THE TAIJI MANUAL OF LI XIANWU

太極拳
TAIJI BOXING
李先五
by Li Xianwu
[published June, 1933]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Oct, 2015]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 1

太極拳
Taiji Boxing
張人傑題
– calligraphy by Zhang Renjie

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 2

健康之路
The path to health
楊崇蔚
– [calligraphy by] Yang Chongwei

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 3

自強不息
To ceaselessly improve oneself
林森題
– calligraphy by Lin Sen

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 4

健康之路
The path to health
于右任
– [calligraphy by] Yu Youren

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 5

南北之強
The strengths of both north and south
陳濟常
– [calligraphy by] Chen Jichang

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 6

彊國之基
The basis of strengthening the nation
集張遷碑 陳策
– calligraphy by Chen Ce (in the style of Zhang Qianbei’s engravings)

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 7

彊種之基
The basis of strengthening the nation
林振雄敬題
– respectfully calligraphed by Lin Zhenxiong

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - callig 8

自強不息
To ceaselessly improve oneself
羅文莊
– [calligraphy by] Luo Wenzhuang

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - portrait 1

劉彩臣先生
Liu Caichen

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - potrait 2

著者小影
Portrait of the author

張序
PREFACE BY ZHANG NAIYAN

『無拳無勇』,詩經所譏。拳與勇對舉,拳字且列於勇字之前,可見拳之為事,超出於徒勇之上也。拳以『太極』名,尤見渾然旡極,包涵萬象,與其他拳術固殊焉。
拳之一字,旣見於詩經,則國術之起源,至少當在二千四百年以前。顧數千年來,習拳者不可勝數,而能言其理者蓋鮮;致使人視為小技,若不足語於學術之林,滋可慨矣!
對於國術,研究有素,造詣甚深;而於太極拳一門,尤得其中三昧,所著太極拳一書,能將此拳深奧之意義,秘密之要訣,闡發無遺。數千年不公開之眞諦,豁然一顯,是眞能以學理說國術者。欽佩之餘,爰書此以為之序。
民國二十二年四月張乃燕序於建設委員會。
“They are without fists, without courage.” Thus runs the slanderous comment in the Book of Poetry [Poem 198]. Boxing and bravery bolster each other. The mention of “fists” preceding that of “courage” can show the significance of boxing. Once boxing emerges, bravery follows. (The boxing art called “Taiji” [“grand polarity”] particularly displays a pervading sense of “wuji” [“nonpolarity” = limitlessness] by embodying all things. It is truly different from other boxing arts.)
     The appearance of the term “fists” [or “boxing”] indicates that our martial arts originated at least twenty-five hundred years ago. Looking back over the millennia, practitioners of boxing arts are beyond counting, but it can be said that boxing theories are rather sparse. This causes people to look upon boxing arts as very minor and not worthy to be placed alongside other forms of learning – a very depressing attitude.
     Li Xianwu has made a solid study of martial arts and has made great achievements in them. But in the art of Taiji Boxing, he has achieved an especially high level. Therefore this book he has written is able to present the art’s deeper meaning and secret tricks, explaining all and leaving nothing out. Its genuine essence, unshared with the public for thousands of years, is suddenly revealed. As this work truly manages to explain martial arts by way of principles, I am overflowing with admiration, and thus I have written these words.
     – written by Zhang Naiyan of the National Construction Committee, Apr, 1933

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

余幼嗜技擊,七歲從師習外家拳,後以性情燥暴,思改善之,故又從劉師彩臣習太極拳;以迄於今,未敢或輟。於健康方面,得益固大,而性情之改善,尤使我對此拳術發生强固之信仰心!
身受其益,不願自祕,思以師傳及心得,著述成書,公諸同好;乃生活驅策,冗務困人,苦無機會,以促其實現。
民十八年春,創辦兩廣國術館於廣州,工作之餘,乃着手編述,不數月,稿成十之七八,又以生活之鞭,驅人奔走;然終於十九年冬得續成之,方欲付梓,而征途重上,飄泊連年,此願未償,心殊耿耿!
廿一年夏,三蒞南京,旅居較久,而同志認識日多,見余稿者,皆慫恿卽為付梓;同時廣州,香港方面之同志,亦屬屢函催促。迨廿二年二月,乃將舊稿重為整理,如是又需時一月,始得付梓。
當此强鄰壓境,國難日亟,健我體魄,殲彼巨兇,正其時也,願與國人共勉之!
二二,三,三〇,著者序于首都。
When I was young, I was addicted to martial arts. At the age of seven, I was learning external styles of boxing from a teacher, but I grew into an angry person because of this. I decided to change into a kinder person and so I also learned Taiji Boxing from Liu Caichen. I have practiced it to this day, never daring to cease the training. As for the health aspect, its benefits are vast, and as for transforming one’s temperament, it has caused myself in particular to develop a strong faith in this boxing art.
     As I have personally received its benefits and as I am unwilling to keep the art a secret, I decided to take what I have learned from my teacher and from my experience and write it down into a book to share with all who are interested. But then life interrupted with various wearying tasks. There was unfortunately no opportunity to do any writing and I had to urge the thing into being.
     In the spring of 1929, I was setting up the Two Guangs [Guangdong & Guangxi] Martial Arts Institute in Guangzhou. In my spare time from this work, I applied my hand to writing the material. After just a few months, I had completed about three quarters of the manuscript, but life got in the way again, sending me rushing all over the place. By the winter of 1930, it was finished at last, and I then wanted to publish it, but traveling around took over my time for the next few years. Though my wish was unfulfilled, my mind remained dedicated to the idea.
     In the summer of 1931, I traveled to Nanjing three times, staying longer each time. My comrades noticed the days were piling up, and having seen my manuscript, they were pushing me to get it published. At the same time, comrades in Guangzhou and Honk Kong were also frequently sending me letters similarly pressing me. By February, 1933, they sent me my earlier draft so I could set about putting the whole thing in order. A month was required for this, and then it was ready to be published.
     Our powerful neighbors are at this moment at our borders. Our national crisis becomes more urgent by the day. For building up our physique and bringing down their ferocity, now is the time. I hope my countrymen will encourage each other.
     – written by Li Xianwu in the Capital [Nanjing], Mar 30, 1933

太極拳目次
CONTENTS

一 源流
One: Origins
二 意義
Two: The Meaning of the Name
三 優點
Three: Advantages
四 要點
Four: Fundamentals
 1 姿勢
 Postural Principles
 2 要義
 Essential Principles
五 三十七式釋名與效用
Five: The Thirty-Seven Postures – Their Names Explained, Their Effects, Their Applications
 1 攬雀尾
 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
 2 單鞭
 SINGLE WHIP
 3 提手上式
 RAISE THE HAND
 4 白鶴掠翅
 WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS
 5 摟膝拗步
 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
 6 手揮琵琶
 PLAY THE LUTE
 7 搬攔槌
 PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
 8 如封似閉
 SEALING SHUT
 9 十字手
 CROSSED HANDS
 10 抱虎歸山
 CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
 11 斜單鞭
 DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
 12 肘底看槌
 GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW
 13 倒捻猴
 RETREATING MONKEY
 14 斜飛勢
 DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
 15 海底針
 NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”
 16 扇通背
 FAN THROUGH THE BACK
 17 撇身槌
 TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
 18 左右雲手
 LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS
 19 高探馬
 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
 20 左右分脚
 KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT SIDES
 21 轉身蹬脚
 TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
 22 栽槌
 PLANTING PUNCH
 23 二起脚
 DOUBLE KICK
 24 打虎式
 FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE
 25 雙風貫耳
 DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS
 26 披身踢脚
 DRAPING THE BODY, KICK
 27 野馬分鬃
 WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE
 28 玉女穿梭
 MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE
 29 下勢
 LOW POSTURE
 30 金雞獨立
 GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
 31 劈面掌
 CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE
 32 十字擺蓮
 CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK
 33 指襠槌
 PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
 34 七星
 BIG DIPPER POSTURE
 35 跨虎
 SITTING TIGER POSTURE
 36 雙擺蓮
 DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK
 37 彎弓射虎
 BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER
六 拳勢圖解 附演式順序
Six: The Boxing Set Illustrated (including the sequence of postures)
七 推手
Seven: Pushing Hands
 1 八法名稱釋義及其應用
 The Eight Techniques – Their Names Explained & Their Applications
 2 平圓推手
 Level-Circle Pushing Hands
 3 立圓推手
 Vertical-Circle Pushing Hands
 4 掤按推手
 Ward-Off & Push
 5 四正推手 附順序表(一)(二)
 Pushing Hands Method for the Four Primary Techniques (including two sequence charts)
 6 四隅推手 附順序表
 Pushing Hands Method for the Four Secondary Techniques (including a sequence chart)
八 拳論註釋
Eight: Commentary to the Boxing Theory
 1 太極拳論註釋
 Taiji Boxing Treatise – With Commentary
 2 太極拳經註釋
 Taiji Boxing Classic – With Commentary
 3 十三勢歌
 Thirteen Dynamics Song
 4 行功心解註釋
 Understanding How to Practice – With Commentary
 5 打手歌註釋(按打手卽推手也)
 Playing Hands Song – With Commentary (note: playing hands means pushing hands)

太極拳
TAIJI BOXING

一 源流
ONE: ORIGINS

國術之起源不可攷,在黃帝戰蚩尤時,已有器械之發明。至於六藝之射御;詩經言拳勇;禮記言角力,似為國術較早之起源。厥後華陀氏之五禽戲,遂為姿勢運動之濫觴焉。
梁天監中,達摩振錫南來,在嵩山少林寺面壁九年,而悟健軀殼,靜靈魂之術,創易筋,洗髓二經及十八法手式。後覺遠上人將十八法散式化為整式,增至七十二手法,覺遠猶以為未足,乃訪白玉峯,邀歸少林,融會舊時宗法,和以古來技擊及華陀氏之五禽戲,增至百七十餘手,分龍,虎,豹,蛇,鶴五拳,刀,劍,槍,棍寓於其中,名曰少林拳,或稱外家拳。
宋(或云元末明初,尚待考證,姑為存疑。)有張三丰者,隱於武當山,嘗採各家拳術之長,融化推闡為長拳,曰武當拳,或稱內家拳,考太極拳之流派,大別有五,述之於後:
The genesis of Chinese martial arts cannot be examined. When the Yellow Emperor fought Chiyou, weaponry had already been developed. Within the classical “six arts”, there was archery and charioteering [the other four being rituals, music, calligraphy, and math]. Within the Book of Poetry, there was the mention of boxing bravery. Within the Book of Rites [chapter 6], there was mention of wrestling [to be engaged in as further training alongside archery and charioteering]. Chinese martial arts seem to have begun quite early. Later on there was Hua Tuo’s Five Animal Frolics, which became the basis of postures and movements.
     During the Tianjian era [502–519 AD] of the reign of Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty, the Buddhist monk Damo traveled south [east] to the Shaolin Temple at Mt. Song, where he faced a wall [in meditation] for nine years until realizing the art of strengthening the body as a means to quieting the spirit. He wrote the two classics of Sinew Changing and Marrow Washing, as well as creating the “eighteen hand techniques”. [Centuries] later, the head monk Jueyuan adjusted the postures of the eighteen techniques and added to them until there were seventy-two techniques. He found this to be insufficient and so invited the martial artist Bai Yufeng to the temple to mix his art into the traditional Shaolin system. Combining with the ancient boxing art and the Five Animal Frolics of Hua Tuo, the result was more than a hundred and seventy techniques, which were divided into the five styles of boxing of dragon, tiger, leopard, snake, and crane, and contained within the system were the weapons of saber, sword, spear, and staff. It was called Shaolin Boxing, sometimes referred to as “external boxing”.
     During the Song Dynasty (Some say it was in the era of the Yuan ending and the Ming beginning, and as this issue has yet to be verified, it will be left as an unanswered question for the time being.), there was Zhang Sanfeng, a hermit of Mt. Wudang, who gathered the strong points of various styles of boxing arts and fused them together to create Long Boxing. [As 長 can mean both “long” and “strong points”, 長拳 Long Boxing in this case can also be rendered as “Best-of Boxing”.] It was called Wudang Boxing, sometimes referred to as “internal boxing”. Examining into the origins of Taiji Boxing, there are five major versions, described below:

1 許氏所傳
Transmitted by Xu Xuanping

許宣平安徽歙縣人。隱城陽山,結盧南陽;辟榖。身長七尺六寸,髯長至臍,髮長至足,行如奔馬。每負薪賣於市中。李白訪之不遇,題詩於望仙橋而囘。
其所傳太極拳名『三世七』,蓋指三十七式而名之。此拳應一勢練成,再練一勢,萬不能心急齊用。至三十七式,却無論何式先,何式後,只要將式練成,自然三十七式相繼不斷,一氣貫成,故又謂之長拳。訣有八字:掤,捋,擠,按,『四正方』也;採,挒,肘,靠,『四隅』也。
Xu Xuanping was from Xi County, Anhui. He lived as a hermit at Mt. Chengyang, where he retired on the south-facing slope and avoided eating grains. He was seven and a half “feet” tall. His beard reached his navel and his hair reached his feet. He walked like a galloping horse. He often carried firewood to sell in the marketplace. Li Bai went to visit Xu but did not meet him, then carved a poem [about not meeting him] onto Gazing Immortal’s Bridge and went home.
     The Taiji Boxing that Xu taught was called Thirty-Seven, because it had thirty-seven posture names. In this boxing art, each posture was to be trained to perfection and only then could the next posture be practiced, and the student was not allowed to be impatient. There was no prescribed pattern as to how the thirty-seven postures were to precede or follow each other, but once they had all been learned, they would then naturally be linked up together in an unbroken continuity. Thus the art was also called Long Boxing. The secret to it lies in eight terms: warding off, rolling back, pressing, and pushing – corresponding the eight cardinal directions – and plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping – corresponding the eight corner directions.

八字歌
SONG OF THE EIGHT TECHNIQUES

掤,捋,擠,按世間稀,十個藝人十不知;
若能輕靈並堅硬,粘連黏隨俱無疑。
採,挒,肘,靠更出奇,行之不用費工夫,
果得粘連黏隨字,得其環中不支離。
The techniques of warding off, rolling back, pressing, and pushing are so unique
that out of ten skillful people there are ten who do not understand them.
But if you can perform them with both agility and solidity,
the qualities of sticking, connecting, adhering, and following will then be sure to manifest.
     The techniques of plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping are yet more unusual,
and if you execute them unsuccessfully, they will be but a waste of time.
But if you have obtained the qualities of sticking, adhering, connecting, and following,
you will be centered on the target and loathe to veer away.

三十七式心會論
ON MENTALLY UNDERSTANDING IN THE THIRTY-SEVEN POSTURES ART

腰脊為第一主宰,喉頭為第二主宰,
心為第三主宰;丹田為第一之賓輔,
手指為第二之賓輔,手掌為第三之賓輔。
The lower back is first to command, the throat second to command, solar plexus third to command.
The elixir field is first to obey, fingers second to obey, palms third to obey.

三十七式週身大用論
ON FULLY USING THE BODY IN THE THIRTY-SEVEN POSTURES ART

一要性定與意靜,自然無處不輕靈;
二要遍身氣流行,一定繼續不能停;
三要喉頭永不拋,問盡天下衆英雄。
First, when your emotions are stable and your mind is calm,
you will naturally be nimble and alert at every point.
Second, when energy flows through your whole body,
there is a continuousness that cannot be interrupted.
Third, when you are never affected by opponents going for your throat,
everyone will think of you in heroic terms.

十六關要論
THE SIXTEEN KEY POINTS

活潑於腰,靈機於頂,神通於背;氣沉丹田;
行之於腿,蹬之於足,運之於掌,繞之於指,
歛之於髓,達之於神,凝之於耳,息之於鼻,
呼吸往來於口,縱之於膝;渾噩一身,全體發之於毛。
[1] Liveliness lies with your waist.
[2] Inspiration penetrates to your headtop.
[3] Spirit courses through your spine.
[4] Energy sinks to your elixir field.
[5] Movement lies with your legs.
[6] Pressing is felt at the foot.
[7] Wielding lies with your palms.
[8] Coiling extends to the fingers.
[9] Gathering is a matter of your marrow.
[10] Arriving is a matter of your spirit.
[11] Concentration depends on your ears.
[12] Breathing occurs through your nose.
[13] Breath is expressed at your mouth.
[14] Springiness lies with your knees.
[15] Simplify things by using your whole body.
[16] The issuing of your whole body reaches to every hair.

功用歌
SONG OF FUNCTION

輕靈活潑求懂勁;陰陽旣濟無滯病。
若得四兩撥千斤,開合鼓盪主宰定。
Be nimble and lively, seeking to identify the opponent’s energies.
Passive and active are meant to exchange with each other, so do not make the error of getting stuck in either.
Once you have got the skill of “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”,
it will be determined by your expanding and contracting, and the rousing of your energy.

2 俞氏所傳
Transmitted by Mr. Yu

俞氏安徽涇陽人。得唐李道子所傳太極拳,名先天拳。道子江南人,居武當山南岩宮;不火食,第日啖麥麩數合。人稱之為夫子李云。
俞氏傳俞淸慧,俞一誠,繼傳俞蓮舟,俞岱岩等。拳式與『三世七』同。並授有歌訣,錄之於後:
Yu was from Jingyang in Anhui. He learned his Taiji Boxing from Li Daozi of the Tang Dynasty, who called it Innate Nature Boxing. Li, who was from Anhui, lived in the Wudang Mountains at the Southern Cliffs Temple. He did not cook his food, instead snacking on wheat bran several times a day, and people called him “master”. Yu taught the art to Yu Qinghui and Yu Yicheng, who in turn taught it to Yu Lianzhou and Yu Daiyan. His boxing postures were the same as in the Thirty-Seven art. He also passed down a piece of verse, presented below:

無影無象,全身透空;應物自然,西山懸罄。
虎吼猿鳴,水靜河淸,翻江播海;盡性立命。
Be formless and shapeless.
Let your whole body be full of emptiness.
Respond to things naturally.
Be like chimes hung in the westerns mountains [whose sound resonates far].
Have the roar of a tiger and the cry of an ape.
The water is still, but the stream is clear.
Divert the river and turn back the sea.
Fulfill your nature and accept your destiny.

3 程氏所傳
Transmitted by Cheng Lingxi

程靈洗字元滌。安徽歙縣人。侯景之亂,惟歙縣得保全,皆靈洗力也。其拳術為韓拱月所授;再傳至程珌,珌精易理,將太極拳改為小九天手法,共十四勢。有用功五誌,四性歸原歌等。
Cheng Lingxi, called Yuandi, was from Xi County, Anhui. During the Houjing Rebellion [548–552], Xi County was protected entirely due to him. He taught his boxing art to Han Gongyue. It was later passed down to Cheng Bi, was an expert in the theory of the Book of Changes. He took Taiji Boxing and changed it into the “Small Highest Heaven” hand techniques, which had fourteen postures in total. His art includes a list of “Five Study Reminders” and the “Song of Four Natures Returning to One”.

用功五誌
FIVE STUDY REMINDERS [These five terms are originally from the “Zhong Yong” – chapter 31 of the Book of Rites.]

博學,審問,愼思,明辨,篤行。
[1] Learn abundantly.
[2] Inquire meticulously.
[3] Ponder wholeheartedly.
[4] Discriminate clearly.
[5] Practice sincerely.

四性歸原歌
SONG OF THE FOUR NATURES RETURNING TO ONE

世人不知己之性,何人得知人之性;
物性亦如人之性,至如天地亦此性。
我賴天地而存身,天地無物不成形,
若能先求知我性,天地授我獨偏靈。
No one understands his own nature,
so who understands human nature?
The nature of things is similar to human nature,
and the nature of the universe is similar in turn to that nature.
I am a part of the whole though I live in but a part,
for a universe with nothing in it would never take shape.
If I can first seek to understand my own nature,
the universe will teach me when I am alone and I will be nudged toward enlightenment.

4 殷氏所傳
Transmitted by Yin Liheng

殷氏所傳太極拳名後天法,傳揚州胡鏡子,鏡子再傳安州宋仲殊。其所傳後天法共十七式,雖與太極拳名目不同,而其功用則一也。
The Taiji Boxing art taught by Yin was called the Acquired Nature Method, and he taught it to Hu Jingzi of Yangzhou. Hu Jingzi taught it to Song Zhongshu of Anzhou. His posture count amounted to seventeen. Although its posture names were different, its method of use was the same as before.

5 張三丰所傳
Transmitted by Zhang Sanfeng

張三丰亦作張三峯;乃武當山丹士。集太極拳之大成,為武當派之始祖。嘗觀察天地自然之理,採納各家拳術之長,以陰,陽,剛,柔,動,靜,進,退,喻其動作,名曰武當拳,或曰內家拳。
迨後流傳於陜西王宗,其名最著;再傳溫州陳州同。明嘉靖時有張松溪者,得其師之眞傳,謂之太極十三式;厥後各分支派,松溪所傳為南派,傳於四明葉近泉,近泉傳周雲山,陳貞石,孫繼槎,吳崑山,單思南等;雲山傳盧紹岐;貞石傳董扶輿,夏枝溪;繼槎傳柴元明,姚石門,僧耳,僧尾;崑山傳徐岱岳,李天目;天目傳余仲波,陳茂宏等;思南傳王征南;征南獨得眞傳,精點穴之術,其要訣為『敬,緊,勁,切,勤』五字。征南後數十年,最著名者則為甘鳳池等。
北派所傳,負時譽者甚衆,最著者為淸初山右王宗岳,著有太極拳經,十三勢歌,行功心解,打手歌等;傳河南蔣發,發傳泌陽縣陳家溝陳長興;長興子二人,長曰耿信,次曰紀信,均能承業,授徒甚衆。時有河北永年縣楊福魁字露禪者,聞其名,因與同里李伯魁共往師焉;露禪勤學,盡得其秘,傳諸二子;長曰錡,早亡,無傳,次曰鈺,字班侯,三曰鑑,字健侯,均得父傳。班侯傳萬春,吳全佑,凌山等;健侯傳其子兆熊,兆淸等;兆熊字夢祥,傳田肇麟,尤志學等;兆淸字澄甫,傳武匯川,陳微明等;吳全佑傳其子鑑泉曁王茂齋,劉鳳山,郭松亭,齊格臣等。劉鳳山字彩臣,傳其子文海曁白永福,黎元弼,尹如川,梁漢勛,杜沂濱,王紹曾及著者等。(以上僅就彩臣先生所口授者為筆述,然不知者尚多,遺漏自所不免。)
Zhang Sanfeng [“three abundances”], also called Sanfeng [“three peaks”] was an elixirist of Mt. Wudang. Making a great achievement in Taiji Boxing, he was the founder of the Wudang School. He observed the natural principles of the universe and adopted the strong points of various styles of boxing arts, explaining actions through analogies of passive and active, hardness and softness, movement and stillness, advance and retreat. It was called Wudang Boxing, sometimes referred to as “internal boxing”.
     It was later passed down to Wang Zong of Shaanxi, who was then the most famous exponent of the art. It was then passed down to Chen Zhoutong of Wen County. During the reign of the Ming emperor Jiajing [1521–1566], there was Zhang Songxi, who obtained the authentic transmission and called the art the Taiji Thirteen Dynamics. Afterward the art split into two branches [northern and southern], Zhang’s transmission being the southern branch. He taught Ye Jinquan of Siming. Ye Jinquan then taught Zhou Yunshan, Chen Zhenshi, Sun Jicha, Wu Kunshan, Dan Sinan, and others. Zhou Yunshan taught Lu Shaoqi. Chen Zhenshi taught Dong Fuyu and Xia Zhixi. Sun Jicha taught Chai Yuanming, Yao Shimen, the monk Er, and the monk Wei. Wu Kunshan taught Xu Daiyue and Li Tianmu. Li Tianmu taught Yu Zhongbo, Chen Maohong, and others.
     Dan Sinan taught Wang Zhengnan. Wang Zhengnan alone obtained the authentic transmission and was an expert in the art of striking acupoints. The secret to his skill lied in five terms: focused, sticky, potent, precise, efficient. Several decades after Wang, the most famous exponents became those such as Gan Fengchi.
     As for the northern branch, there have been a great many famous exponents, the most noteworthy of which is Wang Zongyue of Shanxi during the early Qing Dynasty, who wrote the Taiji Boxing Classic, the Thirteen Dynamics Song, Understanding How to Practice, and the Playing Hands Song. He taught Jiang Fa of Henan. Jiang Fa taught Chen Changxing of Chen Family Village in Biyang County. Chen’s two sons, the elder son named Gengxin, the younger named Jixin, were both able to follow in their father’s footsteps and taught a great many people.
     Once upon a time, Yang Fukui, called Luchan, of Yongnian County, Hebei, heard of Chen’s fame, and so he, together with a friend from his hometown, Li Bokui, went to learn from the master. Yang studied diligently and fully obtained the secret. He passed the art to two of his sons. The eldest son, named Qi, died young and so was not taught. The second son, named Yu, called Banhou, and the third named Jian, called Jianhou, were both taught by their father. Yang Banhou taught Wan Chun, Wu Quanyou, Ling Shan, and others. Yang Jianhou taught his sons Zhaoxiang and Zhaoqing. Zhaoxiang, called Mengxiang [and Shaohou], taught Tian Zhaolin, You Zhixue, and others. Zhaoqing, called Chengfu, taught Wu Huichuan, Chen Weiming, and others.
     Wu Quanyou taught his son Jianquan as well as Wang Maozhai, Liu Fengshan, Guo Songting, Qi Gechen, and others. Liu Fengshan, called Caichen, taught his son Wenhai, as well as Bai Yongfu, Li Yuanbi, Jun Ruchuan, Liang Hanxun, Du Yibin, Wang Shaoceng, the author, and others. (Listed here are only students that Liu has instructed personally. There are many more than I know of, thus inevitably there are names that have been left out.)

系統表
LINEAGE CHART

張三丰─王宗(師承不可考)─陳州同
Zhang Sanfeng > Wang Zong (This transmission cannot be verified.) > Chen Zhoutong

陳州同{南派(師承不可考)─張松溪─葉近泉
Chen Zhoutong (southern branch) (This transmission cannot be verified.) > Zhang Songxi, Ye Jinquan
葉近泉{周雲山 陳貞石 孫繼槎 吳崑山 單思南
Ye Jinquan > Zhou Yunshan, Chen Zhenshi, Sun Jicha, Wu Kushan, Dan Sinan
周雲山─盧紹岐
Zhou Yunshan > Lu Shaoqi
陳貞石{董扶輿 夏枝溪
Chen Zhenshi > Dong Fuyu, Xia Zhixi
孫繼槎{柴元明 姚石門 僧耳 僧尾
Sun Jicha > Chai Yuanming, Yao Shimen, the monk Er, the monk Wei
吳崑山{李天目 徐岱岳
Wu Kunshan > Li Tianmu, Xu Daiyue
李天目{余仲波 陳茂宏
Li Tianmu > Yu Zhongbo, Chen Maohong
單思南─王征南─甘鳳池(師承不可考)
Dan Sinan > Wang Zhengnan > Gan Fengchi (This transmission cannot be verified.)

陳州同{北派(師承不可考)─王宗岳─蔣發─陳長興
Chen Zhoutong (northern branch) (This transmission cannot be verified.) > Wang Zongyue > Jiang Fa > Chen Changxing
陳長興{陳耿信 陳紀信 楊露禪 李伯魁
Chen Changxing > Chen Gengxin, Chen Jixin, Yang Luchan
楊露禪{楊班侯 楊健侯
Yang Luchan > Yang Banhou, Yang Jianhou
楊班侯{萬春 吳全佑 凌山
Yang Banhou > Wan Chun, Wu Quanyou, Ling Shan
吳全佑{吳鑑泉 王茂齋 劉鳳山 郭松亭 齊格臣
Wu Quanyou > Wu Jianquan, Wang Maozhai, Liu Fengshan, Guo Songting, Qi Gechen
劉鳳山{劉文海 白永福 黎元弼 尹如川 梁漢勛 杜沂濱 王紹曾 著者
Liu Fengshan > Liu Wenhai, Bai Yongfu, Li Yuanbi, Yin Ruchuan, Liang Hanxun, Du Yibin, Wang Shaoceng, and the author
楊健侯{楊夢祥 楊澄甫
Yang Jianhou > Yang Mengxiang, Yang Chengfu
楊夢祥{田肇麟 尤志學
Yang Mengxiang > Tian Zhaolin, You Zhixue
楊澄甫{武匯川 陳微明
Yang Chengfu > Wu Huichuan, Chen Weiming

二 意義
TWO: THE MEANING OF THE NAME

太極拳之動作,在表面觀之,似乎無力,其姿勢亦不及他種拳術表現生龍活虎之狀。其實不然,須知太極拳之用勁在內,姿勢順着勁道,合乎自然之理,且運用圓活,如環無端,故每式皆含一圓形。其象似太極圖,其變化之處,亦與太極彷佛,故名太極拳。至其作用,可以陰陽,動靜,剛柔,進退喩之,精微異常,非筆墨所能形容得出。
The movements in Taiji Boxing seem at first glance to have no strength, and its postures appear inferior to the manner of vim and vigor [“angry dragon and lively tiger”] seen in other kinds of boxing arts. But this is actually not the case. It has to be understood that Taiji Boxing’s use of power is internal and that its postures move in accordance with the paths of that power. It conforms to natural principles. Its movements are rounded and lively, like a limitless circle. That is why every posture contains a quality of roundness, its shape like a taiji circle, it moments of transformation like the taiji itself [i.e. the “grand polarity” harmoniously alternating the polarities of passive and active], hence the name “Taiji” Boxing. As for its function, it can be found in the analogies of passive and active, hardness and softness, movement and stillness, advance and retreat. It is profound and unique. Words are inadequate to describe it.

三 優點
THREE: ADVANTAGES

太極拳之優點甚多,今舉其大者言之:
Taiji Boxing has a great many advantages. Here I describe the major ones:

1 反弱為强
Turning Weakness into Strength [text copied from Chen Weiming’s 1929 Q&A book, question 118]

體質羸弱,與懷有疾苦者,習太極拳後,宿疾脫體,精神健旺,顏色光潤;無論肺病,咯血,胃病,不能飲食,遺精,痔瘡,頭痛,頭暈,手足麻木,肺,胃氣痛,種種沉疴,練太極拳後,莫不霍然!
For those who have weak bodies or are suffering from chronic illness, after training in Taiji Boxing, chronic complaints will leave the body, one’s spirit will be invigorated, and color will be returned to one’s face. Whether the problem is pulmonary tuberculosis with spitting up of blood, gastric disease with inability to eat or drink, or nocturnal emissions, hemorrhoids, headaches, dizziness, numbness of the extremities, or just plain old gas pain, all sorts of lingering illnesses, all will quickly recover from them after practicing Taiji Boxing.

