THE TAIJI MANUAL OF CAI YIZHONG

太極拳圖解
TAIJI BOXING ILLUSTRATED
蔡翼中
by Cai Yizhong
[published Oct 1, 1933]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Nov, 2014]

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - callig 1

瑞安蔡翼中编
By Cai Yizhong of Rui’an:
太極拳圖解
Taiji Boxing Illustrated
馬公愚題
– calligraphy by Ma Gongyu

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - callig 2

國術精華
The essence of Chinese martial arts
褚民誼題
– calligraphy by Chu Minyi

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - callig 3

[PREFACE BY ZHANG ZHIJIANG]

武當派太極拳法源出於道學運用丹法之功崇先天而黜後天崇先天則元神展而後天之濁氣降濁氣降而元神展其功亟矣養生之道莫妙於法瑞安蔡君翼中深得法中三昧其容温然其神恬然一望而知為有道之士蓋其內蘊深蓄積厚也丁茲國步艱難國人罔不興起知所以練身者以衛國於是尚武之風遍学內而為太極者先衆君慨然有感遂盡出其祕編成是書以付梓人以淺顯之文字述深奧之說理意無不達尤著重姿勢步法详膽博賅審備𠄗宏法豈他書之所能及裁予知是書之出其有盖於世實匪淺鲜用贅數语俾海內同志知所取得矣是為序
中華民國二十一年元月十二日張之江識
The Taiji boxing art of the Wudang school comes from Daoism, making use of elixirist practices. It reveres what is natural and discards what has been acquired, revering what is natural so that your primal spirit may develop and your acquired bad habits may sink away. The work of quelling bad habits and expanding your spirit is so important, and for it there is no method of cultivating health more wonderful than Taiji.
     Cai Yizhong of Rui’an [in Zhejiang] has achieved the deepest level in this art. His manner is warm and his spirit is calm. One can see at a glance that he is a learned scholar and that within him is an abundance of sincerity. Our nation is in the midst of troubled times, yet our people are inspired, knowing that training the body is the way to defend the nation. The popular esteem for the martial quality is everywhere, and Taiji is the top choice for practice. Like many teachers who deeply feel that all of its secrets should be shared, Cai has made this book for publication.
     He uses easy language to explain difficult concepts so that the principles and ideas will all be understood. He particularly emphasizes the posture and footwork, explaining with both gusto and know-how, fully and carefully, presenting the whole of this magnificent art. As worthy as other books are, I know that the publication and spread of this book will truly be no small event. Thus I have added these preliminary words so that my comrades throughout the nation will understand what it is they have got hold of.
     – written by Zhang Zhijiang, Jan 12, 1932

蔣序
PREFACE BY JIANG XIANGQING

太極者•無極而生•陰陽之母也•動之則分•靜之則合•無過不及•隨屈隨伸•以心行氣•以氣運身•心之所至•氣上隨焉•周流全身•了無滯礙•此太極拳之妙用也•瑞安蔡子翼中深得此中三昧•爰將其心得編為太極拳圖解一書•予亟為披覽一過•不覺激賞者再•蓋嘆其用功之深•且喜其不自矜祕•能公諸國人也•林君鏡平又從而作太極拳在生理上之研究一文•就太極拳論•依生理學之見地•作詳明之解釋•凡古人之所不能言•與所不欲言者•率皆詳述無遺•予雖有言•亦蔑以加諸•今者國人皆知國術之可貴•起而研究•風起雲湧•幾播全國•當茲全國運動會舉行之日•而此書適出而問世•余嘉其遇之隆•因樂為之序•
中華民國二十二年九月十九日 蔣湘靑寫於時事新報編輯室
“Taiji [‘grand polarity’] is born of wuji [‘nonpolarity’]. It is the mother of yin and yang [the passive and active aspects]. When there is movement, passive and active become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable. Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend.” “Use mind to move the energy. Use energy to move your body…” Where mind goes, energy follows, circulating through the whole body without stagnancy anywhere.
     These are the subtleties of Taiji Boxing. Cai Yizhong of Rui’an has a profound understanding of it and has drawn from his experience to produce this book. I gave it an enthusiastic readthrough, unconscious of just how much I was admiring it. I sigh at the depth of his hard work, and I delight in his humility and openness in being able to share with all our countrymen.
     Lin Jinping [a well-known medical doctor, likewise from Rui’an, and Cai’s fellow Taiji student] has also contributed a piece on Taiji Boxing in the context of physiology, presenting insights into how Taiji Boxing theory complies with physiological principles, a crisp and clear analysis. What the forefathers of the art where unable to articulate or unwilling to talk about is all here in detail with nothing left out.
     Although I have much to say about this book, I would hate to be overly gushing. Nowadays our countrymen all understand the value of martial arts, and since such research began, it has become resoundingly popular and many seeds have been sown throughout the nation. The National Games are just about to be held [the 5th, held in Nanjing – Oct, 1933], coinciding with the publication of this book. I cheer how the book will flourish because of it, and hence I write this preface with pleasure.
     – written by Jiang Xiangqing in the editorial office of Current Events Newspaper, Sep 19, 1933

太極拳在生理學上之研究 代序
INTRODUCTION: DISCUSSION OF TAIJI BOXING IN THE CONTEXT OF PHYSIOLOGY

太極拳術•為吾國國術之精粹•有强健體魄却病延年之功效•凡曾練習者類能言之•然對於運動生理方面之研究•尚付闕如•遍閱各種太極拳術之專書•或語焉不詳•或謬誤頻仍•毫無科學之根據•徒作高談以詃世•使世之習者莫知所從•一入歧途•害即隨之•余友蔡子翼中為太極拳大家田兆麟先生入室弟子•觀其貌豐神王•知其得力於太極拳術深矣•近有鑑於我國民氣之漸弱•非速起鍜鍊體魄•不足以振頽風•爰將其平日心得•參以科學方法•著之文字•公諸國人•予因作斯篇•就太極拳論•依生理學之見地•作簡單之解釋•以為入門引路之助•雖見仁見智•是在讀者•然得此益足證太極拳之效用•確非他拳或任何運動之徒尚拙力者所可同日而語•其間如有錯誤不合之處•尚祈海內明達•不吝指敎•俾有所進益•不勝厚幸•
The Taiji boxing art is the quintessence of our nation’s martial arts. It has the effects of strengthening the body, preventing illness, prolonging life. Practitioners are usually able to say something about the art, but as for discussing the physiological aspects of the exercise, they still cannot manage it. I have read through the various specialized books on the Taiji boxing art. They are either undetailed, full of errors, or entirely without a scientific basis, written in a lofty style to impress people. But this only renders practitioners ignorant and sends them down the wrong path, one that may produce harm. My friend Cai Yizhong learned from the Taiji Boxing master Tian Zhaolin. Observing Cai’s expert bearing, I know he has benefitted deeply from the art.
     Considering that our nation’s populace has gradually weakened in spirit, unless we quickly initiate programs of physical training, we will not be able to shake off our deplorable habits. Therefore I here present what I have learned from my own work, having reference to scientific methods, and have produced a piece of writing to share with all my compatriots. The reason I have written this article presenting Taiji Boxing theory in accordance with physiological insights, and in the form of simple explanations, is to assist students in the beginning of their training.
     Opinions will vary depending on the reader, but this material should be sufficient testimony as to the effectiveness of Taiji Boxing. When compared to the tendencies toward awkward effort in other boxing arts or forms of exercise, it really can hardly be spoken of at the same time, for it does not seem to have the same errors within it. I hope this work will be understood by everyone in the nation and that none will hold back any criticism. This will enable me to improve it, for which I would feel extremely fortunate.

太極拳術廣言之•為運動之一種•故於論述太極拳之前•先須簡述運動之生理學之基礎•方能了解太極拳在生理學上之眞義•
The Taiji boxing art is widely talked about as a form of exercise. Before the Taiji Boxing practice set is explained, we must first briefly discuss the physiological foundations of exercise in order to have a genuine understanding of Taiji Boxing in terms of physiology:

一•運動之目的
1. THE PURPOSE OF EXERCISE

自生理學方面言之•運動之目的有發達身體•增進健康•暢活精神等•要之不外使吾人之生活能率取正常之向上發達耳•原吾人之臟器皆有其特別機能•如肺司呼吸•心臟司循環,胃腸司消化•肌肉司動作•及其他等等皆有專職•此等臟器機能之集合•即為吾人生活現象之表現•生活現象之盛否•與人生活能率成正比例•故欲使吾人生活能率向上發達•須先使各臟器皆臻健全•其機能皆正常的向上發達•方能達目的•故運動即為負有發達全身諸臟器之使命•若僅發達身體之一部分•而餘部臟器仍脆弱者•决不能完成此使命也•
From a physiological perspective, the purpose of exercise is to develop the body, enhance health, and liven the spirit. To sum up, it is nothing more than getting the efficiency of our lives to obtain a constant progressive development. Fundamentally, the parts of the body each have their specific function. The lungs are in charge of respiration, the heart is in charge of circulation, the stomach and intestines are in charge of digestion, the muscles are in charge of movement, and so on, the rest all having their specific duties too.
     When the parts of the body are functioning in tandem, this shows as life expressing. Whether or not life is expressing abundantly is in direct proportion to the efficiency of one’s life. If we wish for the efficiency of our lives to have progressive development, we must first strengthen the various parts of the body. When their functions are all in a state of constant progressive development, then we can achieve our aim. Therefore exercise is given the task of developing the whole body and all of its parts. If only a part of the body is developed while the other areas and sections are left weak, it would certainly not be able to fulfill this task.

二•運動之二大根本原理
2. THE TWO MOST BASIC PRINCIPLES IN EXERCISE

運動之目的旣如上述•然則練習運動何以能使全身諸臟器發達乎•曰•因其立脚於二大根本原理之上故也•所謂二大根本原理者•即(甲)諸臟器間之相互關係•及(乙)諸臟器之先天的特性是•今分述於後•
The purpose of exercise has been described above, but just how is it that exercise can cause development in all the parts of the body? This is based in two fundamental principles: the parts of the body have an interrelationship with each other and they each have innate characteristics. Both of these are described separately below:

(甲)諸臟器間之相互關係•
A. The interrelationship of the parts of the body:

人體諸臟器間有一種神秘的現象•即有連帶關係•互相援助•方能生存•决不能單獨營其機能之特性也•例如:
Among all the parts of the human body, there is a fascinating phenomenon: they are interrelated, supporting each other in order to survive, absolutely incapable of managing their specific functions on their own. Some examples:

(子)胃腸為司消化之器官•然其攝取食物•須賴四肢之動作•齧牙之咀嚼•其消化食物也•須賴各種消化液之作用•然後食物之養分方得吸收入於血液•若無口齒四肢等臟器之助•胃腸亦不能行其機能矣•
i. The stomach and intestines are in charge of digestion. However, intake of food depends on the movement of the limbs and the chewing of the teeth. The digesting of the food also depends on the use of various digestive juices for the nutrients in the food to then be absorbed into the blood. Without the help of the teeth, limbs, and so on, the stomach and intestines would be unable to perform their function.

(丑)肺為司呼吸之器官•肺若膨大則空氣入•縮小則空氣出•然肺不能自行主動膨縮•須藉肌肉之作用•將胸廊曠大•方能達此目的•是肺之得以行其機能•有賴於肌肉之動作也•
ii. The lungs are in charge of respiration. When the lungs are expanded, air enters. When they are contracted, air exits. However, lungs are incapable of expanding and contracting on their own. They have to rely on the actions of muscles which expand the thoracic cavity to be able to do this. For the lungs to fulfill their function, they depend on the movement of muscles.

(寅)心臟為司循環之器官•血液由心臟之壓力出大動脈•經多數之動脈以至毛細血管•分送養分於全身各部•復取各部之老廢物經靜脈以至大靜脈•復歸於心臟•是為大循環•更自心臟出肺動脈往肺臟放出炭氣吸取氧氣•再歸於心臟•是為小循環•大小循環反覆不停•故心臟之得以行其機能者•皆由血液脈管肺臟等之補助也•
iii. The heart is in charge of circulation. Blood is pushed by pressure from the heart into the main arteries, through the many other arteries, and into the capillaries, distributing nutrients to every part of the body, then taking waste material through the veins, to the venae cavae, and back to the heart. This is the “greater circulation” [general circulation]. Furthermore, deoxygenated blood is sent from the heart into the pulmonary arteries and to the lungs, and oxygenated blood is then sent back to the heart. This is the “lesser circulation” [pulmonary circulation]. The two cycles repeat over and over again ceaselessly. Therefore the heart is able to fulfill its function entirely due to the assistance of the arteries and lungs.

(卯)四肢之司屈伸運動•似屬簡單•實甚複雜•須自腦髓發命令以刺戟肌肉•肌肉方起收縮•以運動骨骼•然腦髓亦須先感受外來之刺戟•認識以後•方能發適當之命令•然後其所發生之動作•方能與外界相適應•
iv. The limbs are in charge of the movements of bending and extending. This would seem to be simple, but is actually very complicated. There have to be commands from the brain to stimulate the muscles. The muscles then contract to move the skeleton. However, the brain first has to be affected by an external stimulus and recognize it in order to be able to send the proper commands. The movement that occurs will thus be a response to the external environment.

(辰)不僅此也•各臟器於行其機能時•皆起氧化作用•氧化作用須有氧氣及脂肪糖分蛋白質等營養分•其中氧氣最為重要•由呼吸作用•自肺臟入於血液•不可一時或缺•其餘之養分•皆由消化作用•自消化器入血液•二者•皆由心臟之作用•以送布於全身•各臟器之得以營其機能者•以有此等氧分之供給也•是故一舉手一投足之間•因之而起作用者•不僅肌肉與骨骼而已•全身各臟器如臟髓神經心肺胃腸等•皆同時在適當程度之下互相動作•
v. But these are not all. While the various parts of the body are performing their functions, they are all engaged in oxygenation, which requires oxygen, fats, sugars, proteins, and other nutrients. Among these, oxygen is the most important. Through respiration, it enters the blood from the lungs, and it cannot be lacked for even a moment. For the other nutrients, it is firstly a matter of digestion, entering the blood from the digestive organs, and secondarily sent by the actions of the heart to the whole body. The various parts of the body are able to carry out their functions because of these supplies of oxygen. Therefore within every movement of hand or foot, this plays a role, and movement is not merely a matter of muscle and skeleton. The whole body and all of its parts – organs, marrow, nerves, heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, etc. – are at the same time and to the proper degree working together.

(乙)人體臟器之三大本能•
B. The three basic capacities of the parts of the body:

人體臟器於上述之特性外•更具有先天之三項特性•即所謂人體臟器之三大本能是也•述之如下•
Beyond the aforementioned specific characteristics of the parts of the body, they also have three innate aspects, or “three basic capacities”:

(子)人體臟器若加以適度之使用•則其機能愈益向上發達•其外形亦肥大•是謂能動性肥大•
i. If the parts of the human body are used moderately, their functioning will increasingly improve and one’s external appearance will be robust. “If you use it, you will have more of it.”

(丑)諸臟器若廢置不用•則其機能衰退•外形亦瘦小•是謂廢用性萎縮•
ii. If the parts of the body are used insufficiently, their functioning will decline and one’s external appearance will be emaciate. “If you don’t use it, you will lose it.”

(寅)若使用過度•其機能反衰退•外形亦瘦削•是謂過勞性萎縮•
iii. If the parts of the body are used excessively, their functioning will likewise decline and one’s external appearance will again be emaciate. “If you abuse it, you will lose it just as if you didn’t use it.”

上述三者在社會上不乏其例•今試舉一端•車夫之脚•挑夫之肩•大抵皆呈能動性肥大•深閨仕女之手•靜坐者之腿呈廢用性萎縮•工廠童女工日夜勞作•不得休息每多面黃肌瘦•發育不全•即過勞性萎縮•不僅肉體如是•精神方面亦然•吾人之腦髓若使用適度•則知識日增•若不加修養•則日就蠢塞•然使用過度則又呈神經衰弱之狀態矣•
There is no lack of examples in society for these capacities. The feet of a rickshaw driver or the shoulders of a porter will usually through such activities become robust. The hands of a woman who stays in her chamber or the legs of a man who spends all his time in meditation will become atrophied from neglect. A factory child laboring day and night does not get enough rest and will usually be reduced to a wreck and have stunted growth, ruined from overwork.
     Not only is the body thus affected, but also the mind. If we use our brains moderately, knowledge will daily increase. Not training our minds at all, we will become daily more stupid. Overdoing it, the result will be nervous breakdown.

上述二大根本原理•實為各種合理運動之立脚點•故練習運動適得其度者•全身諸臟器皆呈能動性肥大•生活能率自日益向上發達矣•若對此二大根本原理•不知加以注意•即失運動之本旨•不合於理即宜摒除•故世之運動法專以發達肌肉為主眼者•或呼吸法專以强健肺部為目的者•及靜坐法專以靜養精神為務者•是皆僅鍜鍊身體之一部分•而他部臟器•反呈偏枯之狀態•决難望其收人類生活能率向上發達之效果•實屬無意味之舉也•
The two basic principles above are surely basic points in all reasonable forms of exercise. By engaging in exercise appropriately, the whole body and all of its parts can be made robust and the efficiency of our lives will naturally increase with progressive development. If we do not give extra attention to these principles, we will betray the original intention of exercise.
     Methods that are not compatible with these principles should be discarded. Most exercises prioritize the development of muscle, most breathing techniques aim at strengthening the lungs, and most meditation is devoted toward cultivating the spirit. Each of these methods train only one aspect of the body, leaving other parts to wane from a lopsided neglect. It is indeed difficult to see such approaches resulting in the efficiency of our lives progressively developing. Really they are better categorized as having little significance.

三•運動之三大着眼點
3. THE THREE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS IN EXERCISE

凡屬合理之運動•當實施時•不能瞬時或忽者•厥有三項•謂為運動之三大着眼點•即意志•呼吸•脊柱是也•
For it to be considered reasonable exercise while engaging in it, there are three things that cannot be neglected for an instant, the most important points in exercise: intention, breathing, and the spine.

(甲)意志
A. Intention:

語云•『人宜自主•不可被動•』運動之道亦從此原則•身體肌肉之動作•皆聽命於腦髓•腦髓為吾人意志之所在地•故須集中心意以發號施令•號令鮮明•則四肢百骸•無不聽從•否則全身散漫無主•殊無效果之足言•
There is a saying: “People should take action rather than reacting.” The way of exercise follows this principle. The movements of the muscles are all dictated by the brain, which is the site of our intention. Therefore we must focus intention in order to issue orders. When the orders are clear, then the limbs and the rest of the body will obey without exception. Otherwise the whole body will fall into sloppiness and disarray, and this will produce no result worth speaking of.

(乙)呼吸
B. Breathing:

吾人生命賴呼吸以支持•其重要不言可知•然在實際上每多不加注意•殊不可解•常見運動者於運動時面色紫漲•氣息閉塞•或竟面色灰敗苦悶而倒地者•是皆不知研究呼吸之故也•
Our lives are sustained by breathing. Its importance is so obvious that it does not need to be stated. However, if it is not given added attention, it cannot really be understood. We often see people exercising whose faces turn purple from holding their breath until they turn white, looked drained, and collapse. This is all because they do not understand how to approach breathing.

(丙)脊柱
C. Spine:

脊柱為吾人軀幹之支柱•故須使其處中正地位•於運動時不可有偏依屈曲捻轉之弊•否則支柱不正•全身之傾圮隨之•
The spine is the support for the torso, and therefore it must be held in an upright position during exercise rather than leaning, bending, or twisting. If the support is not held upright, the whole body will collapse.

於實施運動之前•對於上述三項着眼點須豫先加以研究•於着手練習之時•對此三大着眼點更不可瞬時或忘•方能有合於理想之結果•且視其尊重着眼點之程度如何•所生效果亦與之成正比例•否則决無效果之可言•譬如行路於出發點誤其方向•無論如何行遠•總不能達目的地•所行之路•自屬無效•然在運動上錯誤之努力•不僅無效•反於身體有害•(其害後述)不如不習運動之為愈•對於此點不論施行何種運動•萬不可不加注意也•
Before engaging in exercise, these three points must first be given additional consideration. During exercise, these three essentials must not be ignored for an instant, then the result will conform to the ideal. The degree of seriousness with which we approach these points is in direct proportion to the results produced, and there would otherwise certainly be no results worth speaking of. For instance, if you go on a journey in the wrong direction from your starting point, no matter how far you go, you will never be able to get to your destination, because the road you are traveling is of no use for going there. Likewise, if you make the mistake of using excessive effort in the exercise, it would not only be ineffective, but would in fact be harmful to the body (this harm explained further below). It would be worse than not exercising at all. Regardless of what kind of exercise you engage in, this point must by all means be given extra attention.

四•太極拳是否為合理之運動
4. AS TO WHETHER OR NOT TAIJI BOXING IS A REASONABLE EXERCISE

若問太極拳是否為合理之運動•只須研究其是否合於上述之二大根本原理•及當其實施時•對於三大着眼點有無深切之注意•即可以斷定•
If we ask whether or not Taiji Boxing is a reasonable exercise, we need only consider whether it conforms to the two basic principles and whether during practice there is deep attention being paid to the three major points. If so, we can then conclude that it is.

(甲)對於二大根本原理方面•
A. As for the two basic principles:

太極拳之為術也•以心行氣•故氣順遂•以氣運身•故身靈活•一動無有不動•一靜無有不靜•其動其靜•莫不身心並顧•內外兼修•絕無偏重某一臟器之弊•而且練習順序•更由淺入深•按步以進•尚柔和不尚拙力•以努責為大忌•諸臟器皆可收能動性肥大之效•絕無過勞之弊•是太極拳合於二大根本原理•彰彰明矣•故世有練習外家拳或他項尚拙力之運動•反致面黃肌瘦•因以夭折者•而練太極拳則未之或聞也•習太極拳有素者•皆精神剛毅•舉動温藹•絕無粗暴氣象•以其身心並修•能達健全之功故也•
What makes Taiji Boxing an art? “Use mind to move energy.” Thus the energy will be smooth. “Use energy to move your body.” Thus your body will be nimble. “If one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.” In both movement and stillness, you are always to attend equally to body and mind, cultivate inside and out simultaneously, and never commit the error of overemphasizing one particular section. Furthermore, learn the curriculum in the correct order, going from the easy to the difficult and progressing step by step. Value softness over awkward strength, for it is forbidden to use excessive effort. Once all the parts of the body can become robust, there will never be the error of overdoing it.
     That Taiji Boxing conforms to the two basic principles is obvious. People who practice external styles of boxing or other forms of strenuous exercise end up as haggard wrecks who die prematurely, but this has not yet been heard of as happening to those who practite Taiji Boxing. Practitioners with a solid foundation all have a resolute spirit and an amiable manner, no coarseness in their behavior at all. By cultivating body and mind together, you can attain completeness of skill.

(乙)對於三大着眼點方面•
B. As for the three main points:

太極拳當實施時•對於二大着眼點之注意程度•可謂無以復加•今就太極拳論試作單簡之論證•
To practice Taiji Boxing, no attention needs to be added to the two basic principles, but let us briefly delve into the Taiji classics to elaborate [on the three main points]:

(子)意志
i. Intention:

拳論中有「神宜內斂」「內固精神」等關於集中意志之語句甚多•故能以心使身•捨已從人也•即如「意氣為君骨肉臣」之語•亦係集中心意行氣以驅使軀體之意耳•又如亦畬先生所傳之五字訣•亦以靜心為首要•而總之以聚神•可知太極拳之為術•對於意志之集中•不惜再三注意•換言之•聚精會神之後•方可以習太極拳•不能聚精會神•即習太極拳亦不得其效也•
It says in the boxing classics that “spirit should be collected within” and that we are to “inwardly bolster spirit”. We will thus be able to use mind to drive the body, as well as to let go of the self to go along with the opponent. Thus it is said: “Mind is sovereign and body is subject”. The idea is that the concentration of intention moves the energy, which then prompts the body. It is also similar to Li Yiyu’s Five-Word Formula which begins with the “calm mind” and finishes with the “gathered spirit”. By this can be understood what makes Taiji Boxing an art. As for concentrating the intention, do not hesitate to give this your frequent attention. In other words, once you have focused your mind, then you can practice Taiji Boxing, but if you cannot focus, the practice will be ineffective.

(丑)呼吸
ii. Breathing:

拳論中所謂氣者即呼吸之意•太極拳尤注重呼吸•即謂全套架子皆為呼吸之輔助運動亦無不可•拳論云『以心行氣•以氣運身•』又云『心為令氣為旗•腰為纛•』是太極拳之呼吸介於身心之間以為其津梁也•故當實施之時•集中心意•以行呼吸•直而養之•决不使其有逆塞之弊•故能呼吸順遂•於是舉身體之動作•聽令於呼吸•陰陽開合之間•皆以呼吸貫運之•故能動作圓滑也•在他種拳術及其他種運動法•不知呼吸之宜加研究•宜求順遂•逆塞之惟恐不及•或有知之矣•而不知呼吸與身心間之關係•呼吸自為呼吸•動作自為動作•漫無統率•仍無功效之足言•此太極拳之所以優然獨異也•
What is meant in the classics by “energy” is the breath. Taiji Boxing particularly emphasizes the breath. It is considered that, throughout the practice set, breath-assisted movements will always be performed correctly. It says in the boxing classics: “Use mind to move the energy… Use energy to move your body.” Also: “The mind makes the command, the energy is its flag, and the waist is its banner.” Breathing in Taiji Boxing is a bridge between body and mind. When practicing, focus your intention on the breath, “nurturing it with integrity” and never making the error of acting in opposition to it [i.e. inhaling when you should be exhaling, etc.]. If you can breathe with smoothness, you will get the movements of your body to be led by the breath. Between passive and active moments, between contractings and expandings, all is linked by the breath, and you will be able to move with a rounded smoothness.
     In other boxing arts and methods of exercise, it is not understood that breathing should be given extra consideration and should aim for smoothness, though the worry that working against the breath will be inferior does bring understanding to some. If you do not understand the role of the breath between the body and mind, breathing will just be breathing and movement will just be movement, mindless and unguided, and again there will be no effect worth speaking of. It is the breathing that makes Taiji Boxing superbly unique.

(寅)脊柱
iii. Spine:

拳論云『由脚而腿而腰•總須完整一氣向前退後•乃得機得勢•』此即努力保持脊柱之中正地位意也•蓋脊柱為軀幹之支柱•若支柱有偏依屈曲之弊•立身不能穩固•何能完整一氣以向前退後乎•脊柱中正•則立身安舒•支撑八面矣•故太極拳對於保持脊柱中正地位起見•所費靜的努力甚大也•又所謂『步隨身換•力由脊發』者•即不外使一切動作•皆取源於脊柱•視脊柱之所向•而變換步位•使身體立於穩固之地耳•太極拳之注重脊柱•蓋可知矣•
It says in the classics: “From foot through leg through waist, it must be a fully continuous process, and whether advancing or retreating, you will then catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand.” This indicates that you should try to maintain an upright position of the spine. Since it is the support for the torso, if it commits the error of leaning or bending, the body will not be able to stand stably. How then could the action be a “fully continuous process, whether advancing or retreating”? With your spine upright, your body will stand comfortably, “bracing in all directions.” The purpose in Taiji Boxing of maintaining an upright position of the spine is to spare an excess of effort to stay stable. It is also said: “Step according to your body’s adjustments. Power comes from your spine.” Because every single movement should be originating with the spine, the direction of the spine and the changes in the footwork enable the body to be standing in a stable position. Taiji Boxing’s emphasis on the spine is thus made clear.

