THE BAGUA MANUAL OF SUN LUTANG

八卦拳學
A STUDY OF BAGUA BOXING
孫福全
by Sun Fuquan [Lutang]
[published April, 1917]

[translation by Paul Brennan, April, 2015]

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - portrait

大總統府校尉官
Junior Field Officer for the Presidential Palace
陸軍步兵上尉七等文虎章孫福全
Captain Sun Fuquan, Infantry, #7 of “Scholar Tiger” Section

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - callig

學有本原
The art is built upon principles.
嚴修題
– calligraphy by Yan Xiu

八卦拳學序
PREFACE [BY CHEN WEIMING]

余讀孫祿堂先生形意拳學見其論理精微因往訪之先生欣然延見縱談形意拳之善並授以入手之法言形意逆運先天自然之氣中庸所謂致中和孟子所謂直養而無害皆此氣也今內家拳法惟太極八卦形意三派各不相謀余三十年之功乃合而一之蓋內家之技擊也必求其中太極空中也八卦變中也形意直中也中則自立不敗之地偏者遇之靡不挫矣形意攻人之堅而不攻人之瑕八卦縱橫矯變太極渾然無間隨其來體不離不拒而應之以中吾致柔之極持臂如嬰兒忽然用之彼雖賁育無所施其勇雖萬鈞之力皆化為無力雖然習此者非欲以藝勝人也志士仁人養其浩然之氣志之所期力足赴之如是而已於戲由是言之則古昔聖王堯舜禹湯文武相傳精一執中之道不求勝天下而天下莫能勝之者其猶此理也與莊子曰道也進乎技矣吾聞孫先生之言益信聖人中庸之道不可易先生為人豪直與人無舊新必吐其蓄積不自吝惜曰吾言雖詳且盡猶慮能解者百人中無一二人吾懼此術之絕其傳也今先生復撰八卦拳學揚州吳君心穀以書來屬余為序因以所聞于先生者略述於右未能究宣其意萬一也
蘄水陳曾則書於明聖湖之洗心閣
I read Sun Lutang’s Study of Xingyi Boxing and found its theory to be profound, so I went to visit him. He received me with pleasure and we discussed how excellent Xingyi is, and then he taught me the basics of it. He explained how it “resets our energy back to its innate condition, as in the Zhong Yong’s ‘achieving centered harmoniousness’ and Mengzi’s comment [Mengzi, chapter 2a]: ‘By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted.’
     “The three internal boxing arts of Taiji, Bagua, and Xingyi each seemed to be doing their own thing, but after I had practiced them for thirty years, they merged and became the same thing. In internal boxing arts, one must seek to be centered. In Taiji, it is through emptiness that one is centered. In Bagua, it is through change that one is centered. In Xingyi, it is through directness that one is centered. Centered, you then stand in an undefeatable position. Off-center, you will be blown away by the breeze.
     “Xingyi will attack an opponent where he is strong rather than where he is weak, Bagua will vigorously change in all directions, and Taiji will flow continuously, moving along with an attack by neither disconnecting nor resisting, responding by staying centered. [Thus the personalities of the three arts are: Xingyi crashes through, Bagua goes around, and Taiji just stays there.] Achieving extreme softness, I hold my arms out like those of an infant, then when I suddenly make use of them, even a large opponent is unable to do anything with his aggression, for even if he attacks with great force, I neutralize it and turn it into no force at all.
     “Although we train in this way, we do not wish to use the art to defeat opponents. ‘A man of honor’ [quoting specifically from Lun Yu, 15.9 – one who ‘will not sacrifice honor for his life, but will sacrifice his life for honor’] ‘cultivates his noble energy’ [quoting again from Mengzi, 2a]. His goal is to make his strength sufficient for his tasks and that is all. This idea extends to the ancient sage rulers Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, and down to King Wen and King Wu, all who were devoted to the impartial Way, and by not seeking to conquer the world, no one in the world was able to conquer them – the same principle. As Zhuangzi said [Zhuangzi, chapter 3]: ‘[What I adore is] the Way, and by way of it I have advanced to the point of skill.’”
     Having heard Sun’s words, I am further convinced that the wisdom of the Way in the Zhong Yong cannot be improved upon. Sun is bold and direct with people, and whether they are people he has known for a long time or only just met, he is sure to hold back none of the knowledge he has accumulated. He said to me: “No matter how detailed and comprehensively I explain things, even if I am talking to those who seem capable of understanding, only one or two out of a hundred get it, and so I worry these arts will cease to be passed down.” [In other words, it’s a numbers game. The more people he shares with, the larger will be that population of the understanding few.] Sun has now produced this book – A Study of Bagua Boxing. Wu Xingu of Yangzhou [in Jiangsu] sent me a letter inviting me to write a preface for it because of what I have been learning from Sun. Above I have briefly described some of what he has taught me, but I am incapable of expressing one ten-thousandth of a percent of what he has learned.
     – written by Chen Zengze [Weiming] of Qishui at the Purifying-Heart Pavilion in West Lake [in Hangzhou, Zhejiang]


PREFACE [BY WU XINGU]

蒲陽孫先生祿堂曩著形意拳學一書余受而讀之深服先生用力之勤而於力氣一道純任自然合乎中庸之極則殆內家之上乘也今夏復以八卦拳學見示兢兢以實行體育保護身體為宗旨其造福社會已屬難能可貴而細繹八卦拳學之意義則在化後天之力運先天之氣體柔用剛變化無窮與羲經消息盈虛之理變化順逆之方息息相通技也而進於道矣形上形下一以貫之知先生固非徒以技擊擅長也顧吾慨夫吾國拳學之失傳也久矣自太史公傳游俠而不詳其致力之途雖李唐崛興此風丕盛然亦不過歷史之紀載已耳明淸之交如張三峯如單思南如王征南輩精悍絕倫凌鑠南北然能筆之著述傳之其人者𨶑焉無聞此拳學所以式微也今先生以振靡起衰為己任著書傳世不秘其術其殷殷誘掖之心誠自古以來所罕見也爰於付梓之初敬書數語以遺之先生其許為知言否耶
民國五年七月學生吳心穀序
Sun Lutang of Puyang [in Baoding, Hebei] previously wrote A Study of Xingyi Boxing. When I received it and read it through, I was deeply impressed by all his hard work. The art’s method of strength and energy is that of pure naturalness, conforming to the principles of the Zhong Yong, setting it at almost the highest pedestal among the internal schools.
     But this summer he has shown me the manuscript for A Study of Bagua Boxing, rich with the purpose of promoting physical education and protecting the body. Its benefits to society are invaluable. Going in detail through the concepts in this book will change acquired effort back into innate energy. Soft in form yet hard in function, it transforms without end. Its method of switching between going along and going against is linked closely to the principle in the Book of Changes of fluctuating between fullness and emptiness. Through such skills, we approach the Way. The postures as they precede and follow each other all have “a single principle running through them” [Lun Yu, 15.3].
     Sun truly does not only excel at boxing skill, he witnesses our lament at how our nation’s martial knowledge has long been lost. Since the section from the Historical Records on knights-errant [book 124, bios – part 64] is undetailed, he has devoted himself to redressing the balance. Although Li Tang made martial arts a vivid part of the culture for a while, it has become little more than comments in historical records. [Considering Li Tang was a famous landscape painter in the Song Dynasty, the words Li and Tang seem likely to have been flipped. The text was presumably meant to read as “although Li Bai in the Tang Dynasty”, the crazy poet swordsman fitting it much better.] In the overlap from the Ming Dynasty to the Qing, there were figures such as Zhang Sanfeng, Dan Sinan, and Wang Zhengnan, whose skills were peerless and have been praised from north to south, but those who have ended up writing down their learning had little real knowledge of it. These boxing arts are therefore in decline.
     To bolster the weak and rouse the feeble, Sun has now taken it upon himself to put this information into books so as to pass it on to the whole world, without keeping secret any of his art. His is an abundantly helpful mentality, sincerely bringing rare things from the past to the present. Accordingly, I offer these few words to commemorate his book before it is published, and it will be up to him as to whether or not they convey any wisdom.
     – written by his student, Wu Xingu, July, 1916

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

易之為用。廣大精微。上自內聖外王之學。下迨名物象數之繁。舉莫能外。而於修身治己之術。尤為詳盡。乾文云天行健。君子以自强不息。然健也。自强也。非虛無杳冥而無可朕兆也。余自幼年即研究拳術。每欲闡易之義蘊。一一形之於拳術。如是者有年。嗣來京獲見程先生廷華。始知有八卦拳。因從而受業焉。拳式始於無極。終於八卦。中分兩儀四象。先天後天。縮力順行正變錯互。無不俱備。然後知易之為用之廣大精微也。但程先生祇憑口授。未著專書。余恐久而失其傳也。爰不辭固陋。每式繪之以圖。並於各式後附以淺說。非敢自矜一得。亦聊以廣先生之傳已耳。八卦拳不知創於何時何人。聞有董海川先生者。精技擊。好遨遊。嘗涉迹江皖間。遇一異人傳以此技。後董先生傳之程先生廷華。李先生存義。尹先生福。馬先生維祺。魏先生吉。宋先生永祥。宋先生長榮。劉先生鳳春。梁先生振普。張先生占魁。史先生六。王先生立德。自是而後。尹先生復傳之馬桂等。李先生傳之尚雲祥。李文豹。趙雲龍。郝恩光。郭永錄。黄柏年。李海亭。耀亭。兄弟等。張先生傳之王俊臣。韓金鏞等。余與張玉魁。韓奇英。馮俊義。闞齡峯。周祥。李漢章李文彪。秦成等。則皆親炙程先生之門者。縷覼述之。以示不忘所自也。
中華民國五年十一月直隸完縣孫福全序
The usefulness of the Book of Changes is vast and profound. Its greater use is as a study for the inner way of sages and the outer way of kings, its lesser use is as a comprehensive means of divination, and it is furthermore an exquisitely detailed guide for self-cultivation and self-discipline. It says in the explanation for the Qian hexagram [hexagram 1]: “Just as Nature acts with vigor, a gentleman ceaselessly improves himself.” This “vigor” and “self-improvement” are not vacuous ideas that cannot be demonstrated.
     I have studied boxing arts since my youth and have often wished to clarify the significance of the Book of Changes within each technique. After feeling this way for many years, I then came to Beijing to meet Cheng Tinghua. Discovering he possessed the Bagua [“eight trigrams”] boxing art, I went to him to learn it. The postures start from nonpolarity and finish with the eight trigrams, and in the middle there are the dual aspects [single palm change] and the four manifestations [double palm change]. The innate and acquired skills, the actions of shrinking in and flowing out, the alternating between direct action and adaptive response – these qualities all get trained. I then realized just how vast and profound is the usefulness of the Book of Changes. However, Cheng taught only by way of oral instruction, never writing anything into a special book. I worry that with the passage of time his teachings will be lost. Hence, despite my own ignorance, I have had photographs made and have included simple explanations for each posture. I would never dare to boast that this work is an achievement, nor do I present anything more than what Cheng taught me.
     Although it is not known who it was that created Bagua Boxing, or even in which era,
it is said that Dong Haichuan, who was an expert in martial arts and loved to wander, once while crossing the Yangzte River in Anhui met a unique man who taught him this art. Dong later taught it to Cheng Tinghua, Li Cunyi, Yin Fu, Ma Weiqi, Wei Ji, Song Yongxiang, Song Changrong, Liu Fengchun, Liang Zhenpu, Zhang Zhankui, Shi Liu, Wang Lide. Thereafter, Yin Fu then taught it Ma Gui and others, while Li Cunyi taught it to Shang Yunxiang, Li Wenbao, Zhao Yunlong, Hao Enguang, Guo Yonglu, Huang Bonian, as well as Li Haiting and his brother Yaoting, and others. Zhang Zhankui also taught it to Wang Junchen and Han Jinyong, and others. I learned the art alongside Zhang Yukui, Han Qiying, Feng Junyi, Kan Lingfeng, Zhou Xiang, Li Hanzhang, Li Wenbiao, Qin Cheng, and others, each of us having learned personally from Cheng. I have listed all of these names so that the source of the instruction does not get forgotten.
     – written by Sun Fuquan of Wan County, Hebei, Nov, 1916

凡例
GENERAL COMMENTS [Much of the text here is reused from Sun’s Xingyi manual.]

一是編為修身而作。取象於數理。立體於卦形。命名於拳術。謂之遊身八卦連環掌。內藏十八蹚羅漢拳。兼有七十二截腿。七十二暗脚。至於點穴。劍術。各樣兵器。均於拳內含藏。以上諸法。皆以實行體育。强壯筋骨。保護身體為正宗。
This book is for self-cultivation. Drawing from the mathematical concept and taking from the form of the trigrams, the name of this boxing art is “Swimming Body Eight-Trigrams Continuous Palming”. Within it are the “Eighteen Lohan Techniques”, as well as the “Seventy-Two Leg Checks” and “Seventy-Two Hidden Kicks”, acupoint striking, a sword set, as well as various other weapons, all contained within the boxing art. All of this material is intended as physical education – the strengthening of one’s body and the protecting of one’s health.

一是編標舉八卦拳生化之道。提綱挈領。條目井然。其次序。首自虛無式而起。至太極形式。此二者為八卦拳之基礎。由無極形式說起。以至於神化不測之功用學終。是為全編條目。內中起點。進退伸縮。變化諸法。一一詳載。操練時。凡一動一靜。按此定法。不使錯亂。則此拳之全體大用。神化妙用之功。庶幾有得。可為世道用行舍藏之大用矣。
This book highlights Bagua Boxing’s method of generating change, focusing on essentials and taking you through them methodically. As for the sequence, the two postures beginning with the NONPOLARITY POSTURE [Chapter Six] and finishing with the GRAND POLARITY POSTURE [Chapter Seven] form the foundation of the Bagua Boxing set. From NONPOLARTY POSTURE [“The Name ‘Bagua Boxing’” – Chapter One] to “Magically Unpredictable Skills” [Chapter Twenty-Three] forms the complete text of the book. Each technique is described from the beginning in detail through all of transformations of advancing and retreating, extending and withdrawing. While practicing, let each movement and stillness be according to the established method so as to keep you from falling into disorder. Thus you will be on the cusp of obtaining all the magically subtle skills in this art and can become of great service to the world.

一是編粗淺之言。以明拳術極深之理。簡約之式。能通拳法至妙之道。
In this book, simple language makes the deeper theory of the art clear, and concise descriptions for the postures make the methods in the techniques understandable.

一拳中數形。不過作為萬物之綱領。若能熟習。則縱橫聯絡。全體一致。不惟取數形數式習之則已也。朱子云。蓋人心之靈。莫不有知。而天下之物。莫不有理。惟於理有未窮。故其知有不盡也。是以拳術始敎。即凡全體之式。萬物之形。莫不由於數式數形而時習之。以求至乎其極。至於用力之久。而一旦豁然貫通焉。則萬物之中。目有所見。心有所感。皆能效法彼之性能。而為我用矣。
The techniques in boxing arts merely provide the basic principles for the rest of the material. Once you can become skillful at them, you will then link them in various ways, your whole body will function as a single unit, and it will not merely have been a practice of a bunch of postures. Zhu Xi said [from commentary to the Da Xue, quoting from the Cheng brothers]: “Among the minds of people, there is not one that does not have knowledge. Among the things in the world, there is not one that does not have its principle. But if these principles have not been fully explored, our knowledge will not be complete. Therefore in the beginning of instruction in” boxing arts, always have a whole-bodied presence in every technique and constantly practice the postures, “striving until reaching perfection. After working hard for a long time, it will someday suddenly all become clear.” Thus the essence of all things is caught by the eye and perceived by the mind, and there qualities can be imitated and made use of.

一八卦拳術。不外易數方圓二圖之理。昔武候作八陣圖。其中氤氳變化。奥妙莫測。其實不過以巨石為之。八八成行六十四堆而已。拳術中之精微奥妙。其變無窮。有神化不測之機。亦不過以數式數形。縱橫聯絡變化而已。溯其源。皆出於河洛理數之原也。
The Bagua boxing art does not go beyond the principles of the Book of Changes or of the double bagua diagram – the “square circle” and the “round circle”. In ancient times, there was Zhuge Liang’s “eight battle formations”, richly adaptable with subtleties invisible, though they were actually just a construction of huge rocks [the so-called Stone Sentinel Maze]. When the eight trigrams are arranged on top of each other, they make the sixty-four hexagrams. The boxing art’s profound subtleties and endless transformations have a magical unpredictability, which is just the changing of the postures as they link together in various ways. The basis of it all is the He River Diagram and the Luo River Document.

一是編為體操而作。祗叙八卦拳之實益議論。但取粗俗易明。原非等於詞賦文章。固不得以文理拘也。
This book is intended as a guide for exercise. As such, it discusses only the genuine benefits of Bagua Boxing, and thus it explains them only in a common style of language that will be easy to understand rather than being pompously ornate, entirely free of the hindrances of literary affectation.

一是編除各式之指點外。其他一切引證。均與道理相合。逈非怪力亂神之談。學者不得以異端目之。
For the material in this book beyond the posture explanations, it all conforms to rationality. It is never a discussion of anything supernatural, and you must not look upon it as such.

一是編發明此拳之性旨。純以養正氣為宗旨。固非異端邪術諸書所可比倫。今將八卦拳始末諸法。貫為全編。使學者一閱瞭然。
This book reveals the qualities of this art especially for the purpose of cultivating vital energy, and so it cannot really be compared to books about the supernatural or sorcery. The eight trigrams techniques are presented here in their entirety in order for you to lucidly grasp everything about them.

一體操門類繁多。惟八卦拳練習極易。用法最良。係行天地自然之理。運用一派純正之氣。無論男女婦孺。及年近半百。皆可練習。一無曲腿折腰之苦。二無皮肉磨挫之勞。且不必短服窄袖隨便常服。均可練習。此誠武技中儒雅之事也。
There is such a variety of exercise to choose from, but Bagua Boxing is very easy to practice and is excellent in application, adhering to the principle of naturalness and utilizing the sincerity of energy. Everyone can practice it, regardless of man, woman, child, or older person. For one thing, it lacks the agonies of contorting the spine or legs. For another, it lacks arduous work that wears down skin and flesh. Nor is it necessary to fret over a lack of gear, for casual dress is all that is required. This is truly a martial art for scholars.

一此拳不僅便於個人獨習。若人數衆多。或三五人同一圈習。或數十人同而習之。或數百人。亦可分數圈而習之。再多亦均無不可。
This boxing art is not only convenient for solo practice, but for group practice as well. A single circle can accommodate up to three or even five people. Dozens of people, even hundreds or more can practice together, divided up into many circles.

一此八卦拳術。關係全體精神。而能郤病延年。又不僅於習拳已也。
The Bagua boxing art has an effect on body and mind. It can prevent disease and prolong life, and is not only for training martial skill.

一是編每一式各附一圖。使八卦拳之原理。及其性質。切實發明。用以達八卦拳之精神。能力巧妙。因知各拳。各式。互相聯絡。總合而為一體。終非散式也。
There is a photo for each posture so that the principles and qualities of the eight trigrams techniques may be fully realized and give you the means to attain the spirit, abilities, and skills for each. Once you understand each technique and posture, they are then linked together and combined into a single set that is coherent throughout.