2 時間經濟
Economical in Terms of Time

初習太極拳者,演式較速,約十分鐘卽演畢一套,以後愈練愈精,演式漸緩,一套可演三四十分鐘。初學者每日演兩三套,純熟後演一二套,需時一句鐘左右。卽使事務繁多之人,亦可抽暇練習。
Beginning practitioners of Taiji Boxing perform the postures relatively quickly, taking about ten minutes to go through the set once. Later on, with more practice comes more refinement and the performance gradually slows down until going through the set can take thirty or forty minutes. Beginners will go through the set two or three times each day, then once they have become skillful, they will go through it once or twice. The small amount of time that is required allows most working people to find the time to practice.

3 金錢經濟
Economical in Terms of Money

演習太極拳,不須購置器械,不用特製衣服,非若歐美式運動之耗錢。
To practice Taiji Boxing, it is not necessary to purchase special equipment or special clothing, unlike in money-draining European or American forms of exercise.

4 地方經濟
Economical in Terms of Space

不須特別預備場所,在廳堂院落,隨處可以練習。
It is not necessary to have specially prepared grounds, or a special hall or courtyard. It can be practiced anywhere.

5 發育平均
Uniform Development

現代體育界上,最新之理論曰『身心合一』,卽體魄與精神求同一之發育是也。如我國舊說之存心養性,孟子之所謂養浩然之氣,及近代之靜坐法,均可謂精神上之修養法;普通一般操練,戶外運動,以及我國他種操練身體各法,均可謂為體魄上之鍛鍊法,未有能內外兼修如太極拳者也。太極拳之運勁作勢,兼採心意作用,以意為主,而運動筋肉,意至之處,氣與力二者自附麗而行,由中達外,如善文者得心應手,善書者意在筆先;不僅運動外部之隨意筋,卽內部之不隨意筋如心腎等臟、亦可獲運動之效,其餘循環系,呼吸系,消化系,神經系等更無論矣。
In modern sports circles, the latest maxim is: “body and mind united into one”. This means striving for equal development of both body and mind. Our nation’s ancient description of [Mengzi, chapter 7a:] “maintaining one’s mind and nurturing one’s nature”, or Mengzi’s mention of [chapter 2a] “nurturing my noble energy”, as well as modern meditation methods, all can be considered methods of mental cultivation. Ordinary forms of exercise, outdoor games, and our own nation’s other methods of physical fitness can all be considered merely ways of building up the body. Nothing is able to cultivate inside and out so equally as Taiji Boxing.
     The moving of energy and making of postures in Taiji Boxing are both enacted by mental intention. Intention commands the movement of muscles. Wherever intention goes, both energy and power naturally follow along, from inside to out. It is like a good writer – his hands takes down what his mind dictates. Or a good calligrapher – his intention precedes his brush. Not only does it exercise the voluntary muscles externally, but also the involuntary muscles internally, such as those involved in the function of the kidneys or other organs, which will also be affected by such exercise, and additionally the circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, everything.

6 修養精神
Cultivating the Mind

此拳以心意作用,運動筋肉,發達人身固有之良知,良能。更由二人推手法,磨練筋肉,增進感覺,觸覺,能於鍛鍊筋肉之外,兼練精神,堪稱知覺運動,非機械之運動可比。
This boxing art uses the actions of the mind to exercise the muscles, developing a person’s intuition and innate abilities. Furthermore, when two people are pushing hands, they are training the muscles, but are also enhancing perception and sensitivity. Thus beyond tempering the muscles, the art can also train the mind. It can be considered an exercise for the consciousness, which no mechanical actions can compare to.

7 增進智慧
Boosting Intelligence

體育固以健其體魄,亦須兼顧德,智二育,否則徒養成粗暴魯莽之人物,於社會上無所補益。太極拳之用勁作勢,暗合於幾何,動力,心理,衞生諸學,有科學之價値;本科學而研究講習則思考力莫不發達,智慧因之而自增,理解因之而日敏。
Physical education certainly strengthens the body, but it is necessary to also train one’s ethics and intellect. Otherwise you will only cultivate a rough and rude personality and be of no benefit to society. The way Taiji Boxing uses energy and gets into postures conforms to the studies of geometry, mechanics, psychology, and hygiene, it is of scientific value. Through these kinds of scientific study, all aspects of reasoning will be enhanced. Intelligence will naturally increase and understanding will daily sharpen.

8 陶冶性情
Molding the Temperament

太極拳以柔靜為體,剛動為用,習之者心氣和平,絕無浮躁習氣;柔而能伸,剛而能禦。健全其精神,自無邪僻不正當之行為,乃無上修養,人格得以增進,道德可以增高,殆莫若此拳者。
Taiji Boxing uses the softness of stillness as the foundation, involving hardness of movement only in the function. Practitioners have a harmonious state of mind rather than a counterproductive habit of impetuousness. Softness will allow you to stretch out your body. Hardness will enable you to defend yourself. By strengthening your spirit, you will naturally commit no evil or immoral acts. There is no higher form of cultivation. Your character will be enhanced and your moral sense will be heightened. There is hardly anything better than this boxing art.

9 長幼咸宜
Suitable for All Ages

此拳運動調和,動作單簡,固合幼齡兒童之練習,而其意義深奧,恰合科學原理,倘分段練習,頗耐人尋昧,雖終身亦不覺其窮盡也。
This boxing art is a mild form of exercise. Its movements are simple, and so it is an appropriate practice for children. And yet its concepts are profound, conforming to scientific principles, and so the other side of the practice is that it is fitting for very patient people who seeking into mysteries. You can practice it your whole life, but you will never feel you have reached the end.

10 適於應用
Appropriate for Practical Application

太極拳三十七式,雖一式有一式之用,然不專恃勢勝人,以制敵之勁為主。以柔制剛,以靜制動,以小力敵大力,以慢敵快,考諸學理亦無不合。轉制其力點,使敵力不能發展,幷移其重點,使出身體以外,不能保持原來之位置,所謂因力於敵,以柔制剛也;蓋敵力雖巨,按力學分力,合力之理,可以化之使為我用。攷之幾何,動力諸學,大小輪周在同一時間,用同一之力運動,則其速度以輪軸之長短作反比例,太極拳以靜制動,實藉此理也。
As for Taiji Boxing’s thirty-seven postures, although each posture has its own function, it does not rely on the techniques to defeat an opponent, the priority is to control the opponent’s energy. Use softness to overcome hardness, stillness to overcome movement, a small force to overcome a large force, slowness to overcome swiftness. These concepts all conform to scientific principles.
     I control the opponent’s leverage so he is unable to extend. I manipulate his balance so his center of gravity is outside his body and he is rendered unable to maintain his position. This is called “responding to the opponent’s power” and is the act of using softness to overcome hardness. Even if his power is huge, according to the principles of “components of force” and “resultant of forces” in the science of mechanics, I can transform the situation so that he is under my control.
     Examining geometry and kinetics, every part of a wheel, however large or small, turns in unison and moves with the same amount of power, thus its speed is in proportion to the time it takes to make a circuit around the axle. Taiji Boxing’s use of stillness to overcome movement is exactly this principle.

四 要點
FOUR: FUNDAMENTALS

練太極拳術,苟不得其法,則功效不著,徒費時日;有苦練十數載,而渾不懂勁者。蓋不研究拳理,不向師友求益,或誤走途徑,致失此拳眞義。茲略述練時最宜注意之點,學者能循此研求,用功不輟,功效自速!
In practicing the Taiji boxing art, if you do not obtain the correct method, then results will not materialize and you will have been wasting your time. If one has practiced hard for ten years but is unable to identify energies, he has not studied the boxing principles, not sought guidance from teachers or colleagues, or taken the wrong path. The result is a betrayal of the authentic principles of this boxing art. Briefly described are the main points to pay attention to while practicing. If you can abide by these principles, and work at them diligently and consistently, effects will quickly manifest.

1 姿勢
POSTURAL PRINCIPLES

(一)頭
i. Head

頭部最為重要,宜正直,不偏不倚,勿用力,順其自然,使有空虛輕靈之意;(週身輕靈,則精神貫注於頂。)眼勿怒睜,眉勿縐縮;口宜閉,(以鼻呼吸。)忌咬齒;舌抵上腭,則津液自生,久而不渴。
Your head is the most important part. It should be upright, neither leaning nor inclining. But do not use effort to make it so, let it be natural, leading to an intention of emptiness and nimbleness. (When your whole body is nimble, spirit courses through to your headtop.) Your eyes should not stare in anger. Your brow should not furrow. Your mouth should be closed (using your nose to breathe), but avoid grinding your teeth. Your tongue should be touching your upper palate, thus generating saliva and thereby keeping you from being thirsty for a longer period.

(二)肩
ii. Shoulders

肩須鬆開,使往下沉,則氣不上昇,歸於丹田。假令肩部聳起,氣卽隨之上昇,致胸部不舒;且運用時不能靈活。
Your shoulder must loosen, causing them to sink downward. Thus energy will not rise up and will return to your elixir field. If your shoulders lift, energy will rise up, causing to become tense. You will furthermore be incapable of being nimble in such a state.

(三)肘
iii. Elbows

肩肘二部,實有連帶關係,蓋肩鬆則肘自垂下、肘掀則肩亦隨而聳起。故肘宜下垂,使肩部不受牽累;且運用時肋部不易為敵人襲擊。
The shoulders and elbows are truly interrelated. If your shoulders loosen, your elbows will hang down. If your elbows rise, your shoulders will lift up. Therefore your elbows should hang down to keep from leading your shoulders astray. Furthermore, while you are applying techniques, it will then not be easy for an opponent to make a surprise attack to your ribs.

(四)手
iv. Hands

練太極拳術,用掌時多,握拳時少。(只有五槌。)伸手時切忌僵硬,緊促,手指宜有舒展意,掌心宜有突出意;至握拳時,亦不能用力,宜有鬆柔之意,所以運勁自然,絕無一毫急迫態度。
When practicing the Taiji boxing art, you will use your palms often, seldom making fists (as it contains only five punching techniques). When you extend your hands, by all means avoid being stiff or tense. Your fingers should have an intention of extending. Your palms should have an intention of protruding. When you make a fist, you must use effort to do so, you should instead have an intention of looseness and softness. You will thereby wield energy naturally and you will have a manner entirely free of stress.

(五)胸
v. Chest

胸部略向內凹─涵胸─使氣下沉丹田,自覺胸部非常輕鬆,脚根不易浮動,全體靈活,乃能表現自然之態度;倘胸部挺出,氣充其中,卽犯上重下輕,全身不得力之弊,且僵硬異常,大失太極拳主『柔』之義。
The chest is slightly hollowed inward, or “contained”, causing energy sink to your elixir field. You will consequently feel your chest is unusually relaxed, your heels will not easily float up, and your whole body will be nimble, and you will be able to display a natural bearing. If your chest is sticking out, energy will fill up within it, and thus you will counterproductively become top-heavy, your whole body will be disadvantaged by the inability to generate power, and you will be abnormally rigid, greatly violating the key Taiji concept of “softness.”

(六)背
vi. Back

背部稍微向外突出─拔背─此與涵胸互為關係,蓋胸凹則背必突出,背突則胸自不挺。至拔背之意,乃使脊骨一一堆疊,氣自貼于背上,故能『力從脊發』也。
The back slightly sticks outward, “plucked up”, corresponding to the contained chest. With your chest hollowed, your back will of course by sticking out. With your back sticking out, your chest will naturally not be sticking out. With an intention of plucking up your back, your vertebrae will be piled one on top of another, energy will naturally stick to your back, and thus you will be able to “issue power from your spine”.

(七)腰
vii. Waist

腰在太極拳中,與頭均為最重要之部分,而腰居中央,一舉一動,足以支配全身,恰如軍中總司令然,拳論所謂『主宰於腰』也。故欲週身輕靈,姿勢正確,必須鬆腰,能鬆腰氣自下沉,兩腿有力,下盤穩定,而四肢運動靈活,虛實分淸,十三勢歌所謂『命意源頭在腰隙』也。苟腰部用力,則全身僵硬,動作遲鈍,拳論云:『其病必於腰腿求之』,學者宜注意焉!
In Taiji Boxing, the waist and the head are the most important parts, the waist being more central. With every action, every movement, it is all that is required to control your whole body, like a general commanding an army, as it says in the Treatise: “Directing from your waist”. Therefore if you want your whole body to be nimble and your postures to be correct, you must loosen your waist. If you are able to loosen your waist, energy will naturally sink down, your legs will have power, your lower body will be stable, your limbs will move nimbly, and you will clearly distinguish between emptiness and fullness. It says in the Thirteen Dynamics Song: “The command comes from your lower back.” If your waist uses effort, then your whole body will become stiff and your movement will be slowed. It says in the Treatise: “The problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there.” You should give attention to this point.

(八)腹
viii. Abdomen

腹胸二部,亦有連帶關係,蓋胸部略向內凹時,從生理方面言之,卽胸壁內壓,而使橫隔膜下壓;同時行腹部呼吸,(按姿勢之開合為準。)所以氣能徐往下沉,腹部變為堅實,而有彈力,重心亦穩,拳經所謂『氣沉丹田』,卽指此也。
The abdomen and chest are interrelated. From a physiological perspective, while the chest is slightly hollowed inward, the chest wall is press inward, causing the diaphragm to be pressed downward. Breathing abdominally at the same time (being the basis for the expanding and contracting of the postures) enables energy to slowly sink down. Your abdomen becomes sturdy and springy, and your center of balance stabilizes. It says in the Classic: “Energy sinks to your elixir field.” This saying points to this idea.

(九)臀
ix. Hips

突臀之病,學者最易犯此。臀向外突,腰背受其影響,變為僵硬,卽失輕靈之意,故必須收臀;臀收則腰背放鬆,態度自然,而姿勢正確。學者不可不特為注意!
Sticking out your buttocks is a mistake. But it is the easiest mistake for students to make. When you stick your buttocks out, your dorsolumbar region gets affected, causing it to become stiff, violating the concept of nimbleness. Therefore you must tuck in your buttocks. Your dorsolumbar region will then be relaxed, your bearing will be natural, and the postures will be correct. You have to give particular attention to this point.

(十)腿
x. Legs

腿與脚之運動,須順拳勢之屈伸,而作前進後退,上下起落之狀態;至虛實變換時,宜靈活,淸楚,使兩腿兩脚得平均之調和,而鍛鍊之。拳論云:『其根在脚發于腿』『其病必于腰腿求之』,是可知腿之重要矣。
The movements of your legs and feet must go along with the bending and extending of the boxing postures through actions of advancing and retreating, having a manner of lifting and lowering, up and down. While alternating between empty and full, your movements should have nimbleness and clarity, causing your legs and feet to obtain an equalized harmony from which they are strengthened. It says in the Treatise: “Starting from your foot, issue through your leg.” “The problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there.” From these sayings can be understood the importance of the legs.

以上十則,乃練太極拳時身體各部最重要之姿勢。以腰為中心,自腰而上,為頭,肩,肘,手,胸,背六部;自腰而下,為腹,臀,腿三部。各部姿勢,如何方為正確,均已一一說明;而十部中以頭垂,胸挺,腰硬,臀突,尤為初學最易犯之病,是宜加以注意!
The ten points above are the most important postural principles for the various parts of the body while practicing Taiji Boxing. The waist is in the middle. Upward from the waist are the head, shoulders, elbows, chest, and back – six parts. Downward from the waist are the abdomen, buttocks, and legs – three parts. Each part has its proper posture, and they have all been explained one by one. Within these ten, the errors of hanging the head, sticking out the chest, stiffening the waist, and the sticking out the buttocks are the easiest errors for beginners to make, and so they should be given extra attention.

2 要義
ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES

(一)意靜心專
i. The mind is calm and focused.

太極拳乃動中求靜之拳術,與外家拳之專主於動者不同,是以演式時,雖全體各部,運動不息,而心理上反收寧靜之效;彼初學者,不諳此理,於演習之際,心不專一,意念紛紜,則不特姿勢謬誤,動作呆滯,且絲毫不能收效,與不練等耳;故練此拳者,必須意念惟一,心不旁鶩、自覺全體輕靈,舉動自然,而心理寧靜,精神愉快,功深者眞有飄飄欲仙之想矣。
Taiji is a boxing art that seeks stillness within movement. It is different from external boxing arts, which focus only on movement. Therefore when performing the postures, although the whole body and every part is moving without pause, one’s mentality is instead receiving the effect of becoming tranquil. When beginners who do not ingrain this principle practice, the mind is not concentrated and thoughts are disorderly. Consequently, the postures are in error, the movements are stagnant, and they are entirely unable to get results, the equivalent of not practicing at all. Thus when practicing this boxing art, you must focus only on the exercise and not be distracted. You will then automatically come to feel that your body is nimble and the movement is natural, and that your mind is tranquil and your spirit is cheerful. Very skillful practitioners truly have an aloof air about them.

(二)動作柔緩
ii. The movements are soft and slow.

外家拳以『剛』『速』為主,故剛以剛遇,速以速迎,抗力維均,而力大者勝,或兩敗而俱傷焉。練此種拳術者,雖肌肉堅硬,力大而勢猛,惟於感覺方面,則大欠缺。而太極拳主化人,不尚力,不求速,(觀打手歌之『四兩撥千斤』句,拳經之『觀耄耋能禦衆之形,快何能為』句,可知此拳之不尚『剛』『速』矣。)以敵之動作為動作,不自主張;探知敵勁之方向,大小,卽因其方向而轉移之,使敵勁失效,(此卽拳經之『人剛我柔謂之走』也。)而我黏住彼勁,則敵隨我吸引而落空矣。然必須感覺靈敏,舉動輕靈,方能聽知對方之勁,善為應付。如欲感覺靈敏,舉動輕靈,必須于盤架子時『柔軟』與『和緩』之動作中得之。(行功心解所謂『極柔軟然後極剛强』,『運勁如抽絲』,卽指出『柔緩』二字。)且動作柔緩,則呼吸深長,氣不上浮,血脉不致緊張,而徐徐運行於全體,對於衞生方面,益莫大焉!
External boxing arts give priority to being “hard” and “fast”. As a result, hardness meets with hardness and speed encounters speed, resistant forces cancel each other out, and the one with the greatest strength wins. Or they will both lose, coming away with injuries. But for one who practices this boxing art, even if he has hard muscles, great strength, and a fearsome posture, his size becomes irrelevant next to his high level of sensitivity. Taiji Boxing focuses on neutralizing opponents. It does not value strength or seek to have speed. (As it says in the Classic: “Examine the phrase (from the Playing Hands Song) ‘four ounces moves a thousand pounds’, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.” From this, we can know that this boxing art does not value hardness and hurrying.)
     One acts based on the opponent’s movements rather than forcing one’s own agenda. I find out the direction and extent of an opponent’s power, then correspondingly turn in that direction, causing his power to lose all effect. (As it says in the Classic: “He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding.”) I then adhere to his energy. He is thus drawn in by my absorption and loses his balance.
     However, you must be aware and sensitive, moving nimbly. Then you will be able to know the direction of an opponent’s power and deal with it expertly. If you wish to be aware, sensitive, and nimble, you must practice the set with softness and mildness in your movements. (It says in How to Practice: “Extreme softness begets extreme hardness.” And: “Move energy as if drawing silk.” These sayings describe the two terms “soft” and “slow”.) Moreover, with movements that are soft and slow, your breathing will be deep and long, your energy will not float up, and your pulse will not become agitated. By gently moving your whole body, the benefits toward your health will be enormous.

(三)演式均匀
iii. The postures are performed evenly.

演式時,心意旣已專一不馳,動作亦柔緩不迫,則均匀尚焉。蓋太極拳無處不含一『環形』,故宜旋轉靈活,連貫一氣;最忌若斷若續,忽速忽緩。是以演式務須均匀,其速度與力量式式相等,每式與下式連接處,須聯為一氣,勿令停滯。此不特姿勢(外)為然,而心意(內)尤貴貫串,故呼吸必須均匀,則運動後可免氣喘之弊。且平時演式均匀,迨至應用,自能不授人以隙。太極拳論於『均匀』方面,再三致意,此學者所宜愼思,明辨也!
When performing the postures, once the mind is concentrated rather than distracted, and the movements are soft and slow rather than urgent, then the evenness of the postures becomes the priority. In Taiji Boxing, every posture contains a quality of roundness, and thus you will turn nimbly and move with a continuous energy. The most important thing to avoid is to seem to be stopping and starting, to be suddenly speeding up or suddenly slowing down. Therefore the postures must be performed evenly, with the same speed and power in each posture. Each posture is to continue right into the following posture, and so they must be linked into a single flow. Do not allow any stagnancy between them.
     This is not only the case for the external postures, but also the internal intention has to be continuous through the whole thing. Thus your breath also has to be even, and this will keep you panting after doing the exercise. Furthermore, once performing the postures evenly becomes your ordinary habit, it will have an effect on practical application. You will automatically be giving an opponent no gaps to work with. This quality of evenness in Taiji Boxing needs to be given repeated attention. It is a point that students should thoughtfully contemplate and clearly discern.

(四)不用拙力
iv. Do not use awkward effort.

吾人在未習此拳之先,身體所發出之一種力量,是為拙力。彼初習者,舉止動作,非常僵硬,乃因拙力未去故;是以練時須週身放鬆,不用絲毫之力,只是用意;意到處氣卽隨之而至,則氣血暢通,週身靈活,運勁自然矣。
Before we train in this boxing art, our bodies express a kind of strength which is but awkward effort. Those at the beginning of the training stop and start in their movement, and are very rigid. This is because awkward effort has not been dispelled. Therefore when practicing, you must loosen your whole body, and not use the slightest bit of effort, only use intention. Wherever your intention goes, energy goes there too, and so energy and blood are unimpeded, your whole body is nimble, and your movement is natural.

(五)虛實分淸
v. Clearly distinguish between emptiness and fullness.

盤架子或應敵時,均須分淸虛實;拳論云:『虛實宜分淸楚,一處自有一處虛實,處處總此一虛實』,可知太極拳無處不有虛實,惟步法最顯著易見。如全身坐於右腿,重心在右腿,為實,左腿為虛;反之,重心在左腿,則左腿為實,右腿為虛。我之虛實旣能分淸,則舉動靈活,可因敵之變化而轉移,以為應付,彼實我虛,彼虛我實,虛可變實,實忽轉虛,使敵不能捉摸,處處落空;蓋不如是,則互相抵抗,是為『雙重』,如我重心一失,進退重滯,不能穩立,則為敵所牽動矣。
When either practicing the set or dealing with an opponent, you must in both cases clearly distinguish between emptiness and fullness. It says in the Treatise: “Empty and full must be distinguished clearly. In each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full. Everywhere it is always like this, an emptiness and a fullness.” If you can understand that in Taiji Boxing there is everywhere an emptiness/fullness, your footwork will be clean and clear. When the weight of your body sits on your right leg, your right leg is full and your left leg is empty. Conversely, when the weight is on your left leg, your left leg is full and your right leg is empty.
     If I am able to distinguish clearly between emptiness and fullness, then my movements will be nimble and I will be able to respond to the opponent’s changes by changing in order to deal with them. When he is full, I become empty. When he is empty, I become full. Emptiness can change to fullness, and fullness can suddenly switch back to emptiness. This causes the opponent to be unable to figure out what is going on and his attempts constantly land on nothing. If it is not done in this way, he and I would be clashing with each other, the condition of “double pressure”. If I were to lose my balance, my advancing or retreating would be heavy and sluggish. Unable to steady myself, I would thus be under the opponent’s control.

(六)上下相隨
vi. The upper body and lower coordinate with each other.

練此拳者,最忌手動而腰腿不動,蓋腰腿不動,手便僵硬,週身不得靈活,而致散亂,故手一動,腰,腿,脚均同時活動,則身體節節貫串,眼神亦隨之而轉動,故能完整一氣。拳論之『其根在脚,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指;由脚而腿而腰總須完整一氣。』;行功心解之『一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜。』,卽指此也。
When practicing this boxing art, the most important thing to avoid is moving the hands without moving your waist and legs. If your waist and legs are not moving, the movement of your hands movement will be stiff. Your whole body will not be able to be nimble, and your actions will result in disorder. Therefore with each movement of your hands, there is to be corresponding movement in your waist, legs, and feet at the same time. There is connection through each section of the body, your gaze following along with the turning motions, and thereby the movements can be a complete continuity. It says in the Treatise: “Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a fully continuous process.” It says in How to Practice: “If one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.” These sayings point to this idea.

(七)內外相合
vii. Inside and outside are joined with each other.

太極拳表面之姿勢,固宜正確,而心意之作用,尤為重要,是以內(心意)外(姿勢)宜聯絡一致,每一姿勢之開合,心意亦必與之同時開合,換言之,卽呼吸之出入,須與動作同一節奏,使內外聯成一氣,方為盡善。
The external postures in Taiji Boxing should indeed be performed correctly, but the function of the intention is especially important. Therefore inside (intention) and outside (posture) should operate in unison. With the opening and closing of each posture, the intention must at the same time be opening and closing. In other words, inhaling and exhaling must be in unison with the rhythm of the movement. Once you get inside and outside to combine into one, then it will be perfect.

(八)粘連黏隨
viii. Stick, connect, adhere, and follow.

粘,連,黏,隨四字,乃推手中要義!粘者,提之向上也;連者,相連不離也;黏者,黏着不分也;隨者,追隨不捨也。諳此四者,則敵力雖大,毫不能施,重心巳失,胸無主宰,仰則覺我愈高,俯則覺我愈深,進擊則覺我愈長而不能及,退避又覺我愈偪而不得逃。然初學者不克以語此,必須按照八法─掤,捋,擠,按,採,挒,肘,靠─練習,久而久之,遂能聽知對方之勁。人剛我柔,忽虛忽實,隨彼之動而動,彼急則急,彼緩則緩,彼用力抵抗,則提之向上,彼如偪近,則與之相連不離,彼欲與我脫離,則我黏着不分,彼欲逃避,我又追隨不捨,使彼毫不得力,處處落空,而我不用絲毫拙力,略為牽動,彼自跌出矣。此打手歌所謂『四兩撥千斤』也。
The four terms sticking, connecting, adhering, and following are key principles in pushing hands. Sticking means to lift upward. Connecting means to be connected and not disconnect. Adhering means to adhere to and not separate from. Following means to pursue without giving up. If you learn these four things well, then no matter how great an opponent’s strength, he will not be able to make use of any of it. His balance will be off, no control over where his chest goes. When he looks upward at me, he will feel I am even higher than he thought. When he looks downward at me, he will feel I am even lower than he thought. When he advances with an attack, he will feel I am even farther away, unable to reach me. When he retreats to evade me, he will feel I am even closer to him, unable to escape. (But in the beginning, you will not be able to discuss these things. Your practice will have to be based in the eight techniques – warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping – practicing them more and more, until you are able to perceive and know an opponent’s energies.)
     If he uses hardness, I use softness. I suddenly empty and suddenly fill. I move according to his movement. If he moves quickly, I move quickly. If he moves slowly, I move slowly. If he forcefully resists me, I then lift upward. If he crowds close to me, I then connect to him and do no disconnect. If he wants to disconnect, I then adhere to him and will not separate. If he wants to escape, I then pursue him relentlessly. I render him incapable of using any power, everything he tries landing on nothing. Without using the slightest bit of awkwardness, I slightly tug, and he naturally stumbles away. As it says in the Playing Hands Song: “I will tug with four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds.”

(九)不丢不頂
ix. Neither come away nor crash in.

不丢,不離開也;不頂,不抵抗也,亦推手中之要義!凡敵進攻時,無論姿勢若何,用勁大小,切勿與之抵抗,宜以走法化之,更不能離開,須黏着敵勁,則敵失其效,我之勝利,可操左券。蓋推手乃練習感覺之術,如一有抵抗或離開,則感覺無從鍛鍊,難臻靈敏,(拳經之『一羽不能加,一蠅不能落。』,卽指感覺極靈敏而言。)為推手之大病!
To not come away means to not separate. To not crash in means to not resist. These are also keys principles in pushing hands. Whenever an opponent attacks, regardless of whatever posture he uses or the size of his power, I will be sure not to resist. Instead I should use methods of yielding to neutralize it. Furthermore, I will make him unable to separate from me, and to do this I must adhere to his energy. Thus he will lose all of his efficiency and my victory can be assured. Pushing hands is the art of training perception. If there is any resistance or disconnection, perception will not be getting trained, for it will be difficult to attain a high level of sensitivity, and thus is a serious error in pushing hands. (It says in the Classic: “A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land.” This describes a very high degree of awareness.)

(十)捨己從人
x. Let go of yourself and follow along with the opponent.

太極拳應敵之法,乃以靜制動,以逸待勞,不作主動,處處從人,與外家拳術適相反對。察敵向我何方擊來,卽隨其方向,以『不丢不頂』之法,而為應付,使之落空或跌出;反而言之,自作主張,不知隨敵之動作而動作,加以抵抗,是謂不能捨己從人,乃捨近求遠矣!
Taiji Boxing’s method of dealing with opponents is to use stillness to overcome use movement, to use leisure to overcome his labor. It is not about taking the initiative, instead always following along with what he is doing. This is the opposite of external styles of boxing arts. Observe which direction the opponent’s attack is going and simply following along in that direction, using the principle of “neither coming away nor crashing in”. Dealing with him in this way causes his attack to land on nothing and he stumbles away. If you instead decide to act on your own, moving without understanding how to follow along with the opponent’s movement, you will only build up resistance. Thus it is said that if you are unable to “let go of yourself and follow along with the opponent”, you will be “discarding what you have at hand to work with in favor of what you do not”.

要義十則,首三則,為盤架子時不可或缺之原則;次四則乃盤架子與推手均宜遵循之要義;末三則,為推手所專用者。
Of these ten essential principles, the first three must not be lacked while practicing the solo set, the second four should be abided by both while practicing the solo set and practicing pushing hands, and the last three are specifically for use during pushing hands.