總而言之•太極拳旣合於二大根本原理•當其實施時•對於三大着眼點•又有深切之注意•其為合理之運動•可謂有科學上之根據•若能行之有素•可達生活能率向上發達之目的•自屬當然之結果•吾國積弱之餘•有此良好國粹•亟應努力提倡•强種强身•實利賴之•不能視等技藝之末•任其湮滅不彰也•
To sum up, Taiji Boxing already conforms to the two basic principles, and if while practicing there is deep attention given to the three major points, it qualifies as a reasonable exercise and can be considered scientifically grounded. If you are able to build a solid foundation, you can then achieve the goal of progressive development in the efficiency of your life, indeed it would be a natural outcome. In addition to the enduring weakness of our nation, we also have this excellent example of the essence of our culture. We should urgently put our efforts into promoting it on behalf of strengthening both the people and the self, real benefits that can be depended on. There is no apparent end to the extent of this art, nor any sign that it will ever go away.

五•太極拳之呼吸
5. THE BREATH IN TAIJI BOXING

太極拳以意志命令呼吸•呼吸命令身體之動作•故呼吸方法之何若•頗關重要•亦屬最有研究之價値•今試加說明•以便初學者知所適從•
Taiji Boxing uses intention to guide the breath, and the breath to guide the movement of the body. Therefore the method of breathing is indeed significant and very worthy of discussion. I will try to explain so that beginners will know what to do:

按生理學上呼吸之型式有三•一為胸式呼吸•主由肋骨之運動•以開張胸廓•二為腹式呼吸•主由橫隔膜之運動•以擴大胸腔•其間互有優劣•茲不具論•故有人主張兼收兩者之長•行混合式呼吸•――胸腹式呼吸者•然後不及三逆式呼吸法之為有效也•本法之實施•當吸氣時•橫隔膜向上方移動•當呼氣時•橫隔膜向下方力壓•恰如腹式呼吸法之逆型故名•本法較前二者稍難•然自理論上言之•有三優點•
According to physiology, there are three types of breathing. There is (1) chest breathing – the chest area expanded by the movement of the ribs, and (2) abdominal breathing – the thoracic cavity expanded by the movement of the diaphragm. Each has its advantages, but they are insufficient. Thus there are people who advocate getting the advantages of both by performing a kind of breathing that combines them – chest/belly breathing. However, it is not as effective as (3) reverse breathing, which is performed by the diaphragm moving upward during inhalation and pressing downward during exhalation. It is just like abdominal breathing, only in reverse, hence the name. Though slightly more difficult than the first two, this method has its advantages:

(甲)可以使肺尖强健•
A. It can invigorate the lungs.

解剖學上•入肺尖之氣管技•皆向上方分歧而行•恰與吸氣之氣流方向相反•故用普通之呼吸方法•空氣不易吸入肺尖•肺尖廢置不用•則日就萎縮•易生疾病•――肺結核•若應用逆式呼吸法•則吸氣時•橫隔膜向上方移動•空氣向上逆行•進入肺尖矣•
According to anatomy, the bronchi at the top of the lungs branch off upward, opposite to the direction of airflow during inhalation. Therefore in ordinary breathing, air is not easily inhaled into the top of the lungs. That part of the lungs gets unused and increasingly atrophies, easily leading to illness, such as pulmonary tuberculosis. If instead reverse breathing is used, then the diaphragm will move upward during inhalation and send air upward all the way into the top of the lungs.

(乙)可以使意志集中•
B. It can focus the intention.

本法較為困難•故實施時自須注心意以行之•則精神貫注不至散漫矣•此在心理學上謂之思想之衞生•頗屬重要•
Since this method is more difficult, it thus requires more concentration when performing it, and so the mind is less prone to wandering. In psychology, this is considered to be “healthy thinking”, which is very important.

然則太極拳之呼吸法將如何•曰•太極拳之呼吸•皆應用逆式呼吸法•亦可由拳論證明之•拳論云『腹鬆靜』『腹內鬆淨氣騰然』者•即於行呼吸之前•集中心意•使腹部肌肉•去其緊張•然後橫隔膜之運動•得以自由也•又云『氣貼背•歛入脊骨•』即於吸氣時橫隔膜向上方移動•空氣上行•直達肺尖•有似歛入脊骨•直貫頂部(提頂勁)•又此時將胸部內涵•背部膨大•(含胸膨背•膨背與拔背之意異•似以膨背為是•)使空氣易於達到肺尖•故曰『氣貼背』也•又拳論中所謂『氣沈丹田』者•即於呼氣時努力將橫隔膜下壓之意•壓力直達腹腔之深部•(丹田)•所以促進腹部內臟之血行及其機能也•即如亦畬先生所傳之五字訣神聚一節中所謂『氣而下沈』者•即腹鬆淨之意•『由兩肩收於脊骨•注於腰間•此氣之由上而下也•謂之合•』即所行吸氣•由橫隔膜之作用•先達肺尖•然後由上而下•及於其他之肺部•在氣則吸•在形則合•涵胸澎背•所以助其收蓄也•『由腰形於脊骨•肺於兩膊•施於手指•此氣之由下而上也•謂之合•』即於呼氣時先將橫隔膜努力下壓•呼出肺內下部之空氣•由下而上•及於肺尖•在氣為呼•在形為開•沈肩墜肘•以助其發放也•總而言之•太極拳之呼吸•不外逆式呼吸法之應用•吸氣之極•橫隔膜下降•即轉為呼氣之始•呼氣之極•橫隔膜上昇•即轉為吸氣之始•陰陽虛實•隨呼吸而為轉換•習者若能於呼吸開合之變換處•悟澈本原•此氣自能『周流無碍•圓滑無方•』久則玄妙自見•奇効必彰•
What then is the breathing method in Taiji Boxing? It is said that the breathing used should always be reverse breathing, and this can be verified from the classics, where there is mention of “abdomen relaxed” and: “If there is complete relaxation within your belly, energy is primed.” Before performing this breathing, focus your mind and get the muscles of your abdomen to lose their tension, then the movement of your diaphragm will be unrestrained.
     It also says: “Energy sticks to your back and gathers in your spine.” This means that your diaphragm moves upward during inhalation, the air moving upward all the way to the top of your lungs. Seeming to gather in your spine, it courses through to your headtop (with an energy of lifting your headtop). Also at this time, hollow your chest and bulge your back (In hollowing your chest and bulging your back, bulging the back is a different idea from “plucking up the back”. Bulging the back seems to be intended in this case.), which causes the air to easily reach all the way up to the top of your lungs, and thus it is said that “energy sticks to your back”.
     What is meant in the classics by “energy sinks to your elixir field” is that you press your diaphragm down during exhalation. By pressing deeply down into your abdominal cavity (i.e. the “elixir field”), you will thus promote better circulation within and better function of the abdominal organs. When Li Yiyu in the “gathering spirit” section of his Five-Word Formula says that “energy sinks downward”, “abdomen relaxed” is the idea.
     “It sinks downward, going from your shoulders, gathering in your spine, and concentrates in your waist. This energy going from above to below is called ‘contracting’.” This describes inhalation. The action of your diaphragm first sends air to the top of your lungs, then downward to fill the rest of the lungs. The inhalation of air has the appearance of contracting. Hollow your chest and bulge your back to help store it.
     “Then it goes from your waist to your spine, spreading to your arms to be applied at your fingers. This energy going from below to above is called ‘expanding’.” This describes exhalation. First press your diaphragm down to send out air from the bottom of your lungs so that it reaches up to the top of the lungs. The exhalation of air has the appearance of expanding. Sink your shoulders and drop your elbows to help release it.
     To sum up, the breathing in Taiji Boxing is nothing more than reverse breathing. At the end of inhalation, the diaphragm then descends, changing to the beginning of exhalation. At the end of exhalation, the diaphragm then ascends, changing to the beginning of inhalation. Passive and active, emptiness and fullness – they follow the alternations of the breath. If during the alternations between inhale and exhale, contract and expand, you are able to realize clearly this basic principle, energy will then be capable of “circulation without obstruction, roundness without edges”. After a long time, profound wonders will naturally be realized and extraordinary effects will automatically manifest.

六•努責之害
6. THE HARM OF EXCESSIVE EFFORT

努責者即俗所謂拚氣•努力掙扎之謂也•太極拳以努責為大忌•已如上述•今更詳言努責之害•可知太極拳之所以禁忌之者•有由來也•
People who use excessive effort are often considered “risk takers” due to their use of struggling strength. In Taiji Boxing, excessive effort is forbidden, as has already been explained above. Below is further explanation on the harm of it so you can understand the source of the taboo:

外家拳及其他各項運動法•皆尚拙力•故須使肌肉表現其最大努力•其努力方法•先將上肢固定於胸廓•更將胸廓固定•使其不受呼吸性移動之影響•因之大小胸肌•大小圓肌•二頭膊肌及三頭膊等舉凡上肢及上肢帶之肌肉•皆强度收縮•然僅此尚未足•更將聲門閉銷•使腹部肌肉表現其最大努力•方可達完全固定之目的也•凡上種種•即為努責之經過•此時胸腔內空氣一無出路•故於胸腹腔內發生高壓因此高壓之故•心臟强度收縮•血液大部分流出胸腔之外•心臟內血量減少•呈高度之貧血狀態•即對於自己之營養分•亦不能供給•故其機能之維持上•大被其害•又當努責之時•靜脈血受胸內高壓之影響•不能歸還於心臟•故於靜脈系統內•呈高度之鬱血狀態•因之顏面現靑紫色•脈絡怒漲•肺內空氣不能交換•血內炭氣無從排除•及至怒責終了時•聲門開放•被壓於肺內之空氣•以最大勢力自鼻口衝出•即繼之以呼氣•此時胸腹腔內發生陰壓•停留在胸廓外之靜脈血•以大壓力還流入心臟•靜脈內血量大減•而心臟因血液流入之故•被其過度擴張•發急性擴張症•
External styles of boxing, as well as various other methods of exercise, all emphasize a foolish effort, demanding that the muscles display their maximum strength. Methods that involve great effort make the chest area tighten up, which has an influence on one’s ability to breathe. This is due to the chest and shoulder muscles, the biceps and triceps, and the muscles of the thoracic girdle all intensely contracting. But this is not all, for the larynx is also made to close, causing the abdominal muscles to display their maximum strength, thus attaining the objective of complete tension.
     With these various aspects in the course of using excessive effort, no air within the thoracic cavity is able to exit. There is thus a great deal of pressure built up within the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Because of this increase in pressure, the heart is intensely contracted, thereby increasing the blood flow away from the thoracic cavity but reducing the amount of blood within the heart, producing a very anemic appearance. Your required nutrients are not able to be supplied, therefore the maintaining of functions is greatly reduced by this.
     Moreover, when using excessive effort, veinal blood is affected by high pressure within the chest and unable to return to the heart, thus producing through the vein system a condition of venous stasis, causing your face to turn blue and the arteries and veins to greatly swell. The air in the lungs cannot be exchanged, for the carbon dioxide from the blood cannot be removed. The moment in which use of excessive effort ceases, the larynx then opens and causes the pressurized air within the lungs to rush out from the nose or mouth with the greatest of force. Continued exhalation at this point produces within the thoracic and abdominal cavities such low pressure that any veinal blood beyond the chest area will now forcefully flow back to the heart, greatly reducing the amount of blood in the veins. The heart by this overloading of bloodflow is pushed to dangerously expand.

依上述理由•努責對於心臟之機能•頗屬有害•若反覆施行•終至發生心臟之擴張及心肌之變性•若發此等障碍•終身不得脫除•遂至心臟機能不全•因以死亡•故世之競技家或有名之選手多夭折者•殆因續行努責有以致之耳•一入歧途•貽害無窮•世之練習運動者•可不愼諸•
According to the reasoning above, excessive effort is very harmful toward the functioning of the heart. Constantly putting forth excessive effort may ultimately lead to cardiac dilation and altering of the cardiac muscle. If this problem occurs, there is no way back from it. The function of the heart will become insufficient, resulting in death. This is why many famous champions among competitive athletes have died young, a result of continually using excessive effort. Taking the wrong path will lead to endless harms. Thus everyone should be careful while engaging in exercise.

瑞安林鏡平識於永嘉甌海醫院
– written by Lin Jingping of Rui’an at the Yongjia [in Wenzhou, Zhejiang] Seaside Hospital

太極拳原序
ON THE ORIGIN OF TAIJI BOXING [text copied from Yang Chengfu’s 1931 manual]

太極拳傳自張眞人•眞人•遼東懿州人•道號三峯•生宋末•身高七尺•鶴骨松姿•面如古月•慈眉善目•修髯如戟•頂作一髻寒暑唯一箬笠•手持佛塵•日行千里•洪武初•至蜀太和山修煉結庵玉虛宮•經書一覽成誦•洪武二十七年•又入湖北武當山•與鄕人論經書•談說不倦•一日在屋誦經•有喜雀在院•其鳴如諍論•眞人由窗視之•雀在柏樹•如鷹下觀•地上有一長蛇蟠結•仰視二物相爭•雀鳴聲飛下•展翅扇打•長蛇搖首微閃•躱過雀翅•雀自下隨飛樹上•少時性燥•又飛下翅打•長蛇又蜿蜒輕身閃過•仍作盤形•如是多次並未打着•後眞人出•雀飛蛇走•眞人由此而悟•蟠如太極•以柔克剛之理•由按太極變化而粗成太極拳•養精氣神•動靜消長•通於易理•故傳之久遠•而功效愈著•北京白雲觀現存有眞人聖像可供瞻仰云•
Taiji Boxing was passed down from the Daoist saint, Zhang. He was from Yizhou in Liaodong. The monastic name he was given was Sanfeng. He was born during the end of the Song Dynasty [ending in 1279]. Standing seven feet tall, he had a crane’s build and a pine’s bearing. His face was like the aged moon, with kindness in his eyes and brows. His beard was as long as a halberd and his hair was in a bun atop his head. Regardless of winter or summer he wore the same wide hat of bamboo. He held a Buddhist duster and walked immense distances in a single day.
     At the beginning of Emperor Hongwu’s reign [1368], Zhang went to Mt. Grand Harmony in Sichuan to practice asceticism, joining the Temple of Jade Emptiness monastery, and recited the scriptures after just one reading. In the twenty-seventh year of Hongwu’s reign [1394], Zhang traveled again, going to Mt. Wudang in Hubei, and he tirelessly conversed with the villagers about the scriptures.
     One day, while reciting passages in his room, an excited sparrow appeared in the courtyard. Because of its calls of warning off, the saint looked out his window to watch it. The sparrow was in a cypress tree, gazing down eagle-eyed, while on the ground there was a snake coiling and weaving, looking up at the sparrow. The two animals were fighting. The sparrow cried out and flew down, spreading its wings to give flapping strikes. The snake waved its head to slightly dodge, avoiding the sparrow’s wings. The sparrow returned to the tree to express its annoyance for a while then flew down to try again. The snake again wriggled its nimble body to evade, remaining in its coiled shape. It went on like this many times without a strike. Then Zhang came out and the sparrow flew away and the snake slithered off.
     The saint was illumined by this incident. The snake’s coiling was like the taiji symbol and used the principle of softness overcoming hardness. From the taiji’s transformations was devised Taiji Boxing. It cultivates essence, energy, and spirit. Movement and stillness wax and wane as in the theory of the Book of Changes. This is the way it comes down to us from long ago and its effectiveness is increasingly proven. In Beijing’s White Cloud Temple there is still an image of the saint which can be reverenced.

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

今使挾策於痒序之間•習古今中外之學•朝諷夕誦•孜孜不倦•非身心强健不可也•又使躬耕於隴畝之中•披戴星月•持籌於斗室之內•計較錙銖•亦非身心强健不可也•更使涉大江•登峻嶺•行軍於數千里之遠•餐風飲露•手胼足胝•尤非體魄孱弱者•所能耐其勞也•况今何時乎•乃物競天擇•優勝劣敗之時也•今何世乎•乃角智鬥力•英雄逐鹿之世也•然則處斯時也•生斯世也•苟非鍜鍊其身心•健全其體魄•將何以自立於天地之間哉•余自民國十年•肄業於浙江體育師範學校•於器械操•柔輭操外•最喜探求少林派拳術•一學期中•所習者凡數十套•心領意會•頗得端倪•後北平田兆麟先生來敎斯校•復從之習太極拳•觀田師之演太極也•神嚴氣聚•意愉心融•岌岌乎如臨千仭之淵•汪汪乎如揚萬頃之波•手足敏疾•體態雍容•景慕之餘•愛道心生•遂專心覃研•晨夕無間•凡三閱月•已覺精神舒適•胸部爽暢•且下部稍覺沉重•於是究其故於田師•田師略道梗槪•余意興更濃•除上課外•如有餘閒•無不專習太極•晨興夜寐•必演習數套•卒業後•需次於杭•時田師尚在西湖•於是復趨謁請益不已•斯時也•余覺練形練氣之功無窮•而學習之心遂更無倦矣•民國十五年•余入南京第三師幹部學校•旣卒業•供職於第九團•未幾•戰事起•余亦從軍出發•歷金衢嚴而越仙霞•時値冬寒•層冰滿谷•雨雪載途•每日軍行百數十里•苦不勝言•而余則神志恬然•鷄鳴而起•漏盡未息•未嘗稍露倦容•苟非身心强健•安能勝此•苟非肄習太極•其能處之泰然乎•閱數月•謝事歸里•息影田園•身體鍜鍊之功•付之闕如•精神亦日就萎靡•旋束裝赴杭•再謁田師•力攻太極•自不覺精力之復進•於是信仰太極之心亦因之彌堅矣•厥後赴粵遊閩適皖•練習太極•未嘗稍斷•朝夕研求•造詣漸深•乃於各式之中•詳為詮釋•式附以圖•圖系以解•顏曰太極拳圖解•冀以發揚國粹•力挽頽風•顯尚武之精神•練身心之强健•當此萬方多難•人儘習此•民强國振•可操左券•惟學識菲薄•小巫白矜•罅漏之譏•知所不免•海內大家•尚其諒諸•
民國二十年秋 蔡翼中序於滬凟旅次
We carry uncomfortable books under our arms to study timeless and worldly knowledge, reciting works day and night with untiring diligence. But this will not work without strengthening body and mind. Or we plow on our farms till we carry the night sky on our shoulders, then tally up the harvest we bring in and haggle over the smallest grains. Again, this will not work without strengthening body and mind. Or in wading great rivers and climbing lofty mountains, marching as a soldier many hundreds of miles away on an arduous trek that torments the hands and feet, weak bodies can hardly endure such labors, even less so nowadays. In the process of natural selection, which picks out the fittest to survive, what have we presently evolved into? Our era is one of great men who engage in a battle of wits, for seeking office. This being the case in this age that has developed as it has, unless we refine our bodies and minds, enhancing the physique, we cannot stand up in the world with any independence.
     In 1921, I studied at the Zhejiang Physical Education Teacher-Training School. In addition to the weapons training and limbering exercises, I most enjoyed delving into the Shaolin boxing arts. Within one semester, I had learned dozens of practice sets. By intuiting through the experience, I developed a pretty good understanding. Then Tian Zhaolin of Beijing came to teach at our school, whereupon I learned Taiji Boxing. I observed in his performance of Taiji that his spirit is majestic, his energy is concentrated, his intention is engaged, and his mind is focused. He is as delicate as one overlooking a deep chasm, as alert as one facing a vast tsunami. His hands and feet are agile, and he has a graceful poise. Beyond my admiration for him, he has inspired in me a love for the art, and so I became absorbed in a deeper study of it, working at it day and night without pause.
     After just a few months, I felt my spirit had become so comfortable, my breathing so clear and smooth, while in my lower body I started to feel a sinking heaviness. Consequently my studies focused more and more on Tian. He presented the art rather generally, but my interest had increased to the point that in addition to attending his classes I was using all of my free time to practice Taiji. After waking in the morning and before going to bed at night, I had to practice the set several times. After I graduated, I was in line for an official post in Hangzhou. At that time, Tian was living in West Lake, so I constantly went to see him in search of further instruction. I now found the training of posture and energy to be limitless, and my mind thus became ever more untiring toward learning.
     In 1926, I attended the 3rd Army Cadre Academy in Nanjing. After graduating there, I was posted to the 9th Group. Before long, hostilities broke out, so I enlisted in the army itself and we set out, heading down the Jinquyan Road and through the Xianxia Gate. This was at a time when winter cold had set in. Layers of ice filled the valleys. There was rain and snow every step of the way. Each day, the army marched perhaps thirty miles through unspeakable suffering, but my spirit remained calm. Starting from the rooster announcing the dawn, we would then continue without rest until the middle of the night, but I never showed the slightest exhaustion. If it had not been for the strengthening of my body and mind, how could I have managed this? And if it had not been for practicing Taiji, how could I have taken such adversity so calmly?
     But after several months of it, I was thankful to be returning home. I left public life for a while and dwelled in the countryside. The work of training my body then grew forgotten and thus my spirit increasing became listless. So I instead packed up my things and went to Hangzhou to again visit Tian. Putting all my effort into Taiji, my vigor renewed itself automatically. Because of this, I then believed even more firmly in the Taiji mentality. I then traveled in Guangdong, Fujian, Anhui, and practiced Taiji without ever taking a break from it, delving into it every day.
     As my attainment in it gradually deepened, I took down notes of the details within each posture. I had photos made to go with the explanations and so I dubbed the work Taiji Boxing Illustrated. I hope it will carry forth our national essence, force aside our corrupt tendencies, manifest our martial spirit, and strengthen our bodies and minds. In this era of countless calamities, people should do their utmost to practice this art. With the populace strengthened and the nation roused, we will be certain to succeed. On the other hand, when we look down upon scholars and put magicians on a pedestal, the source of blame for our faults is unmistakably clear, and may the nation’s experts forgive us.
     – written by Cai Yizhong at Shanghai’s Lowly Travelers’ Lodge, autumn, 1931

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - portrait

編者近影
Portrait of the author

凡例
A GUIDE TO THIS BOOK

(一)照片中表演者•即為編者自己•着球衣穿黑白褲•所以便於分別手足之位置及其姿勢•
1. The performer in the photographs is the author. He is wearing a soccer shirt and also pants that are black on one side and white on the other in order for it to be easier to distinguish the position of the hands and feet.

(二)講義中用括弧記號者•乃經過之動作•
2. In the instructions, there are parenthetic comments throughout each movement.

(三)凡動作相同者•其姿勢圖與說明槪從略•以避重複•
3. Where movements are the same as before, the photos and explanations for them are usually left out to avoid repetition.

(四)先閱講義•將動作對照確實後•再對照姿勢圖•
4. Start by reading the instruction, then do the movement for real, then compare with the photo.

(五)本書用東西南北之方向為標記者•所以便於說明•並容易對照起見•並非一定須照此方向練習•倘第一式出勢•面向西•南•北•任何一方亦無不可•
5. This book uses indicators of orientation for north, south, east, west [in black squares on the floor which are often barely visible in the murky photos] to better facilitate explanation and be more easily compared with the instructions. They are not really fixed directions that must be adhered to during practice. If you perform the first posture facing to the west, south, or north [rather than east as in the instructions], so be it.

(六)照片中脚下所踏之方格•每格長闊各一脚•以表明脚之距離及開度•便習者容易明瞭•此亦大槪如此•切勿拘泥•
6. In the photographs, the feet are stepping onto squares [a pattern of sixteen blank squares even less visible in the photos]. The size of each square is a square foot. This device is used to indicate the distance between the feet and the width of the stance in order for you to more easily understand. These are also general approximations and should not be adhered to with obsessive exactitude.

(七)所述之用法•雖著筆不多•舉一反三•是在習者•誠以拳法變化無窮•均賴隨機應變•神臻化境之後•自知得手應心之妙•
7. Although the application explanations are not comprehensive, you may build further instances based on the ones presented. Practitioners who truly understand that boxing techniques are in a state of endless flux always rely on responding according to circumstances. Once your spirit achieves perfection at this, you will naturally obtain the marvel of your hands performing what is in your mind.

(八)本姿勢有與他書出入者•此乃各書獨到之處•未可强同•
8. Where these postures differ from what appears in other manuals, this is because every book has its specific characteristics and they cannot be forced to be identical.

拳語解釋
EXPLANATIONS FOR SOME OF THE ART’S TERMINOLOGY

虛實
[1] EMPTINESS & FULLNESS

體重坐左則左實•右坐則右實•虛實分淸•跨步及轉動靈活•如門之有樞•開闔自如矣•否則虛實不分•體重落在兩腿之間•此謂雙重•雙重則滯•滯則不靈活•與人較•一腿被動•餘腿亦動矣•能將虛實分淸•如前腿或左腿被人拉移•我可立即將前或左腿變虛•跟仍不動•敵無能為矣•然虛實之分•極不容易•如第十式係左摟膝•此時體重坐左•(等於小腹放在腿上的意思•)及第十一式右摟膝當上步時是虛實交替的分際•極關緊要•在右脚提起時•上體不可高起•呼吸照常•不可驟停•右脚跨出時慢慢的將體重移右•(如將小腹輕輕的移放於右腿上的意思)此中消息•不容人知•不幸中間發生波節•譬如右腿一提•呼吸一頓挫•上體忽然高起•則氣不連貫有斷勁之虞•與外家拳無異•敵得乘虛而入焉•故曰•太極拳不但兩足要分虛實•甚至一指之微•亦應有虛實•登峯造極•固屬匪易此中荃蒂不可不知也•
When your body’s weight sits on your left leg, you are full on the left. When on the right, you are full on the right. With emptiness and fullness clearly distinguished, stepping and turning are performed nimbly, like the hinges of a door, and expanding and contracting are performed smoothly. If emptiness and fullness are not distinguished, your body’s weight falls between your legs. This is called “double weighted”. When double weighted, there will be sluggishness rather than nimbleness, and when sparring with an opponent, one leg will be put at a disadvantage while the other one is moving. With the ability to clearly distinguish between emptiness and fullness, if an opponent pulls my front leg, I can immediately change my front leg to being empty so that my root remains unaffected and he is unable to do anything to me.
     However, distinguishing between empty and full is really not easy. For example, in Posture 10 [8]: LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE, the body’s weight sits on the left leg (meaning the placement of the lower abdomen on top of the leg), and then when stepping forward to perform the RIGHT BRUSH KNEE that follows it, it is crucial for emptiness and fullness to be switched. As your right leg lifts, your upper body must not rise up, your breathing should stay normal and must not speed up. Once your right leg steps out, slowly send your body’s weight to it (meaning the lower abdomen is gently shifted to be placed atop the right leg).
     If you are not aware of such changes within the movement, this can unfortunately lead to a breaking in the rhythm. For instance, if when your right leg lifts there is a pause in your breathing or your upper body rises, this inconsistency of energy will then bring the problem of your power getting interrupted, and you will be rendered no different from a practitioner of the external styles of boxing. The opponent will take advantage of the gap and attack. Thus it is said that Taiji Boxing is not only a matter of needing to distinguish between emptiness and fullness in the feet, but even down to the level of a finger. To achieve such mastery is truly not easy, and so this precious principle has to be understood.

含胸拔背
[2] CONTAIN YOUR CHEST & PLUCK UP YOUR BACK

按時兩手向前按•至膝蓋線即停止前按•手之姿勢不變•胸向後縮•胸部原來是平直•斯時成凹形(半圓)是謂含胸•胸旣含•則背部肌肉因之緊張•同時必須鬆肩•再將兩手(肘盡力下垂•)向前按•手與膝蓋線齊•使背部成圓形•(身體不可前仆•)刻刻要顧到虛靈頂勁•否則容易成為曲背•總之全套拳處處要不忘含胸拔背及墜肘沉肩•此處特為點出•讀者注意•
When pushing, your hands are to push forward until in line with your knee, and though the posture of your hands does not change, your chest shrinks back. Originally flattened out, it now hollows (becomes concave), and this is termed “contain your chest”. With your chest hollowed, the muscles in your back are awakened. At the same time, you must loosen your shoulders (with your elbows putting all their energy into hanging down) to then send your hands pushing forward until hands and knee are aligned with each other. Make your back rounded (but not so much that your body is leaning forward). Constantly keep in mind that you are to be forcelessly pressing up your headtop, otherwise it will be easy to end up rounding your back to the point of outright curling up. At every moment in the boxing set, you should never forget to contain your chest and pluck up your back, as well as to drop your elbows and sink your shoulders. This is something which is especially to be given your attention.