一附圖。有電照。有畫形。使學者可以入手。按像模仿。實力作去。久則義理自見。奇效必彰。固非虛語也。
Photographic images are included so that you can begin practicing. By imitating these images and doing your best, after a long time the principles will be realized and extraordinary effects will manifest, and none of this will be just vague talk.

八卦拳學目錄
CONTENTS

第一章 形體名稱說
Chapter One: How the Structure of “Bagua Boxing” Gets its Name
第二章 初學入門三害說
Chapter Two: The Three Mistakes of Beginners
第三章 入門九要說
Chapter Three: The Nine Requirements at the Beginning of the Training
第四章 四德八能四情說
Chapter Four: Bagua Boxing’s Four Virtues, Eight Abilities, and Four Basic Situations
第五章 左右旋轉與左右穿掌之分別
Chapter Five: The Distinction in Bagua Boxing of Left & Right Circle Walking and Left & Right Palm Threading
第六章 無極學
Chapter Six: Nonpolarity
第七章 太極學
Chapter Seven: Grand Polarity
第八章 兩儀學
Chapter Eight: The Dual Aspects [i.e. Single Palm Change]
第九章 四象學
Chapter Nine: The Four Manifestations [i.e. Double Palm Change]
第十章 乾卦獅形學
Chapter Ten: The Qian Trigram Technique ☰ (or Lion Technique)
第十一章 坤卦麟形學
Chapter Eleven: The Kun Trigram Technique ☷ (or Unicorn Technique)
第十二章 坎卦蛇形學
Chapter Twelve: The Kan Trigram Technique ☵ (or Snake Technique)
第十三章 離卦鷂形學
Chapter Thirteen: The Li Trigram Technique ☲ (or Hawk Technique)
第十四章 震卦龍形學
Chapter Fourteen: The Zhen Trigram Technique ☳ (or Dragon Technique)
第十五章 艮卦熊形學
Chapter Fifteen: The Gen Trigram Technique ☶ (or Bear Technique)
第十六章 巽卦鳳形學
Chapter Sixteen: The Xun Trigram Technique ☴ (or Phoenix Technique)
第十七章 兌卦猴形學
Chapter Seventeen: The Dui Trigram Technique ☱ (or Monkey Technique)
第十八章 八卦先後天合一式說
Chapter Eighteen: Explanation of Innate & Acquired Merged Into One in the Context of Bagua Boxing
第十九章 八卦先後天合一圖
Chapter Nineteen: Diagram of Innate & Acquired Versions of the Eight Trigrams Merged Into One
第二十章 八卦先後天合一圖解
Chapter Twenty: Explanation of the Diagram
第二十一章 八卦陽火陰符形式註語
Chapter Twenty-One: The Attributes of Active Fire & Passive Compliance in Bagua Boxing
第二十二章 八卦練神還虛註語
Chapter Twenty-Two: The Attributes of Refining Spirit & Returning to Emptiness in Bagua Boxing
第二十三章 八卦拳神化之功練習借天地之氣候形式法
Chapter Twenty-Three: On Time & Place in Bagua Boxing’s Training for Spiritual Transformation

第一章 八卦拳形體名稱
CHAPTER ONE: HOW THE STRUCTURE OF “BAGUA BOXING” GETS ITS NAME

古者包犧氏之王天下也。仰觀象於天。俯觀法於地。觀鳥獸之文。與地之宜。近取諸身。遠取諸物。於是始作八卦。以通神明之德。以類萬物之情。是以八卦取象命名。制成拳術。近取諸身言之。則頭為乾。腹為坤。足為震。股為巽。耳為坎。目為離。手為艮。口為兌。若在拳中。則頭為乾。腹為坤。腎為坎。心為離。尾閭第一節。至第七節大椎為巽。項上大椎為艮。腹左為震。腹右為兌。此身體八卦之名也。自四肢言之。腹為無極。臍為太極。兩腎為兩儀。兩胳膊兩腿為四象。兩胳膊兩腿各兩節。為八卦。兩手兩足共二十指也。以手足四拇指皆是兩節。共合八節。其餘十六指。每指皆三節。共合四十八節。加兩胳膊兩腿八節。與四大拇指八節。共合六十四節。合六十四卦也。此謂無極生太極。太極生兩儀。兩儀生四象。四象生八卦。八八生六十四卦之數也。此四肢八卦之名稱。以上近取諸身也。若遠取諸物。則乾為馬。坤為牛。震為龍。巽為雞。坎為豕。離為雉。艮為狗。兌為羊。拳中則乾為獅。坤為麟。震為龍。巽為鳳。坎為蛇。離為鷂。艮為熊。兌為猴等物。以上皆遠取諸物也。以身體八卦属內。本也。四肢八卦属外。用也。內者先天。外者後天。故天地生物。皆有本源。先後天而成也。內經曰。人身皆具先後天之本。腎為先天本。脾為後天本。本之為言根也。源也。世未有無源之流。無根之本。澄其源而流自長。灌其根而枝乃茂。自然之理也。故善為醫者。必先治本。知先天之本在腎。腎應北方之水。水為天一之源。因嬰兒未成。先結胞胎。其象中空。有一莖透起如蓮蕊。一莖即臍帶。蓮蕊即兩腎也。而命寓焉。知後天之本在脾。脾為中宮之土。土為萬物之母。蓋先生脾官而後水火木金循環相生以成五臟。五臟成。而後六腑四肢百骸隨之以生而成全體。先天後天二者具於人身。皆不離八卦之形體也。醫者旣知形體所由生。故斷以卦體。治以卦理。無非即八卦之理。還治八卦之體也。亦猶拳術。即其卦象。敎以卦拳無非即八卦之拳。使習八卦之象也。由此觀之。按身體言內有八卦。按四肢言。外有八卦。以八卦之數。為八卦之身。以八卦之身。練八卦之數。此八卦拳術。所以為形體之名稱也。
[From the Book of Changes, Great Treatise, part 2:] “In ancient times, Fu Xi ruled over the nation. He looked up and observed the patterns in the sky, looked down and observed the processes on the ground. He observed the behavior of animals and how they suited their environment. For what is near, he examined within himself. For what is distant, he observed all things. He thereupon made the eight trigrams to reveal divine virtue and to categorize the qualities of everything.” Hence the eight trigrams, in pattern and name, have been made into a boxing art.
     “For what is near, he examined within himself.” ☰ Qian – head, ☷ Kun – abdomen, ☳ Zhen – foot, ☴ Xun – thigh, ☵ Kan – ear, ☲ Li – eye, ☶ Gen – hand, ☱ Dui – mouth. In terms of the boxing art: ☰ Qian – head, ☷ Kun – abdomen, ☵ Kan – kidneys, ☲ Li – heart, ☴ Xun – spine from the tailbone to the seventh vertebra, ☶ Gen – spine the rest of the way up to the headtop, ☳ Zhen – left side of the abdomen, ☱ Dui – right side of the abdomen. These are the correspondences of the eight trigrams with the body.
     Working outward to the four limbs: the abdomen represents nonpolarity, the navel is the grand polarity, the kidneys are the dual aspects, and then the arms and legs are the four manifestations. The arms and legs each have two joints [i.e. elbow/knee, wrist/ankle], making eight [4×2=8]. There are twenty fingers and toes. The thumbs and big toes each have two joints, totaling eight [4×2=8]. The other sixteen fingers and toes each have three joints, totaling forty-eight [16×3=48]. Add the eight for the arms and legs, and the eight for the joints of the thumbs and big toes, totaling sixty-four [48+8+8=64], and this accords with the sixty-four hexagrams. As it is said [in the Book of Changes, Great Treatise, part 1]: “Nonpolarity generated the grand polarity, the grand polarity generated the dual aspects, the dual aspects generated the four manifestations, and the four manifestations generated the eight trigrams.” Eight by eight then makes the sixty-four hexagrams. These are the correspondences of the eight trigrams with the four limbs, an example of “examining within the self for what is near”.
     “For what is distant, he observed all things.” ☰ Qian – horse, ☷ Kun – cow, ☳ Zhen – dragon, ☴ Xun – chicken, ☵ Kan – pig, ☲ Li – pheasant, ☶ Gen – dog, ☱ Dui – sheep. In terms of the boxing art: ☰ Qian – lion, ☷ Kun – unicorn, ☳ Zhen – dragon, ☴ Xun – phoenix, ☵ Kan – snake, ☲ Li – hawk, ☶ Gen – bear, ☱ Dui – monkey. These are an example of “observing among things for what is distant”.
     In the body, the eight trigrams are internal and fundamental. In the limbs, the eight trigrams are external and functional. What is internal is innate. What is external is acquired. This is the same as Nature generating things, which all come from a source, innateness and acquiredness thereby forming a complete process.
     According to traditional Chinese medicine, the human body is based in both the innate and acquired. [From Li Zhongzi’s Essential Readings from the Medical Tradition:] “The kidneys are the source of the innate quality. The spleen is the source of the acquired quality.” We could call this either “source” or “root”. The world has never had a river without a source or a tree without roots. With an abundant source, a river will flow long, and with well-watered roots, a tree will grow luxuriantly. This is the natural way.
     Likewise, an expert doctor must treat illness at the source. He knows that the source of the innate quality is the kidneys, and that the kidneys correspond to the northern position of water. [Here is a compass of these associations:]

S
fire

E           center           W
wood         earth         metal

N
water

Water is the main source in Nature. [Continuing from Medical Tradition:] “Before a baby is a baby, it is a fetus in a womb, and through that hollowness runs a stalk and what seems like lotus stamens, the ‘stalk’ meaning the umbilical cord, the ‘lotus stamens’ meaning its kidneys, and this is where its life resides.” The doctor knows that the source of the acquired quality is the spleen, and that the spleen corresponds to the central position of earth, which is the mother of all things. First the spleen is generated, then the rest of the five elements follow – water, fire, wood, metal – and their cycling produces the five solid organs [spleen, kidneys, heart, liver, lungs], then the six bag organs [stomach, bladder, small intestine, gallbladder, large intestine, “triple warmer”], the four limbs, the hundreds of bones, and the whole body is complete.
     The innate and acquired qualities are both in the human body, neither departing from the structure of the eight trigrams. Once a doctor understands the source of the body’s structure, his diagnosis is based on the structuring of the trigrams and his treatment is based on the principles of the trigrams. Being entirely a matter of the principles of the trigrams, the treatment thus comes down to the structuring of the trigrams.
     It is the same case for the boxing art. On the basis of the trigram symbols are taught the trigrams techniques. Being entirely a matter of the trigrams techniques, what is being practiced are the trigram symbols. From this can be seen that the body has the eight trigrams internally while the four limbs have the eight trigrams externally. Use the theory of the eight trigrams to make the substance of the eight trigrams, then use the substance to train the theory. This explains why the structure of the art of “Bagua Boxing” is so named.

第二章 初學入門三害
CHAPTER TWO: THE THREE MISTAKES OF BEGINNERS

三害者何。一曰努氣。二曰拙力。三曰𧰊胸提腹。用努氣者。太剛則折。易生胸滿氣逆。肺炸諸症。譬之心君不和。百官自失其位。用拙力者。四肢百骸。血脈不能流通。經絡不能舒暢。陰火上升。心為拙氣所滯。滯於何處。何處為病。輕者肉中發跳。重者攻之疼痛。甚之可以結成瘡毒諸害。𧰊胸提腹者。逆氣上行不歸丹田。兩足無根。輕如浮萍。拳體不得中和。即萬法亦不能處時中地步。故三害不明。練之可以傷身。明之自能引人入聖。必精心果力。剔除凈盡。始得拳學入門要道。故書云。樹德務滋。除惡務本。練習諸君。愼之愼之。
The three mistakes are: 1. excessive energy, 2. awkward effort, 3. sticking out your chest and lifting your belly.
     Using “excessive energy” means that you are being too hard and making yourself brittle. You will easily generate a contrary energy which fills your chest, and your lungs will suffer and develop illness. By analogy, when a central ruler falls out of harmony, all his surrounding ministers become ineffective in their duties.
     Using “awkward effort” means that throughout your body, your blood cannot circulate well, your energy channels cannot be comfortable, and passive fire will ascend, producing stagnation from awkward energy in your heart, a stagnation which will lead to illness. At a mild level, this will create spasming in the muscles. At a severe level, you will be stricken with pain. In even worse cases, it can lead to the forming of sores and infections.
     To “stick out your chest and lift your belly” means that a contrary energy moves upward instead of returning to your elixir field. Your feet will be without root, floating upward as light as duckweed. Your boxing technique will not obtain a centered harmoniousness, and even with countless methods to compensate, you would be incapable of ever having a stable stance.
     If these three mistakes are not understood, the training can be harmful to your body. But if they are understood, the training can lead you to wisdom. You must cleanse your mind to get the best results, ridding yourself of these mistakes thoroughly, and then you will have achieved the essentials of the beginning level of boxing studies. Thus it is said in the Book of Documents [document 29]: “When planting virtue, make it flourish. When trimming evil, cut it at the root.” While you practice, all of you, be very mindful.

第三章 入門練習九要
CHAPTER THREE: THE NINE REQUIREMENTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TRAINING

九要者何。一要塌。二要扣。三要提。四要頂。五要裹。六要鬆。七要垂。八要縮。九要起躦落翻分明。塌者。腰往下塌勁。尾閭上提督脈之理。扣者。開胸順氣。陰氣下降任脈之理也。提者。穀道內提也。頂者。舌頂上腭頭頂手頂是也。裹者。兩肘往裏裹頸如兩手心朝上托物。必得往裏裹勁也。鬆者。鬆開兩肩如拉弓然。不使膀尖外露也。垂者。兩手往外翻之時。兩肘極力往下垂勁也。縮者。兩肩與兩胯裏根。極力往回縮勁也。起躦落翻者。起為躦。落為翻。起為横。落為順。起躦是穿。落翻是打。起亦打。落亦打。打起落。如機輪之循環無間也。所練之要法。與形意拳無異也。譬之易經方圓二圖。方圓乾始西北。坤盡東南。乾坤否泰居外四隅。震巽恒益居內四角。其陽自西北而逆氣退於中央。生氣在中也。陰自中央而順於東南。陰氣在外也。其生卦而恒益否泰。如形意拳。起手先進左足。以右足為根。身子看斜是正。看正是斜。因此形意拳與方圖皆屬地。在地成形。所以形意拳在十字當中求生活也。圓圖乾南坤北。離東坎西。左陽升。右陰降。陰來交陽。一陰生於天上。陽來交陰。一陽生於地下。陽生陰生。皆在圖之正中。圓象天。天一氣上下。上而陽。下而陰。象一氣運陰陽Ф陰陽相交。即太極一氣也。八卦拳左旋右轉。兩胯裏根。如圓圈裏邊無有楞角。兩眼望着前手食指稍。對着圓圈中間☉這個看去。旋轉不停如太極一氣也。因此八卦拳與圓圖皆屬天。在天成象。所以八卦拳在圓圖虛中求玄妙也。又譬之奇門。有飛九宮一至九之數皆圓形屬天。與八卦拳理相合也。易經雖有方圓二形。其理無非逆中行順。順中用逆。以復先天之陽也。奇門有飛九宮轉盤二形。其理無非奇逆儀順。奇順儀逆。以還一元之氣也。形意八卦雖分方圓二派。其理無非動中縮勁。使氣合一歸於丹田也。所以大聖賢正心誠意。無不與拳術之道息息相通。大英雄智勇兼備。亦必先明於數學之理。大技藝家格物致知。亦必先明於意氣力之用。以上諸理。形名雖殊。其理則一。練拳術者。明乎此理。以丹田為根。以意氣力為用。以九要為準則。遵而行之雖不中不遠矣。
The nine requirements are: 1. sinking, 2. hollowing, 3. lifting, 4. pressing, 5. wrapping, 6. loosening, 7. hanging, 8. shrinking, 9. clearly distinguishing between lifting, drilling, dropping, and overturning.
     “Sinking” means your waist has an energy of sinking down, the principle of your tailbone lifting and activating your Du meridian.
     “Hollowing” means opening your chest [inwardly] to smooth your energy, the principle of passive energy descending along your Ren meridian.
     “Lifting” means to lift your rectum inward.
     “Pressing” means your tongue touches your upper palate, your head presses up, and your hands press up.
     “Wrapping” means your elbows have an energy of wrapping inward. If your hands are propping something up, palms facing upward, there has to be such an energy of wrapping inward.
     “Loosening” means loosening your shoulders as when drawing a bow, keeping your elbows from poking outward.
     “Hanging” means that when your hands twist outward, your elbows have a strong energy of hanging down.
     “Shrinking” means your shoulders and hips have a strong energy of shrinking in.
     As for “lifting, drilling, dropping, and overturning”: lifting is drilling and dropping is overturning. Lifting is horizontal and dropping is vertical. Lifting and drilling are threading. Dropping and overturning are striking. But when lifting is also striking, dropping is still striking. Strike with lifting and dropping, like the wheels of machinery spinning continuously.
     When practicing these essentials, it is the same as in Xingyi Boxing. [See Sun’s Xingyi manual, Part One, General Principles, Section 5.] Take as an analogy the double diagram for the Book of Changes, the “square circle” and the “round circle”. [See the diagram in Chapter Nineteen.] The “square circle” begins with Qian in the northwest and finishes with Kan in the southeast. The trigrams of Qian and Kun [“Creative” and “Receptive”], and thus the hexagrams they form together, Pi and Tai [“Peace” and “Standstill” – hexagrams 11 and 12], dwell in the outer four corners. The trigrams of Zhen and Xun [“Arousing” and “Gentle”], and thus the hexagrams they form together, Heng and Yi [“Duration” and “Increase” – hexagrams 32 and 42], dwell in the inner four corners.
     The active aspect from the northwest corner retreats toward the center, where energy is generated, then the passive aspect from the center flows toward the southeast corner, where the passive aspect lies in the outer circle. This generates the hexagrams of Heng, Yi, Pi, and Tai. This is akin to the first action in Xingyi Boxing [the three-substance posture], you start by advancing your left foot, rooting in your right foot, your torso squared to the corner. In this way, both Xingyi Boxing and the square circle correspond to the ground and the form of the ground. Therefore Xingyi Boxing finds its existence in the cross-sectioning of the two circles.
     In the “round circle”, Qian is in the south, Kun is in the north, Li [“Clinging”] is in the east, and Kan [“Abysmal”] is in the west. The active aspect ascends along the left side of the circle and the passive aspect descends along the right side. Where passive meets active, it is an element of the passive that gives rise to the sky above. Where active meets passive, it is an element of the active that generates the ground below. Both active and passive are generated at the center of the diagram. The round circle corresponds to the sky and has a singleness of energy above and below [i.e. the line that pairs the Qian and Kun trigrams], active above and passive below, symbolizing the movement of passive and active intersecting. This is the “grand polarity”, or the “singleness of energy”.
     During Bagua Boxing’s leftward circle walking and rightward circle walking, your hips seem like the cornerless inner edge of a ring. Your gaze is toward the tip of the forefinger of your front hand, which is aligned toward the center of the circle. The circle walking is as pauseless as the continuousness of the grand polarity. In this way, both Bagua Boxing and the round circle correspond to the sky and the form of the sky. Therefore Bagua Boxing seeks its deeper meaning at the empty center of the round circle.
     For another analogy, there is also the unique method of “flying around the Nine Palaces”, the principle being to go from one to nine [and to return from nine to one], corresponding to both the round circle and the sky, and conforming to the principles of Bagua Boxing. Although the Book of Changes has the double image of the square circle and round circle, its theory is simply the movement of going along within going against and the function of going against within going along, restoring your active aspect to its innate condition. As for the unique method of the Nine Palaces in both versions [going from one to nine and returning from nine to one], its theory is simply the marvel of going against while appearing to be going along and the marvel of going along while appearing to be going against, resetting your energy to its primal state.
     Although the arts of Xingyi and Bagua are divided into associations with the square circle and round circle, their theory is simply to restrain your power while moving, causing your energy to consolidate and return to your elixir field. Great sages by such means possessed discipline and sincerity, both of which are closely linked to the way of boxing arts. Great heroes trained both wisdom and courage. You likewise must begin by understanding the mathematical concept [of the trigrams]. Great artists broadened their understanding by deeply studying things. You likewise must begin by understanding the function of intention, energy, and power.
     Even though the postures of both arts are different, their principles are the same. While practicing these arts, understand these principles. Use your elixir field as the basis, take intention, energy, and power to be the function, and let the nine requirements be the standard. If you practice according to these principles, then even if you do not achieve mastery, you will nevertheless not be far from it.