五 三十七式釋名與效用
FIVE: THE THIRTY-SEVEN POSTURES – THEIR NAMES EXPLAINED, THEIR EFFECTS, THEIR APPLICATIONS

1 攬雀尾
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

釋名    此式內含掤,捋,擠,按等法;取手執雀尾隨其動作之意。假設敵人之臂為雀尾,攬之使其無進取之力,趁勢向前加以切勁擲之也。
Explanation of the name:
This posture contains the techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push. The idea is that your hand is holding a sparrow by the tail and following its movement. Imagining the opponent’s arm is a sparrow’s tail, catch it to keep its power from advancing, then take advantage of the opportunity to go forward with a cutting energy to throw him away.
功效    此為太極拳中最重要之式;乃運動頭,頸,肩,肘,胸,腰,腹,腿各部,而使血脈調和,循環全體;可愈頭暈,腰痛,胃痛,便秘,關節不靈,與輕微之肺疾。
Effects:
This is the most important posture in Taiji Boxing. It exercises the head, neck, shoulders, elbows, chest, waist, abdomen, and legs. It harmonizes and increases blood circulation. It can heal dizziness, back pain, stomachache, constipation, stiff joints, and reduce lung disease.
用法    敵用右拳擊來,我以兩手向前掤化其力;敵欲逃遁,我卽隨腰下捋敵手;彼如向後將手抽囘,則隨其勁往外排擠,或向前按之。然敵攻勢無一定法則,宜隨機應變,觀其動作而應付之可也。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack, so I use both hands to go forward with a ward-off, neutralizing his force. If he wishes to escape, I then perform a rollback, driven by my waist, bringing his hand downward. If he wants to pull back his hand, I then go along with his energy by pressing outward or pushing forward. However, the opponent’s attacks will not have a definite pattern, so I have to respond according to the situation. I observe his actions and am thus able to deal with them.

2 單鞭
SINGLE WHIP

釋名 單鞭者,卽單手擊敵之意。鞭者,如鞭之擊人也。
Explanation of the name:
“Single” means using a one hand to strike an opponent. “Whip” means it is like you are hitting him with a whip.
功效 此式運動肩背及四肢;能治肩背痠痛與手足麻木之症。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, back, and limbs. It can cure stiffness in the shoulders and back, as well as numbness in the hands and feet.
用法    敵用右拳擊來,我卽用右手粘住敵臂,順其進擊之力,引領向前,使彼重心移動,趁勢用左手直擊敵胸部―用切勁或推按勁。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack me, so I use my right hand to stick to his arm, going along with his advancing force to lead it farther forward, causing him to shift his weight, then take advantage of the opportunity to use my left hand to strike directly to his chest, using either a cutting energy or a pushing energy.

3 提手上式
RAISE THE HAND

釋名 提手上式者,如手向上提重物狀,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, a hand is going upward in the manner of lifting a heavy object, hence the name.
功效 此式運動肩,背,腕,肘,腰,膝各部,使諸關節靈活。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, back, wrists, elbows, waist, and knees, and increases flexibility of the joints.
用法 敵用右拳迎面擊來時,我以左手下按敵腕,以右手由下向上提擊敵下頦及鼻等處。
Application:
When an opponent uses his right fist to attack directly to my face, I use my left hand to push down on his wrist and lift my right hand up from below to strike to his chin or nose.

4 白鶴掠翅
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS

釋名 白鶴掠翅者,兩臂斜伸作鳥翼狀;兩足並立,如鶴之獨立,雙手如鶴之掠翼,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your arms extend diagonally in the manner of a bird’s wings. Your feet stand together like a crane standing one-legged. Your hands are like a crane swatting its wings, hence the name.
功效 此式運動胸,背,肩,臂,腰,各部,而練習其伸縮力。
Effects:
This posture exercises the chest, back, shoulders, arms, and waist, and develops ability in expanding and contracting.
用法    敵在左側用拳擊來,我扭身用雙掌粘住敵臂,隨其進擊之力往右引領,使敵身前傾,後以雙掌向敵身齊按,則敵跌出矣。
Application:
An opponent to my left side uses a fist to attack me, so I twist my body and use both palms to stick to his arm, then guide the force of his attack to the right, causing him to lean forward, and then push toward his body with both palms, causing him to stumble away.

5 摟膝拗步
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

釋名    摟膝者,以手向下摟過膝蓋之意;拗步,乃拳術步法之名詞也。習拳術者,以伸右手,進右足,謂之順步,左亦如之;若伸右手,進左步,或伸左手,進右步,則謂之拗步。
Explanation of the name:
Brushing the knee means your hand is brushing downward past your knee. A “crossed stance” is the name of stepping method in boxing arts. When a boxing arts practitioner extends his right hand while advancing with his right foot, or extends his left hand while advancing with left foot, that is called a “straight stance”. But when it is the reverse, and the right hand is extending while the left foot is advanced, or the left hand is extended while the right foot is advanced, that is called a “crossed stance”.
功效 此式運動腰,脊,肩,臂,膝,腿各部;可治腎足之疾。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, spine, shoulders, arms, knees, and legs, and can cure weak kidneys.
用法    敵用右拳向我腰部擊來,我用左手向旁摟開,以右掌擊敵胸部。如敵用左拳擊來,我用右手向旁摟開,以左掌擊敵胸部。此卽推按勁也。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack my waist, so I use my left hand to brush it aside and use my right palm to strike to his chest. If he uses his left fist to attack me, I use my right hand to brush it aside and use my left palm to strike to his chest. The strike has a pushing energy.

6 手揮琵琶
PLAY THE LUTE

釋名    手揮琵琶者,兩手一前一後,如抱琵琶(琵琶樂器也)形,雙手如手指按絃然,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your hands, one forward and one back, are in a shape of holding a lute, the fingers of both hands as though pressing the strings, hence the name.
功效 此式運動兩臂及腰部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the arms and the waist.
用法 (一)敵用右拳擊來,我以右掌粘住敵腕,用左掌托敵肘,雙掌交錯,則敵臂斷矣。
(二)如敵握我右腕,我卽將右掌向懷內收囘,揉化敵力,使其重心移動,復以左手指點按敵肩窩,則敵臂失其動力矣。
Application:
1. An opponent uses his right fist to attack, so I use my right palm to stick to his wrist and use my left palm to prop up his elbow, performing a criss-crossing action with both palms, thereby breaking his arm.
2. If an opponent grabs my right wrist, I withdraw my right palm toward my chest, neutralizing his force and causing him to shift his weight, then use my left fingers to poke into his armpit, thereby cutting off the power in his arm.

7 搬攔槌
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH

釋名 搬攔槌者,卽搬開敵人之手,攔阻其進擊之力,而後用拳擊之。為太極拳五槌之一。
Explanation of the name:
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH means that you parry an opponent’s hand, then block to obstruct the power of his forward attack, and then use a fist to strike him. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
功效    此式運動肩,背,腰,腹,胯,臂,腿,諸部。旋轉如球,使各部筋肉發達;且治腎,胃,便秘之病。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, back, waist, abdomen, hips, arms, and legs. Its movement of seemingly rotating a ball develop muscle. It can also treat kidney issues, stomach issues, and constipation.
用法    敵用右拳擊我胸部,我以右掌下按敵腕,若敵再以左拳囘擊,卽以左掌搬開之,敵欲逃,我卽攔阻,趁勢用右拳擊其胸部或腹部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike to my chest, so I use my right palm to push down on his wrist. If he again attacks, using his left fist, I then use my left palm to parry it aside. If he wishes to escape, I then obstruct him and take advantage of the opportunity by using my right fist to strike to his chest or belly.

8 如封似閉
SEALING SHUT

釋名    封閉者,封鎖格攔敵人之手也。如敵人進攻,卽將雙手抽開,復向敵身推去,謂之封閉。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, seal yourself off by blocking the opponent’s hands. If an opponent advances with an attack, use both hands to draw it in and spread it away, then push toward his body, thereby “sealing shut”.
功效 此式運動胸,肘,腰,腿,各部;能愈肺,腎,及手足麻木之病。
Effects:
This posture works the chest, elbows, waist, and legs. It can heal illnesses of the lungs and kidneys, as well as numbness of the hands and feet.
用法    我用右拳擊敵,如敵用左手橫推我拳或肘時,卽將右拳向懷內收囘變掌,同時左手從下方攔敵手腕,騰出右掌按敵肘,復與左掌齊向敵胸部推按之。
Application:
If when I use my right fist to strike the opponent, he uses his left hand to push my fist or elbow aside, I then withdraw my right fist toward my chest, changing it to a palm, while sending my left hand from below to block his wrist, and once I have cleared a space for my right palm, I push on his elbow, then add my left palm so both palms are pushing together toward his chest.

9 十字手
CROSSED HANDS

釋名 十字手者,兩手腕相搭,交叉置於胸前,如十字狀,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your wrists cross each other in front of your chest to make an X shape, hence the name.
功效 此式運動兩臂及膝,腿諸部;使腿部堅實而有彈力。
Effects:
This posture works the arms, knees, and legs, causing the legs to become both more solid and more springy.
用法    我兩手與敵兩手互相粘住,敵欲逃遁,卽趁勢引領向前,使敵身前傾,我兩手乃向左右分開,使敵落空;復將兩手置於胸前,交搭成斜十字形,以防敵囘擊之用。
Application:
Both of my hands are sticking to both of the opponent’s hands. If he wishes to escape, I take advantage of the situation by leading him forward, causing him to lean forward, then I spread my hands apart to the sides, causing him to lose his balance. I then place my hands in front of my chest, crossing to make an X shape, to prevent him from making a countering strike.

10 抱虎歸山
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN

釋名 抱虎歸山者,假設敵人為虎,將敵抱住,敵欲逃,卽乘機向前擲之也。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, the opponent is in the role of the “tiger”. Once you wrap around him, he will wish to escape, so take advantage of that moment to go forward and throw him.
功效 此式運動肩,背,腰,腿,各部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, back, waist, and legs.
用法    敵用左拳由我身後右面擊來,我卽轉身以右手摟開敵臂,用左手擊敵面部;如敵欲逃,我卽進身伸右臂抱敵,趁勢擊之。
Application:
An opponent uses his left fist to attack from behind and to the right, so I turn around using my right hand to brush aside his arm, then use my left hand to strike to his face. If he wishes to escape, I advance with my body, extending my right arm to wrap around him, then take advantage of the opportunity to strike him.

11 斜單鞭
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

釋名 此式與單鞭式同,惟方位宜斜,故名。
Explanation of the name:
This posture is the same as SINGLE WHIP, except the direction should be to a diagonal, hence the name.
功效 與單鞭同。
Effects:
Same as in SINGLE WHIP.
用法 與單鞭同。
Application:
Same as in SINGLE WHIP.

12 肘底看槌
GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW

釋名    右手置左肘底下為槌,看守以防敵人之進攻,是名肘底看槌。此亦太極拳五槌之一也。
Explanation of the name:
Your right hand is placed below your left elbow, making the “punch”, while “guarding” means defending against an opponent’s attack, hence the name. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
功效 此式運動肩,肘,腕,胯,腰,各部,使諸關節靈活。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, and waist, and increases flexibility of the joints.
用法    敵用右拳擊我左肩,卽以左手格開敵拳,用右拳擊敵胸部;如敵用左手來格,卽將右拳撤囘左肘底下,復用左拳擊其下頦;設敵又用右手來格,卽以右拳趁勢由左肘下直擊敵胸部,則敵無法逃脫此拳矣。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike to my left shoulder, so I use my left hand so block aside his fist and use my right fist to strike to his chest. If he sends his left hand to block this, I withdraw my right fist below my elbow, then use my left fist to strike to his chin. If he uses his right hand to block again, I then take advantage of my right fist’s position to strike straight to his chest, and he will have no means of escaping it.

13 倒捻猴
RETREATING MONKEY

釋名    倒捻猴者,以猴輕靈活躍,性喜撲人,以手引之,俟其前撲時,卽退步抽手,另以掌按其頭頂之意。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, employ a monkey’s nimble liveliness and its personality of delighting in slapping someone. Use a hand to draw the opponent in, then once he attacks forward, step back, leading him in with your hand, and use your other palm to press down on his headtop.
功效 此式運動腰,脊,肩,臂,膝,腿,各部;可治腎足之病。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, spine, shoulders, arms, knees, and legs, and can cure weak kidneys.
用法    敵用右拳擊我胸部,卽用左手摟開,以右掌擊敵面部。反之,敵用左拳擊我胸部,卽用右手摟開,以左掌擊敵面部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike to my chest, so I use my left hand to brush it aside and use my right palm to strike to his face. Or if he uses his left fist to strike to my chest, I use my right hand to brush it aside, and use my left palm to strike to his face.

14 斜飛勢
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE

釋名 斜飛勢者,如鳥斜展兩翼而飛狀,故名。
Explanation of the name:
This posture is like a bird diagonally opening its wings to fly, hence the name.
功效 此式運動腰,腿,兩臂;可愈腎病。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, legs, and arms, and can cure kidney disease.
用法 敵用右拳向我左方襲擊,我卽以右手採敵右腕,趁勢用左手進擊敵脇部或面部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to suddenly strike to my left side, so I use my right hand to pluck his right wrist and take advantage of the opportunity to send my left hand forward to attack his ribs or face.

15 海底針
NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”

釋名 海底針者,卽用手向海底點刺之意。海底,乃人身之穴名也。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your hand has an intent of poking toward “Under the Sea”, the name of an acupoint on the human body.
功效 此式鍛鍊脊椎之力。
Effects:
This posture trains the strength of the spine.
用法    敵用右拳擊我,卽以左手往外摟開,以右掌擊其胸部;如敵用左手握我右腕時,卽將右掌略往後撤,復向下直伸,則敵力被化散矣。
Application:
An opponent used his right fist to strike me, so I sent my left outward to brush it aside and used my right palm to strike to his chest. If at that moment he uses his left hand to grab my right wrist, I slightly withdraw my right palm to the rear, then extend straight downward, causing his strength to be dispelled.

16 扇通背
FAN THROUGH THE BACK

釋名    設兩臂為扇幅,脊骨為扇軸,如扇之開合形;而運用脊背之力,使通於兩臂,謂之通背。
Explanation of the name:
Imagine that your spine is like the hinge of a fan and your arms are like the cloth of the fan. Making a posture of the fan opening, send power from your spine through your arms, hence the name.
功效 此式運動背脊,使脊力通於兩臂及腿部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the spine, causing power from the spine to reach to the arms and legs.
用法    敵以右拳進擊,我以右手刁住敵腕,向上提起,化散其力,復以左掌擊其脅部或胸部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack me, so I use my right hand to slyly lift his right wrist, dispelling his force, then use my left palm to strike to his ribs or chest.

17 撇身槌
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH

釋名 撇身槌者,閃身向後,轉腰部,右掌變拳撇出,故名。此亦太極拳五槌之一也。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, send your body to the rear, turning at the waist, your right palm becoming a fist and flinging out, hence the name. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
功效 此式運動腰,腿,肘,腕,各部;而使腕力發達。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, legs, elbows, and wrists, developing wrist strength.
用法    敵由身後擊來,我卽轉身,以右拳撇出擊其下膊,以左掌擊其面部;彼思逃遁,復以右拳向敵胸擊之。
Application:
An opponent attacks me from behind, so I turn around using my right first to fling out a strike to his forearm and use my left palm to strike to his face. If he wishes to escape, then I use my right fist to strike to his chest.

18 左右雲手
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS

釋名 雲手者,左右兩手往來運行不斷,如雲之旋繞狀,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your hands move to the left and right, coming and going ceaselessly, like the swirling of clouds, hence the name.
功效 此式運動腰,背,臂,腿,諸部;可愈手足麻木及腰背痠痛之病。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, back, arms, and legs. It can cure numbness in the hands and feet, as well as lower back pain.
用法    敵用拳擊我右方,我以右手捋敵,化散其力,趁勢發勁擊之;若敵迎面擊來,以右手化散其力,以左手擊敵腹部。反之,敵用拳擊我左方,我以左手捋敵,化散其力,趁勢發勁擊之;若敵迎面擊來,以左手化散其力,以右手擊敵腹部。此式手法往來運行,如雲之旋繞狀,絕無停滯,故敵進擊時,則被擲出矣。
Application:
An opponent on my right side uses a fist to strike me, so I use my right hand to roll him back, dispelling his force, then take advantage of the situation by issuing energy to attack him. Or if he attacks me straight ahead, I use my right hand to dispel his force and use my left hand to strike to his belly. If an opponent on my left side uses a fist to strike me, I use my left hand to roll him back, dispelling his force, then take advantage of the situation by issuing energy to attack him. Or if he attacks me straight ahead, I use my left hand to dispel his force and use my right hand to strike to his belly. In this technique, the hands move back and forth like the swirling of clouds, entirely without any stagnant pausing. Therefore when the opponent attacks, he gets thrown out.

19 高探馬
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

釋名 收步聳身,向前探出,如乘馬之探身狀,故名高探馬。
Explanation of the name:
Withdrawing a step, your body rises up as you reach out forward in the manner of extending your body forward to mount a horse, hence the name.
功效 此式運動腰,胯,膝,腿,各部;能治腎臟之病。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, hips, knees, and legs, and can treat kidney issues.
用法 敵用右拳擊來,我以左手接其腕,復用右掌擊敵頸項或面部。
Application:
An opponent uses a fist to strike me, so I use my left hand to connect to his wrist, then use my right palm to strike to his neck or face.

20 左右分脚
KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT SIDES

釋名 分脚者,左右脚向兩邊分踢之謂也。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, kick with each foot to its respective side.
功效 此式運動腿部,使筋肉發達。
Effects:
This posture exercises the legs and develops muscles.
用法    敵用右拳擊來,我以兩手纏住敵腕,以左手挑擊其臂,趁彼不備,卽起左脚踢敵脅部。反之,敵用左拳擊來,我以兩手纏住敵腕,以右手挑擊其臂,趁彼不備,起右脚踢敵脇部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack, I use both hands to coil around his wrist, then use my left hand to do a carrying strike to his arm. Catching him off-guard, I then lift my left foot to kick to his ribs. Or if he uses his left fist to attack, I use both hands to coil around his wrist, then use my right hand to do a carrying strike to his arm, Catching him off-guard, I then lift my right foot to kick to his ribs.

21 轉身蹬脚
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

釋名 此式向後轉身,脚尖向上,脚踵向前蹬出,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, turn around to the rear, then with the toes lifted, press forward using your heel, hence the name.
功效 此式運動腿部及足踵。
Effects:
This posture exercises the legs and heels.
用法    敵由後擊我背部,我卽轉身閃過,趁勢起脚蹬敵胸,腹等部;兩手隨之分開,防其摟腿也。
Application:
An opponent behind me attacks my back, so I turn around to prevent it, taking advantage of the opportunity to lift my foot and do a pressing kick to his chest or belly, my hands spreading apart to keep him from brushing my leg away.

22 栽槌
PLANTING PUNCH

釋名 栽槌者,右拳左掌,由上向下擊去,如栽植物狀,故名。亦太極拳五槌之一也。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, with your right hand a fist and your left hand a palm, strike down from above as if to plant something, hence the name. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
功效 此式鍛鍊脊椎之力。
Effects:
This posture trains the strength of the spine.
用法 敵用右拳擊我胸部,我以左手往外摟開,用右拳擊其腹部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike to my chest, so I send my left hand outward to brush it aside while using my right fist to strike to his belly.

23 二起脚
DOUBLE KICK

釋名 二起脚者,連續踢左右脚也。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your feet kick in succession, left then right.
功效 此式運動肩,臂,胯,腿,各部;可治手足麻木之病。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs, and can cure numbness in the hands and feet.
用法    敵用左拳擊來,我以兩手纏住敵腕,以右手挑擊其臂,趁勢起右脚踢敵脅部;設敵以手摟我右腿,卽將右腿撤囘,再起左脚踢之。
Application:
An opponent uses his left fist to attack, so I use both hands to coil around his wrist, then use my right to do a carrying strike to his arm and take advantage of the opportunity to lift my right foot and kick to his ribs. If he uses his hand to brush aside my right leg, I withdraw my right leg and then left my left leg to kick him.

24 打虎式
FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE

釋名 打虎式者,如武士打虎狀,故名。
Explanation of the name:
This posture resembles the “fighting tiger” pose of a classical warrior, hence the name.
功效 此式運動腰,脊,膝,腿,各部;鍛鍊脊力;且使腿部筋肉發達。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, spine, knees, and legs. It trains the strength of the spine and causes the leg muscles to develop.
用法    敵兩手握我左臂,我向左方後撤,化散其力,以右手握敵左臂,同時左手由下而上,轉擊其頭部。
Application:
An opponent uses both hands to grab my left arm, so I withdraw to the left to dispel his strength, using my right hand to grab his left arm while sending my left hand upward from below to do an arcing strike to his face.

25 雙風貫耳
DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS

釋名 雙風貫耳者,以雙拳由兩旁貫擊敵人兩耳,其快如風,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, both fists come from the sides to strike the opponent’s ears as swift as the wind, hence the name.
功效 此式運動肩,臂,肘,腕,諸部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, arms, elbows, and wrists.
用法    敵用左拳擊來,我以左手纏住敵腕,以右掌擊其面;如敵以右手挑我右掌時,卽起右脚蹬敵脇部或腹部;若敵再以左手下摟我腿,用右拳當胸擊來,我卽將右腿收囘,以手格開敵拳,趁勢以雙拳由兩旁繞上貫擊敵人兩耳。
Application:
An opponent uses his left fist to attack, so I use my left hand to coil around his wrist and use my right palm to strike to his face. If he uses his right hand to prop up my right palm, I then lift my right foot to do a pressing kick to his ribs or chest. If he then brings his left hand downward to brush my leg aside and uses his right fist to attack directly to my chest, I then withdraw my right leg while using a hand to block aside his fist, then take advantage of the situation by using both fists to arc upward from the sides and strike to his ears.

26 披身踢脚
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK

釋名 披身踢脚者,身作斜披勢,左脚向前踢出也。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your body makes an action of diagonally covering and then your left foot kicks forward.
功效 此式運動臂,腰,腿,各部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the arms, waist, and legs.
用法 敵用右拳擊來,我卽披身,以右手握其腕,左手挑其臂,趁勢起左脚踢敵脅或胸部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack me, so I cover my body, using my right hand to grab his wrist, and my left hand to prop up his arm, then take advantage of the opportunity to lift my left foot and kick to his ribs or chest.

27 野馬分鬃
WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE

釋名 此式運行如野馬奔馳;雙手分展,如馬之頭鬃披落兩旁。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, the movement is like a wild horse running swiftly, your hands spreading away like the horse’s mane draping side to side.
功效 此式運動頸,臂,胸,腰,胯,腿,各部;可治腎病,手足麻木及輕微之肺疾。
Effects:
This posture exercises the neck, arms, chest, waist, hips, and legs. It can cure kidney disease, numbness in the hands and feet, and reduce lung disease.
用法    敵用右拳當胸擊來,我以右手按其腕,進左足至敵右腿後彎,同時以左手進擊彼脅部或胸部。敵若用左拳擊來,我以左手按其腕,進右足至敵左腿後彎,同時以右手進擊彼脅部或胸部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack directly to my chest, so I use my right hand to push down on his wrist, then advance my left leg to be behind his right knee while sending my left hand forward to attack his ribs or chest. If he uses his left fist to attack, I use my left hand to push down on his wrist, then advance my right leg to be behind his left knee while sending my right hand forward to attack his ribs or chest.

28 玉女穿梭
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE

釋名 所謂玉女穿梭者,運轉四隅,往來不絕,如機織穿梭狀也。
Explanation of the name:
This movement is named because it turns around to the four corners continuously in the manner of the shuttle slipping in and out when weaving.
功效 此式運動肩,肘,腕,腰,腿,各部,而鍛鍊其伸縮力。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, elbows, wrists, waist, and legs, and trains ability in expanding and contracting.
用法 (一)敵用拳擊我頭部,我以左手向上掤化敵臂,以右掌擊其胸部,或脅部。
(二)敵由後面擊我背部,卽轉身以左手採住敵腕,進右步,以右手向上掤化敵臂,以左掌擊敵胸部或脅部。
Application:
1. An opponent uses a fist to strike to my head, so I use my left hand to ward off and neutralize his arm, then use my right palm to strike to his chest or ribs.
2. An opponent from behind strikes to my back, so I turn around and use my left hand to pluck his wrist, advance with my right foot, and use my right hand to ward off and neutralize his arm, then use my left palm to strike to his chest or ribs.

29 下勢
LOW POSTURE

釋名 下勢,乃身體由上降下之意。
Explanation of the name:
That idea in this posture is that your body descends from above to below.
功效 此式運動背,膝,腿,足腕各部;鍛鍊脊椎及腿部之力。
Effects:
This posture exercises the back, knees, legs, and feet. It trains strength in the spine and legs.
用法    敵用猛力前撲我身,我卽以雙手下捋敵臂,同時身體下坐,使敵落空而前仆,復趁勢擊之。
Application:
An opponent makes an aggressive forward attack to my body, so I use both hands to do a downward rollback to his arm while sitting my body down, causing him to lose his balance and lean forward, then take advantage of the opportunity to strike him.

30 金雞獨立
GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG

釋名 此式如雞與鶴之獨立形;一足立地,一足提起,雙手作展翅狀。
Explanation of the name:
This posture resembles the look of a rooster or crane standing on one leg. One foot stands on the ground while the other is lifted, your hands in a pose of spread wings.
功效 此式運動腰,脊,兩腿;而使腿部堅實有力。
Effects:
This posture exercises the waist, spine, and legs, causing the legs to become solid and strong.
用法    敵用右拳擊我胸部,則以左手下按敵腕,以右手擊其下頦,乘敵不備,提起右腿,以膝擊其小腹。敵如思遁,我右足卽落地;以左掌擊其面部;敵以手格我掌,則速起左脚踢其腹部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike to my chest, so I use my left hand to push down on his wrist and use my right hand to strike to his chin, and taking advantage of his unpreparedness, I lift my right leg and use my knee to strike to his lower abdomen. If he wants to escape, I bring down my right foot and use my left palm to strike to his face. If he sends a hand to block my palm, I then quickly lift my left foot to kick to his belly.

31 劈面掌
CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE

釋名 劈面掌者,拳術名詞,以掌劈擊敵人面胸各部也。
Explanation of the name:
This posture is the name of a boxing technique in which the palm does a chopping strike to an opponent’s face or chest.
功效 此式運動肩,臂,二部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders and arms.
用法 敵用右拳擊來,我以右手下按其腕,進左步,以左掌背劈擊敵面部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack me, so I use my right hand to push down his wrist, then advance with my left foot while using the back of my left palm to do a chopping strike to his face.

32 十字擺蓮
CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK

釋名 右腿向旁擺踢(旁踢為擺蓮腿)左掌,成十字形,故名十字擺蓮。
Explanation of the name:
Your right leg swings across (a sideways kick being a “swinging lotus kick”) to kick your left palm, making a crossed shape, hence the name.
功效 此式運動腿部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the legs.
用法 敵從後方以右拳擊來,我轉身以左手格之,趁勢起右足由旁踢其脅部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack me from behind, so I turn around and use my left hand to block it, then take advantage of the opportunity to lift my right foot and do a sideways kick to his ribs.

33 指襠槌
PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

釋名 此式乃進擊敵人下部,故名。亦為太極拳五槌之一。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, you advance and strike an opponent’s lower body, hence the name. This is one of the five punching techniques in Taiji Boxing.
功效 此式運動肩,背,各部;而鍛鍊脊椎之力。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders and back, and trains strength in the spine.
用法 敵用右拳擊我腹部,卽以左手格開,趁擊以右拳擊敵下部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike to me belly, so I use my left hand to block it aside and take advantage of the opportunity to use my right fist to strike to his lower body.

34 七星
BIG DIPPER POSTURE

釋名 七星乃拳術名詞,技擊家以兩拳相叉於面前為『七星』式。
Explanation of the name:
This is a boxing arts term. When a practitioner crosses his fists in front of his face, it is called a “big dipper” posture [i.e. making a bucket shape resembling the saucepan of the Dipper].
功效 此式運動腕,腿各部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the wrists and legs.
用法 敵用右拳擊我胸部,我以兩手上架,同時起右脚踢之。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike to my chest, so I use both hands to prop it upward while lifting my right foot to kick him.

35 跨虎
SITTING TIGER POSTURE

釋名 跨虎亦拳術名詞,技擊家以雙臂前後分張,右掌左鈎,步為虛式,是名『跨虎』。
Explanation of the name:
This too is a boxing arts term. When a practitioner spreads his arms to the front and back, right hand a palm, left hand a hook, standing in an empty stance, it is called a “sitting tiger” posture.
功效 此式運動腕,肘,頸,肩,腰,腿各部,而鍛鍊其伸縮力。
Effects:
This posture exercises the wrists, elbows, neck, shoulders, waist, and legs, and it trains ability in expanding and contracting.
用法    敵用右拳從右側擊來,卽以左手刁住敵腕,以右掌擊其胸部;如敵用左手來格,卽趁勢起左脚踢之。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to attack from the right side, so I use my left hand to hook his wrist and use my right palm to strike to his chest. If then uses his left hand to block, I then take advantage of the opportunity to lift my left foot and kick him.

36 雙擺蓮
DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK

釋名 雙擺蓮者,右足提起,向旁擺踢雙掌,故名。
Explanation of the name:
In this posture, your right foot lifts and swings across to kick both palms, hence the name.
功效 此式運動腿部。
Effects:
This posture exercises the legs.
用法    敵用右拳由後方擊我側面時,卽轉身以右手接其拳,以左手推其臂,趁勢起右脚從旁踢敵脅部或背部。
Application:
An opponent uses his right fist to strike me from behind and to the side, so I turn around using my right hand to connect to his fist and use my left hand to push on his arm, then take advantage of the situation by lifting my right foot to do a sideways kick to his ribs or back.

37 彎弓射虎
BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER

釋名 此式如古代人打獵時,在馬上拉弓射箭狀,故名。
Explanation of the name:
This posture resembles an ancient person during a hunt, one who is on horseback drawing a bow to shoot, hence the name.
功效 此式運動肩,肘,腰,胯,各部,而發達其筋肉。
Effects:
This posture exercises the shoulders, elbows, waist, and hips, and develops the muscles.
用法    敵用右臂從上方下劈我時,我以雙手接住敵臂,向右引領,使敵落空,復趁勢以雙拳擊之,則敵跌出矣。
Application:
When an opponent uses his right arm to chop down at me from above, so I use both hands to connect to his arm and lead him to the right, causing him to lose his balance, then take advantage of the situation by using both fists to strike him, causing him to stumble away.