墜肘沉肩
[3] DROP YOUR ELBOWS & SINK YOUR SHOULDERS

按時兩肘下垂•(其用意如兩隻手腕掛在一條架上•則肘不墜而墜•)沉肩者•人之肩骨•普通成平行形•今將肩向下鬆•使平線成為弧形•譬如將四方木頭削去兩角•此謂沉肩•(含胸拔背與墜肘沉肩是連帶關係•使胸腹寬舒•呼吸深長•內臟得所•重心安定•)
When pushing, your elbows are to hang down (The intention is as though each wrist is hung up on a shelf, thus the elbow is not dropped and yet dropped.) Sinking the shoulders is a matter of the shoulder bones, which typically form a flat line, being now loosened downward, turning the flat line into a curve. It is like trimming the corners off a piece of timber. This is what is meant by “sink the shoulders”. (The principles of containing your chest and plucking up your back with dropping your elbows and sinking your shoulders are interrelated, making your chest and belly comfortable, your breath deep and long, your organs ideally placed, and your center of gravity stable.)

虛靈頂勁
[4] FORCELESSLY PRESS UP YOUR HEADTOP

虛靈頂勁者•如白鶴亮翅之第二動•(右手上提•左手下按•)在此時頭似乎向上項的意想•全身精神聚於頭頂•但不可使頸項强硬•同時含胸拔背•明目張耳•使神氣一貫•脊柱骨要正直•體重坐穩•當右手上提時•精神隨之上注•迨左手下按•神亦隨之•所謂意雖向上•仍寓下意•方可•太極經云•尾閭中正•神貫頂•滿身輕利頭頂懸•此之謂也•
To forcelessly press up your headtop is like in movement 2 of WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (in which your right hand lifts up and your left hand pushes down). In this moment, your head seems to want to press upward and the spirit of your whole body gathers at your headtop, but you must not allow your neck to become stiff. At the same time, contain your chest and pluck up your back, sharpen your sight and extend your hearing, make your spirit and energy course through unified, keep your spine upright, and place the weight of your body so as to be sitting stably. Right as your right hand lifts, spirit follows it, focusing upward, and while your left hand pushes down, spirit follows it as well. As it is said in the Taiji classics: “Although your intention goes upward, also harbor a downward intention.” Then it will be effective. It is also said: “Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop, thus your whole body will be aware and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.” This is the idea.

鬆開
[5] LOOSEN UP

即不用力之謂也•譬如手按出時•各部肌肉則必容易緊張•故當按出不可過度•(稍向後縮)•一面肩沉•是則各部肌肉鬆開矣•
This means: to use no effort. For instance, when pushing out, the muscles of every part of your body must be both relaxed and sensitive. Therefore when pushing out, you must not overdo it (staying slightly withdrawn to the rear). One aspect of this is the shoulders sinking, which then results in the muscles of every part loosening.

弓步
[6] BOW STANCE

如拉弓之步•一腿在前•一腿在後•左腿在前誰之左弓步•右腿在前誰之右弓步•左弓步時•左腿屈•體重坐在左腿•其步度大小不可拘坭•須知人有長短•腿亦有長短•總期能易於收囘為度•女子以生理關係比男子開度自然縮短也•
This is like a stance for drawing a bow, one leg forward, the other behind. With the left leg forward, it is a “left bow stance”. With the right leg forward, it is a “right bow stance”. When in a left bow stance, your left leg is bent and the weight of your body sits on your left leg. The size of the step is not set in stone. It depends on what is right for the individual and for one’s legs. The main criterion is ability to easily withdraw. Physiologically speaking, a woman’s step will typically be shorter than a man’s.

托槍式
[7] SPEAR-HOLDING POSTURE

如軍人之托槍•右肘平•曲肘•靠着右脅•手心向上•如托槍式•
Like a soldier holding a spear, your right forearm is level, elbow bent drawing near to your right ribs, palm facing upward, [left hand forward,] as though in a posture of holding a spear.

太極拳式名稱
TAIJI BOXING POSTURE NAMES

1.太極起式
BEGINNING POSTURE
2.攬雀尾(掤捋擠按)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH)
3.單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
4.提手上勢
RAISE THE HAND
5.白鶴亮翅
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
6.摟膝拗步
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
7.手揮琵琶
PLAY THE LUTE
8.左摟膝拗步
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
9.右摟膝拗步
RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
10左摟膝拗步
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
11手揮琵琶
PLAY THE LUTE
12左摟膝拗步
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
13右摟膝拗步
RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
14上步搬攔錘
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
15如封似閉
SEALING SHUT
16十字手
CROSSED HANDS
17抱虎歸山
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
18攬雀尾
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
19斜單鞭
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
20肘底錘
PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW
21左右倒輦猴
LEFT & RIGHT RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
22斜飛勢
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
23提手上勢
RAISE THE HAND
24白鶴亮翅
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
25左摟膝拗步
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
26海底針
NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
27扇通臂
FAN THROUGH THE ARMS
28撇身錘
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
29上步搬攔錘
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
30上步攬雀尾
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
31單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
32左右抎手
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS
33單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
34高探馬
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
35右分腿
KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE
36左分腿
KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE
37轉身蹬脚
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
38左摟膝拗步
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
39右摟膝拗步
RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
40上步栽錘
STEP FORWARD, PLANTING PUNCH
41翻身白蛇吐信
TURN AROUND, WHITE SNAKE FLICKS ITS TONGUE
42上步搬攔錘
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
43蹬右脚
RIGHT PRESSING KICK
44左右披身打虎勢
LEFT & RIGHT DRAPING BODY, FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE
45囘身蹬脚
WITHDRAW, PRESSING KICK
46雙風貫耳
DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS
47左蹬脚
LEFT PRESSING KICK
48轉身蹬脚
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
49上步搬攔錘
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
50如封似閉
SEALING SHUT
51十字手
CROSSED HANDS
52抱虎歸山
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
53攬雀尾
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
54斜單鞭
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
55左右野馬分鬃
LEFT & RIGHT WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE
56上步攬雀尾
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
57單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
58玉女穿梭
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE
59攬雀尾
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
60單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
61抎手
CLOUDING HANDS
62單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
63斜身下勢
LEANING BODY LOW POSTURE
64金鷄獨立
GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
65倒輦猴
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
66斜飛勢
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
67提手上勢
RAISE THE HAND
68白鶴亮翅
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
69左摟膝拗步
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
70海底針
NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
71扇通臂
FAN THROUGH THE ARMS
72撇身錘
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
73上步搬攔錘
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
74上步攬雀尾
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
75單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
76抎手
CLOUDING HANDS
77單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
78高探馬
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
79十字腿
CROSSED-BODY KICK
80摟膝指𦡁錘
BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
81上步攬雀尾
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
82單鞭
SINGLE WHIP
83斜身下勢
LEANING BODY LOW POSTURE
84上步七星
STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER
85退步跨虎
RETREAT TO SITTING TIGER POSTURE
86轉身擺蓮
TURN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK
87彎弓射虎
BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER
88上步搬攔錘
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
89如封似閉
SEALING SHUT
90十字手
CROSSED HANDS
91合太極
CLOSING POSTURE

太極拳圖解
TAIJI BOXING ILLUSTRATED

☐第一式 太極起式
Posture 1: BEGINNING POSTURE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
由立正姿勢•兩脚尖拚攏•同時左脚向左離開•(其開度與肩同闊•)兩手向前平舉•(手心向下)舉至與肩平止如圖1•
From a posture of standing upright with your feet together, your left foot then spreads aside to the left (so your feet are now at shoulder width) and your hands raise up to be level in front of you (palms facing downward) until at shoulder level. See photo 1:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 1

△注意
Points for attention:
一•頭宜正直•
1. Your head should be upright.
二•意氣沉着•
2. Your emotions are composed.
三•眼向前平視•
3. Your gaze is forward and level.
四•不必用力•
4. It is not necessary to put forth any effort.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
兩手由原處慢慢下按•置於兩腿前•(手心向下•手指向前)•如圖2•
Your hands slowly push downward from their previous position to be placed in front of your thighs (palms facing downward, fingers pointing forward). See photo 2:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 2

▲說明
Additional explanation:
此係起式•全身安靜沉着•不用絲毫氣力•聽其自然•
In this posture, your whole body is peaceful and calm, not using the slightest bit of strength, instead behaving with naturalness.

☐第二式 攬雀尾
Posture 2: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

▲第一動
Movement 1:
上體半面向右轉•轉四十五度•右脚尖隨之•(脚跟不動•)同時右手(肘向下)由原處自身前挪起•挪到右乳房前止•(手心向下•肘沉下•)如圖3•
Your upper body turns forty-five degrees to the right, your right toes turning along with it (the heel staying where it is). At the same time, your right hand (elbow hanging down) goes from its previous position by lifting in front of your body until in front of the right side of your chest (palm facing downward, elbow sinking down). See photo 3:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 3

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重移右•
1. The weight shifts to your right leg.
二•右手上挪時須慢•
2. When your right hand shifts upward, it must do so slowly.
三•轉脚時脚跟不動•(嗣後凡遇轉脚•脚跟始終不動•)
3. When the foot turns, the heel stays where it is. (Hereafter, whenever there is pivoting of the heel, the heel will never leave its location.)

▲第二動
Movement 2:
屈右膝(脚跟不動)左脚提起向右收•靠近右脚跟•脚尖落地•正對前方•(脚跟提起)同時左手自原處移到右小腹旁止•(手心向上•正對右手•如捧一圓球式)如圖4•
Your right knee bends (the heel staying where it is) and your left foot lifts and gathers in toward the right, drawing in toward your right heel, toes touching down and pointing forward (heel lifted). At the same time, your left hand shifts from its previous position to the right side of your lower abdomen (palm facing upward toward your right hand as though you are holding a ball). See photo 4:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 4

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•左肩正對東方•
2. Your left shoulder is pointing to the east.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
坐穩右腿•左脚向左前方跨出一步•(步度大小如圖•)屈左膝成左弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(切勿挺硬•稍曲•)右手則由原處前移一寸•即輕輕向下按•置於右上腿旁•(手心向下•指向前•離腿約一拳之地•)同時左手由原處自胸前向上提起•(與肩平•手心向內•指向右•肘曲•作半圓形•離身體約四拳之地•但勿拘泥•)如圖5•
Sitting stably on your right leg, your left foot steps a full step to the forward left (the size of the step as in the photo), and your left knee bends to make a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (slightly bent rather than stiffly straight). Your right hand then shifts an inch forward from its previous position and gently pushes downward to be placed beside your right thigh (palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward, positioned at about a fist’s distance from the thigh). At the same time, your left hand lifts from its previous position in front of your chest until at shoulder level, palm facing inward, fingers pointing to the right, elbow bent to form a semicircle, positioned at a distance of about four fists from your body, though this measure does not need to be so exact). See photo 5:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 5

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•右腿須稍帶曲•勿硬挺•
2. Your right leg must be slightly bent rather than stiffly straight.
三•眼看左手大指•
3. Your gaze is toward your left thumb.
四•上體不可曲•
4. Your upper body must not bend over.
五•一面跨腿•一面分手•動作同時舉行•
5. The stepping of your leg and the spreading of your hands are to be performed in unison.
六•弓步度大小(詳拳語解釋條•)
6. As for the size of the bow stance, see the terminology explanation.

★用法
Application:
敵以右拳擊我時•我以右手粘住敵之右腕•(即第二動之右手下按動)遂進左步以左手擊其上部•(即第三動之左手上提動)•
If an opponent punches at me with his right fist, I use my right hand to connect to his right wrist (as in movement 2 when your right hand pushes down), then advance with my left foot while using my left hand to attack his upper body (as in movement 3 when your left hand lifts up).

▲說明一
Additional explanation 1:
依太極拳原理•本不能分動•今為敎授及練習便利起見•故分拆之•俾易了解•學者可得由簡入繁之妙•但在練習時•諸動皆已純熟•可自行合併•由三而二•再由二而一•(譬如此式第一動至第三動•其中間之經過動作•萬不可忽略)•如此連續•以合太極拳「處處連綿不斷」之本旨•如練習未熟•不必强連•且每式至少「看書按圖」照擺架式二十次•然後方可•切勿憚煩•一俟純熟•則興味自出•第一式純熟之後•再習第二式•第二式第一動•係繼續第一式之末動•習時先擺第一式•繼擺第二式•以相啣接•如是依法遞進•動作愈慢愈妙•萬不可使斷勁•除斷勁之法•惟慢是賴•
According to Taiji Boxing theory, techniques cannot be split up into movements, but to facilitate instruction and practice, they have here been broken down for easier understanding and so students can thereby progress from the simple to the complex. However, when practicing once all the movements are skillful, you can merge them so that three movements occur as two, then two movements occur as one. (For example, movements 1-3 of this Posture have a single process of movement that must never be overlooked.)
     This continuity conforms to the basic Taiji Boxing concept that the “movements are linked together without interruption”. If you are not yet at this level in your practice, you do not need to be forcing flow upon it, for it is sufficient for you to “read the text and examine the photos” for each posture over and over, and then you will get it. Never be afraid to do the work. With some patience for skill to develop, your pleasure in it will naturally grow.
     Once you are skillful at Posture 1, then practice getting movement 1 of Posture 2 to continue from the end of Posture 1. When practicing, first get Posture 1 right, then Posture 2, then link them together. If you go about it in this way, you will gradually progress. The slower the movements, the better, yet never allow there to be an interrupted energy. Discard methods of interrupted energy, but rely on slowness.

▲說明二
Additional explanation 2:
用法放在注意之後•意在先習動作•動作純熟後•再對照用法•否則容易混亂•有許多動作無作用者•係過渡動作•如無過渡動作•則一套拳不能連絡一氣•如動作有與用法上不相符合者•比如『第二式攬雀尾•第三動•右手下按左手向上提•』在動作上看起•左手上提時•並無以左手擊敵之意•在用法中則以左手擊其上部•如遇以上情形時•習者必須仍照動作做•心腦中存有用法則可矣•如斯方能得精神貫注之道•
Now that an application has been brought up, the idea is first to practice a movement, then to perform it skillfully, then to examine its function. If otherwise, it will easily become a mess. Many of the movements have no function and are simply transitional movements. If there were no transitional movements, then a practice set could not be put together into a single flow.
     Sometimes movements have functions that do not seem to conform to the movements, as for example in movement 3 of Posture 2 when your right hand pushes down and your left hand lifts up. Upward movement is seen when your left hand lifts, but there is no apparent intention of attacking an opponent with it, and yet the function within the movement is to use your left hand to attack an opponent’s upper body. If you encounter such a situation, you must still act in accordance with the movements, but when their functions are also in your mind, then you will succeed. By this means, you will be able to achieve the way of “spirit coursing through”.

▲第四動
Movement 4:
體重右移•(坐右腿)將左脚尖向右轉六十度•(跟不動)再將體重左移•屈左膝•同時身體轉向正南•(右脚及兩手之姿勢不變•)如圖6•
The weight shifts onto your right leg and your left toes turn sixty degrees to the right (the heel staying where it is). Then the weight shifts back to your left, your left knee bending, your body at the same time turning to face to the south (your right foot and the posture of your hands not changing). See photo 6:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 6

▲第五動
Movement 5:
左腿坐穩•右脚提起望左收•屈膝靠近左脚•(脚尖落地•跟提起•)同時左手心轉向下•(位置不變•稍後收•)在左乳房前•離乳房約二拳之地•肘下垂•右手左畫(由下而上)放在左小腹前•(手心向上•與左手心相對•如捧一圓球式•)面向正南方如圖7•
Sitting stably on your left leg, your right foot lifts and withdraws toward the left, the knee bending, and draws near to your left foot (toes touching down, heel lifted). At the same time, your left palm turns to face downward (its position not changing apart from slightly withdrawing to the rear) in front of the left side of your chest, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest, elbow hanging down, while your right hand arcs to the left (going upward from below) to be placed in front of your lower abdomen (the palm facing upward, the palms facing each other as though you are holding a ball). You are facing to the south. See photo 7:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 7

▲第六動
Movement 6:
右脚向現在之右前方跨出一步•成右弓步•(其寬度如圖另詳拳語解釋•)左腿伸直(勿硬挺•帶曲•)同時左手自原處慢慢按下•放在左上腿旁•(手心向下•指向前•)再將右手由原處•自身前提起•提到與胸平止•(手心向內•指向左•肘稍曲•成半圓形•離胸約四拳之地)如圖8•
Your right foot now steps out a full step to the forward right, making a right bow stance (The width of the stance is as in the photo. See also the terminology explanation.), your left leg straightening (not straightening to the point of stiffness, staying somewhat bent). At the same time, your left hand slowly pushes down from its previous position to be placed beside your left thigh (palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward), and your right hand goes from its previous position by lifting in front of your body until at chest level (palm facing inward, fingers pointing to the left, elbow slightly bent to form a semicircle, positioned at a distance of about four fists from your chest). See photo 8:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 8

△注意
Points for attention:
一•方向正南•
1. You are oriented to the south.
二•體重在右•
2. The weight is on your right leg.
三•左手下按•右手上提•與出腿同時行之•
3. Your left hand pushing down and your right hand lifting up are to be performed in unison with the step.

★用法
Application:
敵以右拳來擊時•我以右臂攬住敵之右臂•轉向右側•(即第六動之右手上提動•)猶如攬住鳥鵲之尾•遂進右步而擊之•(如右步已在前毋須再進步•偏身動腰足矣•)
If an opponent uses his right fist to punch at me, I use my right forearm to catch his right forearm and veer it off to my right side (as in movement 6 when your right hand lifts upward), as though I am catching a small bird by the tail, then I advance with my right foot and attack (If my right foot is already forward, it is not necessary for me to do a further advancing step, for inclining my body and turning my waist will be enough.)

▲第七動 掤
Movement 7 – WARD-OFF:
照原姿勢腰稍前移•右腿隨之•(但不動步•)右膝蓋有向前一頂•同時右手向上前方移動•約一寸高•隨即復原•圖仝上•
Your waist slightly shifts forward from its previous position and your right leg goes along with it (but without moving the foot) so that your right knee protrudes forward. At the same time, your right hand shifts upward and forward about an inch higher than it was, then returns to the position in the photo above.

★用法
Application:
敵直向我擊時•我先以右手掤住•即以腕貼在彼之肘腕中間用混勁往上掤去似乎以右手聽敵之勁•(即聽敵之力•能在剎那間•測出敵意所在•立即改變其他動作•故由下向上移•但不可硬頂•
If an opponent attacks straight toward me, I first use my right hand to ward off, then my wrist to stick to the middle of his forearm, and I put forth confusing energy to ward it away upward. I seem to be using my right hand to listen to his energy. (This is what it means to “listen” to an opponent’s force.) I can thereby instantly determine what his intention is and immediately adapt the rest of my movement to it. Therefore when I shift upward from below, I must not do so as a rigid collision.

▲第八動 捋
Movement 8 – ROLLBACK):
坐左腿•(體重左移•)右腿隨之挺直•(脚跟不動)•左手由原處挪起•放在胸前•(手心向右•指向前•離胸約三拳之地•肘曲向左外方•成半圓形•)同時右手向前伸直•(微屈•手心轉向左•)於坐腿時•隨腰輕輕向左方一撥•(如撥物向左然•)指斜向上•與左眼同高•大指正對鼻•離鼻約四拳之地•如圖9•
Sit onto your left leg (the weight shifting to your left leg), your right leg correspondingly straightening (with the heel not moving), your left hand lifting from its previous position to be placed in front of your chest (palm facing to the right, fingers pointing forward, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your chest, elbow bent and pointing outward to the left, forming a semicircle). At the same time, your right arm extends forward (slightly bent, palm turning to face to the left). As you sit back, your waist gently turns to the left (as though deflecting something away toward the left), fingers pointing diagonally upward at eye height, thumb in line with your nose and positioned at a distance of about four fists from your nose. See photo 9:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 9

△注意
Points for attention:
一•一面坐腿一面捋•
1. Sitting back and rolling back [should be performed in unison].
二•左手隨捋時挪起•
2. Your left hand lifts in the process of rolling back.
三•上體半面向左•
3. Your upper body faces halfway to the left.

★用法
Application:
捋在掤後•我當掤時•已測出敵力之所向•以左手黏住敵之右手腕•(即第八動左手上挪胸前動•)以右臂下節粘住敵之左上節•(即第八動之右手向前伸直動•)偏身轉腰•向左一撥•此之謂捋•四兩撥千斤寓意於斯焉•意即先化敵人千斤之力於無用•引之落空•然後加之四兩•(即第九動擠)否則四兩烏能撥動千斤哉•
ROLLBACK follows upon WARD-OFF. Once I have warded off, I have already determined the direction of the opponent’s force, so I then use my left hand to connect to his right wrist (as in movement 8 when your left hand goes upward in front of your chest), use my right forearm to connect to his left upper arm (as in movement 8 when your right arm extends forward), and by inclining my body and turning my waist, I deflect to the left. This is called ROLLBACK, and herein lies the concept of “four ounces moving a thousand pounds”. The idea is to first neutralize an opponent’s “thousand pounds” of force to render it useless and to lure him into losing his balance, then to add “four ounces” of force (as in the PRESS technique that follows). Otherwise, how could four ounces move a thousand pounds?

▲第九動 擠
Movement 9 – PRESS:
體重再右移•(不動步)屈右膝•成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(稍屈)右手心轉內•(曲肘)手背向前•再將左手前移•指尖黏住右臂•(在右手內•手心斜向下•當體重前移時•跟腰前按•如推物然•)如圖10•
The weight shifts to your right leg (without your feet moving) and your right knee bends to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, your right palm turns inward (elbow bending), the back of the hand facing forward, and your left hand shifts forward so the fingertips are touching your right forearm (to the inside of your right hand, palm facing diagonally downward). The weight now shifts forward, your waist then pushing forward, as though you are pushing at something. See photo 10:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 10

△注意
A point for attention:
一•擠出時手•腿•體•動作須同時舉行•
When performing PRESS, the actions of hands, legs, and body must be performed in unison.

★用法
Application:
在捋時•我右手容易被敵採去•我可隨其採勢從而擠之•如敵進我仍用捋•退則乘機而擠出之•擠之用法極多•有向上擠•斜擠•橫擠等•凡以手腕排擠敵人•皆曰擠•
When applying ROLLBACK, my right hand may easily be plucked by the opponent. I can go along with his plucking momentum and perform PRESS. If he advances, I again apply ROLLBACK, but if he retreats, I take advantage of the opportunity and press out. The usages of PRESS are numerous. There is pressing upward, pressing diagonally, pressing across, etc. Whenever the wrist is use to press against an opponent, it is called PRESS.

▲第十動 按(甲)
Movement 10 – PUSH (part 1):
坐左腿•(體重左移)右腿隨之挺直•同時兩手向前伸•(微屈)•隨腿之坐後時•曲肘向後收•(兩手心斜向下•指斜向上•其開度與肩同闊•兩肘離腹部約一拳之地•)如圖11•
Sit onto your left leg (the weight shifting to your left leg), your right leg straightening. At the same time, your arms extend forward (slightly bent), then once you have sat back, your elbows bend and your hands withdraw (palms facing diagonally downward, fingers pointing diagonally upward, spread to shoulder width, elbows positioned at about a fist’s distance from your belly). See photo 11:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 11

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左腿•上體不可向後仰•
1. The weight is on your left leg. Your upper body must not lean forward or back.
二•坐腿與收手同時•動作•須徐徐行之•
2. When sitting back and withdrawing your hands, the movement must be performed slowly.

▲第十一動 按(乙)
Movement 10 – PUSH (part 2):
體重右移•屈右膝•成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•兩手由原處隨腰平平向前按出•(如推物然)兩手開度不變•手心向前•指向上•尖與下顎同高•離體約四拳之地•肘曲向下•必須墮肘沉肩(名詳拳語解釋)如圖12•
The weight shifts to your right leg, your right knee bending to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent). From their previous position, your hands go along with your waist to push out straight ahead (as though pushing an object), maintaining their width, palms facing forward, fingers pointing upward, fingertips at chin level, positioned at a distance of about four fists from your body, elbows bent and hanging down. You must drop your elbows and sink your shoulders. (See the terminology explanation.) See photo 12:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 12

△注意
A point for attention:
一•按出時•手腰腿諸動作同時舉行•
When performing PUSH, the movements of the hands, waist, and legs are all to be performed in unison.

★用法
Application:
按即是放的意思•其中用法分二•敵向我擠來•我以兩手封住敵臂•隨其來勢坐腿曲肘•(即第十動坐後腿•曲肘向後收動•)此是化人之勁•引之落空•此其一•敵在斯時勢在必退•我乘其退勢加而按之•(即第十動兩手平平隨腰前推動•)但不可硬向前推•必須俟其鬆動•或後仰•才可加按•我之勁發于踵而腿而腰而至手指•得機得勢•按而放之•此其二•
PUSH is an intention of releasing. There are two parts to the technique:
     1. If an opponent applies PRESS to me, I use both hands to seal off his arm and I go along with his attacking momentum by sitting back and bending my elbows (as in part 1 when you sit onto your back leg, bending and withdrawing your elbows). This neutralizes his power and lures him into losing his balance.
     2. The opponent at this moment must retreat, so I take advantage of his retreating momentum and add my PUSH to it (as in part 2 when you push straight ahead with both hands). However, I must not stiffly push forward. I must wait for his movement to slacken or for him to lean back, then I can add the PUSH. As for the power of it: “Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers… you will then catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand.” To perform PUSH is to release.

▲掤捋擠按說明
Explanation for WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, and PUSH:
掤捋擠按時•體重之移轉凡五•當移轉時•最易犯臀部搖動•及身體高起之弊•故在動作時•須慢•呼吸方能自然•此式練習越熟越好•因用途甚大•雙人推手及活步推手•均由斯生•此中變化•蓋無窮盡也•習者留意及之•
During WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, and PUSH, there are altogether five weight shifts. When shifting, it is very easy to commit the errors of swaying your buttocks and rising up with your body. Therefore the movements must be performed slowly and the breathing can then be natural. The more these techniques are practiced, the better. This is because they are extremely useful. They are the basis for the two-person exercises of pushing hands and moving-step pushing hands. The transformations within them are infinite. Give them careful attention.

☐第三式 單鞭
Posture 3: SINGLE WHIP

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重左移•坐左腿•右脚尖盡力向左轉•轉百廿度•此時上體轉向東•兩手自原處平伸•隨腰向現在之左上方畫圈•至東北斜角止•(兩手間距離與肩闊同•手心向外指向上•)如圖13•
The weight shifts onto your left leg, your right toes put all their energy into turning a hundred twenty degrees to the left, your upper body turning to be squared to the east, and your hands go from their previous position by going to the left in a large arc, going along with your waist, arms extended, until reaching to the northeast (hands at shoulder width, palms facing outward, fingers pointing upward). See photo 13:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 13

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重完全在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•兩膝屈相距二拳之地•
2. Your knees bend so there is a distance of only about two fists between them.
三•眼看兩手•
3. Your gaze is toward your hands.
四•右脚盡力轉•如圖13•
4. Your right foot turns in as far it will go.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
體重右移•坐右腿•左腿伸直•兩手隨腰畫圈向右•(自左上方畫到左外方•再由左外方畫向右方•)右手畫到與右肩線平•五指旋即下垂•變為吊手•左手當畫到小腹前時•則放在右小腹前•(手心向內指向下•離開小腹約二拳之地•)如圖14•
The weight shifts onto your right leg, your left leg straightening. Your hands go along with your waist by arcing to the right (outward to the left from the upper left, then to the right from the outer left), right hand arcing until in line with your right shoulder, then its five fingers hang down, making a “hanging hand”, left hand arcing until in front of your lower abdomen, to be placed in front of the right side of your lower abdomen (palm facing inward, fingers pointing downward, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your lower abdomen). See photo 14:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 14

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•上體向東•
2. Your upper body is squared to the east.
三•吊手斜在西南角•
3. Your hanging hand points diagonally to the southeast.
四•畫手坐腿同時舉行•
4. The arcing of your hands and sitting back are to be performed in unison.
五•眼隨看右手顧及左手•
5. Your gaze follows your right hand, peripherally watching your left hand.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
上體轉向北•右脚尖(用脚跟)再轉向左•左腿提起(上腿平•脚尖向下•膝蓋正對北方•)同時左手肘向下•由原處自身前挪起•放在胸前•(手心轉向外•指向上•離胸約二拳之地•指尖與下顎齊•肘曲向下•)如圖15•
Your upper body turns to be squared to the north, your right toes also turning to the left (pivoting on the heel), your left leg lifts (thigh level, toes hanging down, knee pointing to the north). At the same time, your left hand, elbow hanging down, goes from its previous position by lifting in front of your body to be placed in front of your chest (the palm turning to face outward, fingers pointing upward, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest, fingertips at chin level, elbow bent and hanging down). See photo 15:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 15

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重完全在右•
1. The weight is entirely on your right leg.
二•上體向東北斜角•眼看正北•
2. Your upper body is squared to the northeast. Your gaze is to the north.
三•提腿與挪手動作須同時行之•
3. The lifting of the leg and shifting of the hand must be performed in unison.