第四章 八卦拳四德八能四情
CHAPTER FOUR: BAGUA BOXING’S FOUR VIRTUES, EIGHT ABILITIES, AND FOUR BASIC SITUATIONS

四德者。順逆和化。四者。即拳中合宜之理也。順者。手足順其自然往前伸也。逆者。氣力往回縮也。和者。氣力中正無乖也。化者。化其後天之氣力歸於丹田而返眞陽也。八能者。乃搬攔截扣。推托摕拎。八者。即拳中之性也。搬者。搬敵人之手足肩胯是也。攔者。攔敵人之手足如研肘是也。截者。揬住敵人之手足胳膊腿是也。扣者。扣敵人之兩手並胸小腹是也。推者。推敵人之兩手並身。其中有單手推者。有雙手推者雙手推者卽雙撞掌也是也。托者。托敵人之兩手。有平托者。有望高托者是也。摕者敵人抓住吾手。極力往回摕。或掛敵人之手皆是也。拎者。拎敵人之身。或敵人之兩手。往左右拎去。或往上拎。或往下拎即使敵人不得中正之勁也。八能者。內含六十四事。合六十四卦也。八者。正卦也。即上乾下乾之類。六十四者。變卦也。即上乾下坤否泰互卦之類。所謂八搬。八扣。各有八。合而為六十四者。則謂拳中之性也。順逆和化。為六十四卦之德也。六十四卦含之於順逆和化四者之中。而為德。行之於身者而為道。用之於外者而為情。情者。即起躦落翻也。且八能用時。或明而用之。或暗而用之。或打破彼之身式而用之。或化開彼之法式而用之。或剛進而用之。或柔進而用之。或進而用之。或退而用之。或誘而用之。或指上而用之下。或指下而用之上。或指左而打右。或指前而打後。或指此而打彼。或彼剛而我柔。或彼柔而我剛。或彼矮而我高。或彼動而我靜。或彼靜而我動。或看地之形式。伸縮往來分別而用之。地形者。遠近險隘。廣狹死生之類也。且身式將動而未動時。務要週身一家。合外內一道。再觀彼之身式高矮。量彼之情形虛實。察彼之氣質薄厚。將彼奸詐虛實。等等得之於心。隨便酌量用之。而能時措之宜。至於拳內用法名目雖廣。然無論如何動作變化。總以四情為表則也。四情用的合當。則能與性德合而為一道也。
The four virtues are: going along, going against, harmoniousness, and transformation. These four are the principles of appropriateness within the boxing art.
     Going along: your hands and feet extend forward naturally.
     Going against: your strength at the same time holds back.
     Harmoniousness: your strength is balanced and without any unevenness.
     Transformation: your acquired strength is transformed and returns to your elixir field, restoring you to an authentic active state.
     The eight abilities are: parrying, blocking, checking, covering, pushing, propping, leading, and guiding. These eight are the situations within the boxing art.
     Parrying: parry the opponent’s hand, foot, shoulder, or hip.
     Blocking: block the opponent’s hand or foot as though scraping with your elbow.
     Checking: interrupt the opponent’s hand, foot, arm, or leg.
     Covering: press the opponent’s hands against his chest or lower abdomen.
     Pushing: push the opponent’s hands against his body. There is both single-hand pushing and double-hand pushing (double-hand pushing being also called “double rushing palms”).
     Propping: prop up the opponent’s hands. There is propping until level and propping that hoists high.
     Leading: if the opponent grabs my hand, I either pull it back forcefully or I draw his hand upward.
     Guiding: guide the opponent’s body or hands to the left or right, upward or downward, to make him incapable of focusing his power.
     Contained within the eight abilities are sixty-four situations, conforming to the sixty-four hexagrams. The eight correspond to the main hexagrams, in which the trigram is simply doubled on top of itself, for instance when the Qian trigram is both above and below, forming the Qian hexagram [hexagram 1]. To get sixty-four requires making changes to the hexagrams, for instance when the Qian trigram is above and the Kun trigram is below, forming the Pi hexagram [hexagram 12], or vice versa, forming the Tai hexagram [hexagram 11].
     There are thus eight variations of parrying, eight variations of covering, eight variations of each of the eight abilities, amounting to sixty-four, and these are the situations within the boxing art. Going along, going against, harmoniousness, and transformation are the virtues of the sixty-four hexagrams. Within these four that are contained within the sixty-four, there lies virtue. When you exercise them in your body, you are embodying the Way. When you apply them outwardly, you produce the situations.
     The four basic situations are lifting, drilling, dropping, and overturning.
     When applying the eight abilities, you may do so with obvious energy or hidden energy. You may use them to disrupt an opponent’s posture or to neutralize his techniques. You may use them to advance with either hardness or softness. You may use them in advancing, retreating, or luring. You may use them to feint upward and attack downward, or to feint downward and attack upward, or to feint to the left and attack to the right, or to feint to the front and attack to the rear, or to feint to this area and attack to that area. You may use them when he is hard and you are soft, or when he is soft and you are hard, or when he is lower and you are higher, [or when he is higher and you are lower,] or when he is moving and you are still, or when he is still and you are moving. You may use them when taking note of the environment, assessing how you can move in it – extending and withdrawing, moving back and forth. [From Art of War, chapter 1:] “The terrain may be [high or low,] distant or neighboring, rugged or smooth, spacious or confining, safe or deadly.”
     When you are about to move but have not yet moved, your whole body must function as a single unit, and have the same purpose inside and out. Then observe the opponent’s posture, estimating his areas of emptiness and fullness, gauge whether his energy is feeble or potent, and determine which of his actions are feints or real. With all these in your mind, you can take action in a considered way at your leisure and be able to act with precision. Although there are countless techniques within the boxing art, regardless of how you move or transform, always use the four situations as the template. When the four situations are applied correctly, then you will be able to merge the situations and virtues into a single method.

第五章 八卦拳左右旋轉與往左右穿掌之分別
CHAPTER FIVE: THE DISTINCTION IN BAGUA BOXING OF LEFT & RIGHT CIRCLE WALKING AND LEFT & RIGHT PALM THREADING

起點轉法。無論何式。自北往東走。旋之不已。謂之左旋。自北往西走。轉之不已。謂之右轉。凡穿掌往左右換者。無論在何方。換掌換身。若望着左胳膊穿者。謂之往左穿手。望着右胳膊穿者。謂之往右穿手。此謂左右旋轉。與左右穿掌之分別也。
When initiating circle walking, in whatever posture, if you walk out from north to east, it is leftward circle walking, and if you walk out from north to west, it is rightward circle walking. When threading to the left or right during a palm change, regardless of the direction you are facing with the changing palm or the turning of your body, if your left arm threads out, it is a left threading hand, and if your right arm threads out, it is a right threading hand. This makes clear the distinction between leftward and rightward in the circle walking and between left and right palm threading. [There is a further implicit distinction here between walking and threading. In circle walking it is only the direction that matters, not the posture, while in palm threading it is only the posture that matters, not the direction.]

第六章 無極學
CHAPTER SIX: NONPOLARITY

無極形式者。當人未學之先。心中混混沌沌。一氣渾淪。舉動之間。但由天然之性也。而旋轉無度。起落無節。外失諸修。內失諸養。知順之所往不知逆之所來。以至體質虛弱。陽極必陰。陰極必死。往往歸於無可如何之地。是攝生之術。講求無方。良可慨也。惟聖人知逆運之機。修身之本。還元之道。總之不外形意太極八卦諸拳之理。一氣伸縮之道。明善復初之功。求立於至善之極點。以復先天之元氣。和而不流。中立而不倚。可與後世作法。亦可為萬物立命。此之謂無極而生太極之式也。李東垣先生曰。人自虛無而生神。積神而生氣。積氣而生精。此自無而之有也。鍊精而化氣。鍊氣而化神。鍊神而化虛。此自有而之無也。拳術之道。生化之理。其即此意也夫。
Nonpolarity is the state you are in before commencing practice. There is in the mind a lack of differentiation, a continuousness everywhere between movements, yet which comes from naturalness, a turning without consideration of degree, no division between lifting and dropping, outwardly forgetting all notions of cultivation, inwardly forgetting all notions of nurturing. Understanding how to flow along with but not understanding reversal, you get to the point that the body becomes weakened. When the active reaches its peak, it must give rise to the passive. When the passive reaches its peak, it will result in death, from which there is no coming back.
     This is the art of keeping fit. Focus on seeking a state of being without corners. When it is right, there can be abundance. Only a wise man knows the mechanics of reversal, the foundation of cultivating the body, the method of returning to the original condition. It is nothing more than the principles of the boxing arts of Xingyi, Taiji, and Bagua, the method of continuously extending and shrinking, the work of perfecting and returning to the beginning, seeking to be established at that peak of perfection, to return to the innate original energy, balanced and not drifting, neutral and not leaning. It can be a practice for later generations and a fulfillment for everyone. This is called “nonpolarity generating the grand polarity”.
     Li Dongyuan said: “A person from a state of emptiness generates spirit. Accumulation of spirit generates energy. Accumulation of energy generates essence. This is going from nothing to something. Refine the essence and transform it into energy. Refine the energy and transform it into spirit. Refine the spirit and transform it into emptiness. This is going from something to nothing.” In boxing arts methods, the principle of generating transformation is this idea.

第一節 無極學圖解
NONPOLARITY POSTURE

起點面正。身子直立。兩手下垂。兩足為九十度之形式。如圖是也。兩足尖亦不往裡扣。兩足後根亦不往外扭。兩足如立在空虛之地。動靜不能自知也。靜為無極體。動為無極用。若言其靜。則胸中空空洞洞。意向思想一無所有。兩目將神定住。內無所觀。外無所視也。若言其動。則惟順其天然之性旋轉不已。並無伸縮往來節制之意思也。然胸中雖空空洞洞無意向思想之理。但腹內確有至虛至無之根。而能生出無極之氣也。其氣似霧。氤氤氳氳黑白不辨。形如湍水。混混沌沌。淸濁不分。惟此拳之形式未定。故名謂之無極形式也。此理雖微。但能心思會悟。身體力行到極處。自能知其所以然也。
Begin by facing squarely, your body upright, hands hanging down, feet making a ninety-degree angle, as in the photo. Your toes do not hook inward and your heels do not twist outward. Your feet seem to stand in a condition of emptiness. You should have no awareness of movement or stillness. Stillness is nonpolarity’s form. Movement is nonpolarity’s function. What is meant by “stillness” is that there is emptiness within the mind, the intention is without thought, and the spirit in your eyes stays there, inside nothing seen, outside nothing to see. What is meant by “movement” is that you are only following what is natural and turning in accordance with it, and there is no idea of control over extending and shrinking, or coming and going. Although within the mind there is the principle of emptiness and no thought, there is however within the belly a true basis of emptiness which can give rise to an energy of nonpolarity. This energy is like a fog, a smoke in which black and white are indistinguishable. The posture is like a rapid current of water, all churned up, no distinction between clear and murky. Due to this posture’s vagueness, it is called the NONPOLARITY POSTURE. Although the principle of it is minor, it can nevertheless facilitate realization. Once you have practiced sufficiently, you will be able to understand why this is so.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 1

第七章 太極學
CHAPTER SEVEN: GRAND POLARITY

太極形式者。無極而生。陰陽之母也。左旋之而為陽。右轉之而為陰。旋轉乃一氣之流行。太極即一氣。一氣即太極也。以體言則為太極。以用言則為一氣。時陽則陽。時陰則陰。時上則上。時下則下。陽而陰。陰而陽。一氣活活潑潑。有無不立。開闔自然。皆在當中一點子運用也。這一點子即是拳中左旋右轉開闔動靜。陰陽相交之中樞也。中樞者為人性命之本造化之原。丹田之氣。八卦拳之根蒂也。此氣是天地之根。陰陽之母。即太極是也。故兩儀由此而生焉。
The GRAND POLARITY POSTURE arises from nonpolarity, then gives rise to the passive and active aspects. Leftward circle walking is active. Rightward circle walking is passive. In either case, it is a continuous flow. The grand polarity is continuousness. Continuousness is the grand polarity. In terms of form, we say “grand polarity”. In terms of function, we say “continuousness”. When it is time to be active, then active. When it is time to be passive, then passive. When it is time to go upward, then upward. When it is time to go downward, then downward. Active, then passive. Passive, then active. With continuous liveliness, somethingness and nothingness are not fixed, and opening and closing are natural, all comprised within an idea of function.
     The idea is that within this boxing art there is a central axis around which leftward circle walking and rightward circle walking, opening and closing, movement and stillness, passive and active alternate with each other. This central axis is the source of mankind’s existence. The energy in the elixir field is the basis of Bagua Boxing. This energy at the foundation of the universe, the source of the passive and active aspects, is the grand polarity. It is from this that the dual aspects will be generated.

第一節 太極學圖解
GRAND POLARITY POSTURE

起點先將腰塌住。再將右足直着往前邁去。落下兩足形式如斜長方形如圖是也。兩足前後相離遠近隨乎人之高矮。總要後足往前邁步不費力為至善處。兩腿裏曲均要圓滿。不可有死灣子。兩足後根均向外扭勁。兩腿如騎馬式一齊扣勁之意。不可顯露往一處扣的形式。初練時身子不可過矮。微須高點。過矮甚為費力。迨至日久功純。則高矮隨便不拘矣。兩腿之形式。未轉走時。左胯與左足後根相齊。卽轉走時。右胯尖扭至與前手食指並圓圈中間相對為標準。前右腿形式膝與足後根。上下如一條綫相齊。再將右手順着右足後根如銳角形式。手直着如畫一半圓形抬起。抬至手虎口與眼相齊停住。兩肩要鬆開。兩肘均往裏裹勁。裹至肘尖朝下垂。兩手具張開不可並攏。兩手腕均往外極力擰勁。擰至食指直立。大指食指虎口撑開如半月形。無名指與小指均有往回鈎勁的意思。兩手心不可往外挺勁。兩手如同抓着圓球相似。手腕極力往上挺勁。手虎口亦極力往前推勁。上下挺推要均停方為正勁。兩眼看前手食指稍為準則。或有看虎口者。氣不中也。後胳膊靠着身子。極力往上如畫半圓形。手虎口至前胳膊肘子停住。兩肩均往回抽住勁。此是順中求逆如卦位順行卦序逆行之意也兩肘極力往下垂勁。兩手極力一氣往前推勁。兩手心隨着兩肩極力往回縮勁。腰隨着兩手腕往外擰勁時如擰繩子極力擰去。擰至前手食指。與兩眼對着圓圈中點為止。如圖是也。
To begin, first your waist sinks, then your right foot steps straight forward, so that your feet make a diagonal rectangle, as in the photo. The distance between your front foot and rear foot depends on your height, and is ideal if it does not cause the succeeding step of your left foot to require extra energy. The bend in your legs should have a rounded fullness, and must not be a dead bend. Your heels both have an energy of twisting outward, and your legs are as if in a horse-riding posture, having an intention of closing inward, but must not noticeably do so. In the beginning of the training, your body must not go too low and should probably even be rather high. Being too low is very strenuous. When over time your skill becomes pure, then you can do it at whatever height you please. The posture of your legs, before you turn and walk, has your left hip and left foot aligned with each other. Then when you turn and walk, the tip of your right hip twists until it is aligned with the roundness of the forefinger of your front hand. The posture of your right knee and heel is that they are in line with each other above and below.
     Then your right hand goes along with your right heel to make an acutely angled posture, continuously drawing a lifting arc, lifting until the tiger’s mouth is at eye level. Your shoulders should loosen. Your elbows both have an energy of wrapping inward, wrapping until the tips of your elbows point downward. Your hands are spread and the fingers must not gather together. Your wrists put all their energy into twisting outward, twisting until the forefingers stand straight, the thumbs, forefingers, and tiger’s mouths propped open to make semicircle shapes. The ring finger and little finger both have an intention of hooking. Your palms must not stick out. Your hands seem to be grabbing spheres. Your wrists put their energy into propping upward. Your tiger’s mouths put their energy into pushing forward, and for it to be correct, they should push out and stop together. Your gaze goes to the tip of the forefinger of your front hand, or to the tiger’s mouth, either way will suit the energy. Your rear arm is close to your body and puts its energy into arcing upward to make a semicircle, the tiger’s mouth by the elbow of your front arm. Your shoulders have an energy of drawing in. (This is “seeking to be going against while going along”, an intention of the trigrams being in a position of going along with while in a process of going against.) Your elbows put their energy into dropping down as your hands put their energy into pushing forward. Your palms go along with your shoulders, which put their energy into shrinking in. Your waist follows your wrists as they twist outward, turning as far as it can like a rope being twisted, twisting until your forward forefinger and your gaze are pointed to the center of the circle, as in the photo.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 2

此式名為横走竪撞。兩胯裡根極力均往回抽勁。裡胯根抽至如圓圈裡邊圓線。如)是也。所謂在圓圖。乾坤中虛處求玄妙是此意也。頭要往上頂勁。口似張非張。似脗非脗。舌要頂上腭。呼吸要從鼻孔出氣。久之消息之理自然通矣。穀道要往上提。項要竪着勁。心不要用努力。扣胸不可往裡顯着扣。只要兩肩齊往回縮力。自然而然就內開外合。是謂之扣胸也。功久胸前亦自然而有圓含之形式也。轉走時身子不要快。意氣力並手足肩胯腰肘內外務要合成一氣。身中不可有一處散亂。如有散亂處。即是身中之勁不合。即於腰胯肩肘並四稍求之。四稍者。牙為骨稍。舌為肉稍。手指足指為筋稍。渾身毛孔為血稍是也。求之務將心氣沈住歸於丹田。身子高矮要一律。轉走時身子不可有左斜右歪之形。使內中之氣不穩也。行走時。總似鳥之束翅頻頻飛去之形。又平水漂流一物不見水流只見物行。有安穩自然之象。兩譬語是此拳形式之意義也。
This posture is called walking along a horizontal line while striking along a vertical line.
Your hips have a strong energy of drawing in until they are rounded like the inner edge of a ring. This is the idea of the “deeper meaning at the empty center of the round circle” between the trigrams of Qian and Kun. Your head should have an energy of pressing up. Your mouth seems to be flat but not flat, pursed but not pursed. Your tongue should touch your upper palate. Your breathing should be through your nose. After a long time of working with this breathing principle, it will happen naturally. Your rectum should lift up. Your neck should have an energy of straightening. Your mind should not use effort. The hollowing of your chest must not be a noticeable hollowing inward, only an energy of your shoulders shrinking in together, then there will naturally be a condition of opening inwardly and closing outwardly, and this is what is meant by “hollowing the chest”. After working at it a long time, your chest will naturally have a posture of being rounded and contained.
     When turning to walk, your body should not hurry. The intention, energy, and strength, with your hands, feet, shoulders, hips, waist, and elbows, the internal and external aspects, must all operate in unison. Within your body, you must not be disorganized anywhere. If there is disorder anywhere, the energies within your body will not be unified, and your waist, hips, shoulders, elbows, and the “four ends” will be at a loss because of it. The four ends are: the teeth are the end of the bones, the tongue is the end of the muscle, the fingers and toes are the end of the sinews, and the body hair is the end of the blood. Strive to get your mind and energy to sink back to your elixir field. Your body’s height should stay uniform. When turning to walk, your body must not have a shape of tilting to the left or right, which would destabilize the energy within. When walking, it is always like a bird flapping its wings in flight. [The wings are not perceived as much as the bird as a whole.] Or it is like a water current carrying an object. The flow is hardly perceived and only the object is noticed. Have an appearance of being stable and natural. These two similes give the sense of this boxing posture.