六 拳勢圖解
SIX: THE BOXING SET ILLUSTRATED

1 太極起式(如第一圖)
BEGINNING POSTURE – See photo 1:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 1

身 向南正立。
Torso: upright, facing squarely to the south.
手 兩手掌心朝下,向上提至胸旁,徐徐下按,與胯相齊。
Hands: Your hands, palms facing downward, lift up until beside your chest, then slowly push down until at hip level.
步 左右足平行,分開,直立;中間距離,以兩肩之寬度為標準。
Footwork: Your feet stand parallel, spread apart, legs straight. The space between them is shoulder width.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意    此太極拳開始預備之姿勢。將練習時,週身放鬆,順其自然,不用拙力,勿怒目,宜閉口,舌抵上腭,沉肩垂肘,涵胸拔背,鬆腰收臀,氣沉丹田,精神貫頂,全體透空。此式於太極拳中最為重要。
Points for attention: This is the opening preparation posture in the Taiji Boxing set. When practicing, your whole body is to be relaxed, moving naturally. Do not use any awkward effort or glare angrily with your eyes. Your mouth should be closed, your tongue touching your upper palate. Sink your shoulder and drop your elbows, contain your chest and pluck up your back, loosen your waist and tuck in your buttocks. Energy sinks to your elixir field, spirit courses through to your headtop, your whole body should feel emptied. This is the most important posture in Taiji Boxing.

2 欖雀尾(一)(如第二圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – See photo 2:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 2

身 向南。
Torso: facing to the south.
手    雙掌側轉,由兩胯起,作環形,舉至胸前,左掌擺橫,掌心朝裏;右掌擺直,五指向前。左手大拇指,與鼻相對。
Hands: Your palms turn to be sideways, lifting from your hips in an arc until in front of your chest, your left palm swinging across to be facing inward, your right palm swinging into place vertically, fingers pointing forward [upward], your left thumb at nose level.
步 右足曲膝下坐,同時左足向前伸出,足踵着地,脚尖上豎。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right leg sits down, knee bending, as your left foot extends forward, heel touching down, toes lifted. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此式兩手上提,氣易浮動,練時宜使氣下沉丹田,則可免前俯後仰之弊。
Points for attention: In this posture, as your hands lift up, energy may easily float as a consequence. When practicing, you should get energy to sink to your elixir field, then you will be able to avoid the errors of leaning forward or back.

3 攬雀尾(二)(如第三圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – See photo 3:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 3

身 轉向西方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the west.
手 兩手向右作半環形捧出,左掌心向上,右掌心向下,左手五指距離右腕寸許。
Hands: Your hands make a half circle, carrying outward to the right, left palm facing upward, right palm facing downward, your left fingers about an inch away from your right wrist.
步 左足轉右,伸直,同時右足前進一步,曲膝,為川式。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot pivots to the right, the leg straightening as your right foot advances a step, its knee bending, making a “three-line” stance [meaning a line for each foot and the line running between them]. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 兩手向前架出,此卽是「掤」。練時腰部隨手足一齊動作,切勿偏倚。
Points for attention: As your hands prop up forward, this is the “ward-off”. When practicing, your waist acts in unison with your limbs. Do not be biased toward using one or the other.

4 攬雀尾(三)(如第四圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – See photo 4:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 4

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手 兩手隨腰向右旋轉,成半環形。
Hands: Your hands go along with your waist by arcing to the right, making a half circle.
步 左足曲膝下坐,同時右足原地不動,脚尖上豎。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left leg sits, the knee bending, your right foot staying where it is, toes lifted. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此式兩手隨腰下攬,謂之「捋」。練習時宜使臂部下垂,全身之力,在於左腿。
Points for attention: In this posture, as your hands go along with your waist by pulling downward, this is the “rollback”. When practicing, you should get your arms to hang down. The weight is entirely on your left leg.

5 攬雀尾(四)(如第五圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – See photo 5:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 5

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手 由前式轉至胸前,右掌心轉向上,左掌心轉向下,向左往前作半環形推出。
Hands: From the previous posture, your hands arc until in front of your chest, right palm turning to face upward, left palm turning to face downward, then make an arc to the left and forward, and pushing out.
步 右足脚尖着地,曲膝,左足伸直,為川式。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right toes come down, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意    此式曰「擠」,謂兩手往外排擠也。練時如由懷內推出重物狀。宜沉肩垂肘。右手拇指,準對鼻部,左手五指距離右手脈門寸許。
Points for attention: This posture is called “press” because your hands press outward. When practicing, it is like you are pushing an object away from your chest. You should sink your shoulders and drop your elbows. Your right thumb is at nose level, your left fingers about an inch away from your right pulse.

6 攬雀尾(五)(如第六圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 5) – See photo 6:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 6

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手    由前式,雙手向右向後旋轉成半環形,至右肩,變為豎掌,(左手較低,指尖近右腕。)手心向外,往前平按,略與胸齊。
Hands: From the previous posture, your hands make a half circle, arcing to the right and rear until by your right shoulder, becoming upright palms (left hand slightly lower, fingertips close to your right wrist), the palms facing outward, then do a level push forward at about chest level.
步    雙手旋轉時,同時左足曲膝下坐,右足伸直,足踵着地,足尖上豎;左實右虛。雙手按出時,右足向前略進,曲膝;左足伸直,變為川式。右實左虛。
Footwork: As your hands circle, your left leg sits, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, heel touching down, toes lifted. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. Your hands push out, your right foot lightly advancing, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意    此式曰「按」,蓋用勁抑按敵人也。以上五式,練時一氣連貫,不可中斷,圓轉成環形,腰脊四肢,均須一致,動作務使靈活。
Points for attention: This posture is called “push” because you use power to push against the opponent’s body. While practicing the five postures above, energy is to be continuous and must not be interrupted, and the movements should be rounded. Your waist, spine, and limbs must all function in unison, and the movements should be lively.

7 單鞭(如第七圖)
SINGLE WHIP – See photo 7:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 7

身 轉向東方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the east.
手    由前式,右臂不動,五指下垂,屈成勾形;左手垂肘,手心由外轉向內,隨轉隨動,經胸前徐徐往左伸出,手心轉向外。
Hands: From the previous posture, your right arm stays where it is, the fingers hanging down and bending to make a hook shape, as your left elbow hangs and the palm turns from facing outward to face inward, turning in accordance with the movement, passing in front of your chest and slowly extending to the left, turning again to face outward.
步 右足踵轉向左,微斜,伸直;左足同時略提起向前一步,曲膝,變為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your right heel pivots to the left to be slightly diagonal, the leg straightening as your left foot lifts and advances a step, the knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此式運動肩背及四肢,練時手足務須一齊向前運出,兩肩放鬆,切勿上聳。
Points for attention: This posture exercises the shoulders, back, and limbs. When practicing, your [left] hand and foot must go forward in unison. Your shoulders are to be relaxed and should not be rising up.

8 提手上式(一)(如第八圖)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 1) – See photo 8:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 8

身 轉向南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the south.
手 由前式,右手變掌,下垂,前向;左手提高至額際,手心向外。
Hands: From the previous posture, your right hand becomes a palm, hanging down and going forward, as your left hand lifts until by your forehead, palm facing outward.
步 右足進前半步,足尖點地;左足踵略轉,足尖向前,微斜。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your right foot advances a half step, toes touching down, your left heel slightly pivoting so the toes are pointing forward slightly diagonally. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此式頭宜頂勁,兩肩下沉,身體切勿傾斜。
Points for attention: In this posture, your head should have an energy of pressing up, your shoulders should be sinking down, and your body should not be leaning at angle.

9 提手上式(二)(如第九圖)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 2) – See photo 9:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 9

身 向南。
Torso: facing to the south.
手 左手由上降至胸前,手心朝下;同時右手由下提至胸部,手心向內。
Hands: Your left hand descends from above until in front of your chest, palm facing downward, as your right lifts from below until at chest level, palm facing inward.
步 右足前進半步,曲膝;左足向前移動二三寸。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot advances a half step, the knee bending, your left foot shifting forward two or three inches. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此式脊骨宜直,切勿前俛。
Points for attention: In this posture your spine should be straight and should not be inclining forward.

10 提手上式(三)(如第十圖)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 3) – See photo 10:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 10

身 向南。
Torso: facing to the south.
手 右手從下向上提至額際,左手從上垂下至腹前,兩手掌心均向下方。
Hands: Your right hand lifts up from below until by your forehead as your left lowers from above until in front of your belly, both palms facing downward.
步 左足進前一步,與右足相並,曲膝齊立。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step to stand next to your right foot, knees bent.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意    此式練習腰脊伸縮力。宜涵胸拔背,鬆腰垂臀,氣沉丹田,上下一氣貫串,勿使有絲毫間斷。
Points for attention: When practicing this posture, your lower back should be supple, you should contain your chest and pluck up your back, loosen your waist and buttocks. Energy should sink to your elixir field, then flow everywhere above and below without the slightest interruption.

11 白鶴掠翅(一)(如第十一圖)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 1) – See photo 11:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 11

身 向左方拗轉。
Torso: twists to the left.
手 兩手向左下方轉動,雙掌斜對,作伸展之勢,如鶴之掠翅狀。
Hands: Your hands are rotated toward the lower left, palms diagonally facing each other, to make a posture of reaching wings, in the manner of a crane swatting with its wings.
步 兩腿略向左拗轉,曲膝齊立。
Footwork: Your legs twist slightly to the left, standing together, knees bent.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此式以腰脊為樞,兩臂隨之斜展,速度均宜一致。
Points for attention: In this posture, your lower back makes a pivot, your arms spreading diagonally at the same speed.

12 白鶴掠翅(二)(如第十二圖)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 2) – See photo 12:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 12

身 向左方。
Torso: turned to the left.
手 由前式雙手上舉,掌心斜對。
Hands: From the previous posture, your hands lift up [your left hand lifts and your right hand lowers], palms diagonally facing each other.
步 兩腿向右微動,曲膝齊立。
Footwork: Your legs slightly turn to the right, standing together, knees bent.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此式如鶴之展翅狀,其勁由背脊發出。
Points for attention: This posture is like a crane with its wings spread [away to one side], the energy issuing from your spine.

13 白鶴掠翅(三)(如第十三圖)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 3) – See photo 13:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 13

身 移向正南。
Torso: turns to be facing squarely to the south.
手 雙手移至正南並列,掌心轉而朝外,指尖上豎。
Hands: Your hands are shifted toward the south, next to each other, palms turning to face outward, fingers pointing upward.
步 兩腿向右移正,曲膝齊立。
Footwork: Your legs turn to the right to be angled squarely, standing together, knees bent.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 以上三式,乃練習胸背各部之伸縮力,開合均須自然。
Points for attention: The three postures above develop flexibility in the chest and back, but the actions of opening and closing must be natural.

14 摟膝拗步左(一)(如第十四圖)
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 1) – See photo 14:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 14

身 向東略轉。
Torso: slightly turns to the east.
手 左手下按,橫置胸前,掌心朝下;右手提至耳際,側掌。
Hands: Your left hand pushes downward to be placed sideways in front of your chest, palm facing downward, your right hand lifting until by your ear, the palm sideways.
步 左足不動;右足轉橫,足尖與左足尖距離約二寸許。
Footwork: Your left foot does not move, your right foot turning to be sideways, the toes about two inches away from your left toes.
眼 視東方。
Eyes: looking to the east.
注意 此式預備進前作摟膝之勢。
Points for attention: This posture is preparation to advance in the following posture.

15 摟膝拗步左(二)(如第十五圖)
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 2) – See photo 15:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 15

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    由前式,左手由胸前往右下按,摟過左膝,置左膝旁,掌心朝下,指尖向前;右手下落,從後方轉上,經右耳邊徐徐向前按出,肘微曲,指尖上豎,掌心朝外。
Hands: From the previous posture, your left hand pushes downward to the right from in front of your chest, brushing past your left knee to be placed beside your left knee, palm facing outward, fingers pointing forward, as your right hand lowers to the rear, arcs upward, passes beside your right ear, and slowly pushes out forward, elbow slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing outward.
步 左足進前一步,曲膝;右足伸直,為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此式手向前運行之路線,皆為橢圓形之圓圈,宜以腰力為主,非運用兩臂之力也。
Points for attention: In this posture, your hand’s forward path of movement is the roundness of an oval throughout. The movement should be driven by your waist, not the strength of your arms.

16 手揮琵琶右(如第十六圖)
PLAY THE LUTE – See photo 16:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 16

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右手往懷內撒囘,左手由下方上舉,雙手如抱琵琶狀,垂肘,豎掌,左手拇指與鼻準相對,右掌心約對左手臂彎。
Hands: Your right hand withdraws toward your chest as your left hand lifts from below, your hands making a shape of holding a lute, elbows hanging, palms upright, your left thumb at nose level, your right palm facing to roughly your left elbow.
步 左足略向後撒,脚尖上豎;右足曲膝下坐。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot withdraws slightly toward the rear, toes lifted, your right leg sitting, the knee bending. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 右手收囘時,身體後撤,以腰為軸,無使有偏倚處。
Points for attention: As your right hand withdraws, your body goes to the rear. Using your waist as the axle between them, neither your hands nor body get overemphasized.

17 摟膝拗步左(一)(參看第十五圖及解法。)
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 1) – Same as in photo 15

18 摟膝拗步右(二)(如第十七圖)
RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 2) – See photo 17:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 17

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右手由胸前往左下按,摟過右膝,置右膝旁,掌心朝下,指尖向前;左手下落,從後方轉上,經左耳旁,徐徐向前按出,肘微曲,指尖上豎,掌心朝外。
Hands: Your right hand pushes downward to the left from in front of your chest, brushing past your right knee to be placed beside your right knee, palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward, as your left hand lowers to the rear, arcs upward, passes beside your left ear, and slowly pushes out forward, elbow slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing outward.
步 右足進前一步,曲膝;左足伸直,為川式。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot advances a step, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此式與第十五圖摟膝拗步同,惟手法及步法之左右完全相反。
Points for attention: This posture is the same BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE as in photo 15, except that your hands and feet are reversed left and right.

19 摟膝拗步左(三)(參看第十五圖及解法。)
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 3) – Same as in photo 15

20 手揮琵琶右(參看第十六圖及解法)
RIGHT PLAY THE LUTE – Same as in photo 16

21 搬攔搥(一)(如第十八圖)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 1) – See photo 18:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 18

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 左掌在上,右掌在下,雙手由右向左旋轉作環形,掌心相對,置於胸前。
Hands: With your left palm above, right palm below, your hands make an arc from right to left, palms facing each other, placed in front of your chest.
步 左足向前,曲膝;右足向前進,與左足曲膝齊立。
Footwork: Your left foot goes forward, the knee bending, then your right foot advances to stand next to your left foot, knees bent.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 以上動作,乃手揮琵琶轉搬攔槌之過渡式。
Points for attention: In the couple of movements above, PLAY THE LUTE is a transitional posture into PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.

22 搬攔槌(二)(如第十九圖)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 2) – See photo 19:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 19

身 正東。
Torso: facing squarely to the east.
手 由上式,左手自右向前轉動作半環形,右手隨其動作。
Hands: From the previous posture, your left hand makes a half circle, arcing forward from the right, as your right hand goes along with the movement [by arcing to the side from the left].
步 左足進前一步,曲膝;右足伸直,為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 向前搬出時,切勿探身,宜用脊力。
Points for attention: When your go forward to parry, you must not reach with your body, instead you should use power from your spine.

23 搬攔槌(三)(如第二十圖)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 3) – See photo 20:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 20

身 正東。
Torso: facing squarely to the east.
手    由上式,左手垂肘,五指向上,同時右掌移至左掌前寸許,變拳,虎口向上,收囘脅際。
Hands: From the previous posture, your left elbows hangs, fingers pointing upward, as your right palm shifts to be about an inch in front of your left palm, becoming a fist, tiger’s mouth facing upward, and withdraws to be by your ribs.
步 右足曲膝下坐;左足略向後撤,足踵着地,脚尖上豎。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right leg sits, the knee bending, your left foot withdrawing slightly to the rear, heel touching down, toes lifted. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 右掌向內收囘時,左掌隨之向內微動。
Points for attention: As your right palm withdraws, your left palm moves slightly inward.

24 搬攔槌(四)(如第二十一圖)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 4) – See photo 21:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 21

身 正東。
Torso: facing squarely to the east.
手 右拳從脅際向前打出;左掌護右手脈門。
Hands: Your right fist strikes out forward from your ribs, your left palm guarding at your right pulse area.
步 左足向前略進,曲膝;右足伸直,為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot slightly advances, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 以上四式,均須聯成一氣,不可間斷;腰背肩胯,尤須一致。
Points for attention: The four postures all have to be performed in one continuous flow which must not be interrupted. Your waist, back, shoulders, and hips especially have to function in unison.

25 如封似閉(一)(如第二十二圖)
SEALING SHUT (Part 1) – See photo 22:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 22

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 右拳變掌;兩手分劃,右腕在左腕上,仰掌,交搭成十字形。
Hands: Your right fist becomes a palm a both hands arc to the sides so that your right wrist is above your left wrist, the palms facing upward, crossed to make an X shape.
步 左足微直略彎,足尖點地;右足曲膝下坐。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left leg is slightly straight and slightly bent, toes touching down, your right leg sitting, the knee bending. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 兩手分劃時,雙肘微曲,全身後坐,重心在右腿。
Points for attention: As your hands draw arcs, your elbows slightly bend, your body sits back, and the weight shifts to your right leg.

26 如封似閉(二)(如第二十三圖)
SEALING SHUT (Part 2) – See photo 23:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 23

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 承前式,兩手隨腰向懷內抽囘,雙手左右分開,至兩胯際,掌心向前。
Hands: Continuing from the previous posture, your hands go along with your waist by withdrawing in front of your chest and spreading apart to the sides until by your hips, palms facing forward.
步 左足向後撤,足尖點地;右足曲膝下坐。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot is withdrawn to the rear, toes touching down, right leg sitting, knee bent. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 兩手抽囘分開時,肘宜下垂,貼近兩肋,切勿向旁閃開。
Points for attention: As your hands withdraw and spread apart, your elbows should hang down close to your ribs and should not protrude to the sides.

27 如封似閉(三)(如第二十四圖)
SEALING SHUT (Part 3) – See photo 24:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 24

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 雙手往後,由下而上,劃一半圓形,隨腰向前推出,坐腕,掌心朝外。
Hands: Your hands go to the rear, arc in half circles upward from below, then go along with your waist by pushing out forward, the wrists settling, palms facing outward.
步 左足略向前進,曲膝;右足伸直,為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot slightly advances, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意    以上三式,連貫一氣。練時,兩腕交搭,立卽分開;分開後,卽須前推,切不可停留。其勁由掌心發出。
Points for attention: The three postures above are to be performed as a continuous flow. When practicing, your wrists cross, then immediately spread apart. After they have spread, you must push forward without lingering, the power issuing from your palms.

28 十字手(如第廿五圖)
CROSSED HANDS – See photo 25:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 25

身 轉向正南。
Torso: turns to be facing squarely to the south.
手    由前式,雙手下按,向右轉至兩胯,復由下而上,分向左右劃一大圓圈,至胸前交搭成斜十字形,右手在外,左手在內。
Hands: From the previous posture, your hands push downward as you turn to the right, until they are by your hips, then arc upward from below, spreading apart to the sides and making a large circle which brings them to be crossing to make an X shape in front of your chest, right hand on the outside, left hand on the inside.
步 由前川式,向右轉為八字式;復將左足收靠右足,曲膝齊立。
Footwork: From the three-line stance, turn to the right to form an “eight-character” stance. [(八) This means your feet are making roughly a ninety-degree angle to each other. See the stance in photo 38 below.] Then your left foot withdraws to stand next to your right foot, knees bent.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 雙手下按向右轉時,腰脊兩腿,卽隨之一致動作,切忌手動腰腿不動。
Points for attention: When your hands push down as you turn to the right, your lower back and legs are to act in unison with your hands. Avoid moving your hands without moving your waist and legs.

29 摟膝拗步斜(如第二十六圖)
DIAGONAL BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE – See photo 26:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 26

身 轉向東南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast.
手    右手下沉,由後轉上,經右耳邊徐徐向前按出,肘微曲,指尖上豎,掌心朝外,同時左手下按,摟過左膝,至左膝旁,掌心朝下,五指向前。
Hands: Your right hand sinks down, arcs to the rear and upward, passes beside your right ear, and slowly pushes out forward, elbow slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing outward, as your left hand pushes downward, brushing past your left knee until beside your left knee, palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward.
步 左足向東南斜進一步,曲膝;右足伸直,為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step diagonally to the southeast, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 此式與左摟膝拗步同,惟方位斜向東南耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE, except the orientation in this case is to the southeast.

30 抱虎歸山(如第二十七圖)
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – See photo 27:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 27

身 轉向西北。
Torso: turns to be facing to the northwest.
手    左手由膝旁,向東南提起,繞至耳際,往西北按出,同時右手撤至左腋下,復掠過右膝,至右膝旁,掌心向下。
Hands: Your left hand lifts toward the southeast, arcs until by your ear, then pushes out to the northwest, as your right hand withdraws below your left armpit, then brushes past your right knee until beside your right knee, palm facing downward.
步 轉左足跟,右足向西北進一步,曲膝;左足伸直,為川式。右實左虛。
Footwork: Pivoting on your left heel, your right foot advances a step to the northwest, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視西北。
Eyes: looking to the northwest.
注意 左手未按出前,全身重點在左腿;當按出時,腰腿隨之前進。
Points for attention: Before your left hand pushes out forward, the weight shifts to your left leg. Upon pushing, your waist and legs move forward.

31 攬雀尾(一)(如第二十八圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – See photo 28:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 28

身 向西北。
Torso: facing to the northwest.
手    左手變為仰掌,收囘胸際,五指向前;右手提上至左手前,掌心朝下,右腕距離左手指寸許。
Hands: Your left hand becomes an upward-facing palm withdrawing toward your chest, fingers pointing forward, as your right hand lifts until in front of your left hand, palm facing downward, the wrist about an inch away from your left fingers.
步 左足向後,曲膝下坐;右足後撤,脚尖上豎。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left leg sits to the rear, the knee bending, your right foot withdrawing to the rear, toes lifted. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此為過渡式,與下式連續。以下四式,身均向西北。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture flowing into the following posture. In these next four postures, your torso is facing to the northwest.

32 攬雀尾(二)(參看第三圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – Same as in photo 3
33 攬雀尾(三)(參看第四圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – Same as in photo 4
34 攬雀尾(四)(參看第五圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – Same as in photo 5
35 攬雀尾(五)(參看第六圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 5) – Same as in photo 6

36 斜單鞭(如第二十九圖)
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP – See photo 29:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 29

身 轉向東南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast.
手    由上攬雀尾第五式,右臂不動,五指下垂,屈成鈎形;左手垂肘,手心由外轉向內,隨轉隨動,經胸前徐徐往東南伸出,手心轉向外。
Hands: From CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – Part 5, your right arm stays where it is, the fingers hanging down and bending to make a hook shape, as your left elbow hangs and the palm turns from facing outward to face inward, turning in accordance with the movement, passing in front of your chest and slowly extending to the southeast, turning again to face outward.
步    右足踵轉向左,微斜,伸直;左足同時畧提起,向東南進一步,曲膝,變為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your right heel pivots to the left to point the foot slightly diagonally, the leg straightening as your left foot slightly lifts and advances a step to the southeast, the knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此式與單鞭式同,惟方位斜向東南。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as SINGLE WHIP, except the orientation is to the southeast corner.

37 肘底看搥(如第三十圖)
GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW – See photo 30:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 30

身 轉向正東。
Torso: turns to be facing squarely to the east.
手    左掌拗轉,大拇指在下,向左劃作半圓形,至脅際變拳,斜舉,由胸前伸出,虎口與鼻準相對,同時右手變掌,鬆直,至胸前變拳,收囘置左肘下。
Hands: Your left palm twists so the thumb is facing downward, makes a half circle arcing to the left until by your ribs, whereupon it becomes a fist, raises diagonally, extending from in front of your chest, tiger’s mouth facing your nose, as your right hand becomes a palm,
loosens and straightens, arrives in front of your chest and becomes a fist, gathering in to be placed below your left elbow.
步 右足斜上一步,向東曲膝下坐,同時轉左足向東,脚尖上豎。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot steps forward diagonally to the east, then the leg sits, the knee bending, as your left foot points to the east, toes lifted. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此式步法成一『三角』形,兩手動作不分先後,速度相同。
Points for attention: In this posture, the steps form a triangle. Your hands do not move one before the other, but at the same speed.

38 倒捻猴(一)(如第三十一圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 1) – See photo 31:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 31

身 向右略轉,斜向東方。
Torso: slightly turns to the right to diagonally face to the east.
手    右拳變掌,由左肘下往後圓轉而上,至右耳後,側掌;左手由胸前下按,至左膝前,掌心向下。
Hands: Your right fist becomes a palm, arcs to the rear from below your left elbow, then upward, until behind your right ear, the palm turned sideways, as your left hand pushes downward from in front of your chest until in front of your left knee, palm facing downward.
步 左足微動,脚尖點地,足踵略提;右足曲膝下坐。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot slightly shifts so the toes are touching down, heel lifted, your right leg sitting, knee bent. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意    此為過渡式,以下尚有五式。兩手動作,上下往來,均成橢形圓圈。退步次數,或三或五或七步,宜取單數。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture, as are the following five postures. Your hands move up and down, forward and back, in oval shapes. The number of retreating steps may be three, five, seven – as long as it is an odd number.

39 倒捻猴(二)(如第三十二圖)
RETREATING MONKEY(Part 2) – See photo 32:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 32

身 轉向正東。
Torso: turns to be facing squarely to the east.
手    右手由耳旁向前按出,坐腕,掌心朝外;左手向左前至胯旁,掌心朝下,五指前向。
Hands: Your right hand pushes forward from beside your ear, the wrist settling, palm facing outward, as your left hand goes to the forward left until beside your hip, palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward.
步 左足後退一步,伸直;右足曲膝,變為川式。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot retreats a step, the leg straightening, your right knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 左足後退時,身體切勿向前探出,脊骨宜直,頭頂宜懸。
Points for attention: As your left foot retreats, your body should not reach forward. Your spine should be straight, your headtop suspended.

40 倒捻猴(三)(如三十三圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 3) – See photo 33:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 33

身 向左略轉,斜向東方。
Torso: slightly turns to the left to diagonally face to the east.
手 左手向後轉動,約成四十五度角,掌心向外;右手下按,至右膝前,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your left hand arcs to the rear at about a forty-five degree angle, palm facing outward, as your right hand pushes downward until in front of your right knee, palm facing downward.
步 左足曲膝下坐;右足後撒半步,足跟略提,足尖點地。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left leg sits, the knee bending, your right foot withdrawing a half step to the rear, heel slightly lifted, toes touching down. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

41 倒捻猴(四)(第三十四圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 4) – See photo 34:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 34

身 轉向正東。
Torso: turns to be facing squarely to the east.
手    左手圓轉至左耳旁,向前按出,坐腕,掌心朝外;右手向右落至胯旁,掌心朝下,指尖向前。
Hands: Your right hand arcs until beside your left ear, then pushes forward, the wrist settling, palm facing outward, as your right hand lowers to the right until beside your hip, palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward.
步 右足後退一步,伸直;左足曲膝,變為川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your right foot retreats a step, the leg straightening, your left knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 參觀倒捻猴(二)之「注意」。
Points for attention: Same as in RETREATING MONKEY (Part 2).

42 倒捻猴(五)(參觀第三十一圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 5) – Same as in photo 31

身 向右略轉,斜向東方。
Torso: slightly turns to the right to be diagonally face to the east.
手 右手往後圓轉而上,至右耳後,側掌;左手向前下按至左膝前,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your right hand arcs to the rear, then upward, until behind your right ear, the palm turned sideways, as your left hand pushes downward in front of you until in front of your left knee, palm facing downward.
步 右足曲膝下坐;左足後撒半步,足踵略提,足尖點地。
Footwork: Your right leg sits, the knee bending, your left foot withdrawing a half step to the rear, heel touching down, toes lifted.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

43 倒捻猴(六)(參觀第三十二圖及解法)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 6) – Same as in photo 32

44 斜飛勢(一)(如第三十五圖)
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (Part 1) – See photo 35:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 35

身 轉向正南。
Torso: turns to be facing squarely to the south.
手    左手往右轉一圓圈,隨轉隨變為仰掌,至右脅旁;右手隨腰移至左肩前,曲肱,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your left hand arcs to the right, becoming an upward-facing palm, until beside your right ribs, as your right hand goes along with your waist by shifting to be in front of your left shoulder, arm bent, palm facing downward.
步 右足原地轉向正南;左足向前移動少許,足跟提起,足尖點地,然後雙膝屈曲盤坐。
Footwork: Your right foot stays where it is but pivots to point to the south, your left foot slightly shifting forward, heel lifted, toes touching down, then your knees bend until you are in a twisted sitting stance.
眼 斜視右方。
Eyes: looking diagonally to the right.
注意 此式先要轉腰,手足卽隨之移動;兩肘互抱,身體下蹲。下蹲時臀部切勿突出。
Points for attention: In this posture, you should first turn your waist, then shift your hands and feet. Your elbows are to be wrapped together. As your body squats down, your buttocks should not stick out.

45 斜飛勢(二)(如第三十六圖)
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (Part 2) – See photo 36:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 36

身 轉向東南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast.
手    兩手向左右斜分成直線,如鳥之斜張兩翼而飛狀。左手仰掌,略高;右手略低,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your hands spread apart diagonally to make straight line, in the manner of a bird diagonally spreading its wings to take flight, your left slightly higher, palm facing upward, right slightly lower, palm facing downward.
步 左足進前一步,曲膝;右足隨之微動,伸直,為斜川式。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step, the knee bending, your right foot slightly shifting along with the movement, the leg straightening, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 注視右方。
Eyes: looking to the right.
注意 此式以腰脊為主,忌曲。左肩與左膝成一垂直線;右肩下垂,切勿聳高。
Points for attention: This posture is driven by your lower back, which should not bend. Your left shoulder and left knee make a vertical straight line. Your right shoulder hangs down and should not rise up.