▲第四動
Movement 4:
左脚向現在之左前方踏落•(西北斜角)成左弓步•屈左膝•右腿隨之伸直•(微屈)右吊手不動•左手隨落脚時•向前輕輕按出•(肘曲向下•手心向前•指向上•指尖與眼線齊•)離眼約四拳之地•如圖16•
Your left foot now steps down to the forward left (northeast) and you make a left bow stance, your left knee bending, your right leg straightening (yet slightly bent). Your right hooking hand does not change, but your left hand goes along with the step by gently pushing out forward (elbow bent and hanging down, palm facing forward, fingers pointing upward, fingertips at eye level), positioned at a distance of about four fists from your eyes. See photo 16:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 16

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•眼看左手•
2. Your gaze is toward your left hand.
三•鬆肩墜肘•坐腕含胸•俱要合作•
3. Loosen your shoulders and drop your elbows. Settle your wrists and hollow your chest. All parts should function cooperatively.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
以上合四動為一式•尤須注意第一動之轉脚•倘第一動脚尖•不盡量轉•則第四動落腿不易•且方向不易正確•故第一動脚尖必須轉成百廿度•在轉脚尖時•須將體重移坐左腿•則轉右脚尖自然容易•此式方向凡三易•最先在南•由南轉東•由東而北•結果頭向正北•左腿在西北轉角•上體向東北斜角•習時注意對照圖式•
The four movements above add up to a single posture. Particular attention must be paid to the turning of the foot in movement 1. If the toes are not turned in as far as they can go, then the step in movement 4 will not be easy, and it will also be difficult to get the orientation to be correct. Therefore the toes must be turned a hundred and twenty degrees. While the toes turn, you must shift your weight onto your left leg, and then your right toes will turn naturally and easily. This posture’s orientation has three phases. You start out facing to the south, then turn to the east, then to the north, resulting in your gaze being toward the north, your left leg stepping to the northwest, and your upper body being squared to the northeast. When practicing, carefully imitate the photographs.

★用法
Application:
在同一時間•左右均受敵侵•則以右手粘住右方敵人之右手•(即第二動之右手畫到與右肩平動•)化彼之勁•引之落空•彼將傾跌•我以手指按之•如敵亦能聽勁•必向後縮•我繼加以手指骨節•敵再變•我則加以手背•加以腕骨•如是而成吊手•敵倘不動•則無所用其吊手矣•同時左方敵以左手來擊•我以左手粘住之•化彼之勁•(即第三動左手自左腿旁挪起放在胸前•同時手心轉向外動•)此即是化勁•引之向我左側•俟其將要傾跌•以左掌按之•(即第四動出腿左手前按•)
I am being attacked by opponents to my right and left at the same time. To deal with the opponent on my right, I use my right hand to connect to his right wrist (as in movement 2 when your right hand arcs until in line with your right shoulder), neutralizing his power and luring him into losing his balance. Once he is about to lean and stumble, I push down with my fingers. If he is able to detect this energy, he will surely shrink back, so I continue by pressing in with my knuckles, which if he adapts to I then move on to using the back of my hand, and finally my wrist, fully forming the “hanging hand” posture. However, if he [does not detect my pushing down energy and] does not move [back], there would be no cause for me to apply the hanging hand.
     At the same time, the opponent to my left uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to connect to it and neutralize his power (as in movement 3 when your left hand lifts from beside your left leg to be placed in front of your chest and your hand turns to face outward). This neutralization draws him toward my left side, and then just as he is about to lean and stumble, I use my left palm to push him (as in movement 4 when you step out and your left hand pushes forward).

☐第四式 提手上勢
Posture 4: RAISE THE HAND

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重右移•坐右腿•左脚尖向右轉四十五度•再將體重移坐於左腿•兩手及右脚不動•同時上體轉向正東•如圖17•
The weight shifts onto your right leg, your left toes turn forty-five degrees to the right, then shift your weight to again be sitting on your left leg. Your hands and right foot stay as they were. At the same time, your upper body turns to be squared to the east. See photo 17:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 17

▲第二動
Movement 2:
左腿坐穩•右腿提起稍左收•即時放下•脚跟着地•脚尖翹起•(向東南斜角•膝蓋稍挺直•)兩手同時向裏合抱(如抱物在胸前•動作鬆柔•沉肩墜肘•)右手稍伸直•微屈•(手心向左•指斜向上•尖與眼線齊•離眼約四拳之地•手偏右•肘向下•)左手曲(肘向下•手心向右•指向上•尖與下顎齊•離顎約三拳之地•稍偏右•)兩手合抱於胸前•但必須稍偏右方•如圖18•
Sitting stably on your left leg, your right leg lifts and withdraws toward your left leg. When the foot comes down, the heel is touching down, toes lifted (pointing to the southeast, knee slightly straightening). At the same time, your hands embrace inward (as though embracing something in front of your chest, the movement loosened and soft, with your shoulders sinking and elbows dropped), your right hand slightly extended, slightly bent (palm facing to the left, fingers pointing diagonally upward, fingertips at eye level, positioned at a distance of about four fists from your eyes, hand slightly inclining to the right, elbow hanging down), your left arm bent (elbow hanging down, palm facing to the right, fingers pointing upward, fingertips at chin level, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your chin, also slightly inclining to the right). Your hands embrace in front of your chest, but must have a slight inclination toward the right. See photo 18:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 18

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•眼看右手•
2. Your gaze is toward your right hand.
三•上體向東•
3. Your upper body is squared to the east.
四•右手在右肩之外方•
4. Your right hand is to the outside of your right shoulder.
五•當兩手合抱時•右脚亦提起•兩手抱攏•右脚隨之同時着地•勿分先後•
5. While your hands are moving toward each other, your right foot lifts. When your hands come together, your right foot comes down, neither before nor after.

★用法
Application:
敵以左手來擊•我以左手粘住敵之左腕•以右臂下節粘住敵之左臂上節•夾而擠出之•亦有如手揮琵琶之用法•(詳第七式)故有稱謂反手揮琵琶者•
If an opponent uses his left hand to attack me, I use my left hand to stick to his left wrist, my right forearm to stick to his left upper arm, and I squeeze in and then send him out with PRESS. This is similar to the application for PLAY THE LUTE (explained below in Posture 7), thus the name for this technique with the hands reversed is PLAY THE LUTE.

☐第五式 白鶴亮翅
Posture 5: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右脚提起•略進半步•足尖轉向東北斜角踏實•體重右移坐穩•上體轉向正北•同時左腿提起隨即踏落•(脚尖着地•脚跟提起•膝蓋向北•)左手不變位置隨腰轉北•(惟肘稍抬高•曲向左外方•手心向下•指向右•與乳線平•離胸約二拳之地•)同時右手由原處隨腰向小腹處畫•置小腹前與臍齊•(手心向上•指向左•正對左手•如捧一圓球狀•)如圖19•
Your right foot lifts and slightly advances a half step, the toes turning to point to the northeast, and the foot comes down fully. The weight shifts to be sitting stably on your right leg and your upper body turns to be squared to the north. At the same time, your left leg lifts and immediately lowers (toes touching down, heel lifted, knee pointing to the north). Your left hand does not change in its posture, but goes along with your waist in turning to the north (except the elbow goes slightly higher and bends outward to the left, palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the right at chest level, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest). At the same time, your right hand leaves its previous position, going along with your waist by arcing toward your belly to be placed in front of your lower abdomen at navel level (palm facing upward, fingers pointing to the left, facing your left hand as though you are holding a ball). See photo 19:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 19

△注意
Points for attention:
一•轉體與畫手同時行之•
1. Turning your body and arcing with your right hand are to be performed in unison.
二•右脚進半步時即轉脚尖•
2. While your right foot advances its half step, it turns its toes.
三•體重在右•
3. The weight is on your right leg.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
左手由原處慢慢下按•放於左上腿旁•(手指向前•手心向下•離腿約一拳之地•)同時右手自身前提起•(提手時•手心向內•肘向上•指向下•手離體約三拳之地•邊提邊轉•將手心轉向外)•提到右額角止•即放右額前•(手心向外•指向左•離額約三拳之地)•如圖20•
Your left hand slowly pushes downward from its previous position to be placed beside your left thigh (fingers pointing forward, palm facing downward, positioned at about a fist’s distance from the thigh). At the same time, your right hand lifts in front of your body (palm facing inward while lifting, elbow pointing upward, fingers pointing downward, the hand positioned at a distance of about three fists from your body, lifting then turning, palm turning to face outward) to arrive in front of your right temple (palm facing outward, fingers pointing to the left, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your forehead). See photo 20:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 20

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•右手上提時左手須同時按下•如抽絲然•
2. When your right hand lifts upward, your left hand must push downward. It is like drawing silk.
三•眼隨看右手•
3. Your gaze follows your right hand.
四•要虛靈頂勁•(詳拳語解釋)
4. You should forcelessly press up your headtop. (See the terminology explanation.)

★用法
Application:
我以右手擊敵•(即第一動之右手向小腹處畫動•)被其左手按落•我可隨之按落•在此時彼若以右手來擊•我可用左手粘住彼右手•且採之向下•(即第二動左手下按動•)右手趁此由下而上•從右邊抽出•擊其頭部•(即第二動右手自身前上提動•)或以左手往左側往下展開敵之右腕(即第二動左手下按動)同時右手往右側而上展開敵之左腕(即第二動右手自身前上提動)分散其力•
If I use my right hand to attack an opponent (as in movement 1 when your right hand arcs toward your lower abdomen) and it gets pushed down by his left hand, I can go along with his downward push. If he at this moment uses his right hand to attack, I can use my left hand to connect to his right wrist and pluck downward (as in movement 2 when your left hand pushes down). My right hand takes advantage of this action by going upward from below, moving along my right side to attack his head (as in movement 2 when your right hand lifts in front of your body). Or I may send my left hand downward to the left to spread aside his right wrist (as in movement 2 when your left hand pushes down), while sending my right hand upward to the right to spread aside his left wrist (as in movement 2 when your right hand lifts in front of your body), thereby dispersing his force.

☐第六式 摟膝抝步
Posture 6: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右手自原處(肘下垂)•手心轉內••指向上•慢慢放落•右肘靠着右脅如托槍式•同時左手自原處前伸(稍曲•手心向右•指向前•)與上體同時半面向右轉•如圖21•
Your right hand goes from its previous position (elbow hanging down), palm turning to face inward, fingers pointing upward, slowly lowering so that the elbow draws near to your right ribs as in a spear-holding posture. At the same time, your left arm extends forward from its previous position (slightly bent, palm facing to the right, fingers pointing forward) and your upper body turns halfway to the right. See photo 21:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 21

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重仍在右腿•
1. The weight is still on your right leg.
二•上體半面向右•下體不動•惟轉腰耳•
2. Your lower body does not move while your upper body turns halfway to the right, for there is turning only at the waist.
三•左手在北•右手偏東北•
3. Your left hand is to the north, but your right hand inclines toward the northeast.
四•眼看左手•
4. Your gaze is toward your left hand.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
上體轉正北•兩手在原處•不變姿勢•左腿提起•(上腿平足尖向下)如圖22•
Your upper body turns to be squared to the north, your hands not changing in their posture, and your left leg lifts (thigh level, toes hanging down). See photo 22:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 22

▲第三動
Movement 3:
左脚向現在之左前方西北斜角跨出一步•成左弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•同時左手隨落腿時•由原處下掠•(由膝前向左外方掠•)放在左膝蓋旁•(手心向下•指向前•離腿約一拳之地•)右手由原處望右耳邊收•再由耳邊隨腰向前按出•(由上而下•)肘稍曲•手心向前•手指向上•與右肩齊•離肩約五拳之地•如圖23•
Your left leg now steps out a full step to the forward left – northwest – making a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, your left hand goes along with the lowering of your leg, going from its previous position by sweeping downward (sweeping from in front of your knee outward to the left) to be placed beside your left knee (palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward, positioned at about a fist’s distance from the thigh). Your right hand meanwhile has gone from its previous position to gather in toward your right ear and now goes along with your waist by pushing out forward from beside your right ear (going downward from above), elbow slightly bent, palm facing forward, fingers pointing upward, in line with your right shoulder, positioned at a distance of about five fists from the shoulder). See photo 23:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 23

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•步度之大小如圖•
2. The size of the step is as in the photo.
三•落腿與右手前按同時動作•
3. Your leg lowering and your right hand pushing forward are to be performed in unison.

★用法
Application:
敵以右手擊我•我以右手粘住敵右腕•偏身轉腰引之向右側•(即第一動右手自原處放落•肘向後動•)再以左手擊其頭部•(即第一動左手自身前挪起動•)在此時•敵如再以左手來擊•或以左腿來踢•我以左手向左摟•(或摟住敵腿)再上步以右手擊彼上部•或推放之•(即左手摟膝•右手前按動•)
If an opponent uses his right hand to attack me, I use my right hand to connect to his right wrist, inclining my body and turning my waist to draw him in toward my right side (as in movement 1 when your right hand lowers and your elbow goes toward the rear), then use my left hand to attack his head (as in movement 1 when your left hand lifts in front of your body). At this moment, if he then uses his left hand to attack, or uses his left leg to kick, I use my left hand to brush aside to the left (or drag aside his leg), then step forward and use my right hand to strike to his upper body or to push him away (as [in movement 3] when your left hand brushes past your knee and your right hand pushes forward).

☐第七式 手揮琵琶
Posture 7: PLAY THE LUTE

▲第一動
Movement:
體重完全移左•後腿提起向前收半步•(脚尖方向不變•)仍將體重移右•坐右腿•再將左脚提起稍右移•即時脚跟着地•尖翹起向西北斜角•同時兩手由原處挪起向裏合抱•兩手心相對•右手曲置胸前•(手心向左•離胸約二拳之地•)左手稍直(肘向下手心向右•指斜向上•尖與左眼齊•)兩手如合抱一琵琶狀•如圖24•
The weight shifts fully onto your left leg, your rear leg lifts and comes forward a half step (toes still pointing in the same direction), and the weight then shifts to your right leg. Now sitting on your right leg, your left leg then lifts and slightly shifts back, heel touching down, toes lifted and pointing to the northwest. At the same time, your hands go from their previous position to embrace inward, palms facing each other, right arm bent and placed in front of your chest (palm facing to the left, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest), left arm slightly straightening (elbow hanging down, palm facing to the right, fingers pointing diagonally upward, fingertips in line with your left eye). Your hands seem to be holding a lute. See photo 24:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 24

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•眼看左手
2. Your gaze is toward your left hand.
三•左脚尖向西北斜角•右脚尖向東北斜角
3. Your left toes are pointing to the northwest, your right toes to the northeast.
四•面仍向北
4. You are still facing to the north.
五•先進右脚•當左脚提起時•兩手亦即挪起•左脚跟着地•兩手亦即抱攏•
5. First advance with your right foot, then as your left foot lifts, your hands also lift, and as your left heel touches down, your hands come together.

★用法
Application:
敵以右手擊我•其臂若在直時•我則以右手粘住彼之右腕•以左手抱粘住彼右肘關節•用勁腰向裏一夾•夾時腰似乎向右一扭•(此完全是用腰勁•)敵臂非斷即傷矣•此其用法一•或以右手粘住彼之右腕•以左手按其右肩骨•測其動靜•待機而發•此其二•
If an opponent uses his right hand to attack me, at the moment his arm seems to be straight I use my right hand to stick to his right wrist, my right hand to stick to his right elbow, and using power from my waist, I squeeze inward. When squeezing, my waist seems to be twisting to the right. (This technique entirely depends on power from the waist.) Even if his arm does not break, it will be injured. This is one way to apply this technique.
     For another scenario, I may use my right hand to stick to his right wrist and my left hand to push on his right shoulder, feeling for what he will do, then wait for the right moment to issue.

☐第八式 左摟膝抝步
Posture 8: LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

▲第一動
Movement:
右腿坐穩•左腿提起•向前(西北斜角)跨出半步•成左弓步•右腿隨之挺直•(帶曲)•同時左手摟膝•置於左腿旁•(指向前)•右手由原處向右後方畫•先手心向外由下而上•手邊畫邊轉•畫到右耳邊止•(此時手心向前指向上)當出腿時•隨腰向前按出•(由上而下)其動作與第六式第三動略同•兩手位置則完全無異•圖同23•
Sitting stably on your right leg, your left leg lifts, and steps out a half step forward (to the northwest), making a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (yet still bent). At the same time, your left hand brushes past your knee to be placed beside your left thigh (fingers pointing forward) as your right hand arcs from its previous position to the right rear, palm first facing outward, going downward from above, then arcing and turning over until beside your right ear (palm now facing forward, fingers pointing upward). When you step out, your right hand goes along with your waist by pushing out forward (going upward from below). The movement is almost the same as in Posture 6, movement 3 – photo 23, and the positioning of the hands is identical.

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•圖同23
2. The posture is the same as in photo 23.
三•方向仍朝北•
3. Your orientation is still to the north.
四•此式與第六式稍異處•即左弓步僅進半步•第六式第三動則為大步•
4. This posture is slightly different from Posture 6, for this left bow stance only advances a half step, whereas the one in movement 3 of Posture 6 makes a full step.
五•脚落地須輕•不可有聲•
5. When your foot comes down, it must do so lightly and soundlessly.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
嗣後續式上步極多•在未上步時•必須坐穩後腿•如跨左脚•則坐穩右腿•如此則跨步自然輕靈•太極拳論云•「邁步如貓行」•寓意於斯•故跨步匪輕不可•欲輕惟坐穩後腿是賴•且手脚必須同時舉動•如第六式第三動•當左脚跨出時•左手摟膝•似有掠取敵人腿之意思•右手當出腿時隨腰向前按敵之上體•若摟膝與按手動作參差•則價値盡失之矣•
There are hereafter very many postures in which there is a “step forward”. Before stepping forward, you must sit stably on your rear leg. For instance, when stepping out with your left foot, sit stably on your right leg. In this way, your steps will naturally be nimble. It says in the Taiji Boxing classics: “Step like a cat.” It is this idea. Therefore unless you step lightly, it will not work, and if you wish to step lightly, it depends entirely on sitting stably on your rear leg.
     Furthermore, the actions of your hands and feet must be performed in unison,
as in Posture 6, movement 3. When your left foot steps out, your left hand brushes past your knee, seemingly with an intention of sweeping aside an opponent’s leg, and your right hand in that moment goes along with your waist to push forward to the opponent’s upper body. If the actions of brushing and pushing are out of synch, then the value of the technique will have been spent.

★用法
Application:
敵以左腿踢我時•我以左手掠取敵腿向左•再以右手擊其上部•或推放之•
If an opponent uses his left leg to kick me, I use my left hand to sweep away his leg, then use my right hand to strike to his upper body or to push him away.

☐第九式 右摟膝抝步
Posture 9: RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
左脚尖向左轉四十五度•體重左移•坐穩左腿•同時右脚提起左收•靠近左脚•脚尖落地•跟提起•兩手姿勢不變•如圖25•
Your left toes turn forty-five degrees to the left, the weight shifts onto your left leg, and you sit stably on it. Then your right foot lifts and draws nears to your left foot, toes touching down, heel lifted. Your hands have not changed in their posture. See photo 25:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 25

▲第二動
Movement 2:
右脚提起向現在之右前方跨出一步•屈膝成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(帶屈)同時右由手原處摟膝•放在右膝蓋右邊•(手指向前)•左手則由原處挪起•(手指向上)挪到左耳邊•出腿時隨腰向前平按出•(肘稍屈•手心向前•尖與左肩齊•離肩約五拳之地)如圖26•
Your right foot lifts and now steps out a full step to the forward right, the knee bending to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet still bent). At the same time, your right hand goes from its previous position to brush past your knee and is placed to the right side of your right knee (fingers pointing forward), your left hand lifting from its previous position (fingers pointing upward) until beside your left ear, then going along with your waist during the step by pushing out straight ahead (elbow slightly bent, palm facing forward, fingertips in line with your left shoulder, positioned at a distance of about five fists from the shoulder). See photo 26:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 26

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•眼看左手指•
2. Your gaze is toward your left fingers.
三•跨步時手腿動作同時•
3. When stepping out, the actions of the hands and legs are to be performed in unison.

★用法
Application:
敵以右拳來擊時•我以右手向右摟(即第二動右手摟膝動•)再以左手擊其胸腹部•或推放之•(即左手前按動•)
If an opponent uses his right fist to punch at me, I use my right hand to brush it aside to the right (as in movement 2 when your right hand brushes past your left knee), then use my left hand to strike to his chest or belly, or to push him away (as in [movement 2] when your left hand pushes forward).

☐第十式 左摟膝抝步
Posture 10: LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
同第八式 圖同 (此式左足上一大步與八式稍異耳)
Same as in Posture 8 (except for the large forward step with your left foot, which makes it slightly different).

☐第十一式 手揮琵琶
Posture 11: PLAY THE LUTE
同第七式 圖同•
Same as in Posture 78.

☐第十二式 左摟膝抝步
Posture 12: LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
同第八式 圖同•(此式左足亦上一大步)
Same as in Posture 8 (but again with your left foot making a large forward step).

☐第十三式 右摟膝抝步
Posture 13: RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
同第九式 圖同
Same as in Posture 9.

☐第十四式 上步搬攬錘
Posture 14: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH

▲第一動
Movement:
右脚尖向右轉•約四十五度•坐穩右腿•左脚提起向左前方跨出一步•屈膝成左弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•左手位置不變•稍前出•手指前翹•(手心斜向下)•右手握拳•(空心拳勿用力)自原處挪起•手臂平•肘先向後收•然後自腰間向左手下輕輕朝前打出•放在左掌下•(肘稍曲向下•不必伸直•)如圖27•
Your right toes turn about forty-five degrees to the right. Sitting stably on your right leg, your left leg lifts, steps out a full step to the forward left, and the knee bends to make a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (yet slightly bent). Your left hand does not change in its posture, but goes slightly forward, fingers raised forward (palm facing diagonally downward), while your right hand grasps into a fist (a hollow fist that does not use strength) and lifts from its previous position so that the forearm is level, first withdrawing the elbow, then going from your waist toward your left hand, gently punching forward under your left palm (elbow slightly bent, hanging down, does not need to be straight). See photo 27:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 27

△注意
Points for attention:
一•眼前看•體重在左•拳打出須輕•
1. Your gaze is forward. The weight is on your left leg. The punch must be performed gently.
二•自第九式至此式止•共上六步•
2. From Posture 9 to this one, there is a total of six stepping actions.

★用法
Application:
敵以右拳擊我胸腹•我以右拳粘住敵之右碗•向右下搬開•(即第一動右手握拳肘向後收如托槍式動•)同時以左手擊其上部•(即左手位置不變稍前按動•)在此時敵若以左手隔開我左手•我即以左手攔開敵之左手•進步以右手擊彼胸腹•左脚巳在前不必上步•
If an opponent uses his right fist to punch to my chest or belly, I use my right fist to connect to his right wrist and parry it downward to the right (as in the part of the movement when your right hand grasps into a fist and the elbow withdraws, resembling a spear-holding posture). At the same time, I use my left hand to attack his upper body (as in the part of the movement when your left hand does not change its posture but pushes slightly forward). If he now uses his left hand to block aside my left hand, I in turn use my left hand to take his left hand aside, advancing, and use my right hand to strike to his chest or belly. If my left foot is already in front, it would not then be necessary for me to take a full step forward.

☐第十五式 如封似閉
Posture 15: SEALING SHUT

▲第一動
Movement 1:
左手稍右移•移到右肘之下•右手從左邊抽囘•放在左手上•(成交叉手•手心向下(圖省去)同時體重右移•坐右腿•左腿隨之挺直•(坐腿時腰先向左一扭)再將兩手分開(與肩同寬•指向上•手心向前•肘向下•)乘坐腿時•隨腰後收•收到胸前止•如圖28•
Your left hand slightly shifts to the right until below your right elbow, your right hand withdrawing from the left to be placed above your left hand (the hands crossing, palms facing downward). (The photo for this moment could not be included.) At the same time, the weight shifts to your right leg. As you sit onto your right leg, your left leg straightens (When sitting back, your waist first twists to the left.) and your hands spread apart (to shoulder width, fingers pointing upward, palms facing forward, elbows hanging down), following your waist as you sit back, withdrawing until in front of your chest. See photo 28:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 28

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•坐腿與收手動作同時
2. The actions of sitting back and withdrawing your hands occur in unison.
三•上體不可後仰
3. Your upper body must not lean back.
四•眼前看•
4. Your gaze is forward.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
體重仍左移•屈左膝•成左弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(微曲)同時兩手稍低下二寸•隨腰向前平平按出如圖29•
The weight again shifts to your left leg, your left knee bending to make a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, your hands slightly lower, by about two inches, then go along with your waist by pushing out straight ahead. See photo 29:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 29

△注意
A point for attention:
一•腰腿動•脚步不動•
Your waist and legs move, but your feet do not.

★用法
Application:
我以右拳擊敵之胸腹•被其左手橫推我右肘•此是敵化我之勁也•我可乘其橫推勁以左手由右肘後下接住敵之左腕•(即第一動左手右移•移到右肘之下動•)右手抽囘•(印右手從左邊抽囘動•)偏身轉腰引之落空•(即第一動我腰向左一扭動•)此時右手抽出適粘住彼左肘•(即兩手分開動•)我坐腿向後亦引敵落空之意•彼旣落空勢在必退•我隨其退加而按之•(即第二動兩手稍低下向前按出動•)
When I punched to the opponent’s chest or belly, if my right elbow got pushed aside by his left hand, he has neutralized my power. I can take advantage of the energy of his pushing across by taking my left hand from behind and below my elbow to connect to his left wrist (as in movement 1 when your left hand shifts to the right to be under your right elbow), withdrawing my right hand (from the left side), inclining my body and turning my waist, luring him into losing his balance (as in movement 1 when your waist twists to the left). At this moment, once my right hand has sufficiently escaped, it then connects to his left elbow (as in [movement 1] when your hands spread apart). When I sit back, I have the intention of drawing him in so he loses his balance, and he is in that moment compelled to retreat, so I go along with his retreat by adding a push (as in movement 2 when your hands slightly lower and push out forward).