第八章 兩儀學
CHAPTER EIGHT: THE DUAL ASPECTS [i.e. SINGLE PALM CHANGE]

兩儀者。是一氣伸縮之理。左旋之則為陽儀。右轉之則為陰儀也。故前太極之式。一氣走去。如圖流行不息者。則為太極陽儀。是為氣之伸也。至練時圓圈之大小。轉數之多寡。皆以地之形式為準則。可大則大。可小則小。若論通便練法。尤不拘地式之長短寬窄。畝數之地不為大。圓三徑一不為小。誠以功夫深純。即周圍數里。亦能循環數匝不停式子。而片席容足。亦可以來往轉身而有餘也。先哲云。道之伸縮流行。其大無外。其小無內。放之則彌六合。卷之則退藏於密。亦即此拳之意義也。若是回轉身式。卽單換掌勿論大小圈循環多寡。酌量自己之氣力而行。半圈可以換身。數十圈亦可換身。倘轉數甚多。天地萬物亦隨着身子一氣翻轉。此時換身更當要緊。若任一式轉去。恐功夫不到。而有頭眩眼昏。足底無根之弊。所謂陽極必生陰。陰極必生陽也。譬如圓圖八卦。陽左升為日。陰右降為月。日來則月往。月往則日來。日月相推。而四時生焉。換身右轉流行不已。如圖則為太極陰儀。是氣之縮也。聖人云。鬼神之為德。日月之升降。皆屬天地自然之變化。而拳中兩儀右轉。左右有序。何莫非一氣之往來屈伸乎。故兩儀再生。而四象出焉。
The dual aspects are the expanding and contracting of the singleness of energy. Leftward circle walking goes with the active aspect, rightward circle walking goes with the passive aspect, and thus it is the GRAND POLARITY POSTURE in a state of continuous walking. Leftward circle walking is the active aspect of the taiji circle, the expanding of energy. [i.e. You are stepping along the eight trigrams in order.]
     When practicing, the size of the circle and the number of circuits you make of it depend on your environment. If you can do it large, do it large, and if you can only do it small, do it small, whatever is the most convenient way of practicing. Never be insistent upon a specific length and width of space. An acre would not be too large and a hermit’s lodging would not be too confined. Truly once your skill has deepened, you can walk a circle of several miles without pause, or you can turn your body round and round while standing on a sitting mat and yet have room to spare. Ancient thinkers said about the expanding and contracting movements of the Way [from Guanzi, chapter 36 / then from Zhong Yong]: “It is so big it has no outside, so small it has no inside.” / “Sending out, it goes beyond the ends of the universe. Rolling in, it stores away tightly.” This also rings true for this boxing art.
     When switching directions (meaning the single palm change), regardless of the size of the circle or the number of circuits you walk around it, which depends on your own capacity, you can switch postures after only half a circle or after dozens of circuits. If you make too many circuits, everything around you will appear to be constantly spinning, and so switching directions would have to be done with that much more precision. As soon as you switch postures, your skill will probably not be adequate and you will be affected by dizziness and unrooted feet. Thus it is said that the active aspect at its peak gives rise to the passive aspect and the passive aspect at its peak gives rise to the active aspect.
     By analogy, look at the circle of the eight trigrams. The active aspect ascends on the left in the form of the sun [i.e. day] and the passive aspect descends on the right in the form of the moon [i.e. night]. [Holding up a bagua diagram in front of you is therefore the same as facing south in the northern hemisphere]. The sun comes up, and so the moon goes down. The moon goes down, and so the sun comes up. As the sun and moon urge each other on [i.e. as time passes], the four seasons are produced.
     Switch to rightward circle walking, as in the photo. It is the passive aspect of the taiji circle, the contracting of energy. [i.e. You are stepping along the eight trigrams in reverse order.] A sage once said: “The special power of ghosts and spirits, and the ascending and descending of sun and moon – they are both among the natural changes of the universe.” Within the boxing art, rightward circle walking alternates with leftward. But how can the singleness of energy go back and forth, expanding and contracting? Once the dual aspects arise, the four manifestations will then emerge…

第一節 兩儀學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點時。譬如一氣左旋流行不已。擬欲換身右轉。是一氣生兩儀也。其法右足先走至前邊落下。
To begin, if you are walking a leftward circle and you want to switch to walking a rightward circle, you will perform the single palm change. Begin by coming down with your right foot…

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 3

第二節 兩儀學 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

隨後左足再往前邁時足尖極力往裏扣。落下與右足尖相齊。遠近相離二三寸許。如圖形是也。兩足後根均向外扭勁。兩膝相離似挨未挨之意。兩胯裏根均向回抽勁。又兼向外開勁。此式是內開外合之意。腰要塌住勁。而時上身兩手仍合住勁不動兩肩似乎有往回縮勁之意。亦謂之含胸也。稍微穩住。
Then your left foot steps forward, toes hooking in as far as they can, coming down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart, as in the photo. The heels of both feet are twisted outward. Your knees have an intention of being close but not close to each other. Your hips have an energy of drawing inward and simultaneously an energy of spreading outward. This posture has an intention of inwardly opening and outwardly closing. Your waist should have an energy of sinking. Your hands maintain an energy of being closed in and have not moved from their position. Your shoulders seem to have an intention of shrinking inward, thereby containing your chest. Slightly steady yourself.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 4

第三節 兩儀學 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

即將右掌伸直極力往外擰勁擰至大指朝下。小指朝上停住。右足與右手擰時。一齊隨着往外邁出。足落下與右手上下相齊。兩足相離遠近隨乎人之高矮。總之再邁左足不費力為至善。其時身子微微有往下遁縮之意。左手緊靠着身子在胳膊根窩下邊。手心仍朝外往前推住勁。
Then your right palm extends, putting its energy into twisting outward until the thumb is pointing downward and the little finger is pointing upward. Your right foot at the same time steps outward, coming down so the hand and foot are in line with each other above and below. The distance between your feet depends on your height and is ideal if does not cause the succeeding step of your left foot to require extra energy. Your body at the same time very slightly has an intention of shrinking away downward. Your left hand is close to your body below your [right] armpit, the palm still facing outward, and has an energy of pushing forward.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 5

第四節 兩儀學 黑虎出洞
4. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE

再將左足邁至前邊。仍與右足尖相齊。兩足尖相離遠近仍二三寸許。兩足後根仍往外扭勁。兩胯裏根亦均往回抽勁。兩手極力均往回裹勁。裹至兩手心朝上。裹時兩肩極力往回抽勁。又兼往下垂勁式似停未停之時。即將腰向右邊極力擰去。如擰繩子之意。左手心朝上。肘往下埀着極力挺住勁勿動。左手心朝上隨着腰擰時。徐徐往右胳膊根外邊。與左胳膊成為丁字形。又往前往高斜着穿出。左肩如同穿在右胳膊根窩下之意。頭項竪住勁。隨着腰向外扭勁。兩眼看所穿之左手。左手穿至極處為止。此勁之理。如同上滿表條。不留餘隙。外勁形式似合。而內中心氣似開。似虛之意。若其不然。胸中恐有內擠氣努胸隔心痛之患。
Then your left foot steps forward so the toes of both feet are again pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart, the heels of both feet are again twisted outward, and your hips again have an energy of drawing in. Your hands are wrapping inward as far as they can so the palms are facing upward. Your shoulders at the same time have a strong energy of drawing in, but also have an energy of hanging down. When the posture seems to stop but not yet stop, your waist turns to the right as far as it can, as though it is a rope being twisted. With your left palm facing upward, the elbow hangs down as far as it can and does not leave its location. Your left hand goes along with the twisting of your waist to go slowly to the outside of your right arm, making a T shape with your left arm, threading out forward and diagonally upward. Your left shoulder seems to have an intention of threading under your right armpit. Your headtop has an energy of pressing upward while your waist twists outward. Your gaze is toward your left hand as it threads through to its limit. The principle of this posture’s energy is similar to winding up a watch until it can click no further. Externally energy seems to be closing while internally energy seems to be opening as though with an intention of emptying. If it is not done in this way, the squeezing within your chest will risk putting too much pressure on your heart.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 6

第五節 兩儀學亦為右式第一 右式靑龍轉身
5. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY (SINGLE PALM CHANGE SWITCHING TO RIGHTWARD CIRCLE WALKING)

身子再往右轉走時。先將左足往前直着邁去。落下兩足相離遠近。仍隨乎人之高矮。要之再邁右足不費力為至善。左手隨着左足邁時。連穿代伸代往外擰勁。右手與左手一齊均往外擰勁。兩足隨走。兩手腕隨着極力往外擰勁。擰至左手食指朝上直立。亦與圓圈中虛處相對為準則。手指高仍與眉齊。右手亦仍極力靠着身子。一氣推至左胳膊肘處。食指朝上穩住。腰亦隨着左手向右邊如擰繩子相似擰去。兩眼亦看前食指稍。兩手腕擰時。兩胳膊中曲仍朝上。兩肘仍朝下。兩手腕擰勁時。亦不可擰之容易。似覺擰不過來的意思。兩手腕往上托手虎口又往前推之意。二者均停不可顯露兩肩亦極力一齊往回抽勁。兩手亦許三五步擰過來。亦許轉走周圈擰過來勿拘。
Then walk a rightward circle, first stepping out with your left foot, coming down at a distance which depends on your height and should not produce extra effort when your right foot then steps. Your left hand goes along with the step of your left foot by threading then extending then twisting outward, your right hand twisting outward at the same time. As your feet walk, your wrists twist outward as far as they can so that your left forefinger is standing upright, which should be in line with the center of the circle, the finger at eyebrow level. Your right hand, staying close to your body, puts its energy into continuously pushing toward your left elbow, the forefinger pointing upward, and your hands stabilize in that position. Your waist follows your left hand by turning to the right [left] like a rope being twisted. Your gaze goes toward the tip of the forefinger of your front hand. As your wrists twist, the forearms bend in to point upward, elbows still pointing downward, and the twisting of your wrists must not be so comfortable that you feel they have not twisted all the way into place. Your wrists prop up your tiger’s mouths and have an intention of pushing forward, but must not visibly do so. Your shoulders have a strong energy of drawing in. Your hands get twisted into position after about three to five steps, and may stay in that position for as many circuits around the circle as you please.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 7

要之若走步。或換式總要上下相連。內外六合一氣。六合者。心與意合。意與氣合。氣與力合此內三合也。肩與胯合。肘與膝合。手與足合。此外三合也。內外如一。成為六合也。其中意思。練者若是不曉。即求明人指點可也。學者勉力而深思之。功久自能知焉。兩儀再往回換式走。與此法之理相同。
以後凡換式。自兩儀以至於神化之功。雖分左右換式。手法足法。諸處之勁左右無不相同。
While walking or switching postures, you should always have coordination between your upper body and lower, and cooperation inside and out of the six unions. The six unions are: mind united with intention, intention united with energy, and energy united with power – the three internal unions – as well as the shoulders united with the hips, elbows united with the knees, and hands united with the feet – the three external unions. Internal and external merged together make the six unions. If you do not grasp the ideas within this concept, seek out a knowledgeable teacher to give you guidance. If you do your best, deeply contemplate, and work at it for a long time, you will naturally be able to understand it. The single palm change then switches you to walking the other way around the circle, the principles of the technique staying the same as before. Continue switching until you have become remarkably skillful at the single palm change. Although the technique is performed on each side, the hand movements, footwork, and energies are all the same on both sides.

第九章 四象學
CHAPTER NINE: THE FOUR MANIFESTATIONS [i.e. DOUBLE PALM CHANGE]

四象者。兩儀各生一陰陽也。太極生兩儀者。八卦拳之奇耦也。復於兩儀之中。各加一奇一耦。以象太陰太陽少陰少陽而名為四象。四象即本拳之奇耦。各加一陰一陽。而分為金木水火也。在腹內則為心肝肺腎。在拳中則為前後左右。俗稱名為雙換掌也。言四象不及土者。太極即土也。拳中起躦落翻。動而未發謂之横。横者亦土也。因其生生不息謂之土。因其一氣運用謂之太極。太極也。土也。一而已。故不及土。僅言四象者。而土已在其中矣。夫四象旣有陰陽。則八卦相交。彼此相盪。一卦可盪於八卦之上。八卦相盪。更可重為六十四卦。按易一卦六畫。下三畫象天地人三才也。上三畫相盪。因而重之。象天地人三才各有陰陽也。以明拳中各法左旋右轉。皆有陰陽之式也。故左旋象下三畫。頭手足象天地人三才也。右轉象上三畫。因天地人三才各有陰陽也。八卦即四象之陰陽。六十四卦即陰陽配合之生氣。八卦成列。因而重之。則陰陽相交。自可生生無已。豈第六十四卦哉。雖至千卦萬卦。總不出乎六十四卦。六十四卦總是八卦。八卦總是四象。四象總是兩儀。兩儀總是一氣之流行也。紫陽讀參同契云。一自虛無兆質。兩儀因一開根。四象不離二體。八卦互為子孫。六十四卦於此而生。萬象變動於此而出。誠哉斯言。可為此拳之鑒矣。
The four manifestations are born from the dual aspects, which were generated by the grand polarity. Forming the solid lines and broken lines in the eight trigrams [active being represented by a single solid line, passive being represented by a single broken line], the dual aspects then have another solid line or broken line added on top of them. The result is the four manifestations: the greater passive [broken line added on top of a broken line], greater active [solid line on top of a solid line], lesser passive [broken line on top of a solid line], lesser active [solid line on top of a broken line]. Thus the four manifestations are the basic solid and broken lines with further lines of passiveness and activeness added on top of them. These four are each assigned associations: being associated to the elements of metal, wood, water, and fire, associated in the body to the organs of heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys, and associated in the boxing art to the directions of forward, back, left, and right. [The four manifestations as a boxing technique] are commonly known as the “double palm change”.
     The four manifestations do not include the element of earth. The grand polarity corresponds to earth. Within the boxing art, [the four manifestations make the actions of] lifting, drilling, dropping, and overturning. To act and not yet issue is to be in a flattened-out condition of activity, like the earth. The earth generates things endlessly because it is in continuous use, like the grand polarity. The grand polarity and the earth are in the place of the One, thus earth is not included among the four, for it lies between them all.
     As the four manifestations include the passive and active aspects, the eight trigrams interact with each other, shifting places with each other and getting placed on top of each other. The eight trigrams stacked in this way can further amount to sixty-four hexagrams. As per the Book of Changes, each hexagram is composed of six lines. The three lower lines represent the sky, ground, and mankind – the three substances. The upper three lines are piled on top of them and represent the passive and active qualities of the three substances. Understand that within the boxing art there are leftward circle walking and rightward circle walking, which each have a passive [rightward] and active [leftward] quality. Therefore leftward circle walking is associated with the lower trigram [whose influence rises up into the upper trigram], your head, hands, and feet representing the sky, ground, and mankind – the three substances. Rightward circle walking is associated with the upper trigram [whose influence percolates down into the lower trigram], the three substances each having a [corresponding additional] passive or active line.
     The eight trigrams are made from the passive and active aspects of the four manifestations, and then the sixty-four hexagrams are produced from the passive-active pairings [of the trigrams]. When the eight trigrams are arranged in such a way that they are stacked on top of each other, the resulting interaction between the passive and active aspects will generate things endlessly, and so why stop with the sixty-fourth hexagram? Because even if there were thousands [For instance, if we multiplied sixty-four by sixty-four, we would get four thousand and ninety-six dodecagrams.], they would never go beyond the basic sixty-four hexagrams anyway [and so to have thousands would be mostly redundant as well as spectacularly overcomplicated]. Furthermore, the sixty-four hexagrams would always be composed of the eight trigrams, the eight trigrams would always be made from the four manifestations, the four manifestations would always be made from the dual aspects, and the dual aspects would always be the result of the movement of the grand polarity.
     It says in Zhang Ziyang’s “On Reading the Three in Agreement”: “From nothingness came somethingness. The dual aspects then arose from the One. The four manifestations emerged from the two. The eight trigrams are the descendents of the four.” The sixty-four hexagrams then followed, as did the transformations of all phenomena. Approach these words sincerely, for they are mirrored in this art.