46 提手上式(一)(參觀第八圖及解法)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 1) – Same as in photo 8

注意 此式與第八圖同。惟第八圖上接單鞭,此則上接斜飛勢耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 8, except that it was in that case preceded by SINGLE WHIP and is in this case preceded by DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE.

47 提手上式(二)(參觀第九圖及解法)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 2) – Same as in photo 9
48 提手上式(三)(參觀第十圖及解法)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 3) – Same as in photo 10
49 白鶴掠翅(一)(參觀第十一圖及解法)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 1) – Same as in photo 11
50 白鶴掠翅(二)(參觀第十二圖及解法)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 2) – Same as in photo 12
51 白鶴掠翅(三)(參觀第十三圖及解法)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 3) – Same as in photo 13
52 摟膝拗步左(一)(參觀第十四圖及解法)
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 1) – Same as in photo 14
53 摟膝拗步左(二)(參觀第十五圖及解法)
LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 2) – Same as in photo 15

54 海底針(如第三十七圖)
NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA” – See photo 37:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 37

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 右手變為側掌,隨腰提高,復向下直伸,指尖下向;左手略提,護右手脉門。
Hands: Your hand becomes a sideways palm, goes along with your waist by lifting higher, then extends straight downward, fingers pointing downward, as your left hand slightly lifts to guard at your right pulse area.
步 右足曲膝下坐;左足向後收囘,足尖點地。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right leg sits, the knee bending, your left foot withdrawing to the rear, toes touching down. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視
Eyes: looking level.
注意 初練此式者,易犯俯腰,屈脊,突臀之弊,務須使腰脊直立,臀部下垂,力在右腿。
Points for attention: In the beginning of practicing this posture, you may easily commit the errors of leaning forward at your waist, bending your back, and sticking out your buttocks. Your must keep your lower back straight, buttocks drop down. The weight is on your right leg.

55 扇通背(如第三十八圖)
FAN THROUGH THE BACK – See photo 38:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 38

身 轉向南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the south.
手    轉右手掌;兩手往右提起,右手提至額際,臂曲,掌心朝外;左手向東南推出,臂微曲。
Hands: Your right palm rotates, your hands lifting to the right, your right hand lifting until by your forehead, arm bent, palm facing outward, as your left hand pushes out to the southeast, arm slightly bent.
步 左足前進一步,轉為八字式。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step as you turn to form an eight-character stance.
眼 注視左方。
Eyes: looking to the left.
注意 勁由脊骨發出,貫通於兩臂,由掌心吐力。
Points for attention: Power issues from your spine, courses through your arms, and is emitted from your palms.

56 身撇槌(如第三十九圖)
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH – See photo 39:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 39

身 轉向西北。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southwest.
手    雙手向左右隨腰分轉,各成半圓形,從兩脅向旁繞出;右手作仰拳,貼肋撇出;左手竪掌,護右腕旁。
Hands: Your hands go along with your waist by spreading apart to the sides, each making a half circle, then arcing outward from beside your ribs, your right hand becoming a fist with the center of the hand facing upward, flinging out close to your ribs, as your left hand, palm upright, guards beside your right wrist.
步 左足轉右,伸直,同時右足向西北進一步,曲膝;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot pivots to the right, the leg straightening, as your right foot advances a step to the northwest, the knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 注視西北。
Eyes: looking to the northwest.
注意    右手轉至左脅旁,立卽變拳向西北撇出;左掌隨之進擊。轉身時要有摺叠。此式以腰脊為軸,手足隨之,轉動自然靈活。
Points for attention: Your right hand arcs until beside your left ribs, then promptly becomes a fist and flings out to the northwest, your left palm following by striking forward. When turning around, your movement should have folding. In this posture, your lower back is the axis of movement, your hands and feet moving along with it. Turn with naturalness and nimbleness.

57 攬雀尾(一)(參觀第二十八圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – Same as in photo 28

注意    此式與第二十八圖同,惟第二十八圖上按抱虎歸山,此則上接撇身槌耳。以下攬雀尾(二)(三)(四)三式,身均向西北。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 28, except that it was in that case preceded by CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN and is in this case preceded by TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH. In the following three parts of CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL, your torso is facing to the northwest.

58 攬雀尾(二)(參觀第三圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – Same as in photo 3
59 攬雀尾(三)(參觀第四圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – Same as in photo 4
60 攬雀尾(四)(參觀第五圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – Same as in photo 5
61 攬雀尾(五)(參觀第六圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 5) – Same as in photo 6
62 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7

63 左右雲手(一)(如第四十圖)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 1) – See photo 40:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 40

身 轉向西南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southwest.
手    由單鞭之右吊手,鬆直變掌,掌心向下;同時左手下垂,掠左膝向右劃作半圓形,斜置胸前,掌心向上,與右掌參差遙對。
Hands: From SINGLE WHIP, your right hanging hand loosens and straightens, becoming a palm, the palm facing downward, as your left hand hangs down, brushes past your left knee, making a half circle arcing to the right to be placed diagonally in front of your chest, palm facing upward, unevenly parallel with your right hand.
步    雙足轉向西南;左足前進一步與右足並立;然後左足復退一步,略彎,右足曲膝,右實左虛。
Footwork: Both feet pivot to the southwest, your left foot advances a step to stand next to your right foot, then retreats a step, the leg slightly bent, your right knee bending. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此為雲手起式。
Points for attention: This is the initial posture of CLOUDING HANDS.

64 左右雲手(二)(如第四十一圖)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 2) – See photo 41:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 41

身 斜轉向東南。
Torso: turns to diagonally face to the southeast.
手    左手上繞至右肩,復向左經胸前轉至左肩前,垂肘,五指上竪,掌心朝內;右手下垂,預備接下式向左旋轉。
Hands: Your left hand arcs upward until by your right shoulder, then arcs to the left, passing in front of your chest, until in front of your left shoulder, elbow hanging, fingers pointing upward, palm facing inward, as your right hand hangs down, preparing to flow into the following posture, arcing to the left.
步 雙足轉向東南,左足曲膝,右足略彎。左實右虛。
Footwork: Both feet pivot to the southeast, your left knee bending, your right leg slightly bent. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 隨左手注視。
Eyes: following your left hand.
注意 此式為左雲手。
Points for attention: This posture is LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.

65 左右雲手(三)(如第四十二圖)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 3) – See photo 42:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 42

身 往左略轉。
Torso: slightly turns to the left.
手    左手由內往左轉向東方,掌心朝下;右手掠過右膝向左劃作半圓形,斜置胸前,掌心向上,與左掌參差遙對。
Hands: Your hand left arcs from inward to the left, toward the east, palm facing downward, as your right hand brushes past your right knee, making a half circle arcing to the left to be placed diagonally in front of your chest, palm facing upward, unevenly parallel with your left hand.
步 左足微動;右足前進一步,與左足曲膝並立。
Footwork: Your left foot slightly shifts as your right foot advances a step to stand next to your left foot, knees bent.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

66 左右雲手(四)(如第四十三圖)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 4) – See photo 43:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 43

身 斜轉向西南。
Torso: turns to diagonally face to the southwest.
手    右手上繞至左肩,復向右經胸前轉至右肩前,垂肘,五指上竪,掌心朝內;左手下垂,預備接下式向右旋轉。
Hands: Your right hand arcs upward until by your left shoulder, then arcs to the right, passing in front of your chest, until in front of your right shoulder, elbow hanging, fingers pointing upward, palm facing inward, as your left hand hangs down, preparing to flow into the following posture, arcing to the right.
步 雙足轉向西南,右足曲膝;左足後退一步,微彎。右實左虛。
Footwork: Both feet pivot to the southwest, your right knee bending, your left foot retreating a step, the leg slightly bent. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 隨右手注視。
Eyes: following your right hand.
注意 此式為右雲手。
Points for attention: This posture is RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.

67 左右雲手(五)(參觀第四十圖)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 5) – Same as in photo 40

身 往右略轉。
Torso: slightly turns to the right.
手    右手由內往右轉向西方,掌心朝下;左手掠過左膝向右劃作半圓形,斜置胸前,掌心向上,與右掌參差遙對。
Hands: Your right hand arcs from inward to the right, toward the west, palm facing downward, as your left hand brushes past your left knee, making a half circle arcing to the right to be placed diagonally in front of your chest, palm facing upward, unevenly parallel with your right hand.
步 不動,如上式。
Footwork: Your feet do not move.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此式與第四十圖同,惟第四十圖上接單鞭,此則上接左右雲手(四)耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 40, except that it was in that case preceded by SINGLE WHIP and is in this case preceded by the fourth part of CLOUDING HANDS.

68 左右雲手(六)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 6) – Same as in photo 41
69 左右雲手(七)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 7) – Same as in photo 42
70 左右雲手(八)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 8) – Same as in photo 43
71 左右雲手(九)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 9) – Same as in photo 40
72 左右雲手(十)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 10) – Same as in photo 41
73 左右雲手(十一)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 11) – Same as in photo 42
74 左右雲手(十二)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 12) – Same as in photo 43
75 左右雲手(十三)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 13) – Same as in photo 40

注意    以上雲手各式,練時以腰脊為軸,手步隨之轉動;身體不宜搖擺,切忌聳肩;兩手之運行,如雲之旋繞狀,不得停滯。
Points for attention: When practicing each of the parts of CLOUDING HANDS above, use your lower back as the axis of movement, your hand and feet moving according to its turnings. Your body should not sway and your shoulder must not rise. The movement of your hands is like the swirling of clouds and should not be stagnant.

76 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7

注意 此式與第七圖同,惟第七圖上接攬雀尾,此則上接雲手耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 7, except that it was in that case preceded by CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL and is in this case preceded by LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.

77 高探馬(左)(如第四十四圖)
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (Left) – See photo 44:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 44

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    左手變為仰掌,向後抽囘,垂肘貼肋;右手變掌,曲肘,由左肩向前推出,臂微彎,掌心朝下,手腕在左手指前寸許。
Hands: Your left hand becomes an upright-facing palm, withdraws to the rear, elbow hanging close to your ribs, as your right hand becomes a palm, elbow bent, and pushes out forward from your left shoulder, arm slightly bent, palm facing downward, the wrist about an inch in front of your left fingers.
步 右足曲膝下坐;左足收囘半步,足尖點地。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right leg sits, the knee bending, your left foot withdrawing a half step, toes touching down. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 動作宜手足一致。此為左式高探馬。
Points for attention: The movements of your hands and feet should be in unison. This is RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE on the left side [meaning the left foot forward].

78 右分脚(一)(如第四十五圖)
KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE (Part 1) – See photo 45:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 45

身 轉向東北。
Torso: turns to be facing to the northeast [southeast].
手    左手向前略伸,右手向內略收,兩腕相對,打花,隨腰往右而下而左而上,旋轉至左耳旁,雙手曲肘,作交叉形,左手在內,右手在外,掌心外向。
Hands: Your left hand slightly extends forward and your right hand slightly withdraws inward, so your wrists are facing each other, then they make a flourishing action, going along with your waist by going to the right, downward, to the left, upward, rotating until beside your left ear, both elbows bent, as your hands make a crossed shape, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside, palms facing outward.
步 左足向左後方斜撤一步,曲膝;右足原地略轉,伸直;為斜川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot diagonally withdraws a step to the left rear, the knee bending, your right foot staying where it is and slightly pivoting, the leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 注視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

79 右分脚(二)(如第四十六圖)
KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE (Part 2) – See photo 46:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 46

身 向東略移。
Torso: slightly shifts to be facing to the east.
手 不動,如上式。
Hands: staying as they are in the previous posture.
步 左足略轉向東;右足移至左足前半步,足尖點地;為丁虛式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot slightly pivots to the east, your right foot shifting a half step to be in front of your left foot, toes touching down, making a “T-shaped” empty stance [meaning your feet are forming a ninety-degree angle with the weight mostly on one foot]. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 注視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 此亦過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

80 右分脚(三)(如第四十七圖)
KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE (Part 3) – See photo 47:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 47

身 轉向東南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast [northeast].
手    雙手向前後分開,左手高過頭頂,臂微彎,手指略向上竪;右手高與肩平,側掌,手指略向下指。
Hands: Your hands spread apart to the front and rear, left hand at headtop level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing slightly upward, right hand at shoulder level, the palm sideways, fingers pointing slightly downward.
步 左足直立;右足提起,足指下垂,向東南踢出;足背平直。
Footwork: Your left leg standing straight, your right foot lifts, toes hanging down, then kicks out to the southeast with the top of the foot flattened.
眼 注視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 踢時,手足齊出,動作宜緩,腰直肩平,全身力在左腿。
Points for attention: As you kick, hand and foot go out in unison. The movement should be slow, your waist upright, your shoulders level. The weight is entirely on your left leg.

81 左分脚(一)(如第四十八圖)
KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE (Part 1) – See photo 48:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 48

身 向東南。
Torso: facing to the southeast.
手    兩手收囘胸前,兩腕相對,雙掌打花,隨腰往左而下而右而上旋轉至右耳旁,作交叉形,左手在內,右手在外,掌心外向。
Hands: Your hands withdraw in front of your chest so your wrists are facing each other, then they make a flourishing action, going along with your waist by going to the left, downward, to the right, upward, rotating until beside your right ear, making a crossed shape, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside, palms facing outward.
步 右足落下,曲膝;左足伸直;為斜川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot comes down, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 注視東北。
Eyes: looking to the northeast.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

82 左分脚(二)(如第四十九圖)
KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE (Part 1) – See photo 49:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 49

身 向東略轉。
Torso: slightly turns to be facing to the east.
手 不動,如上式。
Hands: staying as they are in the previous posture.
步 右足略轉向東;左足移至右足前半步,足尖點地;為丁虛式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot slightly pivots to the east, your left foot shifting a half step to be in front of your right foot, toes touching down, making a T-shaped empty stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 注視東北。
Eyes: looking to the northeast.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

83 左分脚(三)(如第五十圖)
KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE (Part 3) – See photo 50:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 50

身 轉向東北。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast [northeast].
手    雙手向前後分開,右手高過頭頂,臂微彎,手指略向上竪;左手高與肩平,側掌,手指略向下指。
Hands: Your hands spread apart to the front and rear, right hand at headtop level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing slightly upward, left hand at shoulder level, the palm sideways, fingers pointing slightly downward.
步 右足直立;左足提起,足趾下垂,向東北踢出;足背平直。
Footwork: Your right leg standing straight, your left foot lifts, toes hanging down, then kicks out to the northeast with the top of the foot flattened.
眼 視東北。
Eyes: looking to the northeast.
注意 全身力在右腿。踢時,手足齊出,動作宜緩。
Points for attention: The weight is entirely on your right leg. As you kick, hand and foot go out in unison. The movement should be slow.

84 轉身蹬脚(一)(如第五十一圖)
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (Part 1) – See photo 51:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 51

身 轉向西方,略向北偏。
Torso: turns to the west to be almost facing to the north.
手 兩手向內合抱,作交叉形,貼右耳旁,左手在內,右手在外,掌心外向。
Hands: Your hands close inward, making a crossed shape near your right ear, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside, palm facing outward.
步 左足收囘,曲膝,弔脚,足尖向下;右足原地向左旋轉,足尖向西北。
Footwork: Your left foot withdraws, knee bending, foot hanging, toes pointing downward, your right foot staying where it is and pivoting to the left so the toes are pointing to the northwest.
眼 注視西方。
Eyes: looking to the west.
注意 此為過渡式。轉身時,身要直立,全體重心在右足,左足收囘時,切勿觸地。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture. As you turn around, your body should be upright and the weight is entirely on your right foot. As your left foot withdraws, it must not touch down.

85 轉身蹬脚(二)(如第五十二圖)
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (Part 2) – See photo 52:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 52

身 向西,略偏北方。
Torso: facing to the west, slightly inclining to the north.
手    雙手向前後分開;右手高過頭頂,臂微彎,手指略上竪;左手高與肩平,側掌,手指略向下指。
Hands: Your hands spread apart to the front and rear, right hand at headtop level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing slightly upward, left hand at shoulder level, the palm sideways, fingers pointing slightly downward.
步 右足直立;左足向西蹬出,足尖向上。
Footwork: Your right leg standing straight, your left foot presses out to the west, toes upright.
眼 注視西方。
Eyes: looking to the west.
注意 蹬出時,足踵吐力;手足動作一致;身體直立,切勿搖擺。
Points for attention: As you press out, power is emitted through the heel, and the hand and foot are to move in unison. Your body is to be upright and must not sway.

86 摟膝拗步(一)(左)(參觀第十五圖)
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 1 – Left) – Same as in photo 15

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手    由前式,左手收囘,橫置胸前,往右下按,摟過左膝,置左膝旁,掌心朝下;同時右手收囘,向前落下,隨卽向後劃一半圓圈,至耳際,復徐徐向前按出,肘微曲,指尖上竪,掌心朝外。
Hands: From the previous posture, your left hand withdraws to be placed sideways in front of your chest, then pushes downward to the right, brushing past your left knee to be placed beside then knee, palm facing downward, as your right hand withdraws, lowers forward, makes a half circle arcing to the rear and then by your ear, then slowly pushes out forward, elbow slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing outward.
步 左足收囘,向前落步,曲膝;右足伸直;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot withdraws, then steps down forward, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此式與第十五圖左摟膝拗步同,惟方位向西耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE as in photo 15, except the orientation is to the west.

87 摟膝拗步(二)(右)(參觀第十七圖及解法)
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 2 – Right) – Same as in photo 17

注意 此式與第十七圖同,惟第十七圖身向東,此則向西耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 17, except the orientation is to the west.

88 栽槌(如第五十三圖)
PLANTING PUNCH – See photo 53:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 53

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手    左手樓膝,上舉至右肩;右手向後轉至耳邊,變拳,復向下斜擊,虎口向左;左手護右手腕,隨之下擊。
Hands: Your left hand, having brushed past your knee, raises up to your right shoulder, as your right hand goes to the rear, arcs to be beside your ear, becoming a fist, then strikes diagonally downward, tiger’s mouth facing to the left, your left hand guarding at your right wrist and going along with the downward strike.
步 左足進前一步,曲膝;右足伸直;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 栽槌時,隨手注視,旋卽平視。
Eyes: following your hands during the planting punch, then looking forward.
注意 栽槌時要用脊力;身體勿向前探出。
Points for attention: When performing the planting punch, you should use power from your spine. Your body should not reach forward.

89 撇身槌(如第五十四圖)
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH – See photo 54:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 54

身 轉身向東南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast.
手    右拳變掌;雙掌心朝下,兩手隨腰往左右分轉,各成半圓形,從兩脅向旁繞出;右手作仰掌,貼肋撇出;左手竪掌,護右腕旁。
Hands: Your right hand becoming a palm, both palms facing downward, Your hands go along with your waist by spreading apart to the sides, each making a half circle, then arcing outward from beside your ribs, your right hand becoming a fist with the center of the hand facing upward, flinging out close to your ribs, as your left hand, palm upright, guards beside your right wrist.
步 雙足向右轉,右足斜向東南進一步,曲膝;左足伸直;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Both feet pivot to the right, then your right foot diagonally advances a step to the southeast, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 此式與第三十九圖撇身槌同,惟方向互異耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH as in photo 39, except the orientation is reversed.

90 二起脚(一)(參觀第四十五圖)
DOUBLE KICK (Part 1) – Same as in photo 45

身 轉向東北。
Torso: facing to the northeast.
手    右拳變掌;兩腕相對,打花,隨腰往右而下而左而上,旋轉至左耳旁,雙手曲肘,作交叉形,左手在內,右手在外,掌心外向。
Hands: Your right fist becomes a palm, and with your wrists facing each other, your hands make a flourishing action, going along with your waist by going to the right, downward, to the left, upward, rotating until beside your left ear, both elbows bent, as your hands make a crossed shape, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside, palm facing outward.
步 左足原地向左略轉,曲膝;右足伸直;變為斜川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot stays where it is and pivots slightly to the left, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 注視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

91 二起脚(二)(參觀第四十六圖及解法)
DOUBLE KICK (Part 2) – Same as in photo 46

注意 此式與第四十六圖同,惟身向東北,眼視東方,略有別耳。
Points for attention: Same as in photo 46, except your torso is facing to the northeast, eyes looking to the southeast, and so it is slightly different.

92 二起脚(三)(如第五十五圖)
DOUBLE KICK (Part 3) – See photo 55:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 55

身 轉向東方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the east.
手    雙手向前後分開,左手高過頭頂,臂微彎,手指略向上竪;右手高與肩平,側掌,手指略向下指。
Hands: Your hands spread apart to the front and rear, left hand at headtop level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing slightly upward, right hand at shoulder level, the palm sideways, fingers pointing slightly downward.
步 左足直立;右足提起,足趾下垂,向東踢出;足背平直。
Footwork: Your left leg standing straight, your right foot lifts, toes hanging down, then kicks out to the east with the top of the foot flattened.
眼 視東方。
Eyes: looking to the east.
注意 腰要竪直,肩要平正。踢時,手足齊出,宜緩;重點在左腿。
Points for attention: Your waist should be upright and your shoulders should be level. As you kick, hand and foot go out together. The movement should be slow. The weight is on your left leg.

93 二起脚(四)(如第五十六圖)
DOUBLE KICK (Part 4) – See photo 56:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 56

身 轉向東南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast.
手    右手往左向內收囘,置左肋旁,曲肘,掌心向下,指尖向後;左手略向下垂,臂斜直,與右掌參差平放,掌心向下,指尖向後。
Hands: Your right hand withdraws inward to the left to be placed beside your left ribs, elbow bent, palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the rear, as your left hand slightly hangs down, arm diagonally straight, not quite level with your right palm, the palm also facing downward, fingers pointing to the rear.
步 右足向西北後退一步,伸直;左足曲膝;變為斜川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your right foot retreats a step to the northwest, the leg straightening, your left knee bending, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

94 二起脚(五)(如第五十七圖)
DOUBLE KICK (Part 5) – See photo 57:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 57

身 向東南。
Torso: facing to the southeast.
手 承上式,雙手同時往上向前壓下,雙臂前伸,略彎,右前左後,掌心向下。
Hands: Continuing from the previous posture, your hands in unison go upward, forward, and press down, arms extended forward, slightly bent, right hand forward, left hand behind, palms facing downward.
步 左足收囘半步,足尖點地,復向前踢出;右足直立。
Footwork: Your left foot withdraws a half step, toes touching down, then kicks out forward, your right leg standing straight.
眼 視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意    緊接上式,不稍停滯。腰脊宜直;重心在右足,則身體不易搖動。以上五式,連貫一氣,練時切勿中斷;手足動作,均須一致。
Points for attention: The above postures are tightly connected without the slightest stagnation. Your lower back should be straight, and the weight is on your right foot, thus your body will not easily sway. The above five postures should be practiced as a continuous flow without any interruption. The movements of your hands and feet must be in unison.

95 打虎式(一)(如第五十八圖)
FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE (Part 1) – See photo 58:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 58

身 向東南。
Torso: facing to the southeast.
手    接上式,雙手再往下壓,右臂伸直,約與肩平;左手略曲,雙掌心朝下,指尖前向。(左手指尖近右手彎。)
Hands: Continuing from the previous posture, your hands again press down, right arm extended straight at about shoulder level, left arm slightly bent, both palms facing downward, fingers pointing upward (left fingertips close to your right elbow).
步 左足後退一步下落,伸直;右足原地微動,曲膝;為斜川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot comes down retreating a step to the rear, the leg straightening, your right foot staying where it is and slightly pivoting, the knee bending, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

96 打虎式(二)(如第五十九圖)
FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE (Part 2) – See photo 59:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 59

身 轉向東方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the east.
手    由上式,左手往下而左圓轉上舉,握拳,至額之上,虎口向下,同時右手下撤,變拳,由腹部提至胸前,虎口朝內,拳心朝下,兩拳上下相對。
Hands: From the previous posture, your left hand goes downward, arcs to the left, raises upward until above your forehead, grasped into a fist, tiger’s mouth facing downward, as your right hand withdraws downward, becoming a fist, and lifts from your belly to be in front of your chest, tiger’s mouth facing inward, the center of the hand facing downward, the fists facing each other.
步 左足原地畧轉向東,曲膝下坐;右足橫移半步,足尖點地,為丁虛式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot stays where it is and slightly pivots to the east, the leg sitting, knee bending, as your right foot shifts sideways a half step, toes touching down, making a T-shaped empty stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 雙手隨步隨腰轉動時,宜一致動作。
Points for attention: The movements of your hands, the stepping, and the turning of your waist should be in unison.

97 雙風貫耳(一)(如第六十圖)
DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS (Part 1) – See photo 60:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 60

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右手上舉,左手下撤,雙拳變掌,同至左耳邊,雙手曲肘,作交叉形,左手在內,右手在外,掌心外向,旋卽向前後分開,左手高過頭頂,臂微彎,手指略向上竪;右手高與肩平,側掌,手指下垂,點右足尖。
Hands: Your right hand raises up, your left hand withdrawing downward, both fists becoming palms as they arrive beside your left ear, elbows bent, your hands making a crossed shape, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside, palms facing outward. Then they spread apart to the front and rear, left hand at headtop level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing slightly upward, right hand at shoulder level, the palm sideways, fingers hanging down, pointing toward your right toes.
步 左足直立;右足提起,向東蹬出,足尖向上。
Footwork: Your left leg standing straight, your right foot lifts and presses out to the east, toes upright.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此為過渡式。蹬出時,足踵吐力;手足動作一致;重心在左腿。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture. As you press out, power is emitted through the heel, and the hand and foot are to move in unison. The weight is on your left leg.

98 雙風貫耳(二)(如第六十一圖)
DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS (Part 2) – See photo 61:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 61

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    左手向前平撤,同時右手平掌,向後畧收,與左手成平行線,(雙掌心向下)復往下向左右分開,至胯旁變拳,往上向外,各繞半橢圓形而至前面,兩拳相對,(距離二三寸)虎口向下,掌心向外。
Hands: Your left hand comes forward, your right palm slightly withdrawing so that your arms are parallel and level (both palms facing downward). Then your hands go downward and spread apart to the sides until beside your hips, becoming fists, then upward and outward, each making a half circle, arcing until in front of your face, fists facing each other (two or three inches apart), tiger’s mouth facing downward, palm facing outward.
步 右足收囘,向前落步,曲膝;左足伸直;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot withdraws, then comes down stepping forward, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 右足蹬出收囘時,兩手分夾右膝旁;手足一致動作。
Points for attention: As your right foot withdraws from its pressing kick, your hands are to spread apart close beside your right knee, your hands and foot moving in unison.

99 披身踢脚(一)(如第六十二圖)
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK (Part 1) – See photo 62:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 62

身 轉向南方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the south.
手 雙拳隨腰往右,變掌,曲肘,至右耳旁,作交叉形,掌心外向,左手在內,右手在外。
Hands: Your fists go along with your waist by going to the right, becoming palms, elbows bent, arriving beside your right ear, your hands making a crossed shape, palms facing outward, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside.
步 右足原地轉向正南;左足向前移動少許,足跟提起,足尖點地,然後雙膝屈曲盤坐。
Footwork: Your right foot stays where it is but pivots to be pointing to the south, your left foot slightly shifting forward, heel lifted, toes touching down, then your knees bend until you are in twisted sitting stance.
眼 視東方。
Eyes: looking to the east.
注意 此為渡過式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

100 披身踢脚(二)(如第六十三圖)
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK (Part 2) – See photo 63:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 63

身 向南。
Torso: facing to the south.
手    雙手向前後分開;右手高過頭頂,臂微彎,手指略向上竪;左手高與肩平,側掌,手指略向下指。
Hands: Your hands spread apart to the front and rear, right hand at headtop level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing slightly upward, left hand at shoulder level, the palm sideways, fingers pointing slightly downward.
步 右足直立;左足提起,足趾下垂,向東踢出;足背平直。
Footwork: Your right leg standing straight, your left foot lifts, toes hanging down, then kicks out to the east with the top of the foot flattened.
眼 視東方。
Eyes: looking to the east.
注意    此式腰為機樞,臂為機件,以腰運臂,方能靈活。踢時,手足齊出,動作宜緩;全身力在右腿。
Points for attention: In this posture, your waist is the engine, your arms the machinery. By using your waist to drive your arms, you will then be able to be nimble. As you kick, hand and foot go out in unison. The movement should be slow. The weight is entirely on your right leg.

101 轉身蹬脚(一)(如第六十四圖)
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (Part 1) – See photo 64:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 64

身 向右轉往北方。
Torso: turns to the right to be facing to the north.
手    兩手徐徐內合,隨腰往右轉,至左耳後,曲肘,作交叉形,左手在內,右手在外,掌心外向。
Hands: Your hands slowly close inward, going along with your waist as it turns to the right, arriving behind your left ear, elbows bent, your hands making a crossed shape, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside, palm facing outward.
步    左足向右平劃一半圓形,至右足後方落下,曲膝下坐;右足原地隨之轉動,足跟提起,足尖點地;為丁虛式,左實右虛
Footwork: Your left foot draws a level half circle to the right until behind your right foot, then comes down, the leg sitting, knee bending, your right foot staying where it is and pivoting along with the movement, heel lifted, toes touching down, making a T-shaped empty stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 視東方。
Eyes: looking to the east.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

102 轉身蹬脚(二)(參觀第六十圖)
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (Part 2) – Same as in photo 60

身 轉向東方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the east.
手    雙手向前後分開,左手高過頭頂,臂微彎,手指略向上竪;右手高與肩平,側掌,手指下垂,點右足尖。
Hands: Your hands spread apart to the front and rear, left hand at headtop level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing slightly upward, right hand at shoulder level, the palm sideways, fingers hanging down, pointing toward your right toes.
步 左足直立;右足提起,向東蹬出,足尖向上。
Footwork: Your left leg standing straight, your right foot lifts and presses out to the east, toes upright.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 轉身時,須直立,不可前俯後仰。蹬出時,足踵吐力;全身重心在左腿。
Points for attention: As you turn around, you must be upright. You must not lean forward or back. As you press out, power is emitted through the heel. The weight is entirely on your left leg.