☐第十六式 十字手
Posture 16: CROSSED HANDS

▲第一動
Movement 1:
左手稍右移•(手心向右)右手挪起放在左手上•(手心向左)此時成交叉式•同時體重右移•坐右腿•上體向右轉•(正東)•此時左腿挺直•脚尖轉正東(跟不動)兩手位置不變隨腰轉•承置於胸前•離胸約三拳之地•兩手心各向外方•指尖與眼齊•(在轉上體時•右脚尖翹起•隨腰右轉四十五度•跟不動•脚尖直對正東•)如圖30•
Your left hand slightly shifts to the right (palm facing to the right) and your right hand lifts to be above your left hand (palm facing to the left) so that your hands are now crossed. At the same time, the weight shifts onto your right leg and your upper body turns to the right (to be squared to the east). Your left leg is now straight, toes pointing to the east (the heel still where it was). The posture of your hands does not change while your waist turns and they are placed in front of your chest, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your chest, palms facing outward, fingertips at eye level. (When your upper body turns, your right toes lift and go along with your waist by turning forty-five degrees to the right, the heel staying where it is, the toes pointing to the east.) See photo 30:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 30

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•轉上體時兩手不變位置•隨腰轉正東•左右兩脚尖亦隨之•
2. When your upper body turns, your hands do not change their posture. As your waist turns to be squared to the east, the toes of both feet turn along with it.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
隨重左移•右脚向後收•與左脚尖成平行線•開度與肩同寬•將兩手自身前向上伸直•手心轉向前•同時向左右分開•一面分手•一面兩膝屈•身體下蹲•(兩手向左右分開時•由上而下•畫圈的意思•)當身體蹲到時•兩手則由左右外方•相合於胸前•成交叉手(手心向內•離體約四拳之地)如圖31•
Then the weight shifts to your left leg and your right foot pulls back to be in line with your left toes, shoulder width apart, while your hands extend upward in front of your body, palms turning to face forward, spreading in unison to the sides. As your hands spread, your knees bend and your body squats down (your hands arcing downward from above). Once your body has squat down, your hands have come together to be again crossed in front of your chest (palms facing inward, positioned at a distance of about four fists from your body). See photo 31:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 31

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重偏左•
1. The weight inclines to your left.
二•上體不可前仆後仰•
2. Your upper body must not lean forward or back.
三•分手與蹲體同時舉行•
3. The spreading of your hands and the squatting of your body are to be performed in unison.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
身體立起•兩腿伸直•兩手姿勢不變•隨體起立時上挪•正對胸前(肘向下•大指尖與鼻齊•)如圖32•
Your body stands up, both legs straightening. The posture of your hands not changing, they rise upward along with the rising of your body to be directly in front of your chest (elbows hanging down, thumbs at nose level). See photo 32:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 32

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重仍在左
1. The weight is still on your left leg.
二•立起不可太快
2. Standing up must not be done too quickly.
三•面向東
3. You are facing to the east.

★用法
Application:
在如封似閉時•我以兩手按彼左臂•彼以化勁法•左肘不動•左手掌一鬆•引我落空•我此時容易傾跌•彼適可以擷我面部•故我左手若覺得彼左手鬆動•立即趁其鬆動•以左手直擊其胸•(即第一動左手稍右移動•)同時以右手粘住敵之左肘•向我之左側橫推•(即第一動右手挪起放在左手上動•)敵若再以右手反擊我•我以交叉手封閉之•或挪以右手接住敵之右腕•領其向我之右側•(即第一動坐右腿上體向右轉正東動•)身體轉正東之後•如敵以兩手自東來正面向我齊擊•我接住敵肘托之向上•使其兩手夾攏不得勁•(即第二動兩手向上伸直動•)此是一用法也•又假如,正面以兩手齊擊時•我以兩手接住兩敵腕•向左右分開•(此是化勁•)同時向下採•故身體下蹲•(即第二動兩膝屈及身體下蹲•兩手左右分開動•)敵被我採落時•勢必上縮•趁其上縮•將其肘托起放出•(即第三動身體立起•兩腿伸直•兩手姿勢不變隨體起立上挪動)
When performing SEALING SHUT, I use both hands to push on the opponent’s arm. If he neutralizes this technique by keeping his elbow where it is but loosening his left palm to lure me into losing my balance, I could at this moment easily lean and stumble away, or he could easily attack my face. Therefore if my left hand feels his left hand loosening, I immediately take advantage of his loosening action by using my left hand to strike directly to his chest (as in movement 1 when you shift your left hand slightly to the right). At the same time, I use my right hand to connect to his left elbow and push it across toward my left side (as in movement 1 when you shift your right hand to be above your left hand). If he then uses his right hand to counterattack, I cross my hands to seal it off, or I shift my right hand to connect to his right wrist and lead it toward my right side (as in movement 1 when you sit onto your right leg and turn your upper body to be squared to the east). Once my body has turned to be squared to the east, if he uses both hands to perform PRESS toward me from the east, I connect to his elbows and prop them upward, causing his hands to be squeezed together and unable to apply power (as in movement 2 when your hands extend upward). This is one way to apply this technique.
     For another scenario, if when he uses both hands to PRESS, I instead use both hands to connect to his wrists and spread them apart to the sides (neutralizing), then pluck downward while squatting my body down (as in movement 2 when you bend your knees and squat your body down, spreading your hands to the sides). When he has been plucked downward, his energy is sure to recoil upward, so I take advantage of his upward recoil by propping up his elbows to send him away (as in movement 3 when you stand your body up and straighten your legs, your hands correspondingly rising upward).

☐第十七式 抱虎歸山
Posture 17: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重右移•左脚尖翹起向右轉四十五度•再將體重移左•坐左腿•上體轉向南•右脚隨向現在之右前方(膝蓋挺直)踏出一步•左手在原處不變姿勢•惟將手心轉外•(手指向前•火口向下•)放在左耳邊•離左耳約一拳之地•右手手心轉下•(且稍低下•)放在胸前•隨腰轉南•如圖33•
The weight shifts to your right leg, your left toes lift and turn forty-five degrees to the right, then the weight shifts back onto your left leg, and your upper body turns to be squared to the south, your right foot going along with this action by stepping out a full step to the forward right (knee straight). Your left hand does not change in its posture except for the palm turning to face outward (fingers pointing forward, tiger’s mouth facing downward), and is placed beside your left ear, positioned at about a fist’s distance from it, while your right palm turns to face downward (slightly lower than your left hand) and is placed in front of your chest, going along with your waist toward the south. See photo 33:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 33

△注意
Points for attention:
一•眼看南
1. Your gaze is to the south.
二•上體及右肘向南
2. Your upper body and right elbow are pointing to the south.
三•體重在左
1. The weight is on your left leg.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
體重右移•屈膝•成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•同時右手背前覆•肘向後收•靠着右脅•(手心向上指向前•如托槍式)•左手隨腰前按出•(手心斜向下•指尖與右肩同高•)離右肩約四拳之地如圖34•
The weight shifts to right leg and the knee bends to make a bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, the back of your right hand goes forward, turning over, the elbow withdrawing near to your right ribs (palm facing upward, fingers pointing forward, as in a spear-holding posture), while your left hand goes along with your waist by pushing out (palm facing diagonally downward, fingertips at shoulder level), positioned at a distance of about four fists from your right shoulder. See photo 34:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 34

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•眼前看
2. Your gaze is forward.
三•右脚踏在西南斜角
3. Your right foot steps to the southwest.
四•兩手前按後收帶畫圈意•
4. Your hands maintain an intention of drawing arcs in their pushing forward and withdrawing.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
坐左腿•體重左移•右腿隨之伸直•(微屈)同時左手心轉上•肘向後收•靠着左脅•右手(手心轉下•)自左手上隨腰向前按出•邊按邊坐左腿•(指尖向前•與左眼齊•)離眼約五拳之地•如圖35•
The weight shifts onto your left leg, your right leg straightening (yet still bent). At the same time, your left palm turns to face upward, the elbow withdrawing near to your left ribs, while your right hand (palm turning to face downward) goes along with your waist by pushing out forward over your left hand, pushing out as you sit back (fingertips forward and in line with your left eye), positioned at a distance of about five fists from your eyes. See photo 35:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 35

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•坐腿時左手隨即後收•右手前按•帶陋圈之意
2. As you sit back, your left hand withdraws and your right hand pushes forward, maintaining an intention of arcing.
三•此時上體變為半面向東•(即東南斜角)•
3. Your upper body has now shifted to be half turned toward the east (so as to be squared to the southeast).
四•眼前看南•
4. Your gaze is forward to the south.

★用法
Application:
敵自我右側•以右手擊我頭部•(由上而下)•我轉頭以左手接住敵之右手•(即第一動左手手心轉外•放在左耳邊動•)此時方向未變•再轉身以右肘擷其右脅•(即第一動右手手心轉下且低下•隨腰轉南動•)敵若以右手將我右肘按落時•我可隨其落勢換以右手粘彼右腕•橫推向右•順便以左手•擊其上部•(即第二動右手手背前覆•作托槍式•左手隨腰前按動•)敵此時若再以左手反擊我•我以左手按落敵之左手•(即第三動左手手心轉上向後收動•)抽出右手•擊其上部•(即第三動右手自左手上•向前按出動•)此其用法一•我轉身之後•(即第二動作過之後•)敵若以左手自上打來•我急用左手腕由敵左手腕下繞過粘敵之右手腕•(即第三動左手心轉上•向後收動•)再以右手將敵之上臂貼住•(即第三動右手自左手上向前按出動•)同時兩手往懷裏向左側合抱•(即第三動坐左腿動)此其二
If an opponent on my right side uses his right hand to attack my head (going downward from above), I turn my head and use my left hand to connect to his right hand (as in movement 1 when your left palm turns to face outward and is placed beside your left ear), not yet changing direction, then turn my body and use my right elbow to attack his right ribs (as in movement 1 when your right hand lowers, the palm turning to face downward, going along with your waist to the south). If he uses his right hand to push down my right elbow, I can go along with his lowering momentum by switching to using my right hand to connect to his right wrist and push it across to the right, then easily use my left hand to attack his head (as in movement 2 when the back of your right hand turns over forward to make a spear-holding posture and your left hand goes along with your waist to push forward). If he now uses his left hand to counterattack, I use my left hand to push down his left hand (as in movement 3 when your left hand withdraws, the palm turning to face upward), then send out my right hand to attack his head (as in movement 3 when your right hand pushes out forward over your left hand). This is one way to apply this technique.
     For another scenario, if after I have turned around (as in movement 2 after you have turned all the way) he uses his left hand to strike from above, I urgently coil my left wrist around his left wrist and bring it down to his right wrist (as in movement 3 when your left hand withdraws, the palm turning to face upward), then send my right hand to connect to his [left] upper arm (as in movement 3 when your right hand pushes out forward over your left hand), and wrap him in with both my hands and hold him at my left side (as in movement 3 when you sit onto your left leg).

☐第十八式 攬雀尾
Posture 18: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

▲動作•
Movement:
先將左手心轉下•由原處上提•(肘下垂)•提至左乳房止•(離左乳房約二拳之地•)同時右手由原處下畫•放在左小腹前•指向左•手心向上•與左手心相對•如捧一圓球然•)此與第二式第五動同•惟此式不動步•圖同7•再將體重右移•屈膝成右弓步•左手下按•右手前提•與約二式第六動同•(此式不動步)•圖同8•捋擠按與第三式第八•九•十•動完全相同•圖同9 10 11 12
First your left palm turns to face downward, lifting from its previous position (elbow hanging down), until to the left side of your chest (positioned at a distance of about two fists from the left side of your chest). At the same time, your right hand arcs downward from its previous position to be placed in front of the left side of your lower abdomen, fingers pointing to the left, palm facing upward, the palms facing each other as though you are holding a ball). This is the same as in Posture 2, movement 5 – photo 7, except in this case without the stepping action. The weight then shifts to your right leg and the knee bends to make a right bow stance, your left hand pushing down, your right hand lifting forward. This is almost the same as in Posture 2, movement 6 – photo 8, except again without the stepping action. ROLLBACK, PRESS, and PUSH are then the same as in movements 8-10 – photos 9-12.

☐第十九式 斜單鞭
Posture 19: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重左移•坐左腿•右脚尖向左轉四十五度•同時上體轉向東•兩手自原處伸直•向現在之左上方•畫一大圈•(自右而左•手心向前•指向上•兩手開度與肩同•)圖與第三式13圖同•
The weight shifts onto your left leg and your right toes turn forty-five degrees to the left. At the same time, your upper body turns to be squared to the east and your hands go from their previous position by going upward to the left in a large arc, arms extended (going from right to left, palms facing forward, fingers pointing upward, hands at shoulder width). It is the same as in Posture 3, photo 13.

△注意
Points for attention:
一體重在左
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•手體同時轉
2. Your hands arc as your body turns.
三•眼隨看兩手•右脚尖轉四十五度(與第三式異)
3. Your gaze follows your hands. Your right toes turn only forty-five degrees, and so it is slightly different from in Posture 3.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
與第三式第二動同•惟方向不同•右吊手之方向為西南斜角•上體向東•圖與第三式14圖同•
This is the same as in Posture 3, movement 2 – photo 14, except in this case the orientation is different, your right hanging hand pointing to the southwest, your upper body being squared to the east.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
上體坐穩•左脚提起•(脚尖向下•)同時左手由原處自身前挪起•(手心轉外•)放在胸前•圖與第三式15圖同•
Your upper body sitting stably, your left foot lifts (toes hanging down), as your left hand goes from it previous position by lifting in front of your body (the palm turning to face outward) to be placed in front of your chest. It is the same as in Posture 3, photo 15.

▲第四動
Movement 4:
與第三式第四動同•圖同16•惟方向不同•此式左脚踏在東北斜角•吊手在西南斜角•上體向東南斜角•
This is the same as in Posture 3, movement 4 – photo 16, except the orientation is different, your left foot stepping down to the northeast, your hanging hand pointing to the southwest, your upper body squared to the southeast.

★用法
Application:
與單鞭同•
Same as in Posture 3.

☐第二十式 肘底錘
Posture 20: PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重左移•坐左腿•上體轉向正北•(由東而北)•左手隨體轉時•徐徐放下•置於左腿旁•右脚同時(隨體轉)即提起•挪到左脚旁踏落•與右脚尖成直角•屈兩膝•右手(吊手改掌)•則隨體轉時由原處平向左畫圈•(手與肩平•由右外方畫到胸前)•放在左乳房前•離乳房約三拳之地•(手心向下指向左)•如圖36•
The weight shifts further onto your left leg and your upper body turns to be squared to the north (going from east to north). Your left hand goes along with the turn by slowly releasing downward to be placed beside your left thigh. Your right foot at the same time (also going along with the turning of your body) lifts and comes down beside your left foot, which makes a ninety degree angle with your right foot, the knees bent. Your right hand (switching from hanging hand to palm) goes from its previous position, going along with the turning of your body, by making a level arc to the left (at shoulder level, arcing from outward on the right until in front of your chest), placed in front of the left side of your chest, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your chest (palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the left). See photo 36:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 36

△注意
Points for attention:
一•此動先坐腿•而轉體畫手•挪腿•均須同時行之•
1. This movement first sits onto your [left] leg, then the turning of your body, arcing of your [right] hand, and shifting of your [right] leg are all to be performed in unison.
二•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
三•來膝屈•上體不屈•
3. Make your knees bend, but keep your upper body from bending over.
四•挪脚帶畫圈性質•
4. The shifting of your [right] leg has an arcing quality.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
右脚踏實伸直•(脚尖向東北斜角)左脚提起•(脚尖向下•上腿平•膝蓋向北•)右手由原處握拳•火口向上•稍低下•左手由原處自身前從右邊在右手內挪起•(手心向右•指向上•)放在右拳上•大指尖與左眼齊)如圖37•
Your right leg becomes full and straightens (toes pointing to the northeast), your left foot lifts (toes hanging down, thigh level, knee pointing to the north), and your right hand slightly lowers from its previous position, grasping into a fist, tiger’s mouth facing upward, while your left hand goes from its previous position by moving in front of your body along your right side, lifting to the inside of your right arm (palm facing to the right, fingers pointing upward) to be placed above your right fist (thumb in line with your left eye). See photo 37:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 37

▲第三動
Movement 3:
屈右膝•身體下蹲•左脚跟着地•(脚尖翹起•)左肘稍向下沉•放在右拳上•(位置不變)拳離體約三拳之地•火口向上•如圖38•
Your right knee bends and your body squats down, left heel touching down (toes lifted), your left elbow slightly sinking down above your right fist (which does not change its position), the fist positioned at a distance of about three fists from your body, tiger’s mouth facing upward. See photo 38:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 38

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•眼前看
2. Your gaze is forward.
三•臀部不可高起•
3. Your buttocks must not lift up.
四•面向正北•
4. You are facing to the north.

★用法
Application:
敵自我左側•以左手來擊•我轉身以左手粘住敵之右腕•領之向左側•(即第一動左手隨體轉徐徐放下動•)轉身則以右手橫擊其頭部•(即第一動右手隨體轉•平向左畫動•)此時敵若以右手反擊我•我可以右手按落敵之右手•抽出左手擊其面部•(即第二動右手稍低下•左手自身前從右邊自右手內挪起•放在右手上動•)敵若再以左手隔我左手•斯時我之右手在左肘之下•可握拳適擊其胸腹部•(即第二動右手在左肘下握拳動•)
If an opponent on my left side uses his left hand to attack me, I turn, using my left hand to connect to his right wrist, and lead him off toward my left side (as in movement 1 when your left hand slowly lowers along with the turning of your body), then turning further, I send my right hand across to attack his head (as in movement 1 when your right hand arcs level to the left along with the turning of your body). If he now uses his right hand to counterattack, I can use my right hand to push down his right hand and send out my left hand to attack his face (as in movement 2 when your right hand slightly lowers and your left hand lifts to the inside of your right arm to be placed above your right hand). If he then uses his left hand to block my left hand, my right hand now under my left elbow can grasp into a fist and easily strike to his chest or belly (as in movement 2 when your right hand grasps into a fist under your left elbow).

☐第二十一式 左右倒輦猴
Posture 21: LEFT & RIGHT RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY

甲•左倒輦猴
A. Left side

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右腿坐穩•左脚直退後半步•踏實•(脚尖離右脚跟約離一脚半之地•尖斜向外•)體重移左•右腿隨之伸直•同時右脚尖轉正•(跟不動)•左手不動•右手由原處放落•置於右腿旁(手心向下•指向前)如圖39•
Sitting stably on your right leg, your left foot retreats straight back a half step and comes down full (the toes positioned at a distance of about one and a half feet from your right heel and pointing diagonally outward), the weight shifts to your left leg, your right leg straightening, and your right toes turn to point straight ahead (the heel staying where it is). Your left hand does not move, but your right hand lowers from its previous position to be placed beside your right thigh (palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward). See photo 39:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 39

▲第二動
Movement 2:
左手自原處放落置於左腿旁•(手心向下•指向前•)右手由原處向右後方畫圈•(手心先向內•)邊畫邊轉畫到右耳朶邊•(手心轉向前•指向上•)則向前按出•(由上而下•肘曲向下•手指與鼻齊•離鼻約四拳之地•)如圖40
Your left hand lowers from its previous position to be placed beside your left thigh (palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward) as your right hand arcs from its previous position to the right rear (the palm first facing inward), arcing and rotating until beside your right ear (the palm turning to face forward, fingers pointing upward), then pushes out forward (downward from above, elbow bent and hanging down, fingertips at nose level, positioned at a distance of about four fists from your nose). See photo 40:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 40

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•上體稍偏左•
2. Your upper body slightly inclines to the left.
三•右手畫圈時•使腰動•不可上體完全搖動•
3. As your right hand arcs, get your waist to move along with it, but keep your upper body from swaying.
四•眼前看•
4. Your gaze is forward.

乙•右倒輦猴
B. Right side

▲動作
Movement:
右之大旨與左同•惟改為右腿退後•左腿挺直•左脚尖轉正•右手放落置在右腿旁•左手畫圈自左耳邊按出•適與左相反•如圖41•
The version on the right side is mostly the same as the left, except that now it is the right leg retreating, left leg straightening, left toes turning to point straight ahead, right hand lowering beside right thigh, left hand arcing to left ear and then pushing out, simply a reversal of lefts and rights. See photo 41:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 41

△注意
A point for attention:
一•左退時上體偏左•右退時上體偏右•
When your left leg retreats, your upper body inclines to the left. When your right leg retreats, your upper body inclines to the right.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
倒輦猴分左右二式•退幾步無定規•普通退七或九步•但須退單數•因下式係斜飛勢•倘退雙數•則下式不能連續•習時注意•
This posture is divided into a left side and right side, but there is no fixed number of steps, commonly taking seven or nine steps back. However, you must retreat an odd number of steps for the sake of the DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE. If you retreat an even number of steps, you will not be able to continue into that posture. Pay attention to this while practicing.

★左勢用法
Application for the left side:
敵以右手我擊胸腹•我以左手採住敵之右腕•(或向左隔開亦可)坐後腿轉腰偏身•(即第一動左脚直退後半步•以及第二動左手由原處放落置于左腿旁動•)再以右手擊其上部•(即第二動右手從右耳邊前按動•)以上為左倒輦猴用法•右則相反耳•
If an opponent uses his right hand to attack my chest, I use my left hand to pluck his right wrist (or block it aside to the left) while sitting back, turning my waist, and inclining my body (as in movement 1 when your left foot steps straight back a half step and in movement 2 when your left hand lowers beside your left thigh), then use my right hand to attack his upper body (as in movement 2 when your right hand pushes forward from your right ear). This is the application for the left side. For the right side, reverse the lefts and rights.

☐第二十二式 斜飛勢
Posture 22: DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
立穩左脚•右腿提起•(脚尖向下•上腿平)•同時左手(肘向下)由原處自胸前挪起•挪到左乳房止(手心向下•指向右•)再將右手由原處畫下•(由前而後•)置於左小腹旁•(手心向上•指向左•正對右手如捧一圓球式)如圖42•
Standing stably on your left leg, your right leg lifts (toes hanging down, thigh level) while your left hand (elbow hanging down) goes from its previous position by lifting in front of you to be at the left side of your chest (palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the right) and your right hand goes from its previous position to arc downward (from front to rear) to be placed by the left side of your lower abdomen (palm facing upward, fingers pointing to the left, facing your other hand as though you are holding a ball). See photo 42:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 42

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•脚方向未變•
2. The direction your [left] foot is pointing does not yet change.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
左脚尖翹起•用脚跟轉•將身體轉向正東•右脚向現在之右前方•(東南斜角•)跨出一步•屈右膝成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•體重右移•同時左手由原處慢慢下按•放在左腿旁•(手心向下•指向前•)右手由原處向前分開•(手心向上•指向前•)此動與第二式第六動同•圖亦仝•惟方向及右手手心向上異耳•
With your left foot lifting its toes to pivot on the heel, your body turns to be squared to the east, then your right foot, now pointing to the forward right (southeast), steps out a full step, and your right knee bends, making a right bow stance, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right leg. At the same time, your left hand goes from its previous position by slowly pushing down to be placed beside your left thigh (palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward) and your right hand goes from its previous position by spreading away forward (palm facing upward, fingers pointing forward). This movement is the same as in Posture 2, movement 6, except that the orientation is different and your right palm is facing upward.

△注意
Points for attention:
一•此式面向東•右脚踏向車南斜角•右手手心向上•指向前•
1. In this posture, you are squared to the east, your right toes are pointing to the southeast, and your right palm is facing upward, fingers pointing forward.
二•右手分開•腰似手向右扭•)此是挒勁•
2. When your right hand spreads away, your waist appears to be wrenching it to the right. (This is the “rending” energy.)

★用法
Application:
敵以左手自我右側來擊•我轉身以左手接住敵之左腕•而採之•或以左手向左隔開•(即第二動用左脚跟將身體轉向東•同時左手由原處慢慢下按動•)再以右手橫擊其上部(即第二動右手手心向上•指向前•由原處向前分開動•)
If an opponent to my right side uses his left hand to attack me, I turn around and use my left hand to connect to his left wrist and either pluck it down or block it aside to the left (as in movement 2 when you turn your body to the east, pivoting on your left heel, and slowly push down with your left hand), then use my right hand to strike across to his upper body (as in movement 2 when your right hand spreads away forward, palm facing upward, fingers pointing forward).

☐第二十三式 提手上勢
Posture 23: RAISE THE HAND

▲第一動
Movement:
右腿坐穩•左腿提起•踏上半步•靠近右脚跟•(脚尖向東北斜角)•再將體重左移•坐穩左腿•右腿提起•即時踏落•脚跟落地•脚尖翹起•(向東南斜角•)圖同第四式第18圖•
Sitting stably on your right leg, your left leg lifts, comes forward a half step, drawing near to your right heel (toes pointing to the northeast), and the weight then shifts to your left leg. Sitting stably on your left leg, your right leg lifts and immediately steps down again, heel touching down, toes lifted (pointing to the southeast). It is the same as in Posture 4, photo 18.

☐第二十四式 白鶴亮翅
Posture 24: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
同第五式 圖同
Same as in Posture 5.

☐第二十五式 摟膝抝步
Posture 25: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
同第六式 圖同
Same as in Posture 6.

☐第二十六式 海底針
Posture 26: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA

▲第一動
Movement 1:
先體重完全移左•屈左膝•右腿提起•向前收半步•(離左脚跟約一脚之地•脚尖向右前方)踏實後再將體重移右•右脚立穩•左脚提起•(脚尖向下)•同時右手由原處放落伸直•(手指向下•手心向左•斜置於小腹前)左手同時由原處挪到右手旁•(手心向右•指向下•肘稍曲•比右手高•)如圖43•
First your weight shifts to your left leg, the knee bending, and your right leg lifts, comes forward a half step (positioned at about a foot’s distance from your left heel, toes pointing to the forward right), and once it steps down fully, the weight then shifts to your right leg. Standing stably on your right leg, your left leg lifts (toes hanging down). At the same time, your right hand lowers from its previous position, arm straightened (fingers pointing downward, palm facing to the left, diagonally placed in front of your lower abdomen), while your left hand shifts from its previous position to be beside your right hand (palm facing to the right, fingers pointing downward, elbow slightly bent, higher than your right hand). See photo 43:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 43

▲第二動
Movement 2:
屈右膝•身體下蹲•左脚尖落地•正對前方•膝亦屈•放在右脚前•(離在脚尖約二脚之地•)兩手隨腰下垂•置於左膝蓋右邊•如圖44•
Your right knee bending, your body squats down, your left toes touching down and pointing forward, the knee also bent, placed in front of your right foot (positioned at a distance of about two feet from the toes), your hands going along with your waist by hanging down to be placed to the right side of your left knee. See photo 44:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 44

△注意
A point for attention:
一•眼前看•上體不可曲•
Your gaze is forward. Your upper body must not bend over.

★用法
Application:
我以左手擊敵被其右手握住我右手•且向下採•我則乘其落勁•上右步•以左手按住敵手•蹲身刁腰•引之落空•(即第二動身體下蹲•左右手伸直隨體下垂動)
If I use my left [right] hand to attack an opponent, but he grabs my hand with his right hand and plucks downward, I then take advantage of his lowering energy by stepping my right foot forward and using my left hand to push down his hand, squatting my body down and sitting back with my waist, luring him into losing his balance (as in movement 2 when your body squats down and your extended hands correspondingly make an action of hanging downward).

☐第二十七式 扇通背
Posture 27: FAN THROUGH THE BACK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右腿坐穩•(仍膝屈)左腿提起•向正前方跨出半步•(脚尖轉向東•右脚尖亦即刻轉東•(跟不動•)上體隨轉•眼看北方•兩手不變姿勢•兩腿相距約三脚之地成直線•(此時體重十分之七八在左腿)•右腿帶虛•如圖45•
Sitting stably on your right leg (the knee still bent), your left leg lifts and steps out a half step forward (toes turned to point to the east, your right foot also immediately turning to point to the east, the heel staying where it is). Your upper body goes along with the turning of your feet, but your gaze is to the north. Your hands have not changed in their posture. Your legs are positioned at a distance of about three feet apart and are on a straight line (the weight now seventy or eighty percent on your left leg), your right leg emptying. See photo 45:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 45

▲第二動
Movement 2:
兩手隨腰自身前向北方挪起•然後分開托起•分時右手(肘向上)自胸前提到額前•(手心向上•指斜向左•火口向下•離額約二拳之地•)左手(手心向北•火口轉上•)自原處挪起•挪到胸前•向上托起略比眼線高(離眼約三拳之地•)手稍屈•火口與右手火口相對•同時右手後拉•如托物然•如圖46•
Your hands go along with your waist by lifting in front of your body toward the north, then spread apart propping up. When spreading, your right hand (elbow pointing upward) lifts from in front of your chest to arrive in front of your forehead (palm facing upward, fingers pointing diagonally to the left, tiger’s mouth facing downward, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your forehead). Your left hand (palm facing to the north, tiger’s mouth turning to face upward) lifts from its previous position to arrive in front of your chest. It then props upward until slightly higher than eye level [though not quite there in the photo] (positioned at a distance of about three fists from your eyes), arm slightly bent, tiger’s mouth toward your right hand, the tiger’s mouths facing each other, your right hand at the same time pulling to the rear, as though propping something up. See photo 46:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 46

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重偏在左•
1. The weight is inclined to your left.
二•眼仍看北方•
2. Your gaze is still to the north.
三•此式為便於練習起見•故分為二動•其實當左腿跨出時•兩手則隨腰托起•(似乎有拔樹之意)不分先後也•
3. To make this posture easier to practice, it has been divided into two movements, but actually the stepping out of the left leg and the propping up of the hands going along with the waist (which seems to have an intention of uprooting a tree) should neither precede nor follow the other.
四•上體偏向東北斜角•
4. Your upper body is inclined to the northeast.