第一節 四象學 右式靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY (RIGHTWARD CIRCLE WALKING)

起點兩儀式。無論左旋右轉。皆可變換四象雙換掌也。先以右旋之。左手在前。右手在後。從正北往西順着圓圈轉去謂之右旋。
After beginning with the single palm change, whether circle walking to the left or right, you can switch to the double palm change. Start with going from the rightward circle walking, left hand in front, right hand behind, walking the circle from north to west.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 8

第二節 四象學 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

換掌時左足在前。右足隨後邁在前邊。足尖極力往裏鈎落下與左足尖相齊。遠近相離二三寸許。兩足後根極力均往外扭勁。腰塌住勁。兩胯裏根均往回抽勁。式似停未停。
When switching palms, do it when your left foot is forward. Your right foot then steps forward, the toes hooking in as far as they can, coming down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. The heels of both feet are equally twisted outward as far as they can be. Your waist has an energy of sinking. Your hips have an energy of drawing in. The posture seems to stop yet not stop.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 9

第三節 四象學 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

即將左手伸直往外擰勁。擰至大指朝下。小指朝上。手心朝外。左足抬起。足尖隨着左手擰時。一齊往外擺勁。落下左足後根與右足尖成為錯綜八字式。如圖形是也。兩足相離遠近。亦隨人之高矮。足落下時形雖往外擺。兩胯裏根亦均往回抽勁。內裏似乎開圓圈之意腰隨着左手往外擰。兩肩裏根亦均往回縮力。亦是含胸之意。右手仍靠着身子手心朝外。在左胳膊根窩下邊。推住勁肘往下垂着不動。式子身雖停而意未停。
Your left hand extends, twisting outward until the thumb is pointing downward, the little finger is pointing upward, and the palm is facing outward. Your left foot at the same time lifts and comes down with its toes swung outward. Your left heel is in line with your right toes and the feet are making a ninety degree angle, as in the photo. The distance between your feet depends on your height. Although the foot comes down swung outward, your hips have an energy of drawing inward, with an intention of being like the inner curve of a ring. Your waist goes along with the outward twisting of your left hand. The forward section of your shoulders also has an energy of shrinking in, with an intention of containing your chest. Your right hand is still close to your body, palm facing outward below your left armpit, and has an energy of pushing, the elbow dropped down and staying where it is. Although your body’s posture comes to a halt, your intention does not stop.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 10

第四節 四象學 右式黑虎出洞
4. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE (OPPOSITE SIDE FROM BEFORE)

即將兩手均向裏裹勁。裹至手心朝上。即將右手從左胳膊根窩下邊穿出。右足與右手一齊邁至前邊。與左足尖相齊。兩足尖相離遠近亦二三寸許。右肩亦極力望着左胳膊根窩下邊穿去。兩足後根亦均往外扭勁。兩胯裏根亦均往裏抽勁。腰仍塌住勁。式不可久停。譬如書句大長。字當中點點為讀句即一氣似斷而未斷之意也。
見兩儀右式四圖
Then your hands wrap inward until the palms are facing upward, your right palm threading out under your left armpit. Your right foot at the same time steps forward so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. Your right shoulder has a strong desire to thread through under your left armpit. Your heels are again twisted outward, your hips again have an energy of drawing inward, and your waist still has an energy of sinking. The posture must not pause long. Compare it to a lengthy sentence in a book. There may be a tiny pause with each comma, but there is a continuous flow of thought that does not get interrupted by such pauses. (This posture is like photo 4 of single palm change, but performed on the other side.)

第五節 四象學 鷂子鑽天
5. HAWK DRILLS INTO THE SKY

再將右胳膊靠着右耳。手極力往裏裹着勁往上穿去。穿至極處手心朝裏。身子隨着右手往上伸長。左手心朝裏與右手往上穿時。一齊往下挨着右胳膊裏根落下至肋。手指朝下。手背靠着身子望着右胯穿下。兩手分開要上下一齊皆到極處。左足與兩手分開時。即速抬起。足尖極力往上仰着。靠住右足裏脛骨。而時身子往下縮勁。腰亦塌住。右手可極力仍往上穿住勁。左手仍極力往下穿住勁。兩眼往上看着右手身子要穩住。
Then your right arm goes close to your right ear, the hand threading upward, wrapped inward as far as it can be so the palm is facing inward, your body going along with your right hand by extending upward. At the same time, your left hand, palm facing inward, goes downward along your right shoulder until at your ribs, fingers pointing downward, and with the back of the hand moving along your body, threads downward toward your right hip. Your hands spread apart in unison above and below to their limit. Your left foot at the same time quickly lifts, with the toes putting their energy into flexing upward, and goes close to the inside of your right ankle. Your body at this time has an energy of shrinking downward [despite stretching upward] and your waist continues to be sinking. Your right hand may thread upward as far as it can while your left hand threads downward as far as it can. Your gaze is upward toward your right hand. Your body should be stable.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 11

第六節 四象學 白蛇伏草
6. WHITE SNAKE HIDES IN THE GRASS

再將右手極力望着左肩尖前邊扣去。落於左胳膊上邊。身子隨着右手扣時。一齊往下縮矮。兩手再往前後分開。如同擺物一般。兩手腕均往外撑住勁。前後兩手虎口相對。兩胳膊皆如半月形式。左足與左手一齊往前邁去。足落下要半斜着如圖形是也。腰塌住勁身子往前撲去。小腹要放在大腿上。兩眼隨着右手看下來。望前邊左手看去。兩肩前後極力縮住勁。兩胯前後裏根亦極力縮住勁。此時腹內要似覺圓圈虛空一般。若是方能得着拳中之靈妙。
Then your right hand puts its energy into covering in front of your left shoulder and lowering until over your left arm, your body going along with the covering of your right hand by shrinking downward. Your hands then spread apart forward and back, as though they are each a pendulum. Your wrists having an energy of bracing outward, the tiger’s mouths are facing each other front and back, and both arms are making semicircles. Your left foot steps forward in unison with your left hand and should be pointing diagonally when it comes down, as in the photo. Your waist has an energy of sinking while your body is pouncing forward. Your lower abdomen should settle onto your hips. Your gaze follows your right hand downward, then goes forward toward your left hand. Your shoulders and hips shrink in as much as they can. The inside of your body should now feel like the emptiness within a circle. If done in this way, you will then be able to obtain the subtleties within this boxing art.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 12

第七節 四象學 右式黑虎出洞
7. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE (SAME DIRECTION AS IN POSTURE 4)

再將兩手極力均向裏裹勁至兩手心朝上。即將右手靠着身子。望着左胳膊根窩下穿出。手穿至極處。與左胳膊亦成一丁字形式。右足與右手同時。邁至與左足尖相齊。落下遠近相離二三寸許。兩足後根亦均往外扭勁。兩胯裏根亦均往回抽勁。腰要塌住勁隨着手穿時往左邊擰勁。亦同擰繩子相似。而時身子之勁。亦如同表條上滿之意。但內中總要虛空之意。內中何以能虛空之意。即着兩肩兩胯裏根。皆往回縮勁。則胸中自然有虛空之意。而腹內亦不能有努氣壅擠之患也。
見兩儀右式四圖
Then your hands wrap inward as far as they can so the palms are facing upward, your right hand moving close to your body and threading out under your left armpit to its limit, making a T shape with your left arm. Your right foot at the same time steps up, coming down so the toes of both feet are again pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. Your heels are again twisted outward and your hips again have an energy of drawing inward. Your waist has an energy of sinking as it follows your right hand to the left, again turning as though it is a rope being twisted. The energy of your body is again like winding up a watch to its full extent. However, there should always be an intention of emptying inside. This is achieved by the shoulders and hips shrinking in, naturally producing a sense of emptying within the chest and also preventing strain from being able to manifest in the body. (See photo 4 of single palm change, but performed on the other side.)

第八節 四象學 靑龍轉身
8. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

身子再往左轉走時。先將右足往前直着邁去落下兩足相離遠近。亦仍隨乎人之高矮。總之無論何項步法。前走後退要自然為至妙處。右手隨着右足邁時。連穿代伸代往外擰勁。左手與右手。一並均往外擰勁。兩足隨走兩手腕隨着極力往外擰勁。擰至右手食指朝上直立。亦與圓圈中虛處相對為準則。手指高矮仍與眉齊。左手亦仍極力靠着身子。一氣推至左胳膊肘處。食指朝上穩住。腰亦隨着右手。向左邊如同擰繩子相似擰去。兩眼亦看前手食指稍。兩手腕擰時。兩胳膊中曲亦仍朝上。兩肘仍朝下。兩手腕擰勁時亦不擰之甚易。亦似覺擰不過來的意思。兩手腕往上托。兩手虎口又往前推之意。二者均停不可顯露。兩肩亦極力一齊往回抽勁。兩手亦許三五步擰過來。亦許轉走週圈擰過來亦勿拘
Then walk a leftward circle, first stepping out with your left foot, coming down at a distance which depends on your height. Always, regardless of the footwork, be it advancing or retreating, it will be most effective if it is performed with naturalness. Your right hand goes along with the step of your right foot by threading then extending then twisting outward, your left hand twisting outward at the same time. As your feet walk, your wrists twist outward as far as they can so that your right forefinger is standing upright, which should be in line with the center of the circle, the finger at eyebrow level. Your left hand, staying close to your body, puts its energy into continuously pushing toward your left [right] elbow, the forefinger pointing upward, and your hands stabilize in that position. Your waist follows your right hand by turning to the [left] right like a rope being twisted. Your gaze goes toward the tip of the forefinger of your front hand. As your wrists twist, the forearms bend in to point upward, elbows still pointing downward, and the twisting of your wrists must not be so comfortable that you feel they have not twisted all the way into place. Your wrists prop up your tiger’s mouths and have an intention of pushing forward, but must not visibly do so. Your shoulders have a strong energy of drawing in. Your hands get twisted into position after about three to five steps, and may stay in that position for as many circuits around the circle as you please.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 13

要法亦與兩儀走步換式。上下相連內外一氣之理相同也。此四象練法隨分四侯則為起承轉合之意。實即一氣串成之道也。習者要知之。
As in the walking and switching postures of the single palm change, have coordination between your upper body and lower, and cooperation between inside and out, same as before. There is in the double palm change an intention of dividing it into four stages – begin [postures 1 & 2], develop [3 & 4], express [5 & 6], and finish [7 & 8] – though in practice it is actually one continuous action. You have to be aware of this.

第十章 乾卦獅形學
CHAPTER TEN: THE QIAN TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☰ (OR LION TECHNIQUE)

乾卦者。天之象也。獅子掌者。拳之式也。乾者健也。陽之性也。三畫卦之名也。乾以形體言謂之天。以性情言謂之乾。其於物也。則為獅形。其物最嚴烈。其性最勇猛。能食虎豹之獸。有抖毛之威。以拳式之用言。則有金龍合口之式。有獅子張嘴之形。有白猿拖刀之法。在腹內則為氣。能資始萬物。在拳中。則為獅子掌。能萬法開端。此式以兩手極力伸出。內外上下一氣。有乾三連之象。又有起首三點之式。故取象為乾卦。其拳順。則週身血脈舒暢。氣力倍增。其拳謬。則乾遇震。而拳中不能無妄。乾臨坤。而心竅亦不能開通矣。學者於此。尤加謹焉。
The Qian trigram is associated with sky. The posture in this technique is “lion palms”. The Qian [“Creative”] trigram invigorates. It is active in nature, being made of solid lines. In terms of form, it is sky. In terms of temperament, it is Qian. Its animal is the lion, the severest of animals with the fiercest of temperaments, having the ability to kill tigers or leopards, and the intimidating display of shaking its fur.
     As for the contents of the technique, it has the posture of “golden dragon closes its mouth”, the shape of LION OPENS ITS MOUTH, and the method of “white ape drags a saber”. The energy within is able to initiate all things. As for the appearance of the technique, it is the lion palms, which can be the beginning of all movements. In this technique, the hands put their energy into extending, the inside and outside, upper body and lower, all acting in unison. It has the form of the trigram’s three unbroken lines, as well as a posture of “beginning with three points”, and so it fits with the Qian trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, then your whole body’s blood circulation will be unobstructed and your strength will be boosted. If it is practiced with excessiveness, the Qian trigram will be added on top of the Zhen trigram, and the martial technique will be rendered ineffective by Wu Wang [“Innocence” – the resulting hexagram 25], or the Qian trigram will be added on top of the Kun trigram [producing “Stagnation” – hexagram 12], and your thinking will not be clear. You should give extra attention to this.

第一節 乾掛學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點以兩儀左式。先將右足走在前邊。
Begin as in the single palm change from the leftward circle walking, walking forward by first stepping out with your right foot.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 14

第二節 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

隨後即將左足再邁至前邊。將足尖往裡扣勁。落下與右足尖相齊兩足尖相離遠近亦二三寸許。兩足後根均往外扭勁。兩胯裡根均往裡抽勁。腰塌住勁。
見兩儀右式二圖
Then your left foot steps forward, toes hooking inward, coming down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. The heels of both feet are twisted outward. Your hips have an energy of drawing in. Your waist has an energy of sinking. (See photo 2 of single palm change.)

第三節 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

再將右手伸直往外擰勁。擰至手心往外。右足亦隨右手往外擰時。一齊往外擺去。足尖要直着。與右手上下相齊。兩肩微有往回縮勁之意。
見兩儀右式三圖
Then your right hand extends, twisting outward until the palm is facing outward. Your right foot at the same time swings outward, and the toes should be pointing straight. Your right hand and foot are in line with each other above and below. Your shoulders have a slight intention of shrinking inward. (See photo 3 of single palm change.)

第四節 黑虎出洞
4. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE

再邁左足時。兩手腕均往裏裹勁。裹至兩手心朝上。左手仍靠着右肋。左足落至與右足尖相齊。兩足扭勁。塌腰兩胯裏根抽勁。兩肩裏根縮勁均如前。兩足遠近相離亦如前。
見兩儀左式四圖
Then your left foot steps forward, your wrists wrapping inward until the palms are facing upward, your left hand again moving along your right ribs. Your left foot comes down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other, heels twisted outward. The sinking of your waist, and the drawing in of your hips and shoulders are as before. The distance between your feet is as before. (See photo 4 of single palm change.)

第五節 獅子張嘴
5. LION OPENS ITS MOUTH

再走仍先走左足。左手與左足走時同時往右胳膊下邊往平直穿去。與右胳膊成一丁字形。右手仍往裏裹着勁在面前二三寸許。手直往上穿去。兩足如同走路相似走去。左手心朝上隨着往外如畫平圓圈之意。畫至食指直對圓圈空虛中處為度。右手與左手。亦一齊手腕往外極力擰勁。擰至手心朝上。右胳膊靠着右耳處。如單手往上舉物之意。兩手虎口上下相對。兩手如托一長捍之形。兩肩往下垂勁。又往外開勁。兩足隨走。左手連往外畫。右手代往上托腰隨着左手往外扭勁。兩眼仍看前手食指稍。
Then walk, first stepping with your left foot, your left hand at the same time threading out horizontally under your right arm so your arms are making a T shape. Your right hand threads straight upward, the palm remaining wrapped inward, to be about two or three inches in front of your face. As your feet walk you along, your left hand, palm facing upward, draws an arc outward until the forefinger is pointing to the empty center of the circle. Your right hand at the same time twists outward as far as it can so the palm is facing upward, the arm close to your ear. It is as though you are raising an object with one hand. The tiger’s mouths are facing each other above and below, your hands as though propping up a long pole. Your shoulders have an energy of hanging down as well as an energy of spreading outward. As your feet walk, your left hand arcs outward, and your right hand props upward, your waist going along with your left hand by twisting outward. Your gaze remains forward toward the tip of the forefinger of your front hand.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 15

第六節 獅子張嘴
6. LION OPENS ITS MOUTH

再換右式步法。諸處之勁法無不與左式相同。學者當自悟之。自此以下諸掌之式。每逢起點時。均以兩儀單換掌左式起點。但左右式皆能起點。惟因初學習之人不明其理。故不能不有一定之規模。俟習熟之後。無論何式。皆能互相聯絡。貫通而練之者也。習者要知之。
見本章第五節圖
Then switch to performing the technique on the other side, the footwork and energies all the same as before. You should be able to grasp this on your own. From this point on, each technique begins from the single palm change coming out of leftward circle walking. It could begin on either side, but since beginners would not yet be accustomed to the theory, there has to be a fixed standard to work with. Once you understand the techniques, you can link them together, in any order, into a continuous practice. It is important to understand this. (See the photo above, but with the direction reversed.)

第十一章 坤卦麟形學
CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE KUN TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☷ (OR UNICORN TECHNIQUE)

坤卦者。地之象也。返身掌者。拳之式也。坤者順也。陰之性也。六畫卦之名也。坤以形體言。謂之地。以性情言。謂之坤。其於物也。則為麟形。其物為仁獸也。則有飛身變化不測之功。以拳式之用言。則有麒麟吐書之式。大鵬展翅之法。有白鶴獨立之能。有順勢返身旋轉之靈。以拳之形式言。謂之返身掌。此拳以兩手含住。返身轉去。內外上下和順。有坤六斷之形。故取象為坤卦。其拳順。則身體輕便快利。轉去如旋風。其拳謬。則腹內不能空虛。而身體亦不能靈通矣。學者加意研究。靈巧妙用由此而出焉。
The Kun trigram is associated with ground. The posture in this technique is “turning-body palms”. The Kun [“Receptive”] trigram accommodates. It is passive in nature, being made of broken lines. In terms of form, it is earth. In terms of temperament, it is Kun. Its animal is the unicorn, the most compassionate of beasts, having the skills of flying and of changing unpredictably.
     As for the contents of the technique, there is the posture of UNICORN VOMITS A BOOK, the method of RUKH SPREADS A WING, the ability of “white crane stands on one leg”, and the nimbleness of going along with the situation by turning and spinning. As for the appearance of the technique, it is the turning-body palms. This technique keeps the hands in place while the body spins. Inside and outside, upper body and lower, are in accordance with each other. It has the quality of the hexagram’s six broken [and thus receptive] lines, and so it fits with the Kun trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, your body will become light and quick, spinning like a whirlwind. If it is practiced with excessiveness, your body will incapable of emptiness inside and nimbleness outside. By mindfully studying this, skillfulness and subtlety will emerge.

第一節 坤卦學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點以兩儀單換掌式。先將右足邁至前邊落下。即將兩胯裡根往回抽勁。腰塌往勁。頭往上頂住勁。身子似有往下縮勁之意。
見兩儀左式一圖
Begin as in the single palm change, starting with your right foot coming down forward. Your hips have an energy of drawing in. Your waist has an energy of sinking. Your head has an energy of pressing up. Your body seems to have an intention of shrinking in. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第二節 麒麟回首
2. UNICORN TURNS ITS HEAD

再將右足往右邊擺回。右手與右足擺時。亦同時往裡裹勁。裹至手心朝上。左手仍靠着身子在右胳膊下邊。兩胯裏根亦均往回抽勁。
Then your right foot swings to the right, your right hand at the same time wrapping inward until the palm is facing upward. Your left hand remains close to your body below your right arm. Your hips again have an energy of drawing in.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 16

第三節 麒麟轉身
3. UNICORN TURNS ITS BODY

左足亦即速往回邁。邁至與右足尖相齊。遠近相離亦二三寸許。兩胯抽勁。兩肩縮勁。仍如前式身微停。
Your left foot then quickly steps forward so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. Your hips have an energy of drawing in and your shoulders have an energy of shrinking in, same as before. Your body comes to a slight halt.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 17

第四節 大鵬展翅
4. RUKH SPREADS A WING

即將右足往外擺。右胳膊仍挺勁。隨着身子一氣轉。左足亦即速邁至右足處。不可落地。靠住右足裏脛骨。兩腿亦極力並住腰亦塌住勁。右手與左足邁時。同時平着往外横去。
Then your right foot swings outward, your right arm staying extended and moving along with the turning of your body. Your left foot then quickly steps to your right foot to be close to your right ankle, but must not come down. Your thighs put their energy into squeezing together, your waist sinking, as your right hand goes across outward.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 18

第五節 麒麟吐書
5. UNICORN VOMITS A BOOK

左足再即速落下。與右足尖相齊。相離遠近仍如前。右手與左足落時同時屈回。手心朝下。胳膊如半月形式。随即將左手望着右肘後邊穿去。微停。
Your left foot then quickly comes down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other, the distance between them again the same as before. Your right arm at the same time withdraws, palm facing downward, arm making a semicircle, as your left hand urges behind your right elbow and threads through. Slightly pause.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 19

第六節 右式
6. UNICORN VOMITS A BOOK (OTHER SIDE)

即將右肘往裏裹勁。裹至手心朝上。再走時仍與兩儀右一圖靑龍轉身式相同。再換左式。與換右式手法步法勁式。亦均皆相同。
見麒麟吐書五圖
Then your right elbow wraps inward so the palm is facing upward, and you again walk from the posture of BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY. Then switch to the other side, the actions of the hands and feet, and the energies, all the same as before. (Perform as in the photo above [but on the other side].)