103 手揮琵琶(右)(參觀第十六圖)
PLAY THE LUTE (Right) – Same as in photo 16

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    由上式,左手往前平轉,至胸前,右手隨之往懷內收囘,雙手如抱琵琶狀;垂肘,左手拇指與鼻準相對,右掌心約對左手臂彎。
Hands: From the previous posture, your left hand arcs forward and level until in front of your chest, your right hand withdrawing toward your chest, your hands making a shape of holding a lute, elbows hanging, your left thumb at nose level, your right palm facing to roughly your left elbow.
步 右足落地,曲膝,下坐;左足上前一步,足踵着地,足尖上豎。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot comes down, the leg sitting, knee bending, and your left foot goes forward a step, heel touching down, toes lifted. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 與第十六圖同,惟第十六圖上接摟膝拗步,此則上接轉身蹬脚耳。
Points for attention: Same as in photo 16, except that it was in that case preceded by BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE and is in this case preceded by TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK.

104 搬攔槌(一)(參觀第十八圖及解法)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 1) – Same as in photo 18
105 搬攔槌(二)(參觀第十九圖及解法)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 2) – Same as in photo 19
106 搬攔槌(三)(參觀第二十圖及解法)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 3) – Same as in photo 20
107 搬攔槌(四)(參觀第二十一圖及解法)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 4) – Same as in photo 21
108 如封似閉(一)(參觀第二十二圖及解法)
SEALING SHUT (Part 1) – Same as in photo 22
109 如封似閉(二)(參觀第二十三圖及解法)
SEALING SHUT (Part 2) – Same as in photo 23
110 如封似閉(三)(參觀第二十四圖及解法)
SEALING SHUT (Part 3) – Same as in photo 28
111 十字手(參觀二十五圖及解法)
CROSSED HANDS – Same as in photo 25
112 摟膝拗步(斜)(參觀第二十六圖及解法)
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Diagonal) – Same as in photo 26
113 抱虎歸山(參觀第二十七圖及解法)
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – Same as in photo 27
114 攬雀尾(一)(參觀第二十八圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – Same as in photo 28
115 攬雀尾(二)(參觀第三圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – Same as in photo 3
116 攬雀尾(三)(參觀第四圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – Same as in photo 4
117 攬雀尾(四)(參觀第五圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – Same as in photo 5
118 攬雀尾(五)(參觀第六圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 5) – Same as in photo 6
119 斜單鞭(參觀第二十九圖及解法)
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 29

120 手揮琵琶(左)(如第六十五圖)
PLAY THE LUTE (Left) – See photo 65:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 65

身 轉向西方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the west.
手    雙手向胸前收囘,垂肘,豎掌,如抱琵琶狀;右手拇指與鼻準相對,左掌心約對右手臂彎。
Hands: Your hands withdraw in front of your chest, elbows hanging, palms upright, your hands making a shape of holding a lute, your right thumb at nose level, your left palm facing to roughly your right elbow.
步 左足原地向右轉動,曲膝下坐;右足移至左足前方,足尖上豎。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot stays where it is but pivots to the right, the leg sitting, knee bending, your right foot shifting to be in front of your left foot, toes lifted. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此式右手先變為掌,然後收至胸前。
Points for attention: In this posture, your right hand first becomes a palm, then withdraws in front of your chest.

121 野馬分鬃(一)(如第六十六圖)
WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (Part 1) – See photo 66:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 66

身 轉向西南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southwest.
手    右手移往左脅,掌心向上,左手移往右肩前方,掌心向下;右手向西北,左手向東南分開,成斜直線,右高左低。
Hands: Your right hand shifts toward your left ribs, palm facing upward, your left hand shifting to be in front of your right shoulder, palm facing downward. Then your hands spread apart, right hand to the northwest, left hand to the southeast, making a diagonal straight line, right hand higher, left hand lower.
步 右足向西北進一步,曲膝;左足略轉,伸直;為斜川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot advances a step to the northwest, the knee bending, your left foot slightly pivoting, the leg straightening, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視左方。
Eyes: looking to the left.
注意 此為野馬分鬃右式。兩手隨腰分展,伸至極度。
Points for attention: This posture is WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE on the right side. Your hands spread apart in accordance with your waist, extending to their limit.

122 野馬分鬃(二)(如第六十七圖)
WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (Part 2) – See photo 67:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 67

身 轉向西北。
Torso: turns to be facing to the northwest.
手    兩手向懷內合抱,右手在左肩前方,掌心向下,左手貼右肋,掌心向上;左手向西南,右手向東北分開,成斜直線,左高右低。
Hands: Your hands close inward toward your chest, right hand in front of your left shoulder, palm facing downward, left hand near your right ribs, palm facing upward. Then your hands spread apart, left hand to the southwest, right hand to the northeast, making a diagonal straight line, left hand higher, right hand lower.
步 左足向西南進一步,曲膝;右足略轉,伸直;為斜川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step to the southwest, the knee bending, your right foot slightly pivoting, the leg straightening, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 視右方。
Eyes: looking to the right.
注意 此為野馬分鬃左式。兩手亦須隨腰伸至極度。
Points for attention: This posture is WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE on the left side. Your hands spreading apart must go along with your waist, extending to their limit.

123 野馬分鬃(三)(參觀第六十六圖及解法)
WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (Part 3) – Same as in photo 66

注意 以上三式,練時宜連貫不斷;腰胯動作一致;兩手開合,務須舒展靈活。
Points for attention: When practicing the three postures above, they must be continuous, without any pauses. Your waist and hips function as a single unit. The opening and closing of your hands must be performed smoothly and nimbly.

124 玉女穿梭(一)(如第六十八圖)
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (Part 1) – See photo 68:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 68

身 向西南。
Torso: facing to the southwest.
手    由上式,右手向左移至左肩前方,掌心向下,左手向右移至右腋下,掌心向上;左手由右脅沿右臂而上捧出,掌心隨轉向外,至額上,右手竪掌,隨左手向前按出,掌心朝外。
Hands: From the previous posture, your right hand shifts to the left to be in front of your left shoulder, palm facing downward, your left hand shifting to the right to be below your right ribs, palm facing upward. Then your left hand goes along your right arm from your right ribs, carrying upward, until above your forehead, the palm correspondingly turning to face outward, your right hand, palm upright, going along with your left hand by pushing out forward, palm facing outward.
步 左足向西南進一步,曲膝;右足略轉,伸直;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step to the southwest, the knee bending, your right foot slightly pivoting, the leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 視西南。
Eyes: looking to the southwest.
注意 練時,手足動作一致。
Points for attention: When practicing, the movements of your hands and feet are to be in unison.

125 玉女穿梭(二)(如第六十九圖)
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (Part 2) – See photo 69:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 69

身 轉向東南。
Torso: turns to be facing to the southeast.
手    左手落下,與右手合成環形,雙掌心向下,隨卽向左右分開,左手移至右肩前,右手掌心轉向上,移至左腋下;右手由左脅沿左臂向上捧出,掌心隨轉向外,至額上,左手竪掌,隨右手向前按出,掌心朝外。
Hands: Your left hand lowers, your hands closing toward each other to make a round shape, both palms facing downward, they spread apart to the sides, then your left hand shifts to be in front of your right shoulder, your right palm turning to face upward, shifting to be below your left armpit. Then your right hand goes along your left arm from your left ribs, carrying upward, until above your forehead, the palm correspondingly turning to face outward, your left hand, palm upright, going along with your right hand by pushing out forward, palm facing outward.
步    左足跟原地向右旋轉,足尖向東南,伸直;右足向右轉動,隨往東南進一步,曲膝;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left heel stays where it is but pivots to the right until the toes are pointing to the southeast, the leg straightening as your right foot turns to the right and advances a step to the southeast, the knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視東南。
Eyes: looking to the southeast.
注意 轉身須腰步一致,不可停滯。
Points for attention: When turning around, your waist and step must act in unison, and there must be no stagnation.

126 玉女穿梭(三)(如第七十圖)
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (Part 3) – See photo 70:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 70

身 轉向東北。
Torso: turns to be facing to the northeast.
手    右手向左移至左肩前方,掌心向下,左手向右移至右腋下,掌心向上;左手由右脅沿右臂向上捧出,掌心隨轉向外,至額上,右手豎掌,隨左手向前按出,掌心朝外。
Hands: Your right hand shifts to the left to be in front of your left shoulder, palm facing downward, your left hand shifting to the right to be below your right ribs, palm facing upward. Then your left hand goes along your right arm from your rights ribs, carrying upward, until above your forehead, the palm correspondingly turning to face outward, your right hand, palm upright, going along with your left hand by pushing out forward, palm facing outward.
步 左足向東北進一步,曲膝;右足畧轉,伸直;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step to the northeast, the knee bending, your right foot slightly pivoting, the leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 視東北。
Eyes: looking to the northeast.
注意 此式練時,宜與前式聯成一氣,不可間斷。
Points for attention: When practicing this posture, you should continue in a single flow from the previous posture. There must be no pause.

127 玉女穿梭(四)(如第七十一圖)
MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (Part 4) – See photo 71:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 71

身 轉向西北
Torso: turns to be facing to the northwest.
手    左手落下,與右手合成環形,雙掌心向下,隨卽向左右分開,左手移至右肩前,右手掌心轉向上,移至左腋下;右手由左脅沿左臂向上捧出,掌心隨轉向外,至額上,左手竪掌,隨右手向前按出,掌心朝外。
Hands: Your left hand lowers, your hands closing toward each other to make a round shape, both palms facing downward, they spread apart to the sides, then your left hand shifts to be in front of your right shoulder, your right palm turning to face upward, shifting to be below your left armpit. Then your right hand goes along your left arm from your left ribs, carrying upward, until above your forehead, the palm correspondingly turning to face outward, your left hand, palm upright, going along with your right hand by pushing out forward, palm facing outward.
步    左足跟原地向右旋轉,足尖向西北,伸直;右足向右轉動,隨往西北進一步,曲膝;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left heel stays where it is but pivots to the right until the toes are pointing to the northwest, the leg straightening as your right foot turns to the right and advances a step to the northwest, the knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視西北。
Eyes: looking to the northwest.
注意 以上四式,分向四隅運動;方向雖斜,惟身體不得偏倚。
Points for attention: The four postures above move to each of the four corners. Although the orientations are along diagonals, your body must not lean toward them.

128 手揮琵琶(右)(參觀第六十五圖)
PLAY THE LUTE (Right) – Same as in photo 65

身 轉向西方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the west.
手    雙手向左收囘胸前,垂肘,竪掌,如抱琵琶狀;右手拇指與鼻準相對,左掌心約對右臂彎。
Hands: Your hands withdraw to the left to be in front of your chest, elbows hanging, palms upright, your hands making a shape of holding a lute, your right thumb at nose level, your left palm facing to roughly your right elbow.
步 左足原地向左轉動,曲膝下坐;右足移至左足前方,足尖上竪。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot stays where it is but pivots to the left, the leg sitting, knee bending, your right foot shifting to be in front of your left foot, toes lifted. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此式與第六十五圖手揮琵琶同,惟第六十五圖上接斜單鞭,此則上接玉女穿梭耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same PLAY THE LUTE as in photo 65, except that it was in that case preceded by DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP and is in this case preceded by MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE.

129 攬雀尾(一)(參觀第二十八圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – Same as in photo 28

注意    此式與第二十八圖同,惟第二十八圖上接抱虎歸山,此則上接手揮琵琶,且身向西方耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 28, except that it was in that case preceded by CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN and is in this case preceded by PLAY THE LUTE, and also your torso is facing to the west.

130 攬雀尾(二)(參觀第三圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – Same as in photo 3
131 攬雀尾(三)(參觀第四圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – Same as in photo 4
132 攬雀尾(四)(參觀第五圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – Same as in photo 5
133 攬雀尾(五)(參觀第六圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 5) – Same as in photo 6
134 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7
135 左右雲手(一)(參觀第四十圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 1) – Same as in photo 40
136 左右雲手(二)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 2) – Same as in photo 41
137 左右雲手(三)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 3) – Same as in photo 42
138 左右雲手(四)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 4) – Same as in photo 43
139 左右雲手(五)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 5) – Same as in photo 40
140 左右雲手(六)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 6) – Same as in photo 41
141 左右雲手(七)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 7) – Same as in photo 42
142 左右雲手(八)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 8) – Same as in photo 43
143 左右雲手(九)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 9) – Same as in photo 40
144 左右雲手(十)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 10) – Same as in photo 41
145 左右雲手(十一)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 11) – Same as in photo 42
146 左右雲手(十二)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 12) – Same as in photo 43
147 左右雲手(十三)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 13) – Same as in photo 40
148 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7

149 下勢(如第七十二圖)
LOW POSTURE – See photo 72:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 72

身 轉向南方,下降至極度。
Torso: turns to be facing to the south, lowering as far as it can.
手    右手變掌,向上往左旋轉而下,與左手參差平列,手掌側立;兩手隨腰向下往後撤至左腿內旁。
Hands: Your right hand becomes a palm, arcs upward, to the left, downward, to be almost level with your left hand, the palm standing sideways, then your hands go along with your waist by going downward and withdrawing to the rear until to the inside of your left leg.
步 右腿彎曲,下蹲至極點;左腿伸直仆地。
Footwork: Your right leg bends and squats down as far as it can, your left leg straightened until almost flat on the ground.
眼 視東方。
Eyes: looking to the east.
注意    身體下蹲時,脊骨宜直,不可欹斜前俯;膝身手足,動作均須一致;全身重心在右腿。
Points for attention: As your body squats down, your spine should be straight and must not tilt away at an angle or lean forward. The movements of your knees, torso, hands, and feet must be in unison. The weight is on your right leg.

150 金鷄獨立(一)(右)(如第七十三圖)
GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (Part 1 – Right) – See photo 73:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 73

身 往前進,隨進隨提起,轉向東方。
Torso: turns forward, lifting, to be facing to the east.
手    由前式,右手向前往上提至額前,掌心向下;左手同時提至胸前,復往下按,至腹部前,掌心向下。
Hands: From the previous posture, your right hand goes forward and lifts upward until in front of your forehead, palm facing downward, as your left hand lifts until in front of your chest, then pushes downward until in front of your belly, palm facing downward.
步 右足往前提起,膝與腹平,足尖垂下;左腿直立。
Footwork: Your right foot lifts forward, knee at belly level, toes hanging down, your left leg standing straight.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 全身重心在左腿。
Points for attention: The weight is entirely on your left leg.

151 金鷄獨立(二)(左)(如第七十四圖)
GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (Part 2 – Left) – See photo 74:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 74

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    左手在腹前變仰掌,由右腕上穿出,往前直伸,同時右手變仰掌,沿左臂往下按,隨按掌心隨轉向下,斜伸於左腿旁。
Hands: Your left hand in front of your belly becomes an upward-facing palm and threads out over your right wrist, extending straight forward, as your right hand becomes an upward-facing palm and goes along your left arm, pushing downward, the palm correspondingly turning to again face downward, diagonally extending beside your left leg.
步 右足下落,直立;左足隨之踢出。
Footwork: Your right foot comes down, the leg stands straight, and your left foot then kicks out.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此式重點在右腿。以上兩式,如山嶽之峙立,堅穩不動。
Points for attention: In this posture, the weight is on your right leg. In both of the postures above, stand tall like a mountain, stable and unmoving.

152 倒捻猴(一)(如第七十五圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 1) – See photo 75:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 75

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 左手往後圓轉至耳旁,向前按出,坐腕,掌心朝外;右手向下按至右膝旁,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your left hand goes to the rear and arcs until beside your ear, then pushes forward, the wrist settling, palm facing outward, as your right hand pushes downward until beside your right knee, palm facing downward.
步 左足朝左轉,向後落下,伸直;右足曲膝;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot rotates to the left and comes down to the rear, the leg straightening, your right knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 退左步時,身體正直,切勿搖動及向前探身。
Points for attention: As you retreat your left foot, your body should be straight, should not sway, nor reach forward.

153 倒捻猴(二)(如第七十六圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 2) – See photo 76:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 76

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右手向後轉動,約成四十五度角,掌心向外;左手下按至小腹前,掌心向下,指尖向右。
Hands: Your right hand arcs to the rear at about a forty-five degree angle, palm facing outward, as your left hand pushes downward until in front of your lower abdomen, palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the right.
步 左足曲膝下坐;右足後撤半步,足跟略提,足尖點地。左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left leg sits, the knee bending, your right foot withdrawing a half step to the rear, heel slightly lifted, toes touching down. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

154 倒捻猴(三)(如第七十七圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 3) – See photo 77:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 77

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右手圓轉至耳旁,向前按出,坐腕,掌心朝外;左手向左落至膝旁,掌心朝下,指尖向前。
Hands: Your right hand arcs until beside your ear, then pushes forward, the wrist settling, palm facing outward, as your left hand lowers to the left until beside your knee, palm facing downward, fingers pointing forward.
步 右足後退一步,伸直;左足曲膝;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your right foot retreats a step to the rear, the leg straightening, your left knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 退步時手足一致;脊骨宜直,勿向前俯。
Points for attention: As you retreat, your hands and feet are to move in unison. Your spine should be straight and should not lean forward.

155 倒捻猴(四)(如第七十八圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 4) – See photo 78:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 78

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    左手向後轉動,約成四十五度角,掌心向外;右手下按至小腹前,掌心向下,指尖向左。
Hands: Your left hand arcs to the rear at about a forty-five degree angle, palm facing outward, as your right hand pushes downward until in front of your lower abdomen, palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the left.
步 右足曲膝下坐;左足後撤半步,足跟略提,脚尖點地。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right leg sits, the knee bending, your left foot withdrawing a half step to the rear, heel slightly lifted, toes touching down. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

156 倒捻猴(五)(參觀第七十六圖)
RETREATING MONKEY (Part 5) – Same as in photo 76 [75]

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 左手圓轉至耳旁,向前按出,坐腕,掌心朝外;右手向下按至右膝旁,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your left hand arcs until beside your ear, then pushes forward, the wrist settling, palm facing outward, as your right hand pushes downward until beside your right knee, palm facing downward.
步 左足往後退一步,伸直;右足曲膝;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your left foot retreats a step to the rear, the leg straightening, your right knee bending, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 以上五式,練時連貫一氣,不可間斷。兩手轉動,均須橢圓形。
Points for attention: When practicing the five postures above, it should be performed as a continuous flow and must not have any pauses. The movements of your hands must make oval shapes.

157 斜飛勢(一)(參觀第三十五圖及解法)
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (Part 1) – Same as in photo 35
158 斜飛勢(二)(參觀第三十六圖及解法)
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (Part 2) – Same as in photo 36
159 提手上式(一)(參觀第八圖及解法)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 1) – Same as in photo 8

注意 此式與第八圖同,惟第八圖上接單鞭,此則上接斜飛勢耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 8, except that it was in that case preceded by SINGLE WHIP and is in this case preceded by DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE.

160 提手上式(二)(參觀第九圖及解法)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 2) – Same as in photo 9
161 提手上式(三)(參觀第十圖及解法)
RAISE THE HAND (Part 3) – Same as in photo 10
162 白鶴掠翅(一)(參觀如第十一圖及解法)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 1) – Same as in photo 11
163 白鶴掠翅(二)(參觀如第十二圖及解法)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 2) – Same as in photo 12
164 白鶴掠翅(三)(參觀如第十三圖及解法)
WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS (Part 3) – Same as in photo 13
165 摟膝拗步(一)(左)(參觀第十四圖及解法)
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 1 – Left) – Same as in photo 14
166 摟膝拗步(二)(左)(參觀第十五圖及解法)
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Part 2 – Left) – Same as in photo 15
167 海底針(參觀第三十七圖及解法)
NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA” – Same as in photo 37
168 扇通背(參觀第三十八圖及解法)
FAN THROUGH THE BACK – Same as in photo 38
169 撇身槌(參觀第三十九圖及解法)
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH – Same as in photo 39

170 搬攔槌(一)(參觀第十九圖及解法)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 1) – Same as in photo 19
171 搬攔槌(二)(參觀第二十圖及解法)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 2) – Same as in photo 20
172 搬攔槌(三)(參觀第二十一圖及解法)
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (Part 3) – Same as in photo 21

注意    以上三式,手,步,眼,注意各條解法,均與第十九,二十,二十一,三條同,惟此三式身之方位向正西,十九,二十,二十一,三圖則向正東耳。
Points for attention: The explanations for the three postures above are the same as for photos 19–21, except that in that case you were facing to the east, whereas in this case you are facing to the west.

173 攬雀尾(一)(參觀第三圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – Same as in photo 3
174 攬雀尾(二)(參觀第四圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – Same as in photo 4
175 攬雀尾(三)(參觀第五圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – Same as in photo 5
176 攬雀尾(四)(參觀第六圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – Same as in photo 6
177 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7
178 左右雲手(一)(參觀第四十圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 1) – Same as in photo 40
179 左右雲手(二)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 2) – Same as in photo 41
180 左右雲手(三)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 3) – Same as in photo 42
181 左右雲手(四)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 4) – Same as in photo 43
182 左右雲手(五)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 5) – Same as in photo 40
183 左右雲手(六)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 6) – Same as in photo 41
184 左右雲手(七)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 7) – Same as in photo 42
185 左右雲手(八)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 8) – Same as in photo 43
186 左右雲手(九)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 9) – Same as in photo 40
187 左右雲手(十)(參觀第四十一圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 10) – Same as in photo 41
188 左右雲手(十一)(參觀第四十二圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 11) – Same as in photo 42
189 左右雲手(十二)(參觀第四十三圖及解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 12) – Same as in photo 43
190 左右雲手(十三)(參觀第四十圖及左右雲手(五)解法)
LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Part 13) – Same as in photo 40
191 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7
192 高探馬(左)(參觀第四十四圖及解法)
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (Left) – Same as in photo 44

193 劈面掌(如第七十九圖)
CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE – See photo 79:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 79

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 右手變仰掌,左手由右手腕上穿出,同時右手撤囘左腋下,掌心向上。
Hands: Your right hand becomes an upward-facing palm, your left hand threading out over your right wrist as your right hand withdraws below your right armpit, palm still facing upward.
步 左足前進半步,曲膝;右足伸直;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left advances a half step, then knee bending, your right straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 視左方。
Eyes: looking to the left.
注意 左手穿出後,臂微彎,指尖高與額齊。
Points for attention: Once your left palm has thread out, the arm is slightly bent and the fingertips are at forehead level.

194 十字擺蓮(一)(如第八十圖)
CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK (Part 1) – See photo 80:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 80

身 轉向西方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the west.
手 左手隨腰轉動,舉至項上,掌心朝外,指尖向右;右手不動。
Hands: Your left hand goes along with your waist as it turns by raising above your headtop, palm facing outward, fingers pointing to the right, your right hand not moving.
步    左足向右轉,足尖向西南,曲膝下坐;右足同時向右轉,略移,足尖點地;為丁虛式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot pivots to the right so the toes are pointing to the southwest, the leg sitting, knee bending, as your right foot turns to the right, slightly shifting so the toes are touching down, making a T-shaped empty stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 轉身時,腰腿務須一致。
Points for attention: As you turn around, your waist and legs must act in unison.

195 十字擺蓮(二)(如第八十一圖)
CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK (Part 2) – See photo 81:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 81

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手 右掌翻轉,掌心朝下;左掌由右往左擺。
Hands: Your right palm turns to be facing downward as your left hand swings out from right to left.
步 左足不動;右足提起,曲左往右擺踢左掌。
Footwork: Your left foot staying where it is, your right foot lifts and swings across from left to right to kick your left palm.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 擺踢時,身體切勿搖動;全身重心在左腿。
Points for attention: As you perform the swinging kick, your body must not sway. The weight is entirely on your left leg.

196 摟膝拗步(右)(參觀第十七圖)
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (Right) – Same as in photo 17

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手    左手下落,往後圓轉而上,經左耳旁,徐徐向前按出,肘微曲,指尖上竪,掌心朝外;右手由左腋下往右下按,摟過右膝,置右膝旁,指尖向前,掌心向下。
Hands: Your left hand lowers, arcs to the rear and upward, passes beside your left ear, and slowly pushes out forward, elbow slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing outward, as your right hand pushes downward to the right from below your left armpit, brushes past and is placed beside your right knee, fingers pointing forward, palm facing downward.
步 右足向前落步,曲膝;左足伸直;為川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot comes down forward, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此式與第十七圖右摟膝拗步同,惟方向不同耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE as in photo 17, except the orientation is different.

197 指襠槌(如第八十二圖)
PUNCH TO THE CROTCH – See photo 82:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 82

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手 左手摟過左膝;右手提至肋下,變拳,虎口向上,往前打出;左掌護右脈門。
Hands: Your left hand brushes past your left knee, your right hand lifts until below your ribs, becoming a fist, tiger’s mouth facing upward, then strikes out forward, your left hand guarding at your left pulse area.
步 左足前進一步,曲膝;右足伸直;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot advances a step, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 拳打出時,身體宜直,切勿前俯;力須由脊骨發出。
Points for attention: As your fist strikes out, your body should be straight and must not lean forward. The power must issue from your spine.

198 攬雀尾(一)(參觀第二十八圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – Same as in photo 28

身 向西。
Torso: facing to the west.
手 左手變為仰掌,收囘胸際;右拳變掌,提至左手指前寸許,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your left hand becomes an upward-facing palm, withdraws to your chest, as your right hand becomes a palm, lifting until about an inch in front of your left fingers, palm facing downward.
步 右足向後,曲膝下坐;左足後撤,脚尖上竪。右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right leg sits to the rear, the knee bending, your left foot withdrawing to the rear, toes lifted. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此式與第二十八圖同,惟身之方位向西,與下四式連續。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 28, except your body is in this case facing to the west. It flows into the following four postures.

199 攬雀尾(二)(參觀第三圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – Same as in photo 3
200 攬雀尾(三)(參觀第四圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – Same as in photo 4
201 攬雀尾(四)(參觀第五圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – Same as in photo 5
202 攬雀尾(五)(參觀第六圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 5) – Same as in photo 6
203 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7
204 下勢(參觀第七十三圖及解法)
LOW POSTURE – Same as in photo 73

205 七星(如第八十三圖)
BIG DIPPER POSTURE – See photo 83:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 83

身 往前進,隨進隨提起,轉向東方。
Torso: turns forward, lifting, to be facing to the east.
手 由前式,雙手隨腰往前向上舉至胸前,手腕交搭成斜十字形,左手在內,右手在外。
Hands: From the previous posture, your hands go along with your waist by going forward and raising upward until in front of your chest, wrists crossing to make an X shape, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside.
步 左膝前曲,同時右足前進一步,足尖點地;為丁虛式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left knee bends forward as your right foot advances a step, toes touching down, making a T-shaped empty stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 身體往前提起時,宜用脊力;勿過前俯。此式全身重心在左足。
Points for attention: As your body goes forward and lifts up, you should use power from your spine and should not lean too far forward. In this posture, the weight is on your left foot.

206 跨虎(如第八十四圖)
SITTING TIGER POSTURE – See photo 84:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 84

身 轉向南方。
Torso: turns to be facing to the south.
手    雙手向懷內收至左肩前,右手變為仰掌,向前推出,隨推掌心隨轉向外,大拇指向下;同時左手五指作鈎,向後伸出,指尖向上。
Hands: Your hands withdraw toward your chest until in front of your left shoulder, then your right hand becomes an upward-facing palm and pushes out forward, the palms correspondingly turning to face outward, thumbs facing downward, as your left fingers form a hook, the hand extending to the rear, fingers pointing upward.
步    右足後退一步,足尖向南,曲膝下坐;左足收囘在右足前,足尖點地;為丁虛式,右實左虛
Footwork: Your right foot retreat a step, toes pointing to the south, the leg sitting, knee bending, your left foot withdrawing to be in front of your right foot, toes touching down, making a T-shaped empty stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視東方。
Eyes: looking to the east.
注意 練時,手足動作一致;全身重心在右腿。
Points for attention: When practicing, your hands and feet must move in unison. The weight is on your right leg.

207 劈面掌(參觀第八十圖及解法)
CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE – Same as in photo 80

注意 此式與第八十圖劈面掌同,惟此式身向西方耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE as in photo 80, except in this case your torso is facing to the west.

208 雙擺蓮(一)(如第八十五圖)
DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK (Part 1) – See photo 85:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 85

身 轉向東方。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右手由左腋下沿左臂而上,掌心隨上隨轉向外,至左手腕背,雙手交叉成斜十字形,隨腰向右轉至右肩前,左手掌心隨轉向外。
Hands: Your right hand goes upward along your left arm from below your left armpit, the palm correspondingly turning to face outward, until at the back of your left wrist, your hands crossing to make an X shape, going along with your waist during its right turn by arriving in front of your right shoulder, your left palm correspondingly turning to face outward.
步    左足原地向右轉,足尖向東北,曲膝下坐;右足隨之轉動,向右橫移半步,足尖點地;為丁虛式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left foot stays where it is but pivots to the right until the toes are pointing to the northeast, the leg sitting, knee bending, your right foot turning along with the movement and shifting across to the right a half step, toes touching down, making a T-shaped empty stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 此為過渡式。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture.

209 雙擺蓮(二)(如第八十六圖)
DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK (Part 2) – See photo 86:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 86

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手 雙手前伸,由右向左擺。
Hands: Your hands extend forward and swing from right to left.
步 左足直立;右足提起,由左向右擺踢雙掌。
Footwork: Your left leg standing straight, your right foot lifts and swings across from left to right to kick both of your palms.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意 全身重心在左足。右足擺動之路線,為半圓形。
Points for attention: The weight is entirely of your left foot. The path along which your left foot swings makes a half circle.

210 彎弓射虎(如第八十七圖)
BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER – See photo 87:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 87

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    由上式,雙手向左圓轉向下,復上至右脅旁,右手在上,左手在下,變拳,虎口相對,斜向東北擊出。
Hands: From the previous posture, your hands arc to the left, downward, then upward, arriving beside your right ribs, right hand above, left hand below, becoming fists, the tiger’s mouths facing each other, then strike out diagonally to the northeast.
步 右足向右前方落步,曲膝;左足伸直;為斜川式,右實左虛。
Footwork: Your right foot comes down to the forward right, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, making a diagonal three-line stance. Your right foot is full, left foot empty.
眼 視東北。
Eyes: looking to the northeast.
注意    雙拳擊出時,脊骨宜直,勿向前探出;兩肩不可聳起;左臂稍直;右拳高度約與額齊。
Points for attention: As your fists strike out, your spine should be straight and should not be reaching forward. Your shoulders must not lift. Your left arm is slightly straighter, your right fist at about forehead level.