★用法
Application:
當海底針時•敵手已鬆動•其勢必上提•我可隨其上勢•以右手上托其右手•(即第二動右手向胸前提起動)•斯時彼胸脅露空•則上步以左手擊之或向前推放•(即第二動上左步左手由原處挪起向上托動•)
When applying NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA, if the opponent’s hands loosen, his energy is sure to rise up. I can go along with his upward energy by using my right hand to prop up his right hand (as in movement 2 when your right hand lifts up in front of your chest). His chest or ribs are now an open target, so I step forward and use my left hand to strike or to push forward (as in movement 2 when you step your left foot forward [described in movement 1] and lift your left hand from its previous position to prop upward).

☐第二十八式 撇身錘
Posture 28: TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重移右•坐右腿•同時左脚尖盡力向右轉•約六十度•上體仍向正東•眼前看•兩手不變位置•稍向頭上移•兩手心朝上•置於頭上•如圖•47•
The weight shifts onto your right leg, your left toes at the same time putting all their energy into turning sixty degrees to the right. Your upper body is still squared to the east. Your gaze is forward. Your hands do not change in their posture, but slightly shift upward, palms facing upward, to be placed above your head. See photo 47:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 47

▲第二動
Movement 2:
體重左移•坐左腿•上體轉正南•右脚尖隨之•(跟不動•)再將體重右移•屈膝•成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•右手握拳•自額前覆•(肘向下•拳背前覆•)慢慢放下•肘靠着右脅•(此時手心向上•火口向右•如托槍式)•左手由原處隨腰向前•(由上而下•)慢慢按落•(手心斜向前•肘曲向下•指尖與鼻齊•離鼻約三拳之地•)如圖48•
The weight shifts onto your left leg and your upper body turns to be squared to the south, your right toes turning along with it (heel staying in the same place). Then the weight shifts back to your right leg and the knee bends to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, your right hand grasps into a fist and goes from your forehead, turning over forward (elbow hanging down, back of the fist turning over forward), slowly releasing downward, the elbow drawing near to your right ribs (palm now facing upward, tiger’s mouth facing to the right, as in a spear-holding posture), while your left hand goes from its previous position by going forward along with your waist (going downward from above), slowly pushing down (palm facing diagonally forward, elbow bent and hanging down, fingertips at nose level, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your nose). See photo 48:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 48

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•眼看左手•當轉身時•兩手隨腰動作•
2. Your gaze is toward your left hand. When you turn around, your hands go along with your waist.
三•兩脚跟不動•
3. Your heels stay where they were.
四•此式弓步較他式弓步為小且直•
4. This bow stance is smaller and more upright than the others.
五•右手應握拳•
5. Your right hand should grasp into a fist.

★用法
Application:
敵自我身後來襲•我反身以右拳撇之•(即第二動上體轉正南•以及右手握拳自額前覆動•)敵若以右手將我右拳按落時•我可乘其落勁•以右拳急擊其胸腹•同時再以左手擊其上部•(即第二動右手作托槍式•及左手隨腰向前慢慢按落動)
If an opponent suddenly attacks me from behind, I turn around and use my fist to parry it (as in movement 2 when your upper body turns to be squared to the south and your right hand as a fist turns over forward from your forehead). If he then uses his right hand to push down my right fist, I can take advantage of his lowering energy by urgently using my right fist to strike to his chest or belly and then use my left hand to attack his upper body (as in movement 2 when your right hand makes a spear-holding posture and your left hand goes forward along with your waist by slowly pushing down).

☐第二十九式 上步搬攔錘
Posture 29: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
同第十四式 圖同
Same as in Posture 14.

☐第三十式 上步攬雀尾
Posture 30: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

▲動作
Movement:
左脚尖轉左三十度•坐左腿•右脚提起靠近左脚•(脚尖着地)左手則在原處不動•惟肘抬高•(手心轉下•指向右•)同時右手由原處•(拳改掌•手心轉上•)稍低下•稍向左移後收•(手心向上•指向左•肘曲向下•)正對左手•如捧一圓球式•此式同第二式•第五動•圖仝第.7再將右脚跨出一步成右弓步•動作同第二式第六•七•八•九•十•十一動圖同8•9•10•11•12•
Your left toes turn thirty degrees to the left. Sitting on your left leg, your right foot lifts and draws near to your left foot (toes touching down). Your left hand does not leave its previous position, but the elbow lifts (the palm turning to face downward, fingers pointing to the right). At the same time, your right hand goes from its previous position (fist becoming a palm, the palm turning to face upward) by slightly lowering, slightly shifting to the left and withdrawing to the rear (palm facing upward, fingers pointing to the left, elbow bent and hanging down), facing your left hand as though you are holding a ball. It is the same as in Posture 2, movement 5 – photo 7, then your right foot steps out a full step to make a right bow stance, and the movements are then the same as movements 6-10.2 – photos 8-12.

☐第三十一式 單鞭
Posture 31: SINGLE WHIP
同第三式 圖同
Same as in Posture 3.

☐第三十二式 左右抎手
Posture 32: LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS

左抎手
Left Clouding

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右脚尖翹起•轉向正東•體重右移•上體隨轉•同時左脚提起•向右收•靠近右脚踏落•(脚尖向東•兩膝屈)此時右吊手改為掌•(手心轉後•)在原處不動•左手向左(北方)伸平•手心轉下向右下方畫圈•畫到右腿前止•放在右腿前•(手心向內指向下•)離腿約一拳之地•如圖49•
Your right toes lift and turn to point to the east, the weight shifting to your right leg, your body going along with the turn. At the same time, your left foot lifts, gathers in toward the right, and comes down drawing near to your right foot (the toes pointing to the east, both knees bent). Your right hand now changes from hanging hand to palm (palm turning to face to the rear), but does not change its position, while your left hand extends level to the left (north), the palm turning to face downward, and arcs to the lower right until in front of your right thigh (palm facing inward, fingers pointing downward), positioned at about a fist’s distance from the thigh. See photo 49:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 49

▲第二動•
Movement 2:
坐穩右腿•左脚提起向左橫跨出半步踏實•尖向正東•兩膝均屈•體重移左•左手(手心向內肘曲•)由原處向身前挪起•(挪時離體約三拳之地•)朝左上方畫圈•畫到左肩前方止•(離肩約三拳之地)•手心向內•指尖與眼線齊•)右手隨腰由原處從右外方•向左下畫•畫到左腿前止•(手心向內•指向下•)離腿約三拳之地•如圖50•
Sitting stably on your right leg, your left foot lifts, steps a half step across to the left, and comes down fully, toes pointing to the east. Both knees are equally bent. The weight shifts to your left leg, your left hand (palm facing inward, elbow bent) goes from its previous position by lifting in front of your body (positioned during the movement at a distance of about three fists from your body) and arcing toward the upper left until in front of your left shoulder (positioned at a distance of about three fists from the shoulder), palm facing inward, fingertips at eye level). Your right hand goes along with your waist to go from its previous position outward to the right, then arcing to the lower left until in front of your left thigh (palm facing inward, fingers pointing downward), positioned at a distance of about three fists from the thigh. See photo 50:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 50

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•左脚虛帶提意•姿勢不變•
2. Your left foot empties with an idea of lifting, but does not change in its posture.
三•眼隨看左手畫圈
3. Your gaze follows your left hand as it draws its circle.

右抎手
Right Clouding

▲第三動•
Movement 3:
左腿坐穩•右腿稍提起•再向左橫移一拳之地踏實•(提腿時•膝仍屈•兩腿開度與本人肩同闊•再將體重右移•(上體姿勢不變動腰耳)同時右手由左腿前朝身前挪起•(挪時離體約三拳之地•)從左下方畫到右上方•(離右肩線約三拳之地•手心向內•指尖與眼齊•)左手心轉前•向左外方畫圈•手心逐漸轉內•(由上而下•)畫到右腿前•放住•(離腿約二拳之地•指向下•)此時左腿虛•帶提意•預備繼作下式•如圖51•
Sitting stably on your left leg, your right leg slightly lifts, then shifts across to the left by a fist’s distance and comes down fully (the knee staying bent while the leg lifts), the legs at shoulder width apart, and then the weight shifts to your right leg (your upper body not changing in its posture, only moving at the waist). At the same time, your right hand lifts from in front of your left thigh, facing your body (positioned during the movement at a distance of about three fists from your body), and arcs from the lower left to the upper right (positioned at a distance of about three fists from your right shoulder, palm facing inward, fingertips at eye level), while your left hand, palm turning to face forward, arcs outward to the left (going downward from above), the palm then turning to face inward, arcing until in front of your right thigh (positioned at a distance of about two fists from the thigh, fingers pointing downward). Your left leg is now empty and has an intention of lifting, preparing to continue into the next posture. See photo 51:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 51

▲說明
Additional explanation:
此式分為三動•第一二兩動係左抎手•第三動為右抎手•如是續向左連作七或九個•繼變為單鞭式•練時最宜注意虛實•手畫圈須帶圓形•隨腰轉動•眼隨看•向左畫時看左手•向右畫時看右手•兩膝始終屈着•不可高起•當變單鞭時•在右抎手之末動•(此時體重在右)先將體重移左(兩膝如前)右脚尖轉向左四十五度•體隨轉•同時兩手平伸•向現在之左上方畫圈•(如第三式第一動•圖同13)•再由左上方畫向右•右手在東南斜角作吊手•上體轉正北(圖同14惟脚不動稍異耳•)左足提起向左前方踏出•成左弓步•左手隨出腿時向西北角按出•詳細動作參閱第三式第三四動•及第15•16圖•
This posture is divided into three movements, the first two having to do with the left hand clouding, the third with the right hand clouding. Continue moving leftward in this way for a total of seven or nine times, then change to SINGLE WHIP. When practicing, the most important thing to pay attention to is emptiness and fullness. When your hand draws an arc, it must maintain roundness, going along with the turning of your waist. Your gaze follows the movement. When arcing to the left, look to your left hand. When arcing to the right, look to your right hand. Your knees are to stay bent throughout. You must never be rising up.
     When changing to SINGLE WHIP, it is at the end of your right hand clouding (the weight now on your right leg). First the weight shifts to your left leg (both knees as before), your right toes turn forty-five degrees to the left, your body going along with the turn, and your hands, extended level, arc together to the left (as in Posture 3, movement 1 – photo 13). Then they arc from the upper left to the right, your right hand going to the southeast forming a hanging hand, your upper body turning to be squared to the north (same as in photo 14, except for your [left] foot not being adjusted [to look more as it does in that photo], and so it is slightly different). Your left foot lifts and steps out to the forward left, making a left bow stance, and your left hand goes along with the step by pushing out to the northwest. Refer to the details in Posture 3, movements 3 and 4 – photos 15 and 16.

★左抎手用法
Application:
敵自我面前以左手來擊•我以左手粘住敵之左臂•引之向左側•此是化勁•(即第一動左手手心向內•曲肘向身前挪起•朝左上方畫圈動•)則以右手擊其小腹部•(即第二動右手畫到左腿前動•)右則相反•或有敵自右後方以右手來擊時•則轉身以右手化其勁•以左手擊之•
If an opponent in front of me uses his left hand to attack me, I use my left hand to connect to his left arm and draw him toward my left side, neutralizing his power (as in movement 2 when your left hand, palm turning inward, elbow bending, lifts in front of you and arcs toward the upper left), then use my right hand to attack his lower abdomen (as in movement 2 when your right hand arcs until in front of your left thigh). It is the reverse on the right side. If an opponent to my right rear uses his right hand to attack me, I then turn my body, using my right hand to neutralize his power and my left hand to attack him.

☐第三十三式 單鞭
Posture 33: SINGLE WHIP
詳上式說明條之末尾
Described at the end of the previous posture’s additional explanation.

☐第三十四式 高探馬
Posture 34: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

▲第一動
Movement:
屈左膝•右脚提起向前收半步踏實•(脚尖向東北斜角•離左脚跟約一脚之地)•再將體重右移•坐右腿•同時左脚提起•(約四寸高)隨即放下•足尖點地•正對北方•左手(手心轉上)隨腰收囘•曲肘貼着左脅•右手改吊為掌•由原處向右脅下收•再由脅下•(手心向下•指向前•)向正前方按出•(肘稍曲•指尖與鼻齊•相距約四拳之地•)如圖52•
Bending your left knee, your right foot lifts, comes forward a half step, and steps down fully (the toes pointing to the northeast, positioned at about a foot’s distance from your left heel). Then the weight shifts onto your right leg and your left foot lifts up (by about four inches) to immediately come down again, toes touching down and pointing to the north. At the same time, your left hand (the palm turning to face upward) goes along with your waist by withdrawing, the elbow bending and drawing near to your left ribs, and your right hand changes from hanging hand to palm, going from its previous position to gather in below your right ribs, then from there (palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward) pushes out forward (elbow slightly bent, fingertips at nose level and positioned at a distance of about four fists from it). See photo 52:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 52

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•脚尖點地•與按手同時行之
2. The toes touching down and the hand pushing down are to be performed in unison.

★用法
Application:
我以左手擊敵•被其左手按落•隨其落勢抽囘左手•(即左手隨腰收囘靠近右脅動•)以右手探擊其面部•(即右手自右脅下前按動•)如敵謹防其上部•我左手在下•適又可擊其腹部•或按其小腹•
If I use my left hand to strike an opponent but he pushes it down with his left hand, I go along with his lowering energy by withdrawing my left hand (as in the part of the movement when your left hand goes along with your waist by withdrawing to your ribs) and using my right hand to do a reaching strike to his face (as in the part of the movement when your right hand pushes out forward from below your ribs). If he then protects his upper body, my left hand below easily could also strike to his belly or push to his lower abdomen.

☐第三十五式 右分腿
Posture 35: KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右腿坐穩•左脚向前跨出半步•成左弓步•(脚尖向左斜角)•右腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•體重左移•上體半面向左轉•(面向西北斜角)•兩手同時向兩邊分開•右手在前•左手在後•(肘微屈•手心向前•指尖與鼻齊•)如圖53•
Sitting stably on your right leg, your left foot steps forward a half step, making a left bow stance (the toes pointing to the left corner), your right leg straightening (yet slightly bent), the weight shifting onto your left leg, your upper body turning halfway to the left (to be squared to the northwest). At the same time, your hands spread apart to the sides, right hand forward, left hand to the rear (elbow slightly bent, palm facing forward, fingertips at nose level). See photo 53:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 53

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•面向西北斜角•
2. You are facing to the northwest.
三•右手在前•(北)左手在後•(西南斜角)如圖53•
3. Your right hand is forward (toward the north) and your left hand is to the rear (toward the southwest).

▲第二動
Movement 2:
屈左膝•右腿望左收•靠近左腿•(脚跟點地•膝蓋對正北•)頭轉正北•同時兩手由原處向胸前合•(指向上•手心相對•兩肘屈•)如橫捧一球在胸前•(離胸約二拳之地•)如圖54•
Bending your left knee, your right leg gathers in toward the left, drawing near to your left leg (heel [toes] touching down, knee pointing to the north), your head turning to face to the north. At the same time, your hands go from their previous position by coming together in front of your chest (fingers pointing upward, palms facing each other, elbows bent), as though holding a ball crosswise (positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest). See photo 54:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 54

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•上體方向仍朝西北斜角惟頭轉正北•
2. Your upper body is still squared to the northwest but your head is now turned to be facing to the north.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
站穩左腿•右脚向現在之右斜方(東北斜角)翹脚跟向上踢起•同時兩手向兩邊分開•(肘稍屈•手心向左•指向上•與耳齊•如)圖55•
Standing stably on your left leg, your right foot goes toward what is now the right corner (northeast) and kicks upward with the foot flexed back. At the same time, your hands spread apart to the sides (elbows slightly bent, palms facing to the left, fingers pointing upward and at ear level). See photo 55:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 55

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重仍在左•
1. The weight is still on your left leg.
二•右腿踢起時•左腿須坐穩•
2. When your right leg kicks upward, your left leg must sit stably.
三•踢起之高度不拘•約當手腕平伸處止•
3. The height of the kick is not restricted, and so it may reach to about wrist level.
四•出手之方向同第一動•
4. The directions your hands move out toward are the same as in movement 1.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
上式分為三動•原為習者明瞭動作經過起見•旣明此意•最好將抱手與提脚連成一動•
This posture is divided into three movements in order for practitioners to understand the process of its movements. Once you get the idea, it is best to embrace with your hands and lift your foot as a single connected movement.

☐第三十六式 左分腿
Posture 36: KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右脚踢後•即在原處(東北斜角)踏落•屈右膝•成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•體重移右•同時上體轉向東北斜角•兩手不變姿勢•隨腰轉•左手變在前•(正北)•右手在後•(東南斜角)•如圖56•
After your right foot kicks, it steps down back into its preceding posture, your right knee bending to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent), the weight shifting onto your right leg. At the same time, your upper body turns to be squared to the northeast, your hands not changing in their posture, simply going along with your waist so that your left hand has switched to being the hand forward (toward the north), your right hand now to the rear (toward the southeast). See photo 56:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 56

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•上體向東北斜角•
2. Your upper body is squared to the northeast.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
坐穩右腿•左腿提起望右收•靠近右腿•脚尖點地•(正對北方•)頭轉正北•同時兩手由原處向胸前合•(兩肘屈•手心相對•指向上•)如橫捧一球在胸前•(離胸約二拳之地•)如圖57•
Sitting stably on your right leg, your left leg lifts and gathers in toward the right, drawing near to your right leg, toes touching down (pointing to the north), your head turning to face to the north. At the same time, your hands go from their previous position by coming together in front of your chest (elbows bent, palms facing each other, fingers pointing upward) as though holding a ball crosswise (positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest). See photo 57:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 57

▲第三動
Movement 3:
站穩右腿•左脚向現在之左前方•(西北斜角)踢出•脚尖向上•同時兩手向兩邊分開•其姿勢與右分腿同•但相背耳•如圖58•
Standing stably on your right leg, your left foot goes toward what is now the forward left corner (northwest), kicking out with the foot flexed back. At the same time, your hands spread apart to the sides. It is the same posture as in KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE, only [with the lefts and rights] reversed. See photo 58:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 58

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•眼看前方•
2. Your gaze is forward.
三•全身作放鬆意•
3. Your whole body is intent upon being loose.
四•體重坐穩•
4. The weight sits stably.

★用法
Application:
敵以左手來擊•我以左手接住敵之左腕•偏身轉腰•(即第二動坐左腿•右腿靠近左脚•以及兩手向胸前合動•)再以右臂橛之•乘機以右腿踢其腹部•(即第三動右腿踢起•兩手分開動•)以上是右分腿用法•左分腿則相反耳•
If an opponent uses his left hand to attack me, I use my left hand to connect to his left wrist as I incline my body and turn my waist (as in movement 2 when you sit onto your left leg, your right leg draws near to your left foot, and your hands come together in front of your chest), then use my right forearm to put breaking pressure on his arm, and I take advantage of the opportunity by using my right leg to kick to his belly (as in movement 3 when your right leg kicks upward and your hands spread apart). Described here is the application for KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE. KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE is thus the mirror image of it.

☐第三十七式 轉身蹬脚
Posture 37: TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
左脚踢過之後提住•脚尖下垂不落地•同時兩手向胸前合•(手指向上肘屈•)如橫捧一球在胸前•距胸約二拳之地•再將右脚尖翹起•用脚跟盡力將上體由左面轉至南方•(原來向北•今由北而西至南面•膝蓋隨之•上體仍向西•)兩手不變姿勢•隨腰轉•如圖59•
After your left foot kicks, keep it lifted up, toes hanging down and not touching the ground, while your hands come together in front of your chest (fingers pointing upward, elbow bent) as though holding a ball crosswise, your hands positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest, and your right toes lift as the heel puts all its energy into pivoting from the left [right] to be facing to the south. (Previously squared to the north, you now face from the north to the west to the south, the knee pointing in these directions along with the turn, but your upper body staying squared to the west.) Your hands not changing their posture, they go along with the rotating of your waist. See photo 59:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 59

△注意
Points for attention:
一•當右脚尖翹起轉體時•左脚亦用力向左外方旋•以輔助右脚跟轉
1. When your right toes lift and your body turns, your left leg puts its energy into turning outward to the left to assist the pivoting of your right heel.
二•方向原來在北•今變為向南•但上體仍朝西•
2. Your orientation was to the north and has now changed to the south, but your upper body is squared to the west.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
右腿站穩•左脚提起•用脚跟向正南蹬出•同時兩手向兩邊分開•左手在前(南)右手在後(北)手之姿勢與分腿同如圖60•
With your right leg standing stably, your left foot lifts and uses the heel to press out to the south. At the same time, your hands spread apart to the sides, left hand forward (to the south), right hand to the rear (to the north), the posture of the hands the same as in the kicks to the side. See photo 60:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 60

△注意
Points for attention:
一•此式名曰蹬脚•必須脚用脚跟蹬出•(非踢出)
1. This posture is called PRESSING KICK. It is necessary to press out with the heel (rather than performing a snapping kick).
二•頭向南•上體朝西•
2. Your gaze is to the south. Your upper body is squared to the west.

★用法
Application:
敵由我後方來襲•我轉身以左脚蹬之•左手前分旣可擊其面部•又可防吾腿之被擒
If an opponent suddenly attacks me from behind, I turn around and use my left foot to do a pressing kick. My left hand spreading away in front can attack his face or can protect my leg from being grabbed.

☐第三十八式 左摟膝拗步
Posture 38: LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
同第八式 圖則同23
Same as in Posture 8, photo 23.

☐第三十九式 右摟膝拗步
Posture 39: RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
同第九式 圖同25 26
Same as in Posture 9 – photos 25 and 26.

▲動作
Movement:
左脚蹬出後•即向現在之左前方踏落(東南斜角)成左弓步•左手摟膝•右手按出•與前皆同•惟中間無琵琶式耳•左摟膝參看第八式第一動第23圖•惟方向不同•右按步參看第九式第一二兩動•惟方向不同•圖同第25第26圖•用法同•
After your left foot presses out, it then steps down to the forward left (to the southeast), making a left bow stance, your left hand brushing past your knee, your right hand pushing out. All is as before, except with no occurrence of PLAY THE LUTE. LEFT BRUSH KNEE is the same as in Posture 8, movement 1 – photo 23, except the orientation is different. RIGHT BRUSH KNEE is the same as in Posture 9 – photos 25 and 26, except the orientation is different. The application is the same.

☐第四十式 上步栽錘
Posture 40: STEP FORWARD, PLANTING PUNCH

▲第一動
Movement:
右摟膝後•右脚先轉右三十度•坐右腿•左腿提起跨出一步•屈膝成左弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(微屈)同時左手摟膝•右手握拳•自腰間向右膝蓋右邊栽下•火口向前•拳與膝蓋齊•相距約二拳之地•如圖61•
After RIGHT BRUSH KNEE, your right foot first turns thirty degrees to the right. Sitting onto your right leg, your left leg lifts and steps out a full step, the knee bending to make a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, your left hand brushes past the knee, your right hand grasping into a fist which plants downward from your waist to the right side of your left knee, tiger’s mouth facing forward, fist at knee level, positioned at a distance of about two fists from it. See photo 61:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 61

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•眼看前•
2. Your gaze is forward.

★用法
Application:
敵掠我左脚•或蹲身擊我下部•吾以左手向左摟開•以右手由上而下突擊之•
If an opponent grabs my left leg, or squats down and attacks my lower body, I use my left hand to brush it aside and my right hand to suddenly strike downward from above.

☐第四十一式 翻身白蛇吐信
Posture 41: TURN AROUND, WHITE SNAKE FLICKS ITS TONGUE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重右移•坐右腿•左脚尖盡力向右轉百二十度•再將體重左移•上體轉西•同時右拳由原處自身前挪起•(肘向右外方•火口向內)•放在胸前•(相距約一拳之地•)左手由膝蓋旁挪起•(挪時火口向上)•到左耳邊止•(相距約一拳之地•手心向外•火口對耳竅•)如圖62•
The weight shifts onto your right leg, your left toes put all their energy into turning a hundred and twenty degrees to the right, then the weight shifts back to your left leg, and your upper body turns to be squared to the west. At the same time, your right fist goes from its previous position by lifting in front of your body (elbow pointing outward to the right, tiger’s mouth facing inward) to be placed in front of your chest (positioned at about a fist’s distance from it) and your left palm lifts from beside your knee (tiger’s mouth facing upward during the movement) to arrive beside your left ear (positioned at about a fist’s distance from it, palm facing outward, tiger’s mouth facing your ear). See photo 62:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 62

△注意
Points for attention:
一•當轉上體時左脚尖隨之轉•而左右手亦在斯時上挪•動作勿參差•
1. When your upper body turns, your left toes turn along with it, your hands at the same time shifting upward, no parts out of synch.
二•體重在左•
2. The weight is on your left leg.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
坐穩左腿•上體轉正北•右脚提起向右移半步•體重右移•屈右膝•成右弓步•左腿隨之挺直•(微屈)同時右拳改掌(肘向下)自胸前覆•(手心向上)•肘後收•靠着右脅•如托槍式•左手隨右拳前覆時•由上而下•向前按出•(手心斜向下•肘曲向左外方•指尖與下額齊•相距約四拳之地•)圖同第二十八式•48圖惟方向不同•
Sitting stably on your left leg, your upper body turns to be squared to the north, your right foot lifts and shifts a half step to the right, the weight shifts to your right leg, and the knee bends, making a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, your right fist becomes a palm (elbow hanging down) and turns over forward in front of your chest (palm facing upward), the elbow withdrawing near to your right ribs, as in a spear-holding posture. As your right fists turns over forward, your left hand goes downward from above and pushes out forward (palm facing diagonally downward, elbow bent and pointing outward to the left, fingertips at chin level and positioned at a distance of about four fists from it). It is the same as in Posture 28 – photo 48, except here the orientation is different.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
此式雖分為二動•其實僅一動•如轉身時之右拳放在胸前•及左手在左耳邊等動作•不過是其間之歷程•為明暸起見•不得不如此細詳寫•習時但明此意•動作仍須連成一氣•如轉身及右手後收左手前按同時舉行•方不至斷勁•此式右弓步•較普通弓步少且直•
Although this posture has been divided into two movements, it is actually only one. The turning around with the right fist placed in front of the chest and the left hand going beside the ear is merely intended to make the process of the movement understood, and so it has to be written with this added detail. However, when practicing it, once you understand this idea, the movement must be a single flow. When turning around, the withdrawing of your right hand and pushing forward with your left hand are to be performed in unison, and then it will not result in an interrupted energy. Also, this posture’s right bow stance is smaller and more upright than the others.

★用法
Application:
與第二十八式撇身鎚相似•(惟此式右掌與拳異耳•)
Similar to Posture 28, except with palm in place of fist.

☐第四十二式 上步搬攔錘
Posture 42: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
同第十四式 圖同
Same as in Posture 14.