第十二章 坎卦蛇形學
CHAPTER TWELVE: THE KAN TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☵ (OR SNAKE TECHNIQUE)

坎卦者。水之象也。順勢掌者。拳之式也。坎者陷也。坎得乾之中陽。陽陷陰中。陽入而生潮。有坎中滿之象。故居正北水旺之方。其於物也。則為蛇形。其物最毒。其性最玲瓏。最活潑者也。有撥草之能。以拳式之用言。則有白蛇吐信之法。有雙頭蛇纒身之巧。以拳之形式言。謂之順勢掌。此拳外柔順。而內剛健。有丹田氣足之形。內外如水。曲曲順流。無隙而不入。故取象為坎卦。其拳順。則丹田之氣足。丹田氣足。則道心生。道心生。則心中陰火消滅。而無頭眩目暈之患矣。其拳謬。則腎水虛弱。心火不能下降。頭暈眼黑必不免矣。按此拳有點穴之法。式中有單指按點之術。此式單指按點之穴處在兩腋窩。點法之意。如同禽鳥兩翅窩之穴坑。兩指一攝。頃刻而亡。此法可知而不可專用。百行以德行為先。德行者。知毒法而不用。有不忍禍人之心。不獨此穴為然。凡諸穴能致人死者皆當愼用。如心口小腹。臍門。耳後。腦海。嗓喉。後脊背。兩腎腰。穀道。兩手脈窩。數穴以及雙指點。單指點。肘點。膝點。足點。掌印點斫點。勿論如何點法。輕者可以傷身。重者可以致命。凡知此術者。萬不可輕用。余聞吾師程先生曰點術之法。不可專用。專用必損陰騭。諺語云。己不用毒於人。人亦不用毒於我。所謂中找中。和找和。天理循環之數。是此意也。且此拳點法。非口傳授受。功夫純熟者。不能用。余說此穴。不過略言大蓋情形。若論麻穴。死穴其中之數目。有三十六者。有七十二者。共百有八之說。少林拳術秘訣論之詳矣。余不必再贅。余作此書。為開心竅。明心性。强筋骨。壯腦力。得其中和之性質為宗旨。毒手用之於他人者。百分之中有一。尤必出於不得已也。
The Kan trigram is associated with water. The posture in this technique is “opportunistic palms”. The Kan [“Abysmal”] trigram submerges. It receives its active middle line from the Qian trigram, the active aspect submerged between passive lines, which enters between them and produces surging tides, giving the trigram its fullness. Therefore it is placed to the north [in the “square circle” of the bagua diagram (Chapter Nineteen)] where the element of water flourishes. Its animal is the snake, the most venomous of animals, having the cleverest personality, the liveliest behavior, and the ability to slither through the grass.
     As for the contents of the technique, there is the method of WHITE SNAKE FLICKS ITS TONGUE and the skill of TWO-HEADED SNAKE COILS ITS BODY. As for the appearance of the technique, it is the opportunistic palms. This technique is externally soft and supple [the middle line of the trigram being solid], internally hard and firm [the outer lines of the trigram being broken]. It has the form of sufficient energy within the elixir field. Inside and outside are like water, flowing around every curve, entering into every gap, and so it fits with the Kan trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, then the energy in your elixir field will be sufficient. When the energy in your elixir field is sufficient, then your Daoist mind will be born. Once your Daoist mind is born, passive fire in your heart will be dispelled, and you will be without dizziness and blurry vision. If it is practiced with excessiveness, your kidney water will weaken, your heart fire will be unable to descend, and you will unavoidably become dizzy and have clouded vision.
     (This technique contains the method of striking acupoints. Within the postures is the skill of single-finger point striking, in this case specifically striking to the acupoints at the armpits. The intention of this striking method is as though you are poking the pit under the wing of a captured bird. A moment of two-fingered pressure can cause sudden death. This method can be understood but must not be deliberately used. The first of all behaviors should be to behave with virtue. One who acts from virtue may know methods of cruelty but does not apply them, finding it unbearable to bring misfortune to others.
     There are many acupoint areas in addition to this one that can cause death and should all be manipulated with equal caution, such as: solar plexus, lower abdomen, navel, behind the ear, base of the skull, throat, spine, kidney area of the lower back, anus area, wrist pulse, and so on. The acupoints can be attacked with double-finger striking, single-finger striking, elbow striking, knee striking, foot striking, palm-edge striking, or chopping strikes. Regardless of which method of striking, a light strike can cause injury and a heavy strike can cause death. All those who know this skill must not apply it rashly.
     My teacher Cheng Tinghua told me: “One must not deliberately apply the skill of striking acupoints. One who does that will become prone to committing evil deeds.” A proverb goes: “If you are not cruel to others, they will not be cruel to you.” In other words, things balance out. The point is that our actions rebound on us [evil being punished and good being rewarded]. Furthermore, if this skill is not taught through personal instruction and trained to a high level, it would not applicable anyway.
     I have only given the general idea in this discussion of acupoints. To tally up the paralysis points and death points, there are thirty-six and seventy-two respectively, totaling a hundred and eight. They have already been described in detail in Secrets of the Shaolin Boxing Art [published 1915] and I do not need to repeat them here. I made this book in order to clear the mind, cleanse the emotions, strengthen the body, and improve the intellect. The aim is to achieve the quality of centered harmoniousness. If you ever apply this skill against another person, let it be close to never, only at a moment when you have no choice.)

第一節 坎卦學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點兩儀單換掌左式先將右足往前落下。
見兩儀左式一圖
Begin as in the single palm change from leftward circle walking, your right foot first coming down forward. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第二節 白蛇吐信
2. WHITE SNAKE FLICKS ITS TONGUE

再將左足尖往外擺。與右足成為錯綜八字形式。如圖是也。
Then your left toes swing outward to make a ninety degree angle with your right foot, as in the photo.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 20

第三節 白蛇纒身
3. WHITE SNAKE COILS ITS BODY

隨後即將右足極力扣着邁去。與左足尖相齊。兩足尖相離遠近亦二三寸。右手與右足邁時。同時屈回。肘向外。胳膊如半月形。手自頭上。望左肩落下停住。左胯裏根極力往回抽勁。腰如擰繩子相似。與左胯抽勁時。一齊擰去。左手仍靠身子。在右胳膊裡根下邊。而時右胳膊在上。左胳膊在下挨住微停。外形似合。腹內略有空虛之意。不可有一物潛在心中。
Then your right foot steps forward, hooking inward as far as it can so that the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. Your right arm at the same time bends to make a semicircle, the elbow pointing outward, the hand lowering from your head until at your left shoulder. Your left hip has an energy of drawing in, your waist at the same time turning like a rope being twisted. Your left hand remains close to your body below your right shoulder. Your right arm is now above, left arm below, the arms slightly pausing like that. The external posture seems to be one of closing inward. Inside your body there is a slight intention of emptying so that there cannot be anything left within.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 21

第四節 白蛇伏草
4. WHITE SNAKE HIDES IN THE GRASS

即速兩手前後分開。與雙換掌兩手撐開之勁相同。左足與兩手分時。同時邁至前邊。足落下足尖微往裏扣着之意。腰塌住勁。小腹放在左邊大腿根上。兩肩抽勁。兩胯裏根縮勁均如前。
Then quickly your hands spread apart forward and back, the same as the spreading hands in Posture 6 of the double palm change, your left foot at the same time stepping forward, coming down with an intention of the toes hooking slightly inward. Your waist has an energy of sinking, your lower abdomen settling onto the top of your left hip. Your shoulders have an energy of drawing in and your hips have an energy of shrinking in, as before.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 22

第五節 黑虎出洞
5. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE

兩手一齊再往裏裹勁。裹至手心朝上。靠着身子。再往左胳膊根窩下邊穿去。右足與右手同時邁至前邊。與左足尖相齊。兩足尖相離遠近。兩肩兩胯抽勁亦均如前。
見兩儀右式四圖
Then your hands in unison wrap inward until the palms are facing upward, [your right hand] moving along your body to thread out under your left armpit. Your right foot at the same time steps forward so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. The distance between your toes and the drawing in of your shoulders and hips are as before. (See photo 4 of single palm change, but performed on the other side.)

第六節 靑龍轉身
6. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

再往前走。仍是靑龍轉身之式。
見兩儀左式一圖
Then walk forward, again in the posture of BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第十三章 離卦鷂形學
CHAPTER THIRTEEN: THE LI TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☲ (OR HAWK TECHNIQUE)

離卦者。火之象也。臥掌者。拳之式也。離者麗也。離得坤之中陰。陰麗陽中。陰借陽而生明。故居正南火旺之方。其於物也則為鷂形。其物有入林之速。有翻身之巧。以拳式之用言。則有按點斫之法。此拳亦為大蟒翻身之式。亦有入洞之能。以拳之形式言。謂之臥掌。此拳則外剛健。而內柔順。心中有空虛之象。故取象為離卦。其拳順。則心中虛靈。而人心化。人心化則玄妙生矣。其拳謬。則心中愚昧不明。而拳中之神化不能得矣。故學者勉力格致誠意作去。以開心中愚滯。自得神化之妙道矣。
The Li trigram is associated with fire. The posture in this technique is “crouching palms”. The Li [“Clinging”] trigram beautifies. It receives its middle passive line from the Kun trigram, passive beauty between active lines, which draws from the active aspect to produce radiance, therefore it is placed to the south [in the square circle bagua diagram] where the element of fire flourishes. Its animal is the hawk, which has the speed of entering the forest and the skill of turning its body.
     As for the contents of the technique, there is the method of striking acupoints with chopping actions, the posture of PYTHON TURNS ITS BODY, and the ability of “entering the cave”. As for the appearance of the technique, it is the crouching palms. This technique is externally hard and firm [the outer lines of the trigram being solid], internally soft and supple [the middle line of the trigram being broken]. There is an idea within of emptiness, and so it fits with the Li trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, your mind becomes enlivened and your emotions are transformed, giving rise to deeper wisdom. If it is practiced with excessiveness, your mind will become stupid and muddled, and the practice will be incapable of transforming spirit. Working hard to study this deeply and improve your intellect will clear away the sluggishness in your mind, and you will thereby obtain the correct method of transforming spirit.

第一節 離卦學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點以兩儀單換掌左式。右足在前。
見兩儀左式一圖
Begin as in the single palm change from leftward circle walking, your right foot forward. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第二節 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

即將左足邁至前邊。與右足尖相齊。兩足尖遠近相離亦二三寸許。
見兩儀左式二圖
Then your left foot steps forward so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other about two or three inches apart. (See photo 2 of single palm change.)

第三節 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

再將右足往外擺。右手與右足亦同時往外擰勁。擰至手心朝外。
Then your right foot swings outward, your right hand at the same time twisting outward until the palm is facing outward.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 23

第四節 大蟒翻身
4. PYTHON TURNS ITS BODY

左足再往前邁。落下仍與右足尖相齊。左手與左足邁時。亦同時順着右肘下邊手心朝上穿去。穿至極處。右手腕往外擰着勁。亦與左手同時自頭上過去。胳膊雖然屈着。內中含勁如直着之意。腿極力往上抬脚面挺着勁。右胳膊再伸直。手心朝裡裹勁手腕如抖勁之意。裹至手心朝上。左手腕與右手亦同時極力往外擰勁。擰至手心朝外。兩手要一氣着。左手穿時。身子要有往下縮勁之意。右邊身式亦如灣弓之形身式。雖然有屈形。而腹內總是中正空虛之意。身式高矮量己之功夫大小習練可也。身式似停而未停之時。
Your left foot then steps forward, coming down so the toes of both feet are again pointing toward each other. Your left hand at the same time threads out to its limit under your right elbow, palm facing upward, as your right wrist twists outward and the hand goes over your head, the arm bent yet having an intention of straightening. Your [right] leg lifts as high as it can, the foot flexed downward, as your right arm then extends, the hand wrapping inward until the palm is facing upward, the wrist seeming to have an intention of shaking, while your left wrist twists outward as far as it can so the palm is facing outward, and the hands should be working in unison. As your left hand threads through, your body should have an intention of shrinking downward. The posture or your body’s right side resembles a bow bending. Although the posture is bent, there is an intention throughout of being centered and empty. The height of your posture depends on your level of skill. Your body’s posture seems to stop yet not stop.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 24

第五節 靑龍返首
5. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

即將右足往外擺着落下。右手與右足擺時。亦同時往外擰勁。擰至手心朝外。左手與右手擰時。亦同時往裏援回在左肋。援至手心朝上。
見兩儀左式三圖
Then your right foot comes down swung outward, your right hand at the same time twisting outward until the palm is facing outward your left palm drawing back in until at your left ribs, the palm facing upward. (See photo 3 of single palm change.)

第六節 黑虎出洞
6. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE

再穿左手邁左足。
見兩儀左式四圖
Then thread through with your left hand while stepping forward with your left foot. (See photo 4 of single palm change.)

第七節 靑龍轉身
7. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

再往前走步。與單換掌右式相同。
見兩儀左式一圖
Then step forward and perform rightward circle walking as in the single palm change. (See photo 1 [5] of single palm change.)

第八節
8. [SWITCH SIDES]

再換右式。與練左式。身式步法諸處之勁。均皆相同。
Then switch to performing the technique on the other side, the body postures, footwork, and energies all the same as before.

第十四章 震卦龍形學
CHAPTER FOURTEEN: THE ZHEN TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☳ (OR DRAGON TECHNIQUE)

震卦者。雷之象也。平托掌者。拳之式也。震者動也。震得乾之初陽。初陽主生長。居正東木旺之方。其於物也。則為龍形。其物為鱗虫之長。有搜骨之法。有變化不測之功。有飛騰之象。以拳式之用言。則有烏龍盤柱之法。有靑龍戲珠之能。以拳之形式言。謂之平托掌。此拳外靜而內動。丹書云靜中求動之象。又一陽初動之意。故取象為震卦。其拳順。則肝氣舒和。其拳謬。則肝旺氣努。而身體不能入於卦爻九二之中和矣。九二者拳體內之中氣也學者於此勉力求和。而無肝氣冲目之患矣。
The Zhen trigram is associated with thunder. The posture in this technique is “level-propping palms”. The Zhen [“Arousing”] trigram rouses. Receiving its initial active line from the Qian trigram, this line governing growth, it is therefore placed to the east [in the square circle bagua diagram] where the element of wood flourishes. Its animal is the dragon, the king of scaly animals, having the ability to gather in its bones, the skill of transforming unpredictably, and the appearance of flying upward.
     As for the contents of the technique, there is the method of “black dragon coils around the pillar” and the ability of “blue dragon plays with the pearl”. As for the appearance of the technique, it is the level-propping palms. This technique has stillness outside and movement inside. It says in the Elixir Book: “It is the appearance of seeking movement within stillness.” It is also the intention of the active aspect beginning to move, and so it fits with the Zhen trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, your liver energy will be comfortable and harmonious. If it is practiced with excessiveness, your liver will be overworking and your energy will be overly struggling, and your body will be unable to attain the centered harmoniousness of the trigram’s solid [broken] second line (representing the balanced energy within the technique). Mindfully seek harmoniousness in this technique so that your liver energy does not have a harmful effect upon your eyes [the eyes in traditional medicine being associated with the liver].

第一節 震卦學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點以兩儀單換掌左式。右足在前。
見兩儀左式一圖
Begin as in the single palm change from leftward circle walking, your right foot forward. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第二節 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

即將左足往前邁去。極力往裏扣勁。落下與右足尖相齊。相離遠近與前扣足相同。
見兩儀左式二圖
Then your left foot steps forward, toes hooking inward as far as they can, coming down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other, the distance between them the same as before. (See photo 2 of single palm change.)

第三節 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

再將右手往外擰勁。擰至手心朝外。右足尖與右手同時往外擺。手足上下相齊。
見兩儀左式四圖
Then your right hand twists outward until the palm is facing outward, your right toes at the same time swinging outward, the hand and foot in line with each other above and below. (See photo 4 of single palm change.)

第四節 黑虎出洞
4. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE

左足再往前邁去與右足尖相齊。相離遠近仍如前。兩肩縮力。兩胯裏根均抽勁。腰塌住勁。即將左右兩手均往裏裹勁。裹至手心朝上。左手靠着身子往平着穿去。與右胳膊成為丁字形式。
見兩儀左式三圖
Your left foot then steps forward so the toes of both feet are again pointing toward each other, the distance between your feet the same as before. Your shoulders and hips have an energy of drawing in. Your waist has an energy of sinking. Your hands are wrapping inward in unison until the palms are facing upward, your left hand moving along your body as it threads through horizontally to make a T shape with your right arm. (See photo 3 of single palm change.)

第五節 靑龍飛昇
5. BLUE DRAGON FLIES UPWARD

隨後再邁左足走去。兩手與兩足走時。兩手心朝上平着伸直。往左右分開。如畫半圓形式。左手往左邊分。右手往右邊分。分至兩手左右如同一條直綫。手心仍朝上着。亦如托着兩碗水相似。左手食指仍與圓圈當中相對。兩眼仍看着左手食指稍。兩肩往下垂勁。又往外開勁。兩胯裡根抽勁頭往上頂住勁。腰隨着左手擰勁。走時週身要一氣。諸處之勁要均匀。不可有過不及之病。身子高矮。隨人之功夫為定。不可免强而行。如此腹內可能心氣和平。肝氣舒暢。身子行之如流水。一律蕩平矣。
Then your left foot steps out and you walk. As you walk, your hands extend horizontally, palms facing upward, spreading apart to both sides as though drawing semicircles, left hand spreading to the left, right hand spreading to the right, spreading until the arms seem to be making a straight line, palms still facing upward, as though propping up two bowls of water. Your left forefinger is again pointing to the center of the circle, your eyes again looking toward the tip of the forefinger. Your shoulders have an energy of hanging down, as well as an energy of spreading outward. Your hips have an energy of drawing in and your head has an energy of pressing up. Your waist has an energy of twisting, following your left hand. While walking, your whole body should function as a single unit and the energy of all parts should be uniform. You must not make the errors of either overdoing or underdoing. The height of your posture is determined by your skill level. You must not strain yourself as you practice. If done in this way, it can make your heart energy mild and your liver energy at ease. Your body will move like water flowing along an even surface.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 25

第六節
6. [SWITCH SIDES]

再換式。仍與左式相同。
Then switch sides, performing the technique the same way on the other side.