211 高探馬(右)(如第八十八圖)
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (Right) – See photo 88:

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - photo 88

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右拳變為仰掌,向後收囘,垂肘貼肋;左拳變掌,掌心向下,收至右肩前,曲肘,向前推出,臂微彎,手腕在右手指前寸許。
Hands: Your right fist becomes an upright-facing palm, withdraws to the rear, elbow hanging close to your ribs, as your left hand becomes a palm, facing downward, withdrawing until in front of your right shoulder, elbow bent, and pushes out forward, arm slightly bent, the wrist about an inch in front of your right fingers.
步 左足曲膝下坐;右足斜收半步,足尖點地;左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left leg sits, the knee bending, your right foot diagonally withdrawing a half step, toes touching down. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 此為右式高探馬。
Points for attention: This is RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE on the right side.

212 劈面掌(參觀第八十圖)
CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE – Same as in photo 80

身 向東。
Torso: facing to the east.
手    右手收囘,橫置胸前,掌心在下,復往外經左手上圓轉至左腋下,隨轉掌心隨向上;左手向下往內圓轉至胸前,變仰掌,由右手腕上穿出。
Hands: Your right hand withdraws to be placed horizontally in front of your chest, palm facing downward, then goes outward along the top of your left arm and arcs around to arrive below your left armpit, the palm correspondingly turning to face upward, as your left hand goes downward and inward in front of your chest, becoming an upward-facing palm, and threads out over your right wrist.
步 右足前進半步;左足隨之前進一步,曲膝,同時右足伸直;為川式,左實右虛。
Footwork: Your right foot advances a half step, your left leg then advancing a step, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a three-line stance. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 平視。
Eyes: looking level.
注意 兩手圓轉之路線宜成正圓形。
Points for attention: The paths that your hands make should be complete circles.

213 撇身槌(參觀第三十九圖及解法)
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH – Same as in photo 39

注意 此式與第三十九圖同,惟第三十九圖上接扇通背,此則上接劈面掌耳。
Points for attention: This posture is the same as in photo 39, except that it was in that case preceded by FAN THROUGH THE BACK and is in this case preceded by CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE.

214 攬雀尾(一)(參觀第二十八圖)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 1) – Same as in photo 28

身 轉向西。
Torso: turns to be facing to the west.
手 左手變為仰掌,收囘胸際;右拳變掌,提至左手指前寸許,掌心朝下。
Hands: Your left hand becomes an upward-facing palm, withdraws in front of your chest, as your right fist becomes a palm, lifts until about an inch in front of your left fingers, palm facing downward.
步 左足曲膝下坐;右足向西方斜進半步,足踵着地,足尖上竪;左實右虛。
Footwork: Your left leg sits, the knee bending, your right foot diagonally advancing a half step to the west, heel touching down, toes lifted. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
眼 隨手注視。
Eyes: following your hands.
注意 此為過渡式,與下四式連續。
Points for attention: This is a transitional posture. It flows into the following four postures.

215 攬雀尾(二)(參觀第三圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 2) – Same as in photo 3
216 攬雀尾(三)(參觀第四圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 3) – Same as in photo 4
217 攬雀尾(四)(參觀第五圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 4) – Same as in photo 5
218 攬雀尾(五)(參觀第六圖及解法)
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (Part 5) – Same as in photo 6
219 單鞭(參觀第七圖及解法)
SINGLE WHIP – Same as in photo 7

220 合太極(參觀第一圖)
CLOSING POSTURE – Same as in photo 1

身 轉向正南起立。
Torso: turns to be facing squarely to the south, standing upright.
手    右手變掌,與左手隨身下垂,掌心貼兩胯旁,復向上提至胸旁,掌心向下,徐徐下按,與胯相齊。
Hands: Your right hand becomes a palm, both hands hang down along your body, palms close to your hips, then they lift up until beside your chest, palms facing downward, and slowly push down until beside your hips.
步 兩足原地轉向正南;左足隨卽收囘,與右足並立;兩足距離,以兩肩之寬度為標準。
Footwork: Your feet staying where they are, they pivot to point to the south, then your left foot withdraws to stand next to your right foot shoulder width apart.
眼 前視。
Eyes: looking forward.
注意    太極拳練完,歸於起式,為合太極。以上各式,複雜綜錯,然不外由三十七式變化而來。為初學計,有一式分析為四五節至十數節者。學者宜循序漸進,切勿貪多躐等!
Points for attention: At the conclusion of practicing the Taiji Boxing set, you return to the BEGINNING POSTURE to make the CLOSING POSTURE. Each of the postures above are complexly interwoven, but their transformations from one to another do not take them beyond the Thirty-Seven Postures. In the beginning of the training, each posture is broken down into a few or many sections. You should progress step by step and should not skip ahead in impatience.

太極拳演式順序
SEQUENCE OF TAIJI BOXING POSTURES

向南正立,作太極起式。蹲身,進左步,轉左脚,進右步,向西,欖雀尾。轉右脚,開左步,向東,單鞭。轉身向南,進右步,提手上式。原地扭身,白鶴掠翅。轉右脚,開左步,向東,左,摟膝拗步。收左脚,右,手揮琵琶。開左步,左,摟膝拗步。進右步,右,摟膝拗步。進左步,左,摟膝拗步。收左脚,右,手揮琵琶。進步,搬攔槌。原地作如封似閉。轉身向南,並左脚,十字手。開左斜步,向東南,斜,摟膝拗步。轉身向西北,開右步,抱虎歸山。原地作攬雀尾。轉身開左步,向東南,斜單鞭。進右步轉身向東,肘底看槌。退左步,倒捻猴。退右步,倒捻猴。退左步,倒捻猴。轉身向南,進左步,斜飛勢。進右步,提手上式。原地扭身,白鶴掠翅。轉右足,開左步,向東,左,摟膝拗步。收左脚,海底針。進左步,轉身向南,扇通背。轉身向西北,開右步,撇身槌。原地攬雀尾。轉右足,開左步,向東,單鞭。轉身向西南,並左脚,退左步,雲手起式,雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手;雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手;雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手。開左步,向東,單鞭。屈右腿,收左脚,左,高探馬。向西北退左步,向東南踢右脚,右分脚。落右脚,向東北踢左脚,左分脚。收左脚,向左轉身,向西蹬左脚。落左脚,左,摟膝拗步,進右步,右,摟膝拗步。進左步,栽槌。翻身向東南,進右步,撇身槌。向東南踢右脚,向後落右脚,再起左脚向東南踢出,二起脚。左脚向後落下,收右脚,向東,打虎式。蹬右脚,向東,雙風貫耳。披身,向東踢左脚。收左脚,向右轉身,向西落左脚,再轉身,向東蹬右脚。落左脚,進左步,右,手揮琵琶。進步搬攔槌。原地作如封似閉。轉身向南,並左脚,十字手。開左斜步,向東南,斜,摟膝拗步。轉身向西北,開右步,抱虎歸山。原地作攬雀尾。轉身開左步,向東南,斜單鞭。轉左脚,上右步,向西,左,手揮琵琶。進右步,向西北,野馬分鬃。進左步,向西南,野馬分鬃。進右步,向西北,野馬分鬃。進左步,向西南,玉女穿梭。轉身向東南,進右步,玉女穿梭。進左步,向東北,玉女穿梭。轉身向西北,進右步,玉女穿梭。收右脚,向西,左,手揮琵琶。右脚進半步,攬雀尾。轉右脚,開左脚,向東,單鞭。轉身向西南,並左脚,退左步,雲手起式;雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右步,退左步,右雲手;雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手;雙足轉同東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手。開左步,向東,單鞭。原地屈右腿,左腿仆地,下勢。立身,提右脚,右,金鷄獨立;落右脚,踢左脚,左,金鷄獨立。左脚朝左轉,向後落下,倒捻猴。退右步,倒捻猴。退左步,倒捻猴。轉身向南,進左步,斜飛勢。進右步,提手上式。原地扭身,白鶴掠翅。轉右脚,開左步,向東,左,摟膝拗步。收左脚,海底針。進左步,轉身向南,扇通背。轉身向西北,開右步,撇身槌。進左步,向西,搬攔槌。進右步,攬雀尾。轉右脚,開左步,向東,單鞭。轉身向西南,並左脚,退左步,雲手起式;雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手;雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手;雙足轉向東南,左雲手;並右脚,退左步,右雲手。開左步,向東,單鞭。屈右腿,收左脚,左,高探馬。進左步,穿左掌,劈面掌。原地轉身向西,十字擺蓮。落右步,右,摟膝拗步。進左步,指襠槌。進右步,攬雀尾。轉右脚,開左步,向東,單鞭。原地屈右腿,左腿仆地,下勢。立身,進右步,七星。退右步,移左脚,向南,跨虎。轉身向西,進左步,穿左掌,劈面掌。原地轉身向東,雙擺蓮。落右步,向東北,彎弓射虎。屈左腿,收右脚,向東,右,高探馬。右脚進半步,穿左掌,進左步,劈面掌。轉身向西北,開右步,撇身槌。進右步,向西,攬雀尾。轉右脚,開左步,向東,單鞭。左脚收囘原位,兩手下垂,合太極。
Standing upright, facing squarely to the south, perform the BEGINNING POSTURE.
     Squatting your body, advancing your left foot, pivoting your right foot, facing to the west, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Pivoting your right foot, stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Turning your body to face to the south, advancing your right foot, perform RAISE THE HAND.
     Staying where you are, twisting your body, perform WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS.
     Pivoting your right foot, step out your left foot, facing to the east, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
     Withdrawing your left foot, then your right, perform PLAY THE LUTE on the right side.
     Stepping out your left foot, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
     Stepping out your right foot, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the right side.
     Stepping out your left foot, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
     Withdrawing your left foot, perform PLAY THE LUTE on the right side.
     Advancing, perform PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
     Staying where you are, perform SEALING SHUT.
     Turning your body to face to the south, stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform CROSSED HANDS.
     Stepping out your left foot diagonally, facing to the southeast, perform DIAGONAL BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE.
     Turning your body to face to the northwest, stepping out your right foot, perform CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN.
     Staying where you are, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Turning your body, stepping out your left foot, facing to the southeast, perform DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP.
     Advancing your right foot, turning your body to face to the east, perform GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW.
     Retreating your left foot, perform RETREATING MONKEY.
     Retreating your right foot, perform RETREATING MONKEY.
     Retreating your left foot, perform RETREATING MONKEY.
     Turning your body to the south, advancing your left foot, perform DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE.
     Advancing your right foot, perform RAISE THE HAND.
     Staying where you are, perform WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS.
     Pivoting your right foot, stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
     Withdrawing your left foot, perform NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”.
     Advancing your left foot, turning your body to face to the south, perform FAN THROUGH THE BACK.
     Turning your body to face to the northwest, stepping out your right foot, perform TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH.
     Staying where you are, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Pivoting your right foot, stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Turning your body to face to the southwest, stepping your left foot next to your right foot, then retreating your left foot, perform the initial posture of CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Bending your right leg, withdrawing your left foot, perform RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE on the left side.
     Retreating your left foot to the northwest, perform KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE, kicking to the southeast with your right foot.
     Lowering your right foot, perform KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE, kicking to the northeast with your left foot.
     Withdrawing your left foot, turning around to the left to face to the east, perform LEFT PRESSING KICK.
     Lowering your left foot, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
     Advancing your right foot, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the right side.
     Advancing your left foot, perform PLANTING PUNCH.
     Turning around to face to the southeast, advancing your right foot, perform TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH.
     Kicking your right foot to the east, lowering your foot to the rear, then kicking your left foot out to the southeast, perform DOUBLE KICK.
     Your left foot coming down to the rear, withdrawing your right foot, facing to the east, perform FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE.
     Press your right foot to the east, then perform DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS.
     Perform DRAPING THE BODY, KICK, kicking to the east with your left foot.
     Withdrawing your left foot toward the right, turning around to face to the west, lowering your left foot, turning around to again face to the east, perform RIGHT PRESSING KICK.
     Lowering your left [right] foot, advancing your left foot, perform PLAY THE LUTE on the right side.
     Advancing, perform PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
     Staying where you are, perform SEALING SHUT.
     Turning your body to face to the south, stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform CROSSED HANDS.
     Stepping out your left foot diagonally, facing to the southeast, perform DIAGONAL BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE.
     Turning your body to face to the northwest, stepping out your right foot, perform CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN.
     Staying where you are, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Turning your body, stepping out your left foot, facing to the southeast, perform DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP.
     Pivoting your left foot, stepping forward with your right foot, facing to the west, perform PLAY THE LUTE on the left side.
     Advancing your right foot, facing to the northwest, perform WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE.
     Advancing your left foot, facing to the northwest, perform WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE.
     Advancing your right foot, facing to the northwest, perform WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE.
     Advancing your left foot, facing to the southwest, perform MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE.
     Turning around to face to the southeast, advancing your right foot, perform MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE.
     Advancing your left foot, facing to the northeast, perform MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE.
     Turning around to face to the northwest, advancing your right foot, perform MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE.
     Withdrawing your right foot, facing to the west, perform PLAY THE LUTE on the left side.
     Your right foot advancing a half step, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Pivoting your right foot, stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Turning your body to face to the southwest, stepping your left foot next to your right foot, then retreating your left foot, perform the initial posture of CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Staying where you are, bending your right leg, flattening your left leg to the ground, perform LOW POSTURE.
     Standing up, lifting your right foot, perform GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG on the right side.
     Lowering your right foot, kicking with your left foot, perform GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG on the left side.
     Your left foot turning to face to the left, coming down to the rear, perform RETREATING MONKEY.
     Retreating your right foot, perform RETREATING MONKEY.
     Retreating your left foot, perform RETREATING MONKEY.
     Turning your body to the south, advancing your left foot, perform DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE.
     Advancing your right foot, perform RAISE THE HAND.
     Staying where you are, perform WHITE CRANE SWATS WITH ITS WINGS.
     Pivoting your right foot, stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the left side.
     Withdrawing your left foot, perform NEEDLING “UNDER THE SEA”.
     Advancing your left foot, turning your body to face to the south, perform FAN THROUGH THE BACK.
     Turning your body to face to the northwest, stepping out your right foot, perform TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH.
     Advancing your left foot, facing to the west, perform PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH.
     Advancing your right foot, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Pivoting your right foot, stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Turning your body to face to the southwest, stepping your left foot next to your right foot, then retreating your left foot, perform the initial posture of CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Both feet pivoting to point to the southeast, perform LEFT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping your right foot next to your left foot, perform RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS.
     Stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Bending your right leg, withdrawing your left foot, perform RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE on the left side.
     Advancing your left foot, threading your left palm, perform CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE.
     Staying where you are, turning your body to face to the west, perform CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK.
     Lowering your right foot, perform BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE on the right side.
     Advancing your left foot, perform PUNCH TO THE CROTCH.
     Advancing your right foot, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Pivoting your right foot, stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Staying where you are, bending your right leg, flattening your left leg to the ground, perform LOW POSTURE.
     Standing up, advancing your right foot, perform BIG DIPPER POSTURE.
     Retreating your right foot, shifting your left foot, facing to the south, perform SITTING TIGER POSTURE.
     Turning your body to face to the west, advancing your left foot, threading your left palm, perform CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE.
     Staying where you are, turning around, facing to the east, perform DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK.
     Lowering your right foot, facing to the northwest, perform BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER.
     Bending your left leg, withdrawing your right foot, facing to the east, perform RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE on the right side.
     Advancing your right foot a half step, threading your left palm, advancing your left foot, perform CHOPPING PALM TO THE FACE.
     Turning your body to face to the northwest, stepping out your right foot, perform TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH.
     Advancing your right foot, facing to the west, perform CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL.
     Stepping out your left foot, facing to the east, perform SINGLE WHIP.
     Withdrawing your left foot to stand in your original position, your hands hanging down, perform CLOSING POSTURE.

七 推手
SEVEN: PUSHING HANDS

推手一名打手,亦曰搭手,靠手;乃兩人以手互推,旋轉不已,渾圓如球,所以練知覺,供應用也。
其基本八法,曰:『掤,捋,擠,按,採,挒,肘,靠,』而千變萬化,胥由此八字以生。
初學時,謹守成法,循序漸進,使觸覺日增靈敏;迨至純熟,則無不靈活,一觸卽發,不拘定式,變化無窮,蓋對方之動靜,虛實,無不預知,自能不丢不頂,隨屈就伸,能黏能走,雖四兩可以撥千斤矣!
Pushing hands is called “playing hands”, also “touching hands” or “nearing hands”. Two people use their hands to push at each other in endless circles, round as a ball. The result of it is that they train awareness and practical application.
     The basics eight techniques are called: ward-off, rollback, press, push, pluck, rend, elbow, bump. Throughout endless transformations, everything arises from these eight techniques.
     In the beginning of the training, work only with choreographed movements proceeding in sequence, thereby causing your sensitivity of touch to daily increase. Once you are skillful at this, then you will at all times act nimbly, able to issue with but a single touch, no longer limited to choreographed postures, transforming endlessly. Anticipating an opponent’s condition of movement of stillness, emptiness and fullness, you will naturally have the abilities of “neither coming away nor crashing in” and “comply and bend then engage and extend”. Able to both stick and yield, a mere four ounces can move a thousand pounds.

1 八法名稱釋義及其應用
THE EIGHT TECHNIQUES – THEIR NAMES EXPLAINED & THEIR APPLICATIONS

(一)掤法
1. WARD-OFF [peng]

「釋義」捧也,兩手承物曰捧。為太極拳推手之術語。
Definition: to hold up, as in two hands carrying an object. It is a technical term in Taiji Boxing’s pushing hands.
「應用」敵以手擊來,我借其力,以手由下而上斜捧敵手,以化去彼力,且因而擲出之。
Application: When an opponent uses a hand to attack, I borrow his power by carrying his hand diagonally upward with my hand in order to neutralize his force, and consequently he gets thrown out.

(二)捋法
2. ROLLBACK [lü]

「釋義」讀如呂;舒也,布也,散也。亦術語。按字典中無此字,疑為『攄』字之訛。
Definition: pronounced “lü”, it means to extend, to distribute, to disseminate, a technical term. Note: The actual character does not appear in any dictionary, and may be a mistake for another character meaning “to extend”.
「應用」敵用掤法,擠法時,我卽因其力向斜角下方捋去,以舒散敵勁,則敵落空而前傾矣。
Application: When an opponent uses ward-off or press, I then rollback his force diagonally downward to dispel his power, causing him to lose his balance and lean forward.

(三)擠法
3. PRESS [ji]

「釋義」排也,推也,推之使不得前進也。亦術語。
Definition: to forcefully remove, to push away, to push to prevent someone from being able to advance forward, a technical term.
「應用」敵用捋法時,我卽曲肱,以手向前排推敵身,而外擲之,敵自不能穩立,而跌出矣。
Application: When an opponent uses rollback, I then bend my arm while using my other hand to push forward toward his body and cast him out. He will naturally be unable to be stable and will stumble away.

(四)按法
4. PUSH [an]

「釋義」抑也,止也。亦術語。
Definition: to press downward, to suppress, a technical term.
「應用」敵方擠我時,用手下抑以制止之,使敵勁失效,而加以挫擲之。
Application: When an opponent presses me, I use my hands to push downward and suppress his action, causing his power to become ineffective, then I build upon this by throwing him away.

(五)採法
5. PLUCK [cai]

「釋義」摘也,取也。亦術語。
Definition: to pick, to take, a technical term.
「應用」敵用掤法,靠法時,我以掌摘取敵手,向側牽引,以制其力,使不能變動,我可隨意擊之。
Application: When an opponent uses ward-off or bump, I use a palm to take his hand and draw it to the side to control his force and cause him to be unable to adjust his movement. I can then attack him as I please.

(六)挒法
6. REND [lie]

「釋義」拗也,捩轉也。亦術語。
Definition: to twist, to turn, a technical term.
「應用」敵靠我時,我以掌捩轉其力,使敵勁中斷,且因彼力以還制之。
Application: When an opponent uses bump, I use a palm to turn away his force, causing his power to be interrupted and putting his force under my control.

(七)肘法
7. ELBOW [zhou]

「釋義」臂中部彎曲處,其外側曰肘。本為名詞,今引伸為動詞;謂以肘擊人也。亦術語。
Definition: the name of the outer point in the middle of your arm where it bends, a noun turned into a verb as in the case of “elbowing the opponent”, a technical term.
「應用」敵欲擊我,卽趁勢以肘擊其胸脅等部。
Application: When an opponent wants to attack me, I take advantage of the situation by using my elbow to strike to his chest or rib area.

(八)靠法
8. BUMP [kao]

「釋義」依也,倚也,依倚於他物也。亦術語。
Definition: to lean against, to lean on, to lean upon someone else, a technical term.
「應用」敵用捋法時,我趁勢前進,以肩靠之,如敵勢不變,則跌出矣。
Application: When an opponent uses rollback, I take advantage of the situation by advancing and using my shoulder to bump him. If he does not adjust his posture, he will end up stumbling away.

2 平圓推手
LEVEL-CIRCLE PUSHING HANDS

「甲」與乙相對,立正。右足前進一步,曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。右手向前伸出,坐腕,臂畧彎,與乙右手腕相貼,成交叉形;左手下垂,貼胯。
A [marked as 甲 in the photos], stands straight, facing B [marked as 乙]. Your right foot advances a step and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. Your right hand extends forward, the wrist settling, arm slightly bent, to stick to the back of B’s right wrist, forming a posture of crossing. Your left hand hangs down close to your hip.
「乙」立正。右足前進一步,曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。右手向前伸出,坐腕,臂略彎,與甲右手腕背相貼,成交叉形;左手下垂,貼胯。
B, stand straight. Your right foot advances a step and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. Your right hand extends forward, the wrist settling, arm slightly bent, to stick to the back of A’s wrist, forming a posture of crossing. Your left hand hangs down close to your hip. [See photo 1:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 1

(注意)此圖為平圓(單手)搭手法之右式;出左手與左足者,為左式,兩式均可。
Note: This photo shows the level-circle (single-hand) touching-hands posture on the right side. Putting out the left hand and left foot forms the posture on the left side. It can be performed on either side.

「甲」作平圓搭手法右式。右掌下按乙右手腕,繞半圓形,向乙胸左側前推。右腿隨身略向前坐。
A, making a level-circle touching-hands posture on the right side, your right palm pushes downward onto B’s right wrist, arcing a half circle, pushing forward toward the left side of B’s chest, your right leg going along with your body by sitting slightly forward. [See photo 2:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 2

(注意)此圖解說側重甲之動作,至乙動作詳第三圖之解說;然兩圖則宜互相參攷,蓋兩人之動作,分見於二,三兩圖也。
Note: This photo spotlights A’s movement. B’s movement is better depicted in the following photo. However, both of these photos should be referred to together, the movement for both people having been divided into the two photos.

「乙」亦作平圓搭手法右式。右臂隨甲推,向懷內收囘,曲肱,向右運,經胸部,至右脅前,肘下垂,隨卽擺脫甲手,還按甲腕。身向後坐。左足曲膝;右足踵着地,足尖上竪;左實右虛。──右手再往右向前繞半圓形,向甲胸左側前推。右足曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。(如第二圖甲)
B, also making a level-circle touching-hands posture on the right side, your right arm goes along with A’s push, withdrawing toward your own chest, arm bending, then moving across your chest to the right until in front of your right ribs, elbow hanging down, then strips aside A’s right hand, pushing in turn onto A’s wrist. With your body sitting back, your left knee is bending, and with your right heel touching the ground, the toes lift up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. Your right hand then arcs a half circle to the right and forward as you push forward toward the left side of A’s chest, your right knee bending, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. [See photo 3:] (It is the same as A in photo 2.)

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 3

(注意)以後甲復作第三圖乙之動作;如此循環往復,周而又始。左式動作相同,惟手足互易耳。
Note: Then A performs as B did in photo 3. In this way, the movements go back and forth, recycling over and over again. The exercise on the left side is performed the same, simply with the hands and feet reversed.

3 立圓推手
VERTICAL-CIRCLE PUSHING HANDS

「甲」在乙右側,與乙參差相對,立正。右足在乙右足外側前進一步,曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。右手向前伸出,坐腕,臂畧彎,與乙右手腕背相貼,成交叉形;左手下垂,貼胯。
A, stand to B’s right side, facing B. Standing straight, your right foot advances a step to the outside of B’s right foot, and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. Your right hand extends forward, the wrist settling, arm slightly bent, to stick to the back of B’s wrist, forming a posture of crossing. Your left hand hangs down close to your hip.
「乙」在甲右側,與甲參差相對,立正。右足在甲右足外側前進一步,曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。右手向前伸出,坐腕,臂畧彎,與甲右手腕背相貼,成交叉形;左手下垂,貼胯。
B, stand to A’s right side, facing A. Standing straight, your right foot advances a step to the outside of B’s right foot, and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. Your right hand extends forward, the wrist settling, arm slightly bent, to stick to the back of A’s wrist, forming a posture of crossing. Your left hand hangs down close to your hip. [See photo 4:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 4

(注意)此圖為立圓(單手)搭手法之右式;出左手與左足者,為左式,兩式均可。
Note: This photo shows the vertical-circle (single-hand) touching-hands posture on the right side. Putting out the left hand and left foot forms the posture on the left side. It can be performed on either side.

「甲」作立圓搭手法右式。右手向後抽。身向後坐。左足曲膝;右足踵着地,足尖上竪;左實右虛。──右手復上提,經右肩前,作半圓形,以掌背向乙右肩前下切乙掌。右足曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。
A, making a vertical-circle touching-hands posture on the right side, your right hand draws toward the rear, your body sitting back, your left knee bending, and with your right heel touching the ground, the toes lift up. Your left foot is full, left foot empty. Your right hand then lifts up, passes in front of your right shoulder, making a half circle, and send the back of the palm forward and downward toward B’s right shoulder, cutting away B’s palm. With your right knee bending, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, make a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. [See photo 5:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 5

「乙」亦作立圓搭手法右式。隨甲切;身向後坐。左足曲膝;右足踵着地,足尖上竪;左實右虛。──右掌向下,經右胯,作半圓形,向甲右胯前推。右足曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。
B, also making a vertical-circle touching-hands posture on the right side, go along with A’s cutting action, your body sitting back, your left knee bending, and with your right heel touching the ground, the toes lift up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. Your right palm goes downward, passing your right hip, making a half circle, and pushes forward toward A’s right hip. With your right knee bending, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, make a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. [See photo 6:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 6

「甲」隨乙動作;左足曲膝;右足踵着地,足尖上竪;左實右虛。──右手上提,經右肩前,作半圓形,以掌背向乙右肩前下切乙掌。右足曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。(如第五圖)
A, go along with B’s movement. Your left knee bends, and with your right heel touching the ground, the toes lift up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. Your right hand then lifts up, passes in front of your right shoulder, making a half circle, and again send the back of the palm forward and downward toward B’s right shoulder, cutting away B’s palm. With your right knee bending, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, make a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. (It is the same as in photo 5.)
(注意)以後乙復作第六圖之動作,如此循環不已。左式動作相同,惟手足互易耳。──以上為『甲』切『乙』之立圓推手,如欲變為『乙』切『甲』,可於甲手欲上提時,乙卽將手抽囘至右肩前,作半圓形,以掌背向甲右肩前下切甲掌;(如第五圖甲)甲則照乙之動作。(如第六圖乙)以後甲欲再變換時,亦如之。
Note: Then B again performs as in photo 6, and the movement recycles in this way indefinitely. The exercise on the left side is performed the same, simply with the hands and feet reversed. Described above is vertical-circle pushing hands with A cutting B. If you wish to switch to B cutting A, then when A’s hand is about to lift, B can draw back his hand in front of his right shoulder, make a half circle, and send the back of his palm forward and downward toward A’s right shoulder, cutting away A’s palm. (It is the same as A in photo 5.) A then performs according to B’s movement. (It is the same as B in photo 6.) When A wants to switch again, it will be as before.

4 掤按推手
WARD-OFF & PUSH

「甲」與乙對立。右足前進一步,曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。右手向前伸出,坐腕,臂略彎,與乙右手腕背相貼,成交叉形;左手隨卽伸出,以掌心拊乙右肘。
A, stand facing B. Your right foot advances a step and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. Your right hand extends forward, the wrist settling, arm slightly bent, to stick to the back of B’s wrist, forming a posture of crossing. Your left hand then extends forward and the center of the palm touches B’s right elbow.
「乙」立正。右足前進一步,曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。右手向前伸出,坐腕,臂略彎,與甲右手腕背相貼,成交叉形;左手隨卽伸出,以掌心拊甲右肘。
B, stand straight. Your right foot advances a step and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty. Your right hand extends forward, the wrist settling, arm slightly bent, to stick to the back of A’s wrist, forming a posture of crossing. Your left hand then extends forward and the center of the palm touches A’s right elbow. [See photo 7:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 7

(注意)此圖為雙手搭法之右式。當四臂相搭時,宜合成一圓圈;右腕相貼處為中心點。左式動作相同。
Note: This photo shows the double-hand touching-hands posture on the right side. When all four arms are touching, they should be forming a circle, the right wrists touching at its center. The posture on the left side is the same.

「甲」與乙對立,作雙手搭法右式。以右掌黏乙右手腕背,左掌黏乙右肘,兩手上捧乙右臂。左腿隨腰略向下坐;右足尖向上竪。──雙手復向乙胸前按去。右足向前曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。
A, stand facing B, making the double-hand touching-hands posture on the right side, using your right palm to touch the back of B’s right wrist, your left palm to touch B’s right elbow. Your hands prop up B’s right arm, your left leg going along with your waist by slightly sitting downward, your right toes lifting up. Your hands then push out forward toward B’s chest, your right knee bending forward, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty.
「乙」隨甲動作
B, go along with A’s movement. [See photo 8:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 8

(注意)此圖甲之動作為『掤『法;至推手時,則掤後卽按法隨之,不能間斷。
Note: This photo spotlights A’s action of “ward-off”. When performing the exercise, pushing must follow warding off without any gap between the two actions.

「乙」被甲按,身向後撤;涵胸。左掌挑甲左掌,右掌黏甲左肘,向上掤化甲之按力。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。──雙手復向甲胸前按去。右足向前曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。
B, when you have been pushed by A, your body withdraws to the rear, your chest hollowing, your left palm carrying A’s left palm, your right palm sticking to his left elbow, warding off and neutralizing the force of A’s push, your left leg going along with your waist by sitting downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. Your hands then push out forward toward A’s chest, your right knee bends forward, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty.
「甲」隨乙動作
A, go along with B’s movement. [See photo 9:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 9

(注意)此圖乙之動作為『按』法;按以前應有掤法,因一圖不能連攝兩種動作,故分見於兩圖,宜互相參攷。
Note: This photo spotlights B’s action of “push”. There should be a ward-off action before the push. Because a single photo cannot depict the two actions, the movement has therefore been divided into two photos which should be referred to together.

