錢 紅硝一錢 香附一錢 木瓜一錢 碎補二錢 上桂二錢 紅花二錢 沒藥二錢 歸尾二錢 靈仙一錢 桔梗二錢 乳香二錢 甘艸八分 射香三分 川芎二錢 明七一錢
tiger bone – 10 grams, akebi – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 10 grams, rantong – 5 grams, cassia twig – 10 grams, hongxiao – 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 10 grams, high quality cinnamon – 10 grams, safflower – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, dong quai – 10 grams, clematis root – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 10 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, licorice root – 4 grams, moschus – 1.5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 10 grams, mingqi – 5 grams.
共研細末。熱酒送下。
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.

左脚方
[54] Recipe for left foot:
故紙一錢 香附一錢 土別一對醋製 紅花一錢 木通一錢 桃仁一錢 然同一錢 當歸一錢 廣皮八分 虎骨一錢 母丁一錢 杜仲一錢 菖蒲一錢 甘艸八分
guzhi beans– 5 grams, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, tubie – 1 pair soaked in vinegar, safflower – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 5 grams, rantong – 5 grams, dong quai – 5 grams, guangpi – 4 grams, tiger bone – 5 grams, mother clove – 5 grams, eucommia bark – 5 grams, sweet flag – 5 grams, licorice root – 4 grams.
熱酒空心服。
Cook in wine. Use on an empty stomach.

右脚方
[55] Recipe for right foot:
杜仲一錢 當歸一錢 然同一錢 木瓜一錢 母丁一錢 加皮一錢 桃仁八分 廣皮八分 虎骨一錢 木通一錢 石大公八分 牛膝一錢 菖蒲一錢 土別一對 香附一錢 紅花一錢 小茴一錢 大茴一錢 鹿膠一錢
eucommia bark – 5 grams, dong quai – 5 grams, rantong – 5 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, mother clove – 5 grams, Siberian ginseng – 5 grams, taoren nuts – 4 grams, guangpi – 4 grams, tiger bone – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, shidagong – 4 grams, ox-knee root – 5 grams, sweet flag – 5 grams, tubie – 1 pair, flatsedge tuber – 5 grams, safflower – 5 grams, anise – 5 grams, star anise – 5 grams, deer glue – 5 grams.
熱酒空心服。
Cook in wine. Use on an empty stomach.

身上左邊方
[56] Recipe for left side of body:
紅花一錢 梹榔一錢 故紙一錢 木瓜一錢 木通一錢 丹皮二錢 廣皮一錢 小茴一錢 吳工一錢 甘艸八分 碎補一錢 射香五分 土別一對 桃仁一錢 冰片五分
safflower – 5 grams, areca catechu – 5 grams, guzhi beans– 5 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, akebi – 5 grams, peony root bark – 10 grams, guangpi – 5 grams, anise – 5 grams, wugong – 5 grams, licorice root – 4 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 5 grams, moschus – 2.5 grams, tubie – 1 pair, taoren nuts – 5 grams, borneol – 2.5 grams.
熱酒半飢服。
Cook in wine. Use on a half empty stomach.

身上右邊方
[57] Recipe for right side of body:
梹榔八分 甘艸八分 射香五分 土別一對 乳香一錢 肉桂二錢 母丁三錢 廣皮八分 沒藥二錢 丹皮一錢 紅花二錢 故紙一錢 然同二錢 大茴二錢 木通一錢 虎骨二錢 木瓜一錢 田七二錢 桃仁一錢 川芎二錢 碎補一錢 桔梗一錢 神曲二錢 石大公八分
areca catechu – 4 grams, licorice root – 4 grams, moschus – 2.5 grams, tubie – 1 pair, frankincense – 5 grams, cinnamon – 10 grams, mother clove – 15 grams, guangpi – 4 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, peony root bark – 5 grams, safflower – 10 grams, guzhi beans– 5 grams, rantong – 10 grams, star anise – 10 grams, akebi – 5 grams, tiger bone – 10 grams, papaya skin – 5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 10 grams, taoren nuts – 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 10 grams, squirrel’s foot fern – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, medicated leaven – 10 grams, shidagong – 4 grams.
共研細末。熱酒送下。
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.

跌打全身活血方
[58] Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to whole body:
當歸二錢 生地一錢 白芷一錢 紫艸一錢 羗活一錢 桔梗一錢 胆艸一錢 杜仲一錢 故紙一錢 川芎一錢 防風一錢 桂枝一錢 牛膝一錢 血結一錢 加皮一錢 麥冬二錢 田七一錢 靈仙二錢 烏藥一錢
dong quai – 10 grams, Chinese foxglove – 5 grams, Chinese angelica – 5 grams, shellac – 5 grams, angelica – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, gentian – 5 grams, eucommia bark – 5 grams, guzhi beans– 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 5 grams, parsnip root – 5 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, ox-knee root – 5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, Siberian ginseng – 5 grams, monkey-grass tuber – 10 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, clematis root – 10 grams, spicebush root– 5 grams.
共研細末。熱酒送下。
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.

跌打上部活血方
[59] Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to upper body:
當歸二錢 生地一錢 白芷一錢 茯苓一錢 田七一錢 兒茶一錢 熟地二錢 紅花一錢 天麻一錢 羗活一錢 桂枝一錢 甘艸八分
dong quai – 10 grams, Chinese foxglove – 5 grams, Chinese angelica – 5 grams, tuckahoe – 5 grams, pseudo-ginseng – 5 grams, black catechu – 5 grams, cooked Chinese foxglove – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, gastrodia tuber – 5 grams, angelica – 5 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, licorice root – 4 grams.
共研細末。熱酒送下。
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.