第十五章 艮卦熊形學
CHAPTER FIFTEEN: GEN TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☶ (OR BEAR TECHNIQUE)

艮卦者。山之象也。背身掌者。拳之式也。艮者止也。艮得乾之末陽。末陽主靜。故居東北陽弱之方。其於物也。則為熊形。其性最鈍。其物最威嚴。有竪頂之力。以拳式之用言。則有靠身之勇。有拔樹之能。有抖搜之法。以拳之形式言。謂之背身掌。此拳上剛健。而中下柔順。有靜止之形。故取象為艮卦。其拳順。則有氣根心生色。晬然現於面。盎於背。施於四體之意也。其拳謬。則丹田之陽。不能升於脊背。而胸內不能含合。心火亦不能下降矣。學者要知之。
The Gen trigram is associated with mountain. The posture in this technique is “turning-away palms”. The Gen [“Keeping Still”] trigram holds its ground. Receiving its final active line from the Kun trigram, this line governing stillness, it is therefore placed to the northeast [in the square circle bagua diagram] where the active energy is weakest. Its animal is the bear, the stupidest and yet the most dignified of animals, its strength in its upright neck.
     As for the contents of the technique, it has the courage of closing in with the body the ability of yanking out the roots of a tree, and the trembling method. As for the appearance of the technique, is the turning-away palms. This technique is hard and firm in the upper body [the upper line of the trigram being solid], soft and supple in the middle and lower body [the middle and lower lines of the trigram being broken]. The posture is that of stillness, and so it fits with the Gen trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, then it will have the intention of energy from your heart expressing in your face, filling your back, and being sent to your limbs. If it is practiced with excessiveness, then the active energy in your elixir field will not be able to ascend up your spine, your chest will not be able to hollow, and your heart fire will not be able to descend. You should understand this.

第一節 艮卦學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點以兩儀單換掌左式。右足在前。
見兩儀左式一圖
Begin as in the single palm change from leftward circle walking, your right foot forward. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第二節 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

先將左足邁至與右足尖相齊。兩足尖相離遠近二三寸許。
見兩儀左式二圖
Then your left foot steps forward so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other
about two or three inches apart. (See photo 2 of single palm change.)

第三節 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

隨後將右手往外擰。擰至手心朝外。右足與右手同時往外擺。
見兩儀左式三圖
Then your right hand twists outward until the palm is facing outward, your right foot at the same time swinging outward. (See photo 3 of single palm change.)

第四節 黑熊返背
4. BLACK BEAR TURNS ITS BACK

再左手心朝上。望着右胳膊裏曲上邊穿去。左足與左手同時。邁至與右足尖相齊。左手穿至極處。再極力往外擰勁。擰至手心朝外。右手與左手擰時。亦往裏裹勁。裹至手心朝裏。再與左手一齊均往外擰勁。右手心再靠着口極力往外穿去。中指與食指。如同自口中出去之意。
Then your left hand, palm facing upward, threads out over your right elbow, your left foot at the same time stepping forward so that the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. Once your left hand threads out as far as it can, it then twists outward as far as it can so the palm faces outward, your right hand at the same time wrapping inward until the palm faces inward, then threading out from very close to your mouth, the middle finger and ring finger seeming to come out from your mouth.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 26

第五節 黑熊探掌
5. BLACK BEAR EXTENDS A PAW

右腿等右手到口時。一齊抬起。足尖極力往上仰勁。右肘與右膝相挨。兩肩抽着勁。兩胯亦極力縮住勁。左手往外擰。擰至手心朝上。頭頂住勁。胸內開着。氣沉丹田。此式似停而未停。
Your right leg waits for your hand to arrive at your mouth, then they lift in unison, the toes flexing upward [downward] as far as they can. Your right elbow and right knee are near each other. Your shoulders have an energy of drawing in and your hips have a strong energy of shrinking in. Your left hand is twisted outward so that the palm is facing outward. Your head has an energy of pressing upward. Your chest opens inwardly. Energy sinks to your elixir field. This posture seems to stop yet not stop.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 27

第六節 靑龍返首
6. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

即將右手腕往外擰。擰至手心朝外。右足與右手往外擰時。亦同時往外擺落下。將左手亦同時援回。援至手心朝上。
見兩儀左式三圖
Then your right wrist twists outward until the palm is facing outward, your right foot at the same time coming down swung outward, your left hand drawing back in, the palm facing upward. (See photo 3 of single palm change.)

第七節
7. [BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE]

再穿左手。邁步裹手勁法。仍是兩儀黑虎出洞左式。
Then thread through with your left hand, stepping forward as your hands wrap inward, the same as in photo 4 of the single palm change.

第八節
8. [BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY]

再走仍是靑龍轉身右式。
Again walk, in the manner of BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY, performing rightward circle walking.

第十六章 巽卦鳳形學
CHAPTER SIXTEEN: THE XUN TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☴ (OR PHOENIX TECHNIQUE)

巽卦者。風之象也。風輪掌者。拳之式也。巽者入也。巽得坤之初陰。初陰主潛進。故居東南陽盛之方。其於物也。則為鳳形其物為羽蟲之長。有展翅之功以拳式之用言。則有點頭之式。有挾人之法。此拳亦為獅子滾球之形。以拳之形式言。謂之風輪掌。此拳上剛健。而下柔順。有風輪之形。故取象為巽卦。其拳順。則內中眞氣散於四肢百骸。無微不至。而身式行之如風輪。循環無間之形矣。其拳謬。則元氣不能散布於週身。譬之方軸圓輪。氣機不靈。身式不順。而先後天之氣不能化一矣。故學者。於此拳中。務加意勤習焉。
The Xun trigram is associated with wind. The posture in this technique is “pinwheel palms”. The Xun [“Gentle”] trigram penetrates. Receiving its initial passive line from the Kun trigram, this line governing hidden progress, it is therefore placed to the southeast [in the square circle bagua diagram] where the active energy flourishes. Its animal is the phoenix, the king of all winged animals, which has the skill of spreading its wings.
     As for the contents of the technique, there is the posture of “nodding its head”, the methods of embracing the opponent, as well as the posture of LION ROLLS THE BALL. As for the appearance of the technique, it is the pinwheel palms. This technique is hard and firm in the upper [and middle] body [the upper and middle lines of the trigram being solid], soft and supple in the lower body [the lower line of the trigram being broken]. The posture is like a pinwheel, and so it fits with the Xun trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, then genuine internal energy is spread to every part of your body, reaching even the smallest place. The body’s movement is like a pinwheel continuously spinning. If it is practiced with excessiveness, then primal energy will not be able to spread throughout your whole body. Like a round wheel trying to move on a square axle, the movement of energy would be awkward, your body’s posture would not move with any flow, and innate and acquired energy would not be able to merge into one. Therefore you should practice this technique that much more conscientiously.

第一節 巽卦學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點以兩儀單換掌左式。
見兩儀左式一圖
Begin as in the single palm change from leftward circle walking. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第二節 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

再右足在前。即將左足邁至前邊落下與右足尖相齊。
見兩儀左式二圖
Your right foot is forward. Then your left foot steps forward, coming down so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. (See photo 2 of single palm change.)

第三節 獅子抱球
3. LION HOLDS THE BALL

再穿左手時。與右獅子掌式相同各處之勁亦相同。惟兩手心要相對。如抱着大圓球相似。左手右手食指均與圓圈中虛處相對。如圖是也。
Then both your hands thread into place, the posture and its energies the same as in LION OPENS ITS MOUTH. However, in this case the palms are facing each other as though holding a large ball, the forefingers in line with the empty center of the circle, as in the photo.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 28

第四節 獅子滾球
4. LION ROLLS THE BALL

換左式時。先扣右足與左足尖相齊。再往外擺左足。兩手如抱着圓球成為一氣。左手隨着左足擺時。往下落如畫圓形。
To switch to the other side, first hook your right foot in so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other, then swing your left foot outward. Your hands are united in seeming to hold a ball, but your left hand is going along with the outward swing of your left foot, lowering as though tracing its curve.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 29

第五節 獅子翻身
5. LION TURNS ITS BODY

再左手自下往上起。亦如畫圓形右足再往前邁。仍與左足尖相齊。右手隨着右足邁時與左手一氣往下落。與右足相齊。左手再與右手一氣隨着往上抬。高與頭頂平。
Then your left hand lifts up from below, drawing a curve, as your right foot again steps forward so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. Your right hand goes along with your right foot’s step, lowering in tandem with the movement of your left hand, and is lined up with your right foot. Your left hand is lifted to headtop level.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 30

第六節 獅子伏地
6. LION LIES DOWN ON THE GROUND

隨後左足再往外邁去。左手心朝裏着往下落。亦如畫圓形。隨着左足邁時同時畫去。右手自下往上來。亦如畫圓形。兩手形式。如雙換掌六式略相同。彼式是兩手心朝外。此式兩手心相對所以兩式略相同耳。
Then your left foot again steps outward, your left hand lowering, palm facing inward, as though drawing a curve, your right hand at the same time coming up from below, also drawing a curve. The posture of the hands is somewhat similar to WHITE SNAKE HIDES IN THE GRASS, except that the palms are in that case facing outward and are in this case facing each other, therefore the two postures are only vaguely similar.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 31

第七節 獅子抱珠
7. LION HOLDS THE BALL

再走步時。兩手亦如穿獅子掌之形式。但右手自下往上。如畫圓形。與左手仍如一氣抱着大圓球之意。兩足隨走。兩手隨畫。亦如穿手之意。穿至兩手食指。亦與圓圈中虛處相對為準則如圖是也。或曰因何畫手與穿手之意相同。譬如兩手抱着大圓球。再練四象雙換掌。穿手換手摟手。似乎與此式大相懸殊。其實風輪掌就是雙換之式。手法足法勁法無不相同。只因一是兩手靠着身子。穿手換手。一是穿法換法。兩手伸開如抱大圓球與風輪相似。因此二卦形式不同所以分為二式也。再換式。手法步法身法。與換左式相同。
Then walk, your hands again in the posture of LION OPENS ITS MOUTH, except with your right hand coming up from below as though drawing a curve and your left hand still correspondingly holding the other side of the ball. As your feet walk, your hands arc as though with an intention of threading, until the forefingers are in line with the empty center of the circle, as in the photo. (It may be asked how the hands drawing curves and the intention of threading could be similar. Imagine holding a large ball while practicing the double palm change. The threading, switching, and spreading of the hands would then make the technique seem very different, and yet this “pinwheel palms” technique is indeed the double palm change, the hand movements, footwork, and energy all being the same. It is only because the hands in the double palm change are close to the body as they thread and switch, whereas the hands in this technique are extended as though holding a large ball and rotate like a pinwheel, that the two techniques are different and distinction is made between them.) Then switch sides, performing the hand movements, footwork, and body movements the same as on the other side.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 32

第十七章 兌卦猴形學
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: THE DUI TRIGRAM TECHNIQUE ☱ (OR MONKEY TECHNIQUE)

兌卦者。澤之象也。抱掌者。拳之式也。兌者說也。兌得坤之末陰。末陰主消化。故居正西金旺之方。其於物也。則為猴形。其物最靈巧者也。有縮力之法。有蹤山之靈。以拳式之用言。則有白猿獻菓之形。有猴兒啃桃之法。有龍蹲虎踞之式。以拳之形式言。謂之抱掌。此拳上柔順。而中下剛健。有縮短之形。故取象為兌卦。其拳順。則肺氣淸潤。其拳謬。則肺氣不和。至於氣喘咳嗽諸症。而不能免矣。學者深思悟會。而求肺氣淸順焉。
The Dui trigram is associated with marsh. The posture in this technique is “embracing palms”. The Dui [“Joyous”] trigram persuades. Receiving its final passive line from the Kun trigram, this line governing absorption, it is therefore placed to the west [in the square circle bagua diagram] where the element of metal flourishes. Its animal is the monkey, the cleverest of animals. It has the method of shrinking in and the nimbleness of bounding up hillsides.
     As for the contents of the technique, it has the posture of WHITE APE PRESENTS FRUIT, the method of “monkey nibbles at a peach”, and the manner of dragons and tigers crouching. As for the appearance of the technique, it is the embracing palms. This technique is soft and supple in the upper body [the upper line of the trigram being broken], hard and firm in the middle and lower body [the middle and lower lines of the trigram being solid]. The posture is shrunken inward and shortened, and so it fits with the Dui trigram.
     If it is practiced smoothly, your lung energy will be clear and smooth. If it is practiced with excessiveness, your lung energy will not be harmonious, resulting in unavoidable afflictions of panting and coughing. Ponder this deeply and strive for your lung energy to be clear and smooth.

第一節 兌卦學 靑龍轉身
1. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS BODY

起點以兩儀單換掌左式。右足在前。
見兩儀左式一圖
Begin as in the single palm change from leftward circle walking, your right foot forward. (See photo 1 of single palm change.)

第二節 靑龍縮尾
2. BLUE DRAGON DRAWS IN ITS TAIL

即將左足邁至前邊。落下與右足相齊。
見兩儀左式二圖
Then your left foot steps forward, coming down so both feet are pointing toward each other. (See photo 2 of single palm change.)

第三節 靑龍返首
3. BLUE DRAGON TURNS ITS HEAD

再將右足尖往外擺。右手與左足亦同時往外擰勁。擰至手心朝外。
見兩儀左式三圖
Then your right toes swing outward, your right hand at the same time twisting outward until the palm is facing outward. (See photo 3 of single palm change.)

第四節 黑虎出洞
4. BLACK TIGER LEAVES ITS CAVE

再將左足邁至前邊。仍與右足尖相齊。兩肩縮勁。兩胯裏根抽勁。腰塌住勁。兩手皆極力往裏裹勁。裹至手心朝上。左手靠着身子。自右胳膊下邊穿至極處。
見兩儀左式四圖
Then your left foot steps forward so the toes of both feet are again pointing toward each other. Your shoulders and hips have an energy of shrinking in. Your waist has an energy of sinking. Your hands are wrapping inward as far as they can so that your palms are facing upward, your left hand moving along your body as it threads through to its limit from under your right forearm. (See photo 4 of single palm change.)

第五節 白猿献菓
5. WHITE APE PRESENTS FRUIT

再邁左足。兩手亦極力往外開勁。兩肘亦極力往一處抱勁。抱至兩肘相並。兩肘又靠着身子。兩手在前。高矮與胸齊。兩手又如托着物一般。兩肩極力往回縮勁。兩手又一氣抱着往前推勁。兩足隨走兩手隨抱。腰極力往左邊擰勁。兩眼望着左手食指看去。
Then step forward with your left foot, your hands putting their energy into spreading outward while your elbows embrace inward so much that they meet. Your elbows are close to your body and your hands are forward at chest level. Your hands seem to be propping something up. Your shoulders have a strong energy of shrinking in. Your hands in unison have an energy of pushing forward what they are holding. While your feet are walking and your hands are holding, your waist twists to the left as far as it can. Your gaze goes toward the tip of your left forefinger.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 33

第六節 右式白猿献菓
6. WHITE APE PRESENTS FRUIT (OTHER SIDE)

再換左式。與換右式相同。
Then switch to performing the technique the same on the other side.

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - photo 34

第十八章 八卦拳先天後天合一式說
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: EXPLANATION OF INNATE & ACQUIRED MERGED INTO ONE IN THE CONTEXT OF BAGUA BOXING

周易闡眞曰。先天八卦。一氣循環。渾然天理從太極中流出。乃眞體眞體者卽丹田生物之元氣亦吾拳中之横拳也未破之事。後天八卦。分陰分陽。有善善者拳中氣式之順也有惡。惡者拳中氣式之悖也在造化中變動。乃眞體已虧之事。眞體未破。是未生出者。未生出者卽拳中起躦落翻未發之式也須當無為。無為者無有惡為無為之妙。在乎逆中行順。逆藏先天之陽。順化後天之陰。歸於未生以前面目。卽拳內陰陽未動以前形式不使陰氣有傷眞體也。眞體有傷。是已生出者。卽拳起躦落翻發而不中也須當有為有善有惡之為有為之竅。在乎順中用逆。順退後天之陰。逆返先天之陽。歸於旣生以後之面目。卽拳中動靜正發而未發之間之氣力也務使陽氣還成眞體也。卽還於未發之中和之氣也先天逆中行順者。即逆藏先天陰陽五行。而歸於胚胎一氣之中。卽歸於横拳未起之一氣也順化後天之陰。而保此一氣也。保一氣者不使横拳有虧也後天順中用逆者。即順退已發之陰。歸於初生未發之處。返出先天之陽。以還此初生也。陽健陰順。復見本來面目。仍是先天後天。兩而合一之原物。從此別立乾坤。再造爐鼎。行先天逆中行順之道。則為九還七返大還丹矣。今以先天圖移於後天圖內者。使知眞體未破者。行無為自然之道。以道全形。逆中行順。以化後天之陰。眞體已虧者。行有為變化之道。以術延命。順中用逆。以復先天之陽。先後合一。有無兼用。九還七返。歸於大覺。金丹之事了了。再以金丹分而言之。金者氣質堅固之意。丹者週身之氣圓滿無虧之形。總而言之。拳中氣力上下內外如一也。此為易筋之事也。今借悟元子。先後八卦合一圖。以明拳中拙勁歸於眞勁也。
It says in [Liu Yiming’s] What the Book of Changes Really Says [preface section]:
    “The ‘innate’ eight trigrams cycle continuously, as does Nature itself, flowing forth from the grand polarity, thus a condition in which the ‘true body’ does not get ruined. (This “true body” is the primal energy by which the elixir field produces substance, and is also the crossing technique in Xingyi.) The ‘acquired’ eight trigrams separate passive and active into judgments of good and bad. (In the boxing art, “good” means when your energy is smooth and “bad” means when your energy is coarse.) It is the change within Nature’s act of creating, thus a condition in which the true body gets diminished.
     “The true body is not yet ruined when it is not yet born. (The equivalent of this in the boxing art is when lifting, drilling, dropping, and overturning have not yet been expressed.) It has to be in a state of not doing anything (i.e. nothing “bad” going on with your energy). The subtlety of doing nothing lies in the movement of going along within going against. Going against stores your innate active aspect and going along transforms your acquired passive aspect, returning you to your pre-birth condition. (In the boxing art, this is the state of the passive and active aspects not yet moving, as in the first posture.) Do not let your passive energy cause harm to your true body.
     “The true body is harmed once it is born. (The equivalent of this in the boxing art is when lifting, drilling, dropping, and overturning have been expressed but are off-target.) It has to be in a state of doing something (i.e. both “good” and “bad” things are going on with your energy). The reality of doing something lies in the function of going against within going along. Going along reins back your acquired passive aspect and going against restores your innate active aspect, returning you to your post-birth condition. (In the boxing art, this is the energy in the moment between movement and stillness, between expressing but not yet expressing.) Get your active energy to renew your true body. (This is the centered harmoniousness of your energy when it is not yet expressing.) …
     “As for the innate movement of going along within going against, going against stores the innate dual aspects and five elements, returning you to the singleness of energy you had as a fetus. (This is the same kind of singleness of energy as in the crossing technique before it begins.) Having transformed the acquired passive aspect, then preserve this singleness of energy. (The equivalent of this idea is to prevent any deficiency in the crossing technique.) …
     “As for the acquired function of going against within going along, going along resets to the passive aspect not yet being expressed, returning you to the state of innocence you had as a newborn. Having restored the innate active aspect, be reset to your condition at birth. The active aspect is potent and the passive aspect is compliant. These are their basic qualities. The innate and acquired states are merged into a single condition, from which is derived the Qian and Kun trigrams. In the furnace of elixir is then carried out the innate method of: the movement of going along within going against. Through repeated alternations of the states, the elixir is thereby replenished.
     “The movement of the innate diagram [inner eight trigrams circle] inside the acquired diagram [outer circle] helps us understand that before the true body gets ruined, the natural way of doing nothing will keep it complete. The movement of going along within going against transforms the acquired passive aspect. And once the true body has been diminished, the way of doing something in order to fix it will skillfully extend life. The function of going against within going along restores the innate active aspect. Innate and acquired are merged into one. Doing nothing and doing something are both used. By repeatedly alternating the two states, you will recover the condition of full awareness and the ‘golden elixir’ methods will then be understood.” He then breaks down “golden elixir” as: “‘Golden’ means a quality of solidity and durability. ‘Elixir’ means (the energy of the whole body) being complete without gaps.”
     These words express the oneness of energy within the boxing art, above and below, inside and out. This is the work of “changing the sinews”. Let us make use of Wu Yuanzi’s [this name meaning “the one who realized the primal state”, honorific name for Liu Yiming] diagram of “Innate & Acquired Merged into One” in order to understand in the boxing art how awkward energy is to be restored to authentic power.