☐第四十三式 蹬右脚
Posture 43: RIGHT PRESSING KICK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
與第三十五式第二動完全同•圖同54圖
Same as in Posture 35, movement 2 – photo 54.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
大旨與第三十五式第三動同惟此式用右脚蹬•(即以脚跟貼住敵人之身體•向前蹬出之意•)且方向不是斜角•係正北方•其餘手之分開及姿勢•均與55圖同•
This is mostly the same as in Posture 35, movement 3, except in this case it is a right pressing kick (meaning the heel connects to the opponent’s body with an intention of pressing out forward) and the orientation is to the north rather than the northeast. As for the rest, the spreading of your hands and the posture of your hands are the same as in photo 55.

★用法
Application:
大旨與右分腿同•惟此式以右脚貼住敵體•向之蹬出稍異耳•
Mostly the same as in Posture 35, except in this case your right heel connects with the opponent’s body and the direction of pressing out is slightly different.

☐第四十四式 左右披身打虎勢
Posture 44: LEFT & RIGHT DRAPING BODY, FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右脚蹬過之後•收囘踏於左脚跟後•成交叉形•(脚尖斜向右•離左脚跟約一脚之地•)此時體重移於右腿•兩手握拳由原處向前伸直上舉•(火口相對•其開度與肩同寬•(如圖63•
After your right foot has pressed out, it withdraws behind your left heel, making an overlapping stance (the toes pointing to the right, positioned at about a foot’s distance from your left heel). The weight now shifting to your right leg, your hands, grasping into fists, go forward from their previous position, extending upward (tiger’s mouths facing each other, shoulder width apart). See photo 63:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 63

▲第二動
Movement 2:
左脚提起望左後方•(西南斜角)脚尖向左前方•斜退一步•屈膝成左後弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(步度之大小不拘•約二脚半之地•)同時左拳曲肘向左額前收•由下而上•(肘曲向左外方•手心向外•離額約一拳之地•)右拳由原處隨腰從前而下•向左脅處畫•放在左肋骨前•(肘曲向前•拳離體約二拳之地•火口向內•)如圖64•
Your left foot lifts, retreats a full step to the left rear (southwest), the toes pointing to the forward left, and the knee bends to make a left reverse bow stance, your right leg straightening. (The size of the step is not fixed. To step about two and a half feet will do.) At the same time, your left fist, the elbow bending, withdraws to be in front of the left side of your forehead, going upward from below (elbow bent and pointing outward to the left, the center of the fist facing outward, positioned at about a fist’s distance from your forehead), while your right fist goes along with your waist by going downward in front of you from its previous position and then arcing to the left to be placed in front of your left ribs (elbow bent and pointing forward, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your body, tiger’s mouth facing inward). See photo 64:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 64

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•左腿退後時•兩拳隨腰向左畫•不可分先後•兩拳畫成圓形•
2. After your left leg retreats, your fists go along with your waist by arcing to the left, both drawing arcs that must neither precede nor follow the other.
三•面向北•而上體偏向西北斜角•
3. You are facing to the north, your upper body squared to the northwest.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
坐穩左腿•右脚提起•向右橫移半步•(屈膝)•成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(微屈)同時右拳(火口轉下)由原處向右上方畫•(由下而上•)放在右額前離額約一拳之地(肘曲向外方•)左拳由原處向左外方•繼向右脅處畫圈放在右肋骨部前•(肘曲左外方•)火口向內•上體偏向東北斜角•如圖65•
Sitting stably on your left leg, your right leg lifts and shifts across a half step to the right, the knee bending to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent). At the same time, your right fist (tiger’s mouth turning to face downward) goes from its previous position by arcing upward to the right (going upward from below), placed at about a fist’s distance in front of the right side of your forehead (elbow bent and pointing outward), as your left fist goes from its previous position by going outward to the left and then arcing to the right to be placed in front of your right ribs (elbow bent and pointing outward to the left), tiger’s mouth facing inward, your upper body inclining to the northeast. See photo 65:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 65

△注意
Points for attention:
一•右腿跨出時兩拳隨腰右畫•
1. When your right leg steps out, your fists go along with your waist by arcing to the right.
二•體重在右
2. The weight is on your right leg.
三•面向北而上體向東北斜角•
3. You are facing to the north, your upper body squared to the northeast.

★用法
Application:
敵以兩手握住我左臂•且向我推•我隨其進勢•退左步轉腰偏身引之向左•以化其勁•(即第二動左脚斜退後作左後弓步•曁左拳隨腰向左額前收動•)敵手斯時必鬆動•我抽出左手•以右手握敵之右腕(即第二動右拳隨腰向左脅下畫動•)我左手在上•適可橫擊其頭部•(上為左勢用法)如敵兩手再握我右手•我右手向右引•(即第三動右腿右橫移•右手火口轉下•向右額處畫動•)以左手接握其右腕•(即第三動左拳向右脅處畫動•)抽出右拳適可橫擊其頭部•(以上為右勢用法)
If an opponent uses both hands to grab my left arm and push me, I go along with his advancing momentum by retreating my left foot, turning my waist, and inclining my body, drawing him in on my left side to neutralize his power (as in movement 2 when your left foot diagonally retreats to make a left reverse bow stance and your left fist goes along with your waist by withdrawing to be in front of the left side of your forehead). He now must slacken his grip, so I pull out my left hand while using my right hand to grab his right wrist (as in movement 2 when your right fist goes along with your waist by arcing downward toward your left ribs), and my left hand above can now easily strike across to his head. This is the application for the left side.
     For the right side, if an opponent uses both hands to grab my right arm, I use my right hand to draw him to the right (as in movement 3 when your right leg steps across to the right while your right hand, tiger’s mouth turning to face downward, arcs toward the right side of your forehead) and use my left hand to connect to his right wrist (as in movement 3 when your left fist arcs toward your right ribs), then pull out my right fist, which can now easily strike across to his head.

☐第四十五式 囘身蹬脚
Posture 45: WITHDRAW, PRESSING KICK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重移左•坐左腿•右腿提起向後收•靠近左脚•(脚尖着地•跟提起)同時兩拳向兩邊分開•火口向上•如圖66•
The weight shifts onto your left leg and your right leg lifts then draws near to your left leg (toes touching down, heel lifted). At the same time, your fists spread apart to the sides, tiger’s mouths facing upward. See photo 66:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 66

▲第二動
Movement 2:
先深屈左膝•身體下蹲•右膝亦隨屈•(膝蓋正對前方•脚跟仍提起•)同時兩拳向下畫(手心向前火口向外•)身體蹲到拳亦畫到•在兩膝蓋前相合•如圖67•
First deeply bend your left knee, squatting your body down, your right knee correspondingly bending (the knee pointing forward, heel lifted). At the same time, your fists draw downward arcs (the center of the fists facing forward, tiger’s mouths facing outward), coming together in front of your knees by the time your body has reached the full extent of its squatting down. See photo 67:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 67

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•上體不可前屈•
2. Your upper body must not bend forward.
三•身體下蹲與畫手同時行之•
3. The squatting of your body and the arcing of your hands are to be performed in unison.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
立起•兩手向前後分開•(其姿勢興第三十五式第三動同•)同時左腿站穩•右腿向正前方•(北)蹬出•(惟第三十五式係向右前方踢出略異•)圖同第三十五式55圖
Rising up, your hands spread apart to the front and rear (the same as in Posture 35, movement 3), and with your left leg standing stably, your right leg presses out forward (to the north). It is slightly different because Posture 35 is an upward kick to the forward right, yet this posture still looks the same as in photo 55.

★用法
Application:
敵以右手來擊•我以右手接握敵人之右腕•採之向下•(即第二動身體下蹲兩拳向下畫動)斯時敵必欲退•我隨其退勢以右手托起敵之右手•(即第三動右手前分動)敵之右脅露空•則以右脚貼住敵脅向之蹬去•(即第三動右脚蹬出動)所謂以脚貼敵者•聽其勁也•實則不動不必蹬•虛則鬆動乘機而蹬出之•
If an opponent attacks me with his right hand, I use my right hand to grab his right wrist and pluck downward (as in movement 2 when your body squats down and your fists arc downward). He will now surely wish to retreat, so I go along with his retreating momentum by using my right hand to prop up his right hand (as in movement 3 when your right hand spreads away forward), exposing his right ribs, then use my right foot to connect to his ribs and press him away (as in movement 3 when your right foot presses out). What is meant by the foot “connecting to his ribs” is a moment of “listening” to his energy. If he is full there and not moving, it is not appropriate to press out. If he is empty there and in the act of softening the area, I take advantage of the opportunity and press out.

☐第四十六式 雙風貫耳
Posture 46: DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS

▲第一動
Movement:
右脚蹬出後•在右前東北斜角踏落•屈膝成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(微屈)兩手握拳自胸前向兩邊放落•(手伸直)再隨出腿向前挪起一合•(拳背相對•手伸直•拳與下顎同高•兩拳相距•與肩闊同•)似以拳角貫敵之兩邊太陽穴之意•如圖68•
After your right leg presses out, it steps down to the northeast, and the knee bends to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet slightly bent). Your hands meanwhile grasp into fists and lower to the sides from in front of your chest (arms extended), then go along with the weight shift by coming together (the backs of the fists facing each other, arms extended, fists at chin level and shoulder width apart) as though with an intention of using the corners of your fists to pierce the opponent’s temples. See photo 68 [If there was an actual photo 68 made, it was not put in the book. The photo that was put in its place is a reused photo 93, which only partially suits the posture. It would have made more sense to use photo 91.]:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 68

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•兩拳相碰•意在腰•神氣自主•
2. While your fists are crashing toward each other, your intention lies in your waist and you have a commanding manner.

★用法
Application:
我以兩手按敵被其按落•我順其落勢向下分開•彼旣落空我兩手上挪以拳角碰其兩邊太陽穴•
If I perform a push and the opponent pushes my hands down, I go downward along with his lowering momentum and spread my hands apart, then once he loses his balance because of this, my hands go upward and I crash the corners of my fists into his temples.

☐第四十七式 左蹬脚
Posture 47: LEFT PRESSING KICK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右脚尖向右轉四十五度•體重右移•同時左腿右收•放在右脚邊•脚尖着地•(跟提起)•向正前方•兩手握拳•臂伸直•向兩邊分開•(由前分向左右•火口向上與肩平)
Your right toes turn forty-five degrees to your right and the weight shifts to your right leg as your left leg gathers in toward the right to be placed beside your right foot, toes touching down (heel lifted) and pointing forward. Your hands, still grasped into fists, arms extended, spread open to the sides (spreading to the left and right from in front, tiger’s mouths facing upward, at shoulder level). [See photo 69:]

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 69

▲第二動
Movement 2:
先深屈右膝•身體下蹲•(此時左膝蓋亦隨之屈向正前方)同拳下畫(手心向前火口向兩邊)身體蹲到•拳亦畫到•在兩膝蓋前相合•如圖70
First deeply bend your right knee, your body squatting down (your left knee going along with the action by bending forward). At the same time, your fists arc downward (the centers of the fists facing forward, tiger’s mouths facing to the sides), coming together in front of your knees by the time your body has reached the full extent of its squatting down. See photo 70:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 70

▲第三動
Movement 3:
立起•右腿站穩•左脚向正前方(北)蹬出•同時兩手向前後分開•與第三十六式第三動同•惟此動係向正前方脚跟蹬出•第三十六式係向左前方踢出稍異耳•圖仝58•
Rising up with your right leg standing stably, your left foot presses out forward (to the north). At the same time, your hands spread apart to the front and rear. It is the same as in Posture 36, movement 3, except in this case your heel presses out forward, whereas in Posture 36 it is a kick to the forward left, and so it is slightly different, yet looks the same as in photo 58.

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•故上體偏右•
1. The weight is on your right leg, therefore your upper body inclines to the right.
二•眼前看北•
2. Your gaze is forward to the north.

★用法
Application:
大旨與左蹬脚同•
Mostly the same as in Posture 37.

第四十八式 轉身蹬脚
Posture 48: TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
左脚蹬過後•收囘提住•脚尖向下•膝蓋向前•(初學時不妨脚尖點地)•同時兩手由原姿勢向胸前合•(手心相對•指向上•如橫捧一圓球式•)離胸約二拳之地•如圖71•
After your left foot presses out, it withdraws, staying lifted, toes hanging down, knee pointing forward. (In the beginning, it is acceptable for the toes to touch down.) At the same time, your hands go from their previous position by coming together in front of your chest (palms facing each other, fingers pointing upward, as though holding a ball crosswise), positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest. See photo 71:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 71

▲第二動
Movement 2:
右脚尖翹起•全體重注在右脚跟•即將上體自右邊向後旋一大圈•由北而東•南•西•到西北斜角時•改為左脚踏落•(脚尖向西北斜角)•右脚提起•膝蓋向北•(初學時為防身體傾搖•不妨脚尖點地•但須習練至脚尖不點地方可)•兩手照原姿勢隨腰轉•如圖72•
Your right toes lift to put the weight of your whole body on the heel, then your body spins a complete circle toward the right rear, going from north to east to south to west. Once you are squared to the northwest, switch to your left foot coming down (toes pointing to the northwest) and your right foot lifting, knee pointing to the north. (To keep your body from leaning or swaying in the beginning, it is acceptable for the toes to touch down, but you must practice it until they are not touching down for it to be correct.) Your hands maintain their previous posture and simply go along with the turning of your waist. See photo 72:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 72

▲第三動
Movement 3:
左脚站穩•右脚向正前方(北)蹬出•同時兩手向前後分開•圖同第三十五式第55圖惟此式右脚係向正北方蹬出耳•
With your left leg standing stably, your right foot presses out forward (to the north), your hands spreading apart to the front and rear. Same as in Posture 35, photo 55, except in this case your right foot is pressing out to the north.

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•頭向正北•上體及左脚尖向西北斜角•
2. Your gaze is to the north. Your upper body and left toes are oriented to the northwest.
三•轉身時手不變姿勢隨腰轉•
3. When you turn around, your hands do not change in their posture and they simply go along with the turning of your waist.
四•在轉體時•左脚隨腰轉•脚尖帶畫圈的意思•並須用力補助右脚跟轉•轉時脚尖離地約六寸高•膝屈着•
4. When turning around, your left foot goes along with the turning of your waist, the toes maintaining an intention of drawing an arc, and must put its strength into assisting the pivoting of your right heel. During the spin, the toes are about six inches above the ground, the knee bent.

★用法
Application:
接上式我左脚蹬過之後•尚未着地•敵以右腿踢我或蹬我•我乘其提勢以左脚勾住敵腿•身體向右旋•(此脚用法無異如以左手去掠敵右腿•且向我右側採之意•即第二動用左脚跟將上體向右旋(一大圈動•)斯時敵將傾跌•我轉身再以右脚蹬之•(即第二動蹬右脚動)
Continuing from the previous technique, after my left foot presses out and before it comes down, the opponent uses his right leg to kick me or apply a pressing kick to me, so I take advantage of his lifting energy by using my left foot to hook his leg and turn my body around to the right. (This foot technique is no different than if I were to use my left hand to sweep aside the opponent’s right leg and has an intention of plucking toward my right side, as in movement 2 when you use your left [right] heel to spin your body around to the right, making a complete circle.) He is now on the verge of leaning and stumbling away, so I turn the rest of the way around and use my right foot to press out (as in movement 2 [3] when you press out with your right foot).

☐第四十九式 上步搬攔錘
Posture 49: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH

▲第一動
Movement:
右脚蹬過之後•在東北斜角踏落•成右弓步•同時右手握拳•拳背前覆•肘靠着右脅•(此時拳心向上如托槍式)左手由原處隨腰前按•(圖同第48)然後再右脚尖向右轉四十五度•坐穩右腿•左腿向前方跨出一步•成左弓步•左手不變姿勢•右拳自腰間向左手下朝前打出•圖同第27•
After your right foot presses, it steps down to the northeast, making a right bow stance. At the same time, your right hand grasps into a fist, the back of the fist turns over forward, the elbow withdrawing near to your right ribs (the center of the fist now facing upward, as in a spear-holding posture), and your left hand goes from its previous position by going along with your waist to push forward (same as in photo 48). Then turn your right toes forty-five degrees to the right and sit stably on your right leg. Your left leg steps forward a full step, making a left bow stance, your left hand not changing in its posture, and your right hand punches out forward under your left hand, same as in photo 27.

△注意
A point for attention:
一•此式係合併第二十八式撇身錘及第十四式搬攔錘二式為一式•詳細動作及姿勢•須參看以上之二式•
This is a combination of Postures 28 and 14, and so they should be referred to for a fuller explanation of the movement and posture.

★用法
Application:
同前•
Same as before.

☐第五十式 如封似閉
Posture 50: SEALING SHUT
同第十五式 圖同
Same as in Posture 15.

☐第五十一式 十字手
Posture 51: CROSSED HANDS
同第十六式 圖同
Same as in Posture 16.

☐第五十二式 抱虎歸山
Posture 52: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
同第十七式 圖同
Same as in Posture 17.

☐第五十三式 攬雀尾
Posture 53: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
同第十八式 圖同
Same as in Posture 18.

☐第五十四式 斜單鞭
Posture 54: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

▲第一動
Movement 1:
體重左移•坐左腿•同時上體轉正南•兩手自原處伸直向現在之左上方畫一大圈(自右而左)手心向前•指向上•兩手開度與肩同•圖同第三式第13圖
The weight shifts onto your left leg as your upper body turns to be squared to the south and your hands go from their previous position by going upward to the left in a large arc, arms extended (going from right to left), palms facing forward, fingers pointing upward, hands at shoulder width. It is the same as in Posture 3, photo 13.

△注意
A point for attention:
脚姿勢不變
The posture of your [left] foot has not changed.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
與第三式第二動同•惟方向不同•上體向正南•右吊手在西北斜角•圖同第三式第14圖•
This is the same as in Posture 3, movement 2 – photo 14, except in this case the orientation is different, your upper body being squared to the south and your right hanging hand pointing to the northwest.

△注意
A point for attention:
右脚尖右轉四十五度•與14圖稍異•
Your right toes have turned out forty-five degrees to the right, and so it is slightly different from in photo 14.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
上體坐穩•左脚提起•同時左手由原處自身前挪起•(手心轉外•)放在胸前•面向南•圖同第三式第15圖•
Your upper body sitting stably, your left foot lifts as your left hand goes from its previous position by lifting in front of your body (the palm turning to face outward) to be placed in front of your chest, which is squared to the south. It is the same as in Posture 3, photo 15 [except for the orientation].

▲第四動
Movement 4:
與第三式第四動同•圖同第三式第16圖•惟此式左脚向左前方踏落•踏在東南斜角•吊手在西北斜角•上體半面向西南斜角•
This is the same as in Posture 3, movement 4 – photo 16, except in this case your left foot steps down to the forward left – southeast, your hanging hand pointing to the northwest, and your upper body is turned halfway to be squared to the southwest.

★用法
Application:
與單鞭同
Same as in Posture 3.

☐第五十五式 左右野馬分鬃
Posture 55: LEFT & RIGHT WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
左脚尖向左轉四十五度•體重移左•(屈膝•)同時右腿提起•向左收•放在左脚旁•脚尖點地•左手由原處稍向後收•(肘下垂)•放在左乳房前•(離乳房約二拳之地•)右手則由原處下畫•畫到左小腹處止•(手心向上•正對左手如捧一圓球式•圖同第二式第7圖•
Your left toes turn forty-five degrees to the left and the weight shifts to your left leg (the knee bending), then your right leg lifts and gathers in toward the left to be placed beside your left foot, toes touching down. At the same time, your left hand goes from its previous position by slightly withdrawing (elbow hanging down) to be placed in front of the left side of your chest (positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest), while your right hand arcs downward from its previous position to arrive by the left side side of your lower abdomen (palm facing upward, facing your left hand as though you are holding a ball.) It is the same as in Posture 2, photo 7.

△注意
Points for attention:
一•上體半面向左(即東南斜角)
1. Your upper body is turned halfway to the left (squared to the southeast).
二•頭前看
2. Your gaze is forward.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
同第二式第六動•方向及圖均同•惟此式右手心向上•稍異耳•
It is the same in orientation and appearance as in Posture 2, movement 6, except that in this posture the right palm is facing upward, and so it is slightly different.

▲第三動
Movement 3:
右脚尖向右轉四十五度•體重右移•(屈膝)•上體半面向右轉•左脚提起望右收•放在右脚旁•(脚尖着地•)同時右手手心轉向下•稍向後收•(肘下垂)•放於右乳房前•(離乳房約一拳之地•)同時左手由原處向右下方畫•置於右小腹旁•(手心向上•正對右手•如捧球式•)圖同第二式第4圖•
Your right toes turn forty-five degrees to the right and the weight shifts to your right leg (the knee bending), your upper body turning halfway to the right, then your left leg lifts and gathers in toward the right to be placed beside your right foot (toes touching down). At the same time, your left hand, palm turning to face downward, slightly withdraws (elbow hanging down) to be placed in front of the right side of your chest (positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest), while your left hand goes from its previous position by arcing downward to the right to be placed beside the right side of your lower abdomen (palm facing upward, facing your right hand as though you are holding a ball). It is the same as in Posture 2, photo 4.

△注意
Points for attention:
一•上體半面向右(即西南斜角)
1. Your upper body is turned halfway to the right (squared to the southwest).
二•頭前看•
2. Your gaze is forward.

▲第四動
Movement 4:
同第二式第三動•惟此式面向正南•圖同第二式第5圖•左手心向上稍異耳•
It is the same as in Posture 2, movement 3 – photo 5, except that in this posture you are facing to the south and your left palm is facing upward, and so it is slightly different.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
第一二三四動為左右野馬分鬃•共上二步•跨步之要旨與摟膝按步同•須連續勿斷•分手時姿勢如抽絲然•愈慢愈妙•
Movements 1-4 form LEFT & RIGHT WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE, totaling two steps forward. The steps are mainly the same as in BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE, but must be performed continuously, with no pause between them. When your hands spread apart, it is as though you are drawing silk – the slower the better.

★野馬分鬃用法
Application:
敵以左拳來擊時•我以左手接住敵之左腕向左採•上右步以右手按住敵之後背•我腰隨向左轉而推放之•(即第一動同第二式第六動•上右步•左手自原處慢慢下按•右手自身前提起動)如敵再以右拳來擊時•我以右手接住敵之右腕住右採•進左步以左手按住其背部•腰往右轉而推放之•(即第四動同第二式第三動•上左步右手下按•左手自胸前向上提動•)
If an opponent uses his left fist to punch at me, I use my left hand to connect to his left wrist and pluck it to the left, stepping forward with my right foot, and use my right hand to push on his back, my waist going along with this action by turning to the left to send him away. (Movement 1 is the same as in Posture 2, movement 6, when your right foot steps forward, your left hand pushing down, right hand lifting up.) Or if an opponent uses his right fist to punch at me, I use my right hand to connect to his right wrist and pluck it to the right, advancing with my left foot, and use my left hand to push on his back, my waist going along with this action by turning to the right to send him away. (Movement 4 is the same as in Posture 2, movement 3, when your left foot steps forward, your right hand pushing down, left hand lifting up.)

☐第五十六式 上步攬雀尾
Posture 56: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
同第三十式 圖同
Same as in Posture 30.

☐第五十七式 單鞭
Posture 57: SINGLE WHIP
同第三式 圖同
Same as in Posture 3.

☐第五十八式 玉女穿梭
Posture 58: MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE

▲第一勢 第一動
Part 1, movement 1:
體重完全移坐於右腿•左脚尖翹起•盡力向右轉•(一百廿度•)上體轉向正東•右手吊改掌•由原處放下•置於右腿旁•(手心向內•指向下•)左手不變姿勢•隨腰右移•置於胸前•(手心轉右•指尖與鼻齊)如圖73•
The weight shifts onto your right leg, your left toes lift and put all their energy into turning to the right (a hundred and eighty degrees), and your upper body turns to be squared to the east, while your right hand changes from hanging hand to palm and goes downward from its previous position to be placed beside your right thigh (palm facing inward, fingers pointing downward). Your left hand does not change in its posture, but goes along with your waist by shifting to the right to be placed in front of your chest (palm turning to face to the right, fingertips at nose level). See photo 73:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 73

△注意
A point for attention:
一左脚必須盡力轉•
Your left toes have to be turned in as far as they will go.

▲第一勢 第二動
Part 1, movement 2:
體重左移•同時立直•右脚提起望左收•放於左脚旁•脚尖向下•上腿提平•上體右向轉•(轉向西南斜角•)同時右手由原處(肘向上•手心轉向外•)自身前挪起•放於右額前•(火口向下•正對鼻孔•手指向左•手心向外•離額約二拳之地•肘向右外方•)同時左手不變姿•勢稍右移•如圖74•
The weight shifts to your left leg as it straightens, your right foot lifts and gathers in toward the left to be placed beside your left leg, toes hanging down with the thigh level, your upper body turning to the right (to be squared to the southwest). At the same time, your right hand goes from its previous position (elbow pointing upward, palm turning to face outward) by lifting in front of you to be placed in front of the right side of your forehead (tiger’s mouth facing downward toward your nose, fingers pointing to the left, palm facing outward, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your forehead, elbow pointing outward to the right) while your left hand, not changing in its posture, slightly shifts to the right. See photo 74:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 74

▲第一勢 第三動
Part 1, movement 3:
右脚向現在之右前方跨出一步•屈右膝•成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(弓步較他式為小•)右手不動•左手隨腰自胸前向右斜角按出•(肘下垂•手心向外•指向上•與鼻齊•離鼻約三拳之地•此時上體半面向右•(即西南斜角•)如圖75•
Your right foot now steps out a full step to the forward right, your right knee bends to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (this bow stance smaller than the others). Your right hand does not move, but your left hand goes along with your waist by pushing out forward in front of your chest to the right corner (elbow hanging down, palm facing outward, fingers pointing upward and at nose level, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your nose). Your upper body is now turned halfway to the right (squared to the southwest). See photo 75:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 75

▲第二勢 第一動
Part 2, movement 1:
右脚尖向右轉三十度•右腿站穩•左腿提起向右收•放在右脚旁•(上腿提平•脚尖向下•正對南方•)右手由原處稍下畫•置於胸前•(手心向左•指向上•肘下垂•尖與鼻齊•離鼻約二拳之地•左手指尖轉向下•左肘抬高•挪起置於左額前•離額二拳之地•)手心向外•指向右•火口向下•正對鼻•離鼻約二拳之地•如圖76•
Your right toes turn thirty degrees to the right, your right leg stands stably, your left leg lifts and gathers in toward the right to be placed beside your left leg (with the thigh level, toes hanging down, knee pointing to the south). At the same time, your right hand slightly arcs downward from its previous position to be placed in front of your chest (palm facing to the left, fingers pointing upward, elbow hanging down, fingertips at nose level, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your nose) while your left hand, fingers turning to point downward [to the left], elbow raising up, lifts to be placed in front of the left side of your forehead (positioned at a distance of about two fists from your forehead), palm facing outward, fingers pointing to the right, tiger’s mouth facing downward toward your nose, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your nose. See photo 76:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 76

▲第二勢 第二動
Part 2, movement 2:
左脚向現在之左前方跨出一步•屈左膝•成左弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(微屈)•左手不動•右手由胸前隨腰向東南斜角按出•(手心向外•指向上與鼻齊•離鼻約三拳之地•上體半面向左•(即東南斜角)如圖77•
Your left foot now steps out a full step to the forward left and your left knee bends to make a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (yet slightly bent). Your left hand does not move, but your right hand goes along with your waist by pushing out in front of your chest to the southeast (palm facing outward, fingers pointing upward and at nose level, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your nose, your upper body turning halfway to the left (to be squared to the southeast). See photo 77:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 77

▲第三勢 第一動
Part 3, movement 1:
與第一勢第一動動作同•惟此式上體方向朝正西•圖同73•
Same as in part 1, movement 1 – photo 73, except now your upper body is squared to the west.

▲第三勢 第二動
Part 3, movement 2:
與第一勢第二動同•惟此式上體面東北斜角•圖同74•
Same as in part 1, movement 2 – photo 74, except now your upper body is squared to the northeast.