跌打中部活血方
[60] Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to middle body:
杜仲二錢 故紙二錢 熟地二錢 山七二錢 桂枝一錢 靈仙一錢 川芎二錢 紅花一錢 陳皮一錢 獨活一錢 靈脂一錢 桔梗一錢 白芍一錢 茜艸一錢
eucommia bark – 10 grams, guzhi beans– 10 grams, cooked Chinese foxglove – 10 grams, shanqi – 10 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, clematis root – 5 grams, Sichuan lovage – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, dried orange peel – 5 grams, angelica – 5 grams, lingzhi – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, white peony root – 5 grams, madder root – 5 grams.
共研細末。熱酒送下。
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.

跌打下部活血方
[61] Recipe for livening blood in cases of trauma to lower body:
牛膝二錢 加皮二錢 木瓜二錢 白朮二錢 紅花一錢 血結一錢 黃芪一錢 歸尾一錢 生地一錢 茯苓一錢 桂枝一錢 桔梗一錢 米仁一錢 陳皮二錢
ox-knee root – 10 grams, Siberian ginseng – 10 grams, papaya skin – 10 grams, atractylodes – 10 grams, safflower – 5 grams, bloodclotter – 5 grams, astragalus – 5 grams, dong quai – 5 grams, Chinese foxglove – 5 grams, tuckahoe – 5 grams, cassia twig – 5 grams, Chinese bellflower – 5 grams, rice grains – 5 grams, dried orange peel – 10 grams.
共研細末。熱酒送下。
Pestle them into a powder. Cook in wine.

通關散
[62] Clearing-Passages Powder:
北細辛一錢 牙皂二錢 雄精二錢 神金十張 石鐘乳二錢
Chinese wild ginger root – 5 grams, Chinese honeylocust seeds – 10 grams, realgar – 10 grams, shenjin – 10 sheets, stalactite – 10 grams.
共研細末。常佩身上。遇有跌打閉氣。吹鼻卽效。男左女右。
Pestle them into a powder. Apply it onto the body. If you get the wind knocked out of you, you may use it as a snuff, left nostril for men, right nostril for women.

打丸妙方
[63] A miraculous pill-making recipe:
自然銅三錢 製川烏三錢 香白芷四錢 京赤芍四錢 荆芥穗三錢 製乳香四錢 大土別三錢 製艸烏三錢 大石燕二對 凈紅花五錢 京山稜五錢 製沒藥四錢 
大海馬二對 公丁香三錢 母丁香三錢 用厚朴四錢 蓬莪朮五錢 白茯苓四錢 甘松香五錢 山羊血五錢 花木通三錢 嫩桂枝三錢 牙皂角三錢 川續斷五錢 
生蒲黃六錢 白桔梗三錢 閙楊花五錢 當歸尾五錢 花梹榔三錢 廣陳皮四錢 老只壳三錢 破故紙三錢 銀杜仲三錢 北枸𣏌三錢 上節參二錢 廣木香四錢 
川羗活五錢 玉獨活五錢 北蟾腿五錢 上血結三錢 廣桔紅三隻 灰沉香二錢 上洋參三錢 眞日金三錢 眞虎骨五錢 眞猴骨五錢 正琥珀五錢 北細辛三錢 
正七田三錢 台烏藥三錢 穿山甲三錢 正西芎五錢 川山七二錢 遠志肉三錢 北防風三錢 正川芎五錢 正珍珠二錢 正瑪瑙二錢 正二枚一錢 正射香一錢
native copper – 15 grams, processed chuanwu – 15 grams, fragrant Chinese angelica – 20 grams, red peony root – 20 grams, catnip grains – 15 grams, processed frankincense – 20 grams, large tubie – 15 grams, processed monkshood root – 15 grams, dashiyan – 2 pairs, pure safflower – 25 grams, jingshanleng – 25 grams, processed myrrh – 20 grams, large seahorse – 2 pairs, common clove – 15 grams, mother clove – 15 grams, magnolia bark – 20 grams, white turmeric – 25 grams, white tuckahoe – 20 grams, gansongxiang – 25 grams, goat’s blood – 25 grams, akebi – 15 grams, tender cassia twig – 15 grams, Chinese honeylocust seeds – 15 grams, Sichuan teasel root – 25 grams, raw cattail pollen – 30 grams, white Chinese bellflower – 15 grams, naoyanghua – 25 grams, dong quai – 25 grams, areca catechu – 15 grams, Guangdong orange peel – 20 grams, dried bitter orange – 15 grams, crushed guzhi beans – 15 grams, silvery eucommia bark – 15 grams, northern wolfberry – 15 grams, high quality jieshen – 10 grams, costus root – 20 grams, Sichuan angelica – 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, northern toad legs – 25 grams, high quality bloodclotter – 15 grams, Guangdong jiehong – 3 of them, ashed aloeswood – 10 grams, high-quality ginseng – 15 grams, genuine rijin – 15 grams, genuine tiger bone – 25 grams, genuine monkey bone – 25 grams, genuine amber – 25 grams, Chinese wild ginger root – 15 grams, genuine qitian – 15 grams, spicebush root – 15 grams, pangolin scales – 15 grams, Chinese lovage – 25 grams, Sichuan shanqi – 10 grams, polygala – 15 grams, northern parsnip root – 15 grams, Sichuan lovage – 25 grams, genuine pearl – 10 grams, genuine agate – 10 grams, genuine ermei – 5 grams, genuine moschus – 5 grams.
右六十味。共研細末。和麵粉為丸。每個重錢一五分。
Pestle these sixty ingredients into a powder. Mix with wheat flour into pellets of 7.5 grams each.

字門正宗附錄終
Here ends the Appendix.

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