第十九章 八卦先後天合一圖
CHAPTER NINETEEN: DIAGRAM OF INNATE & ACQUIRED VERSIONS OF THE EIGHT TRIGRAMS MERGED INTO ONE

《八卦拳學》 孫祿堂 (1917) - diagram

 [Inner circle (“innate” or “round circle” bagua diagram):]

DUI         QIAN         XUN
兌       乾       巽
☱☰☴
LI        離    ☲    ☵    坎   KAN
☳☷☶
震       坤       艮
ZHEN         KUN         GEN

[Outer circle (“acquired” or “square circle” bagua diagram):]

XUN         LI         KUN
巽       離       坤
☴☲☷
ZHEN    震    ☳    ☱    兌        DUI
☶☵☰
艮       坎       乾
GEN         KAN         QIAN

第二十章 八卦拳先天後天八卦合一圖解
CHAPTER TWENTY: EXPLANATION OF THE DIAGRAM

起點練法。仍照前者法則習之。但預知先後天合一之理。內外卦歸一之式。二者判別。且能使先天為後天之體。後天為先天之用。無先天則後天無根本。無後天則先天不成全。其理雖有先天為之本。然無外式之形。只能行無為自然之道。不能習之以全其體也。若使之先天健全。即借後天有形式之身。以行有為變化之道。則能補全先天之氣也。但拳術未習熟時。似乎有分順伸逆縮。判而為二之意。其實是先天後天氣力不符。故有分而為二之理。且以拳術之理。分而言之。則為先後天合而言之。則為渾然一氣。今以先天而言。則為拳中無形之勁。謂之性。性即身中無形之八卦也。亦謂之先天。以後天而言。自有身形陰陽開闔伸縮。生出四象。四象者。各有陰陽謂之情。情者。手足身體旋轉動作。即成有形之八卦也。拳之八式謂之後天。此是先後天分言。謂之開也。合而言之。人心即天理。天理即人心。意者心之所發。身體四稍是意之所指揮也。則拳中之氣。身體手足聽其指揮。循着次序漸漸習去。自始至終無有乖戾之氣。則能盡其性矣盡其性。則能復其未發意之初心。但拳術初練時。四體之作用。不能盡合於力。力不能盡合於氣。氣不能盡合於意。似乎拳中伸縮有二式之別。若得其所以然。練習先後合一之理。惟其三害且莫犯。謹守九要而不失。則四體身形隨着意。照法實力作去。久之四體手足動作。可以隨意指揮。故能上下相連。手足相顧。內外如一。渾然天理。此時是先後天八卦合一之體也。
When you start the training, practice in accordance with what has already been presented. However, first have an understanding of the theory of the innate and acquired conditions merging into one, and the way the inner and outer sets of trigrams marry up with each other. Though the two are distinct, you can make the innate into the form of the acquired and the acquired into the function for the innate. Without the innate, there is no foundation for the acquired. Without the acquired, there is no fulfillment of the innate.
     In this theory, although the innate is the foundation, it has no external form, so it can only be made use of in the natural way of doing nothing and is unable to be practiced as a whole embodiment. To complete the innate, you must make use of acquired postures and practice the way of doing something in order to cause change, then you will be able to fully resupply your innate energy.
     However, before the boxing art has been practiced to the point of familiarity, there seems to be a distinction between going along by extending and going against by withdrawing, a notion of discriminating between the two. The innate and acquired versions of energy are indeed incompatible, and thus there is the principle of keeping them distinct. And yet in the boxing theory, though we divide them into “innate” and “acquired” when speaking of them as distinctions, we deem them a complete “singleness of energy” when speaking of them as something merged.
     The “innate” is the formless power within the boxing art, the natural state in which the eight trigrams are an unformed presence in the body. The “acquired” has to do with the passive and active aspects, opening and closing, extending and withdrawing of the postures. The four manifestations are generated, each having their passive and active situations in the actions of the hands, feet, body, and circle walking, producing the formed eight trigrams (i.e. the eight techniques).
     This differentiating between innate and acquired is called “spreading them apart”. When “merging them together”, the human mind and the principles of Nature are one. The mind expresses intentions, which in turn direct the body and limbs. Thus the energy within the art is that of your body, hands, and feet obeying the directing of your intention. By practicing gradually and in the right sequence of training, there will be no awkwardness of energy throughout, and you will be able to fulfill your nature. Fulfilling your nature thus, you will be able to return to your original state in which you are expressing no intention.
     However, in the beginning of the training, the actions of your limbs will not be able to fully unite with your power, your power will not be able to fully unite with your energy, and your energy will not be able to fully unite with your intention. It will seem that the actions of extending and withdrawing are two entirely different postures within the art, and once you understand why, it is time to practice the principle of innate and acquired merging into one.
     As long as you avoid committing the three mistakes and abide unfalteringly to the nine requirements, then your limbs and body will comply with your intention. By performing the techniques with the appropriate degree of strength, the movements of your hands and feet can after a long time follow such commands, and you will be able to have your upper body and lower coordinated with each other, hands and feet aligned with each other, inside and outside functioning as one, adhering completely to the principles of Nature, and the innate and acquired versions of the eight trigrams will then be merged into a single embodiment.

第二十一章 八卦拳陽火陰符形式
CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE: THE ATTRIBUTES OF ACTIVE FIRE & PASSIVE COMPLIANCE IN BAGUA BOXING

陽火陰符之理。卽拳中之明勁暗勁也始終兩段工夫。一進陽火。拳中之明勁也一運陰符。拳中之暗勁也進陽火者。陰中返陽。進其剛健之德。所以復先天也。運陰符者。陽中用陰。運其柔順之德。所以養先天也。進陽火。必進至於六陽純全。剛健之至。方是陽火之功盡。拳中明勁中正之至也運陰符。必運至於六陰純全。柔順之至。方是陰符之功畢。拳中暗勁和之至也陽火陰符。功力俱到。剛柔相當。建順兼全。陽中有陰。陰中有陽。陰陽一氣。渾然天理。圓陀陀。氣無缺也光灼灼。神氣足也淨倮倮。無雜氣也赤洒洒。氣無拘也聖胎完成。一粒金丹寶珠懸於太虛空中。寂然不動。感而遂通。感而遂通。寂然不動。常應常靜。常靜常應。本良知良能面目。復還先天。一粒金丹呑入腹。始知我命不由天也。以上皆周易闡眞中語因與拳術之理相合故引之再加向上工夫。煉神還虛。打破虛空。脫出眞身。永久不壞。所謂聖而不可知之之謂神。進於形神俱妙。與道合眞之境矣。近日深得斯理者。吾友尚雲祥。其庶幾乎。
The principles of active fire and passive compliance (i.e. the “obvious energy” and “hidden energy” within boxing arts) [quoting again from Liu Yiming’s What the Book of Changes Really Says, preface section:] “are the two major parts of skill, advancing with active fire (obvious energy) and adjusting with passive compliance (hidden energy).
     “Advancing with active fire, there is return to the active from within the passive, advancing with the virtues of hardness and firmness in order to restore your innate condition. Adjusting with passive compliance, there is use of the passive within the active, moving with the virtues of softness and suppleness in order to nurture your innate condition.
     “In advancing with active fire, you must live up to all six active lines [of the Qian hexagram – six solid lines] to achieve hardness and firmness, and you will then have fulfilled the skill of active fire (achieving the centeredness of obvious energy). In adjusting with passive compliance, you must live up to all six passive lines [of the Kun hexagram – six broken lines] to achieve softness and suppleness, and you will then have fulfilled the skill of passive compliance (achieving the harmoniousness of hidden energy).
     “Once active fire and passive compliance have both been trained, hardness and softness will balance each other, and firmness and suppleness will complete each other. Within active, there is passive, and within passive, there is active. Passive and active in unison is the whole theory of Nature. You will be rounded smooth (meaning energy without gaps), shining brightly (spirit in abundance), completely purified (energy without confusion), and with a vibrant complexion (energy without restriction). You will have achieved a divine rebirth.
     “This concept is a pill of golden elixir, a precious pearl suspended in the Void. [From Book of Changes, Great Treatise, part 1:] ‘Through silence and stillness, there is sensing and understanding.’ And then through sensing and understanding, there is silence and stillness. Through constant responsiveness, there is constant stillness, and through constant stillness, there is constant responsiveness. This quality of ‘intuitive knowledge’ and ‘intuitive ability’ [Mengzi, chapter 7a] restores you to your innate condition.
     “Once I swallow down this elixir pill, I will then know that my destiny is no longer in the hands of Fate. (The words above from the Book of Changes are included because they are conformed to by the principles of boxing arts.) With increased practice, I refine spirit and return to emptiness, breaking through the veil of illusion and freeing my true self, eternally unsullied. Thus it is said [Mengzi, 7b:] ‘When a wise man is beyond comprehension, he is called “divine”.’ Progressing until both body and spirit have achieved such subtlety, you merge with the Way in a state of authenticity.”
     My colleague Shang Yunxiang is an example of someone who in recent times has deeply grasped this theory.

第二十二章 八卦拳練神還虛形式
CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO: THE ATTRIBUTES OF REFINING SPIRIT & RETURNING TO EMPTINESS IN BAGUA BOXING

拳術之道。有功用之理。有神化之理。上言陽火陰符。是為功用。此言煉神還虛。是為妙用。妙用之功。其法何在。仍不外乎八卦拳之式求之。故開闔動靜。起落進退。生克變化。以致無窮之妙。亦不離八卦。八卦不離四象。四象不離兩儀。兩儀不離一氣。一氣自虛無兆質矣。所以練神還虛之式者。與前所習之形式無異矣。惟手足身體。外形不要着力。俱隨意而行之。然身體亦並非全不用力。其勁不過極力往回縮去。意在蓄神耳。外形身體手足。俱以意運用之。行之已久。身體氣力。化之似覺有若無。實若虛之意。每逢靜中動時。身子移出而不知己之動。則不知有己也。每與他人比較時。伸縮往來飛騰變化。如入無人之境。而身體氣力自覺無動。是不知己之動而靜。則不知有彼也。夫若是。則能不見而章。不動而變。無為而成。至拳無拳。意無意。無形無象。無我無他。練神還虛。神化不測之妙道得矣。吾友張玉魁先生於練神還虛之道。可臻精諧。環顧宇內。其合繼張先生而起者乎。予日望之矣。
In the methods of boxing arts, there are principles of function and principles of spirituality. The chapter above on active fire and passive compliance has to do with function. This chapter on refining spirit and returning to emptiness has to do with functioning on a subtler lever.
     The method of training this subtler functioning continues to be the practice of the Bagua Boxing postures, in their opening and closing, movement and stillness, lifting and dropping, advancing and retreating, the transformations of the postures generating and overcoming each other, resulting in subtleties which are endless and yet never departing from the theory of the eight trigrams. The eight trigrams never depart from the four manifestations, which never depart from the dual aspects, which never depart from the singleness of energy, which comes from intangible nothingness.
     Thus the means of refining spirit and returning to emptiness is no different from the posture practice method you started with. However, your hands, feet, and body should be putting forth no external effort, only moving by way of intention. Your body does not actually use no effort at all, but its energy is withdrawn, intent upon storing up spirit. With your body, hands, and feet getting driven by intention over a long period, your body’s strength will be transformed to feel as though it is nothing, an idea of solidity seeming like emptiness.
     Whenever there is movement within stillness, your body moves unconsciously, and thus you become unconscious even of the notion of self. Whenever you compete with others, you will be reaching and withdrawing, moving back and forth, flying around and transforming as though there is no one there. Your body’s strength will be such that you feel as though you are not moving. Unconscious of your own movement, you will be in a state of stillness, and thus you will become unconscious even of the notion of opponent.
     In this way, you will be able to not see and yet perceive, not be moving and yet be adapting, doing nothing and yet succeeding. Once “the boxing is without boxing and the intention is without intention”, you are in a state of being formless and imageless, of being without a sense of an “I” or a “he”, and you have refined spirit and returned to emptiness, you have then obtained the subtle method of spirit imperceptibly transforming.
     My colleague Zhang Yukui can attain perfect harmony in the method of refining spirit and returning to emptiness. I look around the world and wonder if there is anyone who can carry Zhang’s ability forward. I hope someday there will be.

第二十三章 八卦拳神化之功借天地之氣候形式法
CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE: ON TIME & PLACE IN BAGUA BOXING’S TRAINING FOR SPIRITUAL TRANSFORMATION

聞之吾師程先生曰。得天氣之淸者。為之精。精者虛也得地氣之寧者。為之靈。靈者實也二者皆得。方為神化之功。學人欲練神化之功者。須擇天時。地利。氣候。方向而練之。天時者。一年之中有陰陽二氣。四時八節。二十四氣。一氣分為三候。共七十二候。練時陽日起點往左旋。陰日起點往右轉。大略言之。一日一換方向。詳細言之。一時一換方向。此為天時也。地利者須擇山林茂盛之地。或寺觀莊嚴之處或房屋潔淨之區。此謂地利也。此理練法。是借天地之靈氣。受日月之照臨。得五行之秀美。而能與太虛同體。是為上乘神化之功也。且神化功用之實象者。則神之淸秀。精之堅固。形色純正。光潤和美。身之利便。心之靈通。法之奥妙。其理淵淵如淵。而靜深不可測。其氣浩浩如天。而廣大不可量。如此是拳術精微奥妙神化之形容也。如不知擇地利。借天時氣候方向。只可用氣力之功而習之。然久之功純。亦能變化不已。不過是氣力之所為耳。惟其不知天時。地利。故心中不能得着天地之靈秀也。大約天地間。凡物之美者。皆得天地之靈氣。受日月之孕育。而能成為至善之物也。拳術之道亦莫不然。譬之大聖賢。心含萬理。身包萬象。與太虛同體。故心一動。其理流行於天地之間。發著於六合之遠。而萬物之中。無物不有也。心一靜。其氣能縮至於心中。寂然如靜室。無一物所有。能與太虛合而為一體也。或曰聖人亦人耳。何者能與天地並立也。曰因聖人受天地之正氣。率性修道而有其身。惟身體如同九重天。內外如一。玲瓏透體。無有雜氣攙入其中。心一思念。純是天理。身一動作。皆是天道。故能不勉而中。不思而得。從容中道。此聖人所以與太虛同體。與天地並立也。拳術之理。亦所以與聖道合而為一者也。其理旣與聖道相合。學者胡不勉力而行之哉。
My teacher Cheng Tinghua said:
     “Obtaining the clearness of the sky, you have essence (i.e. emptiness). Obtaining the firmness of the ground, you have soulfulness (i.e. solidity). [There is likely some mistake in the text here, for it would make more sense as: ‘Obtaining the firmness of the ground, you have essence (i.e. solidity). Obtaining the clearness of the sky, you have soulfulness (i.e. emptiness).’] Obtaining both, you have then achieved spiritual transformation. If you are practicing with such a goal in mind, you must pay attention to the time and place, the weather and direction.
     “As for the timing, within a year there are the two energies – dark and bright [meaning the six months of shorter days and the six months of longer days] – then the four seasons, eight sections [start of spring, vernal equinox, start of summer, summer solstice, start of autumn, autumnal equinox, start of winter, winter solstice], twenty-four periods [start of spring, first rains, “waking hibernators”, vernal equinox, “fresh and shining”, rain for crops, start of summer, “small fullness” (referring to crop growth), “bearded crop” (i.e. rich yield), summer solstice, small heat, big heat, start of autumn, lingering heat, fresh dew, autumnal equinox, cold dew, frost arrives, start of winter, small snow, big snow, winter solstice, small cold, big cold], and then each period is divided into three, totaling the “seventy-two events” [regular plant and animal phenomena in an approximately five-day rhythm]. When practicing on sunny days, begin with leftward circle walking. When practicing on cloudy days, begin with rightward circle walking. Generally speaking, adjust with each day, though there may be specific circumstances that cause adjustment with each hour. This is attention to the right time. The best environment to practice in is either a lush mountain forest, a solemn temple, or simply a clean room. This is attention to the right place.
     “With these principles of practice, you receive the divine energy of sky and ground, the illumination of sun and moon, the elegance of the five elements, and can become one with the universe. This training is at the highest level of spiritual transformation. The effects of it will be thus: your spirit will be cleansed, your essence will be sturdied, your appearance will be pure, smooth, and graceful, your body will move with ease, your mind will be quick-witted, and your techniques will be magical. Its theory is as deep as an abyss, deep beyond measuring. Its energy is as vast as the sky, vast beyond measuring. Practicing in this way, this boxing art is a subtle and profound means of spiritual transformation.
     “If you do not understand how to choose the right environment or work with the weather, you will only be training in terms of physical strength, and no matter how skilled and adaptable you may become after a long time, it will only be a physical achievement. With no awareness of weather or environment, your mind will be unable to grasp the beauty of Nature. All of the beautiful things in Nature are influenced by the sky and ground, nurtured by the sun and moon, and are thus able to be perfected [within their own niche]. This is in all ways true for boxing arts as well.
     “Compare this to the great sages, who cherished countless ideas in their minds, embraced countless phenomena in their bodies, and were one with the universe. With each thought, let your mind flow through Nature and express to the farthest reaches of existence, and discover that within every thing, there is everything. Then when your mind becomes still, its energy can withdraw so there is the stillness of a quiet and empty room, and you can become one with the universe.
     “Someone may say: ‘A sage is still just a human being. How can he be given equal place among the sky and ground?’ It is because the sage receives the vital energy of sky and ground and uses it to cultivate himself until he has become like the nine-layered heavens. He is the same inside and out, filled with exquisiteness, no chaos of energies intruding upon him. Every thought in his mind aligns with the principles of Nature and every movement of his body expresses the Way, and thus he is able to achieve balance and understanding without struggle in mind or body, embodying the Way with ease. Boxing arts theory also conforms to the Way of the sages. That being the case, why would one not put effort into such a practice?”

 

[continue to Sun’s 3rd book]

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