▲第三勢 第三動
Part 3, movement 3:
與第一勢第三動同•右脚踏在東北斜角•圖同75•
Same as in part 1, movement 3 – photo 75, except now your right foot steps to the northeast.

▲第四勢 第一動
Part 4, movement 1:
與第二勢第一動同•圖同76•
Same as in part 2, movement 1 – photo 76 [except now your upper body is squared to the northwest].

▲第四勢 第二動
Part 4, movement 2:
與第二勢第二動同•惟此式右手向西北斜角按出•圖同77
Same as in part 2, movement 2 – photo 77, except now your right hand pushes out to the northwest.

▲第五勢第一二三動同第一勢第一二三動圖同73. 74. 75.
Part 5, movements 1-3 are the same as in part 1, movements 1-3 – photos 73-75.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
以上共五勢•向四斜角按出•其方向數易•在變換方向時•必須注意體重•而轉身時脚跟為軸不可動•挪手時帶畫圈意•且須連續不斷•一面轉身•則一面挪手及換腿•貫串一起•如轉風鈴然•但不可快耳•
The five parts of this posture push out to all four corners, the direction changing several times. When changing direction, you must pay attention to the weight shifts. When turning around, the heel that pivots must not change its location. When shifting your hands, maintain an intention of making arcs. Furthermore, the movements must be continuous without interruption. One aspect of it is turning around, the other is to shift your hands and switch your step. When it is all linked into a single action, it will be like a set of spinning wind chimes. However, the movement must not be rushed.

★用法
Application:
敵自我右後方來•我急轉身以右手上挪敵之右手•(即第一勢第二動•上體轉西南斜角•同時右手自身前挪•起放在右額前動•)引之向右側•偏身轉腰•以左手擊其右脅•(即第一勢第三動•上右步右手不動•左手自胸前向右斜按出動•)在斯時敵時手下鬆•以左手反擊我•隨改以左手上挪敵之左腕•(即第二勢左手抬高•置於左額前動•)轉腰偏身引之向左側•上左步以右手擊其左脅•(其餘用法同•)
If an opponent attacks from my right rear, I urgently turn around and use my right hand to send his right hand upward (as in part 1, movement 2 when your upper body turns to be squared to the southwest and your right hand lifts up to be placed in front of the right side of your forehead), drawing it toward my right side by inclining my body and turning my waist, then use my left hand to attack his right ribs (as in part 1, movement 3 when you step your right foot forward and your left hand pushes out to the right corner). If he now loosens his hand downward and uses his left hand to counterattack, I correspondingly switch to using my left hand to send his left wrist upward (as in part 2 when your left hand lifts up to be placed in front of the left side of your forehead), inclining my body and turning my waist to draw it toward my left side, then step my left foot forward and use my right hand to attack his left ribs. (The same application applies to the rest of the posture.)

☐第五十九式 攬雀尾
Posture 59: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
同第十八式 圖同8. 9. 10 11 12
Same as in Posture 18, photos 8-12.

☐第六十式 單鞭
Posture 60: SINGLE WHIP
同第三式 圖同13 14 15 16
Same as in Posture 3 – photos 13-16.

☐第六十一式 抎手
Posture 61: CLOUDING HANDS
同第三十二式 圖同49 50 51
Same as in Posture 32 – photos 49-51.

☐第六十二式 單鞭
Posture 62: SINGLE WHIP
同第三十三式 動作詳三十二式之說明條未•圖則參看第16圖•
Same as in Posture 33. The movement is described at the end of the additional explanation in Posture 32. It is the same as in photo 16.

☐第六十三式 斜身下勢
Posture 63: LEANING BODY LOW POSTURE

▲第一動
Movement:
體重完全右移•深屈右膝•身體下蹲•同時左脚挺直•(脚尖不動•)右吊手不變姿勢•左手先向前伸直•隨腰伏下•(手指向前•手心向下•離地約二拳之高•)放於左腿右旁•如圖78•
The weight shifts to your right leg, your right knee bends deeply, and your body squats down, your left leg straightening (the toes not shifting from their position). Your right hand remaining in its hooking hand posture, your left hand first extends forward, then goes along with the crouching of your waist (fingers pointing forward, palm facing downward, at a distance of about two fists above the ground) to be placed to the right side of your left leg. See photo 78:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 78

△注意
Points for attention:
一•上體不可曲•
1. Your upper body must not bend over.
二•上體重在右•
2. The weight is on your right leg.
三•左脚尖不可翹起•
3. Your left toes must not lift up.

★用法
Application:
我以左手擊敵•被其握住•且向前進•我斯時•隨其進勢•垂手鬆腰•引之落空(即身體下蹲動)•
If I use my left hand to attack an opponent, but he grabs it and advances, I then go along with his advancing momentum by sinking my hand and loosening my waist, luring him into losing his balance (as in the part of the movement when your body squats down).

☐第六十四式 金鷄獨立
Posture 64: GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG

▲左勢 第一動
Left side, movement 1:
腰由後向前進•左手隨之前穿•(前進如蛇之行•)身體隨進隨起•體重左移•屈膝•變為左弓步•右腿隨之伸直•(帶屈)左手手心向下•指向前•放在左膝蓋旁•同時右手改吊為掌•由原處放下•置於右腿旁•手心向內•指向下•如圖79•
Your waist goes forward, your left hand going along with it by threading forward (going forward like the slither of a snake). Your body is going forward then lifting up, the weight shifting to your left leg, the knee bending to make a left bow stance, your right leg straightening (yet still bent). At the same time, your left palm faces downward, fingers pointing forward, and is placed beside your left knee, while your right hand changes from hanging hand to palm and goes downward from its previous position to be placed beside your right thigh, palm facing inward, fingers pointing downward. See photo 79:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 79

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•上體挺直•
2. Your body is upright.

▲左勢 第二動
Left side, movement 2:
左脚站穩•稍屈•右腿由原處向前提起•(上腿平•足尖向下•膝蓋(正對北方)右肘置於右膝上•自右腿旁•隨腿上提時自原處•(手指向前手心向左•)挪起•指與眉齊•離眉約三拳之地•如圖80•
With your left leg standing stably, slightly bent, your right leg goes from its previous position by lifting forward (so the thigh is level, toes hanging down, knee pointing to the north). Your right elbow goes along with this action by going from where it was beside your right leg to be above your right knee (fingers pointing forward, palm facing to the left), lifting so the fingertips are at eyebrow level, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your eyebrows. See photo 80:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 80

▲右勢 第一動
Right side, movement 1:
屈左膝•上體下蹲•右脚踏落•(兩膝均屈•向北•兩膝相距約一拳之地•)同時右手隨體下蹲時由原處(手心轉下)慢慢下按•放於右膝蓋旁•手指向前•如圖81•
Bending your left knee, squat your body down and step down with your right foot (both knees equally bent and pointing to the north, about a fist’s distance between them). At the same time, your right hand goes along with the squatting, going from its previous position by slowly pushing downward (the palm turning to face downward) to be placed beside your right knee, fingers pointing forward. See photo 81:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 81

▲右勢 第二動
Right side, movement 2:
立起•右腿伸直立穩•左脚隨腰提起•(上腿平•脚尖向下•膝蓋向北)右手不動•左肘置於左膝上•自左腿旁•隨腿上提時•自原處(手指向前)挪起•手心向右•指尖與眉齊•離眉約三拳之地•如圖82•
Rising up, your right leg stands stably and your left leg goes along with your waist by lifting up (so the thigh is level, toes hanging down, knee pointing to the north). Your right hand stays as it is, but your left elbow goes along with the leg lifting by going from where it was beside your left leg to be above your left knee (fingers pointing forward, palm facing to the right), lifting so the fingertips are at eyebrow level, positioned at a distance of about three fists from your eyebrows. See photo 82:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 82

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•左腿上提左手隨之挪起•
2. When your left leg lifts up, your left hand goes along with it.

▲說明
Additional explanation:
左右二勢•共分四動•習熱後須得四動合為二動•如此則中間毋須停留•譬如作第一動時•即由單鞭下勢式向前一直立起•不必先變弓步再提右腿•但為初習時不得不如此說法也•
The two parts of this posture are divided into a total of four movements. Once you have practiced it to familiarity, you must get the four movements to be consolidated into only two, and there will then be no cause to pause between them. For example, when in movement 1 you go forward from the LOW POSTURE to stand up, it will not be necessary to first switch to a bow stance in order to then lift your right leg. That method of explaining it is needed only for beginners.

★用法
Application:
我距敵甚近•先以右手擊其下頦•被其左手隔開•我急提右腿•以膝蓋上撞其下部•(即第二動右腿向前提起以及右手放在右膝上挪起動•)斯時我右腿被其避開•敵復以右手反擊我•我則換以左手隔開其右手•提左腿以左膝蓋撞其下部•(即第四動左肘置於左腿上以及左腿上提動•)
If when I am extremely close to an opponent I first use my right hand to punch to his chin and he blocks it aside with his left hand, I urgently lift my right leg to crash the knee into his lower body (as in movement 2 when you lift your right arm above your knee as your right leg lifts forward). If my right leg now gets evaded and he then uses his right hand to counterattack, I switch to using my left hand, which blocks aside his right hand, and lift my left leg to crash the knee into his lower body (as in movement 4 when you lift your left arm above your knee as your left leg lifts forward).

☐第六十五式 倒輦猴
Posture 65: RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
同第二十一式 圖同
Same as in Posture 21.

☐第六十六式 斜飛勢
Posture 66: DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
同第二十二式 圖同
Same as in Posture 22.

☐第六十七式 提手上勢
Posture 67: RAISE THE HAND
同第二十三式 圖同
Same as in Posture 23.

☐第六十八式 白鶴掠翅
Posture 68: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
同第二十四式 圖同
Same as in Posture 24.

☐第六十九式 左摟膝抝步
Posture 69: LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
同第二十五式 圖同
Same as in Posture 25.

☐第七十式 海底針
Posture 70: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
同第二十六式 圖同
Same as in Posture 26.

☐第七十一式 扇通臂
Posture 71: FAN THROUGH THE ARMS
同第二十七式 圖同
Same as in Posture 27.

☐第七十二式 撇身錘
Posture 72: TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
同第二十八式 圖同
Same as in Posture 28.

☐第七十三式 上步搬攔錘
Posture 73: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
同第二十九式 圖同
Same as in Posture 29.

☐第七十四式 上步攬雀尾
Posture 74: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
同第三十式 圖同
Same as in Posture 30.

☐第七十五式 單鞭
Posture 75: SINGLE WHIP
同第三十一式 圖同
Same as in Posture 31.

☐第七十六式 抎手
Posture 76: CLOUDING HANDS
同第三十二式 圖同
Same as in Posture 32.

☐第七十七式 單鞭
Posture 77: SINGLE WHIP
同第三十三式 圖同
Same as in Posture 33.

☐第七十八式 高探馬
Posture 78: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
同第三十四式 圖同
Same as in Posture 34.

自六十五式至第七十八式 圖均同前
(From Postures 65 to 78, the photos are all as before [photos 39-52].)

☐第七十九式 十字腿
Posture 79: CROSSED-BODY KICK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
左脚向正前方(北)踏出半步•(脚尖直向前•體重左移•同時右臂不變姿勢惟低下•且稍後收•左手則隨出腿時由原處(不變姿勢)自右臂上穿出•(手指向前•手心向上•肘向下•指尖與下顎同高•相距約五拳之地•此時體重在左•如圖83•
Your left foot steps forward a half step (the toes pointing forward) and the weight shifts onto your left leg. At the same time, your right arm lowers without changing its posture and slightly withdraws, while your left hand (also not changing its posture) goes from its previous position by going along with your step to thread out over your right forearm (fingers pointing forward, palm facing upward, elbow hanging down, fingertips at chin level and positioned at a distance of about five fists from it.) The weight is now on your left leg. See photo 83:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 83

▲第二動
Movement 2:
體重右移•坐右腿•左脚盡力向右轉百廿度•再將體重左移•同時上體由右向後轉•(右脚尖隨之•脚跟不動)•面向南•兩手不變姿勢隨腰轉•此時體重在左•如圖84•
The weight shifts onto your right leg, your left foot puts all its energy into turning a hundred and twenty degrees to the right, and the weight then shifts back to your left leg. At the same time, your body turns around to the right rear (your right toes turning along with it, but the heel staying in place) so that you are facing to the south. The posture of your hands does not change and they go along with the turning of your waist. The weight is now on your left leg. See photo 84:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 84

▲第三動
Movement 3:
坐左腿•(此時上體半面轉右西南斜角•)右脚向前(南)踢起•脚尖向上•同時兩手由原處向前後分開•左手在前•(手心向右指向上•)右手在後•手心向右指向上•)手腿之姿勢及要旨•與左右分腿姿勢略同•如圖85•
Sitting on your left leg (your upper body now turning halfway to the right to be squared to the southwest), your right foot goes forward (to the south), kicking upward, toes pointing upward. At the same time, your hands go from their previous position by spreading apart to the front and rear, left hand forward (palm facing to the right, fingers pointing upward), right hand to the rear (palm facing to the right, fingers pointing upward). The posture and essentials of your hands and legs are almost the same as in Postures 35 and 36. See photo 85:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 85

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•眼看南•
2. Your gaze is to the south.
三•上體向西南斜角•
3. Your upper body is squared to the southwest.

★用法
Application:
高探馬時•我以右手擊其上部•被其左手按落•我乘其落勢•右手下沉•(即第一動右臂不變姿勢低下動•)再抽出左手擊其面部•(即第一動左手隨出腿時•自右臂上穿出動•)斯時我後方又有一敵•以右手來擊•我轉身先以右手撇開敵手•急起腿而踢其右脅•同時以左手擊其上部•(即第三動右脚踢起以及兩手前後分動•)
When applying REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, I use my right hand to strike to the opponent’s head, but if he uses his left hand to push down, I take advantage of his lowering energy by sinking my right hand down (as in movement 1 when your right arm lowers without changing its posture), then sending out my left hand to attack his face (as in movement 1 when your left hand threads out over your right arm along with your step). At this moment, an opponent attacks me from behind with his right hand. I turn around, first using my right [left] hand to parry aside his hand, then urgently lift my leg and kick to his right ribs while using my left hand to attack his upper body (as in movement 3 when your right foot kicks upward and your hands spread to the front and rear).

☐第八十式 摟膝指擋錘
Posture 80: BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

▲第一動
Movement:
右腿踢過之後•在西南斜角踏落•左脚隨即提起•向左前方踏出一步•屈膝成左弓步•右腿伸直•(帶屈)•左手摟膝•右拳栽落•(火口向左•)放在左膝前•相距約三拳之地•頭略抬高•圖同61•
After your right leg has kicked, it steps down to the southwest, your left foot then lifts and steps out a full step to the forward left, the knee bending to make a left bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet still bent). At the same time, your left hand brushes past your knee and your right fist plants downward (tiger’s mouth facing to the left) to be placed in front of your left knee, positioned at a distance of about three fists from it. It is the same as in photo 61, except your head in this case is slightly higher.

△注意
A point for attention:
一•此式與第四十式同•惟右拳火口向左•位置在膝前稍異耳•
It is the same as in Posture 40, except in this case your right fist’s tiger’s mouth is facing to the left and positioned in front of the knee, and so it is slightly different.

★用法
Application:
我以右手擊敵之胸部•被其左手粘住我腕•且橫推我右手向左•我則以左手摟開敵手•以右手擊其小腹•(即左手摟膝右手栽錘動)
If I use my right hand to attack an opponent’s chest, but he connects to my wrist with his left hand and pushes my right hand across to my left, I then use my left hand to brush aside his hand and use my right hand to strike to his lower abdomen (as in the part of the movement when your left hand brushes past your knee and your right hand performs a planting punch).

☐第八十一式 上步攬雀尾
Posture 81: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
同第三十式 圖同8 9 10 11 12
Same as in Posture 30, photos 8-12.

☐第八十二式 單鞭
Posture 82: SINGLE WHIP
同第三式 圖同13 14 15 16
Same as in Posture 3 – photos 13-16.

☐第八十三式 斜身下勢
Posture 83: LEANING BODY LOW POSTURE
同第六十三式 圖同
Same as in Posture 63.

☐第八十四式 上步七星
Posture 84: STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER

▲第一動
Movement 1:
與第六四式(金鷄獨立)第一動同 圖同79圖
Same as in Posture 64, movement 1 – photo 79.

▲第二動
Movement 2:
左手自左腿旁向右挪起•(手心向右指向上)放在胸前•(稍偏右•)同時右手自右腿旁•(手心向左指向上•)•挪起•在左手內插出•成交叉手•(兩肘向下•指尖與眼齊•相距約二拳之地)•隨將右腿向前提起•放在左脚前•(脚跟提起•尖點地朝北•)如圖86
Your left hand goes from beside your left leg, lifting to the right (palm facing to the right, fingers pointing upward) to be placed in front of your chest (and slightly toward the right). At the same time, your right hand goes from beside your right leg (palm facing to the left, fingers pointing upward), lifting and threading through to the inside of your left hand, making a crossed hands position (elbows hanging down, fingertips at eye level and at a distance of about two fists from each other). Your right leg correspondingly lifts forward to be placed in front of your left foot (heel lifted, toes touching down and pointing to the north). See photo 86:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 86

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左•
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•兩手交叉•同時右腿前提•
2. When your hands cross, your right leg at the same time lifts forward.
三•左右兩膝均屈•
3. Both knees are equally bent.

★用法
Application:
敵以拳擊我下頦•我以交叉手截住敵腕•或向其直打•即第二動左手放在胸前•以及右手挪起•在右手內插出成交叉手動•)再以右脚踢其下部•(即第二動右腿向前提起•放在左脚前動•)
If an opponent punches to my chin, I cross my hands to stop him at his wrist or to strike straight ahead (as in movement 2 when your left hand is placed in front of your chest then your right hand lifts and threads through to the inside of your left hand, putting your hands in a crossed position) and then use my right foot to kick to his lower body (as in movement 2 when your right leg lifts forward to be placed in front of your left foot).

☐第八十五式 退步跨虎
Posture 85: RETREAT TO SITTING TIGER POSTURE

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右脚提起退後一步•(成直線)•脚尖向東北斜角•體重右移腿伸直•同時左脚提起•(上腿平•脚尖向下•膝蓋向前•(北)•兩手同時由原處向兩邊分開•(手心向下•指向外•與肩齊•)如圖87•
Your right foot lifts and retreats a step (in a straight line), the toes now pointing to the northeast. The weight shifts to your right leg, which straightens, and your left leg lifts (thigh level, toes hanging down, knee pointing forward to the north). At the same time, your hands go from their previous position to spread apart to the sides (palms facing downward, fingers pointing outward and at shoulder level). See photo 87:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 87

▲第二動
Movement 2:
屈右膝•身體低下•同時左脚尖點地•(跟提起•屈膝•)左手自原處向左下方按落•(肘稍曲•手心向下•指向前•在左腿上二拳之地•)右手自原處向右上方畫•放在右額邊•(肘曲向下•手心向外•指向上•離額約二拳之地略比額高)如圖88•
Bending your right knee, your body lowers, your left toes touching down (heel lifted, knee bent). At the same time, your left hand goes from its previous position to push downward to the left (elbow slightly bent, palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward, at a distance of about two fists above your left thigh), while your right hand goes from its previous position to arc upward to the right and be placed to the right side of your forehead (elbow bent and hanging down, palm facing outward, fingers pointing upward, positioned at a distance of about two fists from and slightly higher than your forehead). See photo 88:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 88

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•上體偏右•(東北斜角)
2. Your upper body inclines to the right (toward the northeast).
三•眼看前•(北)
3. Your gaze is forward (to the north).

★用法
Application:
上步七星時•我以交叉手將截住敵腕•奈敵力極大•復向我進•我順其來勢•退右步以左手粘住敵之右腕•分之向左下方•以右手粘住敵之左腕•分之向右上方•(即第二動兩手之姿勢•左右分動•)再起左脚踢其下部•(即第一動左脚提起動•)
In STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER, I crossed my hands to intercept the opponent’s wrist. But what if his force is great and he continues to advance? I then go along with his incoming momentum by retreating my right leg, using my left hand to stick to his right wrist and spread away downward to the left while using my right hand to stick to his left wrist and spread away upward to the right (as in movement 2 when your hands spread to the left and right), then I lift my left foot to kick to his lower body (as in movement 1 when your left leg lifts).

☐第八七六式 轉身擺蓮
Posture 86: TURN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右手稍低下放在胸前•(手心向下•離胸約二拳之地•)左手向前伸直•(微屈•手心向右指向前•)同時右腿伸直•左腿提起•右脚尖翹起•(重點注在右脚跟•)用右脚跟將身體由右向後轉•轉一大圈•(仍到原來方向•)當上體轉到西北斜角時換為左脚落地•(脚尖向左前方•西北斜角•)將右脚提住•初習時不妨以脚尖點地•)如圖89•
Your right hand slightly lowers to be placed in front of your chest (palm facing downward, positioned at a distance of about two fists from your chest) and your left hand extends forward (slightly bent, palm facing to the right, fingers pointing forward). At the same time, your right leg straightens, your left leg lifts, and your right toes lift (concentrating the weight onto the heel) for you to pivot on the heel toward your right rear, spinning a complete circle (which returns to the original direction). Once your upper body turns to be squared toward the northwest, switch to your left foot coming down (toes pointing to the forward left – the northwest) and your right leg lifting (though it is acceptable for beginners to have the toes touching down). See photo 89:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 89

▲第二動
Movement 2:
左脚立穩•右脚向前踢起•(脚尖向上)同時兩手心轉左伸直拍着右脚背•如圖90•
With your left leg standing stably, your right foot goes forward, kicking upward (toes pointing upward). At the same time, your palms turn to face to the left, and with arms extended, slap the back of your right foot. See photo 90:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 90

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在左
1. The weight is on your left leg.
二•眼看右脚
2. Your gaze is toward your right foot.
三•在初習時•脚背每不易拍着•非俟純熟後•斷難得心應手也•
3. In the beginning, it is usually not easy to slap the foot, and until you have practiced it for a long time, it will be difficult to apply skillfully.

★用法
Application:
敵以右手來擊時•我以右手接住敵腕•再以左手托其右肘•兩手同時採之向右•(即第一動右手稍低下•放在胸前•以及左手伸直•同時身體向右轉一大圈動•)轉身後•起右脚踢敵之背部•再以兩手齊擊其頭部•(即第二動右脚前踢•兩手拍右脚背動•)
If an opponent uses his right hand to attack me, I use my right hand to connect to his wrist and my left hand to prop up his elbow, then with both hands in unison I pluck down to the right (as in movement 1 when your right hand slightly lowers in front of your chest and your left hand extends, then your body spins around to the right). After spinning my body around, I lift my right foot and kick to his back while using my hands to attack his face (as in movement 2 when your right foot kicks forward and your right hand slaps the back of the foot).

☐第八十七式 彎弓射虎
Posture 87: BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER

▲第一動
Movement 1:
右脚踢過之後•在原方向東北斜角踏落•屈膝成右弓步•左腿隨之伸直•(帶屈)•兩手於上式拍後•在原處握拳不動•手心向下•如圖91•
After your right foot kicks, it steps down again to the northeast and the knee bends to make a right bow stance, your left leg straightening (yet still bent). After your hands have slapped, they remain in their position and grasp into fists, palms facing downward. See photo 91:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 91

▲第二動
Movement 2:
體重左移•坐左腿•同時兩拳由原處向右下方畫•方在右腿前•(拳背向前•火口相對•離腿約一拳之地•如圖92•
The weight shifts onto your left leg while your fists arc from their previous position to the lower right to be placed in front of your right leg (the back of the fists facing upward, tiger’s mouths facing each other), positioned at about a fist’s distance from the thigh. See photo 92:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 92

▲第三動
Movement 3:
體重右移•仍復為右弓步•兩拳由右腿前向右後方•(自下而上•)畫圈•(眼隨看•)畫到右耳邊•再向前作射虎勢•左拳伸直•火口向右•右拳放在右額目邊•(火口向下•肘曲向右外方如圖93•
The weight shifts to your right leg, returning you to a right bow stance, your fists going from in front of your right thigh to the right rear (downward from above), drawing an arc (with your gaze following) until beside your right ear. They then go forward to make a posture of shooting a tiger, your left fist extended (tiger’s mouth facing to the right), right fist placed beside the right side of your forehead (tiger’s mouth facing downward, elbow bent and pointing outward to the right). See photo 93:

《太極拳圖解》 蔡翼中 (1933) - photo 93

△注意
Points for attention:
一•體重在右•
1. The weight is on your right leg.
二•上體偏右•(東北斜角)
2. Your upper body inclines to the right (toward the northeast).
三•手隨腰畫圈•不可停留•
3. Your hands go along with your waist by drawing arcs and must not linger at any point on the way.

★用法
Application:
敵以兩手按我右臂•我順其勢向右鬆•化敵之勁•(即第二動坐左腿•右腿伸直•及兩拳由原處向右下方畫動•)斯時敵旣落空•勢在必退•我隨其退勢以右手將其右手上格•敵露出右脅•我以左手擊之•或推放之•(即第三動兩拳由耳邊向前作射虎勢動•)
If an opponent pushes down my right forearm, I go along with his energy by loosening to the right, neutralizing his power (as in movement 2 when you sit onto your left leg, your right leg straightening, and your fists arc downward to the right). As he will now be losing his balance, he is sure to retreat, so I go along with his retreating momentum by using my right hand to block his right hand upward, exposing his right ribs, and use my left hand to strike him or to push him away (as in movement 3 when your fists go forward from beside your ear to make a posture of shooting a tiger).

☐第八十八式 上步搬攔錘
Posture 88: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
同第十四式 圖同
Same as in Posture 14.

☐第八十九式 如封似閉
Posture 89: SEALING SHUT
同第十五式 圖同
Same as in Posture 15.

☐第九十式 十字手
Posture 90: CROSSED HANDS
同第十六式 圖同
Same as in Posture 16.

☐第九十一式 合太極
Posture 91: CLOSING POSTURE

▲動作
Movement:
與第一式略同•由十字手式兩手分開慢慢下按•歸於起勢•為合太極•圖同第1圖
This is almost the same as in Posture 1. From CROSSED HANDS, your hands spread apart and slowly push down, returning to the BEGINNING POSTURE, thus making the CLOSING POSTURE, which is the same as in photo 1.

十三勢歌
THIRTEEN DYNAMICS SONG

十三總勢莫輕視•命意源頭在腰際•變轉虛實須留意•氣遍身軀不少滯•靜中觸動動猶靜•應敵變化示神奇•勢勢揆心須用意•得來不覺費工夫•刻刻留心在腰間•腹內鬆淨氣騰然•尾閭中正神貫頂•滿身輕利頂頭懸•仔細留心向推求•屈伸開合聽自由•入門引路須口授•工夫無息法自休•若言體用何為準•意氣君來骨肉臣•想推用意終何在•益壽延年不老春•歌兮歌兮百卌字•字字眞切義無遺•若不向此推求去•枉費工夫貽歎息•
Do not neglect any of the thirteen dynamics,
their command coming from your lower back.
You must pay attention to the alternation of empty and full,
then energy will flow through your whole body without getting stuck anywhere.
     In stillness, movement stirs, and then in moving, seem yet to be in stillness,
for the magic lies in making adjustments based on being receptive to the opponent.
In every movement, very deliberately control it by the use of intention,
for once you achieve that, it will all be effortless.
     At every moment, pay attention to your waist,
for if there is complete relaxation within your belly, energy is primed.
Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop,
thus your whole body will be aware and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.
     Pay careful attention in your practice that you are letting bending and extending, contracting and expanding, happen as the situation requires.
Beginning the training requires personal instruction,
but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.
     Whether we are discussing in terms of theory or function, what is the constant?
It is that mind is sovereign and body is subject.
If you think about it, what is emphasizing the use of intention going to lead you to?
To a longer life and a longer youth.
     Repeatedly recite the words above,
all of which speak clearly and hence their ideas come through without confusion.
If you pay no heed to those ideas, you will go astray in your training,
and you will find you have wasted your time and be left with only sighs of regret.

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