「甲」被乙按,身向後撤;涵胸。左掌挑乙右掌,右掌黏乙右肘,向上掤化乙之按力。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。──雙手復向乙胸前按去。右足向前曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。
A, when you have been pushed by B, your body withdraws to the rear, your chest hollowing, your left palm carrying B’s right [left] palm, your right palm sticking to his right [left] elbow, warding off and neutralizing the force of B’s push, your left leg going along with your waist by sitting downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. Your hands then push out forward toward B’s chest, your right knee bending forward, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty.
「乙」隨甲動作
B, go along with A’s movement.

(注意)甲之動作為『掤,按』。以後循環不已,均用掤,按二法互推。如欲換手,可於甲(乙)前按時,乙(甲)不以左掌挑甲左掌,而以右掌上挑甲右掌,左掌仍黏甲右肘,兩手上捧甲右臂;雙手復向甲胸前按去,則手已換矣。
Note: A’s movement of ward-off and push then recycles indefinitely, always using the actions of ward-off and push to induce each other. If you want to switch sides, before the other person pushes, instead of using your left palm to carry his left palm, you can bring up your right palm to carry his right palm, your left palm still sticking to his right elbow, both hands propping up his arm. Your hands then push forward toward his chest, your hands having already been switched.

5 四正推手 附順序表(一)(二)
PUSHING HANDS METHOD FOR THE FOUR PRIMARY TECHNIQUES (including two sequence charts)

「甲」與乙對立,作雙手搭法右式。以右掌黏乙右手腕背,左掌黏乙右肘,兩手曲肱,同往右邊斜角下方捋去。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。
A, stand facing B making the double-hand touching-hands posture on the right side, using your right palm to touch the back of B’s right wrist, your left palm to touch B’s right elbow. Your hands in unison, arms bending, go diagonally downward to the right side with a “rollback”, your left leg going along with your waist to sit downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
「乙」被甲捋,身向前左傾;右手隨甲捋伸去。
B, when you are being rolled back by A, your body inclines forward to the left, your right hand going along with A’s rollback by reaching out. [See photo 10:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 10

(注意)此圖甲之動作為『捋』法。
Note: This photo spotlights A’s action of “rollback”.

「乙」趁勢平屈右肱,掌心朝裏;以左手輔右手臂,向甲胸前擠去。右足向前曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。
B, take advantage of the situation by bending your right arm across, the palm facing inward, your left hand touching your right forearm, and press forward toward A’s chest. With your right knee bending forward, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, and make a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty.
「甲」被乙擠,涵胸,往左化去乙擠之力。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。
A, when you are being pressed by B, hollow your chest and go toward the left to neutralize the force of B’s press, your left leg going along with your waist by sitting downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. [See photo 11:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 11

(注意)此圖乙之動作為『擠』法。
Note: This photo spotlights B’s action of “press”.

「甲」右掌按乙右手腕背,左掌按乙右肘,向乙胸前按去。右足向前曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。
A, with your right palm pushing down on the back of B’s right wrist and your left palm pushing down on his right elbow, push forward toward his chest, your right knee bending forward, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty.
「乙」隨甲動作
B, go along with A’s movement. [See photo 12:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 12

(注意)此圖甲之動作為『按』法。
Note: This photo spotlights A’s action of “push”.

「乙」被甲按,身向後撤;涵胸。左掌挑甲左掌,右掌黏甲左肘,向上掤化甲之按力。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。
B, when you are being pushed by A, withdraw your torso to the rear, hollowing your chest. Using your left palm to carry A’s left palm, your right palm to stick to A’s left elbow, ward off upward to neutralize the force of A’s push, your left leg going along with your waist by sitting downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right leg empty.
「甲」隨乙動作
A, go along with B’s movement. [See photo 13:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 13

(注意)此圖乙之動作為『掤』法。以上四圖:為甲『捋』,乙『擠』,甲『按』,乙『掤』。
Note: This photo spotlights B’s action of “ward-off”. In the four photos above, A rolls back, B presses, A pushes, and B wards off.

「乙」掤甲後,兩手曲肱,卽往左邊斜角下方捋去。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。
B, after warding off A, your hands, arms bent, go diagonally downward to the left side with a “rollback”, your left leg going along with your waist to sit downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
「甲」被乙捋,身向前右傾;左手隨乙捋伸去。
A, when you are being rolled back by B, your body inclines forward to the right, your left hand going along with B’s rollback by reaching out.
(注意)乙之動作為『捋』法。
Note: B is now performing “rollback”.

「甲」趁勢平屈左肱,掌心朝裏;以右手輔左手臂,向乙胸前擠去。右足向前曲膝;左足伸直,略曲;為川式,右實左虛。
A, take advantage of the situation by bending your left arm across, the palm facing inward, your right hand touching your left forearm, and press forward toward B’s chest. With your right knee bending forward, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, make a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty.
「乙」被甲擠,涵胸,往右化去甲擠之力。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。
B, when you are being pressed by A, hollow your chest and go toward the left to neutralize the force of A’s press, your left leg going along with your waist by sitting downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right foot empty.
(注意)甲之動作為『擠』法。
Note: A is now performing “press”.

「乙」左掌按甲左手腕背,右掌按甲左肘,向甲胸前按去。右足向前曲膝;左足伸直,畧曲;為川式,右實左虛。
B, with your left palm pushing down on the back of A’s left wrist and your right palm pushing down on his left elbow, push forward toward his chest, your right knee bending forward, your left leg straightening, though staying slightly bent, making a three-line stance, right foot full, left foot empty.
「甲」隨乙動作。
A, go along with B’s movement.
(注意)乙之動作為『按』法。
Note: B is now performing “push”.

「甲」被乙按,身向後撤,涵胸。右掌挑乙右掌,左掌黏乙右肘,向上掤化乙之按力。左腿隨腰下坐,右足尖上竪;左實右虛。
A, when you are being pushed by B, withdraw your torso to the rear, hollowing your chest. Using your right palm to carry B’s right palm, your left palm to stick to B’s right elbow, ward off upward to neutralize the force of B’s push, your left leg going along with your waist by sitting downward, your right toes lifting up. Your left foot is full, right leg empty.
「乙」隨甲動作。
B, go along with A’s movement.
(注意)甲之動作為『掤』法。以上為乙『捋』,甲『擠』,乙『按』,甲『掤』;以後復從第十圖重演,如此循環不已,周而復始;均用掤,捋,擠,按,四法,向四正方推手,故名『四正』推手法。演時,須一氣貫串,不能間斷。如欲換手,可於乙前按時,甲不以右掌挑乙右掌,而以左掌上挑乙左掌,右掌黏乙左肘,兩手曲肱,卽往左邊斜角下方捋去。(此為甲換手法,至乙換手亦如之,不過左右互易耳。)
Note: A is now performing “ward-off”. In the movements above, B rolls back, A presses, B pushes, and A wards off. The movement then returns to be as in photo 10, and the exercise recycles indefinitely. It uses always the four primary techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push, hence the name of the exercise. When practicing, there must be a single flow running through it without interruption. To switch hands, then before B pushes, A can use his left palm to carry B’s left palm instead of using his right palm to carry B’s right palm, and use his right palm to stick to B’s left elbow, your hands, arms bent, go diagonally downward to the left side with a “rollback”. (This describes A switching, but B would switch in the same way, for it is only a matter of switching the techniques between left hand and right.)

順序表(一)
Sequence chart 1:

甲……捋乙
A, roll back B.
乙……擠甲
B, press A.
甲……按乙
A, push B.
乙……掤甲
B, ward off A.
乙……捋甲
B, roll back A.
甲……擠乙
A, press B.
乙……按甲
B, push A.
甲……掤乙
A, ward off B.

順序表(二)活步
Sequence chart 2 (moving-step):

甲……掤乙捋乙(退步)
A, ward off and roll back B while retreating.
乙……按甲擠甲(進步)
B, push and press A while advancing.
乙……掤甲捋甲(退步)
B, ward off and roll back A while retreating.
甲……按乙擠乙(進步)
A, push and press B while advancing.
甲……掤乙捋乙(退步)
A, ward off and roll back B while retreating.
乙……按甲擠甲(進步)
B, push and press A while advancing.
乙……掤甲捋甲(退步)
B, ward off and roll back A while retreating.
甲……按乙擠乙(進步)
A, push and press B while advancing.

6 四隅推手 附順序表
PUSHING HANDS METHOD FOR THE FOUR SECONDARY TECHNIQUES (including a sequence chart)

「甲」向南,與乙對立,作雙手搭法右式。以右掌黏乙右手腕背,左手曲肱,用下膊向西北角斜捋乙右臂。右足向西北斜退一步,為八字式。
A, stand straight looking to the south, facing B, making the double-hand touching-hands posture on the right side. Use your right palm to stick to the back of B’s right wrist, and using your left forearm, arm bent, to roll back B’s right arm diagonally to the northwest, your right foot retreating a step diagonally to the northwest, making an eight-character stance.
「乙」隨甲捋,右臂向前下方鬆勁;左手內輔右臂,右肩向甲胸前靠去。左足向西北斜進一步;右足隨卽向甲襠中插進。面向東北,與甲相對。
B, go along with A’s rollback by loosening your right arm forward and downward, and with your left hand touching the inside of your right forearm, your right shoulder goes forward toward A’s chest to bump him away, your left foot advancing a step diagonally toward the northwest and your right foot promptly stepping between A’s legs. You are looking to the northeast, facing A. [See photo 14:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 14

(注意)此圖為甲『捋』,乙『靠』。
Note: This photo depicts A’s action of “rollback” and B’s action of “bump”.

「甲」隨乙靠,趁勢以左掌下按乙左手腕背,右掌按乙左肘下採。左足由乙之右足外,移至乙襠中;右足曲膝下坐;左足踵着地,足尖上竪。
A, going along with B’s bump, take advantage of the situation by using your left palm to push down on the back of B’s left wrist, your right palm pushing down on B’s left elbow, and pluck downward, your left foot shifting from the outside of B’s right foot to be between his legs. Your right leg is bent and sitting downward, your left heel touching the ground, toes lifted up.
「乙」隨甲採,以左掌黏甲左手腕背,右手曲肱,用下膊向西南角斜捋甲左臂。左足向西南後退一步,為八字式。
B, going along with A’s pluck, use your left palm to stick to the back of A’s left wrist, and using your right forearm, arm bent, to roll back A’s left arm diagonally to the southwest, your left foot retreating a step diagonally to the southwest, making an eight-character stance. [See photo 15:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 15

(注意)此圖甲之動作為『採』法;甲採後卽為乙捋,可參看第十四圖甲之捋法,惟方向不同耳,故不另插乙『捋』圖。
Note: This photo spotlights A’s action of “pluck”, but once A plucks, B rolls back. It is the same thing as A’s rollback in photo 14, except the direction is different [and the hands and feet are reversed], therefore no photo of B’s rollback has been included.

「甲」隨乙捋,左臂向前下方鬆勁;趁勢以肘向乙胸前擊去。右足向西南斜進一步;左足隨卽向乙襠中插進。面向東南,與乙相對。
A, go along with B’s rollback by loosening your left arm forward and downward, then take advantage of the situation by using your elbow to strike forward toward B’s chest, your right foot advancing a step diagonally toward the southwest and your left foot promptly stepping between A’s legs. You are looking to the southeast, facing B.
「乙」被甲肘,涵胸。以右手按甲左手上膊斜向下方挒去;同時以左掌擊甲面部。
B, when you are getting elbowed by A, hollow your chest, using your right hand to push down on A’s left upper arm, diagonally rending it away downward while at the same time using your left palm to strike toward A’s face. [See photo 16:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 16

(注意)此圖甲之動作為『肘』法;甲肘後卽為乙挒,因一圖不能連攝兩動作,故另列於後。
Note: This photo spotlights A’s action of “elbow”, but once A elbows, B rends. Because a single photo cannot convey these two actions, the rending action will thus be shown in a further photo below [when it is performed on the other side].

「甲」隨乙挒,以左掌黏乙左手腕背,右手曲肱,用下膊向東北角斜捋乙左臂。左足向東北後退一步,為八字式。
A, going along with B’s rending, use your left palm to stick to the back of B’s left wrist, and using your right forearm, arm bent, to roll back B’s left arm diagonally to the northeast, your left foot retreating a step diagonally to the northeast, making an eight-character stance.
「乙」隨甲捋,左臂向前下方鬆勁;右手內輔左臂,左肩向甲胸前靠去。右足向東北斜進一步;左足隨卽向甲襠中插進。面向西北,與甲相對。
B, go along with A’s rollback by loosening your left arm forward and downward, and with your right hand touching the inside of your left forearm, your left shoulder goes forward toward A’s chest to bump him away, your right foot advancing a step diagonally toward the northeast and your left foot promptly stepping between A’s legs. You are looking to the northwest, facing A.
(注意)此為甲『捋』,乙『靠』;可參看第十四圖,惟方向不同及手足互易耳。
Note: Described here is A’s action of “rollback” and B’s action of “bump”. It is the same as the scenario in photo 14, except the direction is different, and the hands and feet are reversed.

「甲」隨乙靠,趁勢以右掌下按乙右手腕背,左掌按乙右肘下採。右足由乙之左足外,移至乙襠中;左足曲膝下坐;右足踵着地,足尖上竪。
A, going along with B’s bump, take advantage of the situation by using your right palm to push down on the back of B’s right wrist, your left palm pushing down on B’s right elbow, and pluck downward, your right foot shifting from the outside of B’s left foot to be between his legs. Your left leg is bent and sitting downward, your right heel touching the ground, toes lifted up.
「乙」隨甲採,以右掌黏甲右手腕背,左手曲肱,用下膊向東南角斜捋甲右臂。右足向東南後退一步,為八字式。
B, going along with A’s pluck, use your right palm to stick to the back of A’s right wrist, and using your left forearm, arm bent, to roll back A’s right arm diagonally to the southeast, your right foot retreating a step diagonally to the southeast, making an eight-character stance.
(注意)此為甲『採』,乙『捋』;可參看第十五(採)及第十四(捋)兩圖。
Note: Described here is A’s action of “pluck” and B’s action of “rollback”. Refer to photo 15 for the pluck and 14 for the rollback.

「甲」隨乙捋,右臂向前下方鬆勁;趁勢以肘向乙胸前擊去。左足向東南斜進一步;右足隨卽向乙襠中插進。面向西南,與乙相對。
A, go along with B’s rollback by loosening your right arm forward and downward, then take advantage of the situation by using your elbow to strike forward toward B’s chest, your left foot advancing a step diagonally toward the southeast and your right foot promptly stepping between A’s legs. You are looking to the southwest, facing B.
「乙」被甲肘,涵胸。以左手按甲右手上膊斜向下方挒去;同時以右掌擊甲面部。
B, when you are getting elbowed by A, hollow your chest, using your left hand to push down on A’s right upper arm, diagonally rending it away downward while at the same time using your right palm to strike toward A’s face. [See photo 17:]

《太極拳》 李先五 (1933) - push 17

(注意)此圖乙之動作為『挒』法;連上各式合為一度。可以由起處重演,繼續為之,周而復始;均用採,挒,肘,靠四法,向四斜角推手,是為『四隅』推手法,又名大捋。演時,必須一氣貫串,不能間斷。
Note: This photo spotlights B’s action of “rend”. Each of the postures above are merge into a single exercise. Upon returning to the initial technique, it can then recycle continuously. It uses always the four secondary techniques of pluck, rend, elbow, and bump, hence the name of the exercise, though it is also known as “large rollback”. When practicing, there must be a single flow running through it without interruption.

順序表
Sequence chart:

甲……捋乙(西北)
A, roll back B to the northwest.
乙……靠甲
B, bump A.
甲……採乙
A, pluck B.
乙……捋甲(西南)
B, roll back A to the southwest.
甲……肘乙
A, elbow B.
乙……挒甲
B, rend A.
甲……捋乙(東北)
A, roll back B to the northeast.
乙……靠甲
B, bump A.
甲……採乙
A, pluck B.
乙……捋甲(東南)
B, roll back A to the southeast.
甲……肘乙
A, elbow B.
乙……挒甲
B, rend A.

以上所列『推手』五種,除『四隅』(包括合步,活步兩式)外,其步法均為合步;熟練後,又可作換步,順步之式;而『四正』更可作活步式。
如甲曲右腿,進左步,乙坐左腿,退右步;或乙曲左腿,進右步,甲坐右腿,退左步,謂之換步。
甲(乙)右足在前,左足在後;乙(甲)左足在前,右足在後,謂之順步。
活步者:甲(乙)退步,乙(甲)進步,乙(甲)復退步,甲(乙)進步,(表見前『四正推手』節)如此連續進退,步法活動不息之謂也。
In the various kinds of pushing hands exercises above, the footwork shown is always the “same-step” version, apart from in the “four secondary” exercise (which contains both the same-step [opposite-step] version and moving steps). Once you are proficient with these exercises, you can be switching feet and using the opposite-step version, as well as perform the “four primary” exercise with moving steps.
     If A bends his right leg and advances with his left foot, B sits onto his left leg and retreats with his right foot. If B bends his left leg and advances with his right foot, A sits onto his right leg and retreats with his left foot. This is the method of switching feet.
     If A has right foot in front, left foot behind, while B has his left foot in front, right foot behind – this is opposite-step pushing hands.
     For moving-step pushing hands: A retreats and B advances, then B retreats and A advances (and vice versa). (This applies to the “four primary” exercise.) Continuously advancing and retreating in this way, your stepping will become lively and unhesitating.

八 拳論註釋
EIGHT: COMMENTARY TO THE BOXING THEORY

太極拳論,乃張三丰遺著;至太極拳經,十三勢歌,行功心解,打手歌等,則為王宗岳所作。其中間有難解之處,編者特加以註釋,附錄於後,以供學者之研究。
The Taiji Boxing Treatise is attributed to Zhang Sanfeng. As for the Taiji Boxing Classic, the Thirteen Dynamics Song, Understanding How to Practice, and the Playing Hands Song, they were written by Wang Zongyue. The ideas within them are difficult to understand, and so I have included additional commentary to supply students with a means to study them.

1 太極拳論註釋
TAIJI BOXING TREATISE – WITH COMMENTARY

「一舉動,週身俱要輕靈,尤須貫串。」
Once there is any movement, your entire body should be nimble and alert. There especially needs to be connection from movement to movement.
凡起式時,不可着力,而身自圓活,勁由內起。貫串者,卽演式宜聯絡不斷之謂也;蓋不貫串,則式斷,式斷,則勁斷,勁一斷,則人乘隙而入矣。故輕靈貫串,學者宜加諸意焉。
Right from the beginning posture, you must not put forth effort. Your body will then naturally be nimble, energy starting from within. To be connected means that when you are performing the postures, they should be “continuous without interruption”. If your postures do not connect, there is interruption between them, and thus your energy is interrupted. Once your energy has been interrupted, an opponent can take advantage of the gap and get through. Therefore have a nimble alertness and a continuity. You should give this extra attention.

「氣宜鼓盪,神宜內斂;無使有缺陷處,無使有凹凸處,無使有斷續處。」
Energy should be roused and spirit should be collected within. Do not allow there to be cracks or gaps anywhere, pits or protrusions anywhere, breaks in the flow anywhere.
氣鼓盪則呼吸無間,神內斂則手法不亂,故心平氣和,姿式自正,無一切凹凸斷續之弊。苟心不專一,式不平正,必易受人所制;有斷有續,更易為人所乘,此皆致敗之由,為太極拳所最忌。
When energy is roused, there are no gaps between breaths. When spirit is collected within, there is no disorder in your techniques. Therefore with a calm mind, a mild energy, and a natural posture, you will be without the errors of having pits and protrusions, of stopping and starting. If your mind is not concentrated and your posture is uneven, it will be easy for an opponent to control you. If your movement is coming to a halt and starting over, it will be very easy for him to take advantage of the moment. Both of these things will be a source of failure. They are the most important things to avoid in Taiji Boxing.

「其根在脚,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指;由脚而腿而腰,總須完整一氣,向前退後,乃得機得勢。」
Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a fully continuous process, and whether advancing or retreating, you will then catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand.
太極拳之呼吸深長,可至頂踵,故其氣力,係由脚根而發於腿,由腿而腰,而頂,而手指,皆與自然之呼吸聯成一氣,故遇敵時,進退變換,無不隨意所遣,處處相應,自然得機得勢。
Taiji Boxing’s breathing is deep and long, able to reach up to your head and down to your heels. Therefore power goes from your heel, issuing through your leg, then to your waist, and to your headtop and fingers, all in a continuous flow of natural breathing. Therefore when you encounter an opponent, alternate between advancing and retreating, always driven by intention. When all parts are coordinated with each other, you will naturally be able to catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand.

「有不得機得勢處,身便散亂,其病必於腰腿求之。」
If you miss and your body easily falls into disorder, the problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there.
所謂不得機勢,必是手動而腰腿不動,不相呼應也;故演式一有不得力之處,而致身形散亂者,當留心於腰腿間,弊在其中矣。
If you do not catch the opportunity or gain the upper hand, it must be that your hands are moving but your waist and legs are not moving, the two sections not working in concert. Therefore when performing a technique, if you have a moment of inefficiency, it may result in your body’s posture falling into disorder, and so you must be mindful of what is going on at your waist and legs, for there is where the error lies.

「上下前後左右皆然,凡此皆是意,不在外面,有上卽有下,有前卽有後,有左卽有右;如意要向上,卽寓下意,若將物掀起,而加以挫之之意,斯其根自斷,乃壞之速而無疑。」
This is always so, regardless of the direction of the movement, be it up, down, forward, back, left, right. And in all of these cases, the problem is a matter of your intent and does not lie outside of you. With an upward comes a downward, with a forward comes a backward, and with a left comes a right. If your intention wants to go upward, then harbor a downward intention, like when you reach down to lift up an object. You thereby add a setback to the opponent’s own intention, thus he cuts his own root and is defeated quickly and certainly.
每一動作,皆須動腰腿,乃能如意;且須上下前後左右,皆能隨機應變,否則腰腿雖動,亦失效用矣。又若意欲襲人上部,反作擊下之勢,令人不測,防此失彼,斯能挫其根,壞其本矣。
With each movement, you must always move your waist and legs, and then you will be able to do as you please. You must have an upward, a downward, a forward, a backward, a leftward, a rightward, and then you can always adjust according to the situation. Otherwise even though you move your waist and legs, it will be of no use. If your intention is to attack the opponent above, instead make a posture of attacking him below. This will cause him to not know what you are doing and end up defending one area to be defeated in another. In this way, you can cut the root to topple the trunk.

「虛實宜分淸楚;一處自有一處虛實,處處總此一虛實。週身節節貫串,無令絲毫間斷耳。」
Empty and full must be distinguished clearly. In each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full. Everywhere it is always like this, an emptiness and a fullness. Throughout your body, as the movement goes from one section to another there is connection. Do not allow the slightest break in the connection.
每練一式,必須分淸虛實,能式式知虛實之所在,則遇敵時,彼實我虛,彼虛我實,能虛實自明,則勝負判然矣。且演式時,運用最貴自然,呼吸尤須不斷,四肢百體,處處虛空,而勁蘊於內,則節節貫串,有如機器之樞紐然,機掣一開,則百處轉動,絕無間斷,自然輕靈,太極亦猶斯意也。
Every time you practice a technique, you must distinguish clearly between emptiness and fullness. If I am able in every posture know where is the emptiness and the fullness, then upon encountering an opponent, when he is full, I am empty, and when he is empty, I am full. Once fullness and emptiness is clear, the decision has been made between victory and defeat. When performing a technique, the most important thing is that it be natural. Breathing especially needs to be continuous. Your whole body in every part becomes insubstantial, power stored within. All sections are linked with each other, and like a mechanical pivot, the levering of one part causes all parts to move with no discontinuity anywhere, a pure efficiency. Taiji is exactly like this idea.

「長拳者,如長江大海,滔滔不絕也。」
Long Boxing: it is like a long river flowing into the wide ocean, on and on ceaselessly…
太極十三勢,亦名長拳;但年代愈湮,流派愈廣,名目雖殊,原理則一也。
Taiji Boxing is also called Long Boxing. But over the years, as the art has sunk further into oblivion, styles of it have become more numerous. Although their names are different, they all have the same principles.

「十三勢者,掤,捋,擠,按,採,挒,肘,靠,進,退,顧,盼,定也。掤,捋,擠,按,四正方也;採,挒,肘,靠,四隅也;進,退,顧,盼,定,卽進步,退步,左顧,右盼,中定也。」
The thirteen dynamics are: warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, bumping, advancing, retreating, stepping to the left, stepping to the right, and staying in the center. Warding off, rolling back, pressing, and pushing are the four primary techniques. Plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping are the four secondary techniques.
原注云:以上乃張三丰所著,欲天下豪傑延年益壽,不徒作技藝之末也。太極拳各式,及掤,捋,擠,按等,見前拳勢圖解及推手篇。
An original note says: “The material above was written by Zhang Sanfeng. He wanted all the heroes in the world to live long and not merely gain skill.” Each of the postures in Taiji Boxing, as well as the techniques of warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, and so on, have been explained in the sections covering the solo set and pushing hands.

2 太極拳經註釋
TAIJI BOXING CLASSIC – WITH COMMENTARY

「太極者,無極而生,動靜之機,陰陽之母也。」
Taiji is born of wuji. It is the manifestation of movement and stillness, and the mother of yin and yang.
渾然不分陰陽者為無極,無極而生太極,太極分陰陽,而虛實定矣。拳能寓意於陰陽虛實之內,因名之曰太極,誰曰不宜。
When everything was a vagueness, before yin and yang [the passive and active aspects] had become distinct, that was the state of wuji [nonpolarity]. From nonpolarity was generated the taiji [grand polarity]. The grand polarity is divided into the passive and active aspects, manifesting as the qualities of emptiness and fullness. This boxing art is able to use passive and active, emptiness and fullness, as its theme. That is why the art is called Taiji. Who would say it does not fit?

「動之則分,靜之則合。」
When there is movement, the passive and active aspects become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable.
身動則陰陽分焉,分有可乘;不動則陰陽合焉,合則無間。
When your body moves, passive and active aspects become distinct and can be made use of. When there is no movement, passive and active merge together and thus there is no distinguishing between them.

「無過不及,隨屈就伸。」
Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend.
凡與人接觸時,必要察敵方意之所在,卽就其動點而制裁之;所謂覷其屈伸之勢而定我隨就之方,自無太過不及之弊。
Whenever you make contact with an opponent, you must examine for where his intention is going and control him at the point of contact. By being mindful of my own movements of bending and extending, I will keep to an appropriate degree in my actions of complying and engaging. Thus I will naturally be without the errors of either going too far or not far enough.

「人剛我柔謂之走,我順人背謂之黏。」
He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking.
剛以剛迎,則抗力維均,剛以柔制,則强力走化,而敵失其效矣;敵失其效則背,我得其勢則順,以順黏背,無不勝矣。
When hardness is used to meet hardness, there will be mutual resistance. When softness is used to control hardness, force will be neutralized. The opponent will thus lose his capacity, his energy coarsening, and I will achieve the best position, my energy staying smooth. By sticking to his coarse energy with my smooth energy, I will always win.

「動急則急應,動緩則緩隨,雖變化萬端,而理惟一貫。由着熟而漸悟懂勁,由懂勁而階及神明,然非用力之久,不能豁然貫通焉。」
If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow. Although there is an endless variety of possible scenarios, there is only this single principle [of yielding and sticking] throughout. Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.
敵之攻襲有緩急,能察其緩急以相應,自然黏連不斷;雖變化萬端,而我之黏隨,其理則一也。然必須懂勁,方可言此;若要懂勁,必先勤練,因愈練愈精,用力之久,自能貫通用勁之理,而益神明也。
An opponent’s attack will have a speed. If you can observe whether he is slow or fast and respond accordingly, you will naturally stick to him without disconnecting. “There is an endless variety of possible scenarios”. Although they are different, my sticking and following is a constant principle. However, you have to be identifying energies in order to be able to discuss this. If you want to identify energies, you must first practice diligently. The more you practice, the more refined your skill will be, and thus with a lot of practice over a long time you will naturally be able to understand the principles of applying power, to become ever more miraculous.

「虛領頂勁,氣沉丹田。」
Forcelessly press up your headtop. Energy sinks to your elixir field.
虛者,實之反。頂卽頭頂,腦之所在,為全身綱領:故運勁時,必須貫神於頂,乃能全身一致矣。丹田居臍下,用深呼吸使氣沉潛於此,則氣自足,而能屹然不動,不易為敵方撼倒;至沉字有徐徐下沉之意,愼無用力也。
“Forcelessly” is the opposite of forcefully. “Headtop” means the top of the head. The brain within guides the whole body. Therefore while you move energy, you must course spirit through to your headtop, and then you will be able to get your whole body to function as a single unit. The “elixir field” lies below the navel. Deep breathing causes energy to sink there. Once energy is sufficient, you will be able to be as immovable as a mountain, not easily affected or toppled by an opponent. The intent of this “sinking” is to sink down gradually. Be careful not to try to force it to happen.

「不偏不倚,忽隱忽現;左重則左虛,右重則右輕。」
Neither lean nor slant. Suddenly hide and suddenly appear. When there is pressure on the left, the left empties. When there is pressure on the right, the right disappears. [Due to the different contexts of “empty” and “disappear”, this section is referring to facing an opponent with your right side forward, left foot behind.]
不偏不倚者,此言身體之宜正中也;忽隱忽現者,變化之機妙也。若敵攻我之左方,則重在左矣,而我變虛以空之;若襲我右方,則重在右矣,而我用輕以化之,務使敵之勁力,失其準繩;捉摸不定,方為盡善。
To “neither lean nor slant” means that your body should be standing upright. To “suddenly hide and suddenly appear” refers to the subtlety of your changes. If an opponent attacks me on the left side, I shift the weight to the left, emptying and disappearing. If an opponent attacks me on the right side, I shift the weight to the right, gently neutralizing. These things cause his force to lose its focus. To become an unfindable target is the highest skill.

「仰之則彌高,俯之則彌深,進之則愈長,退之則愈促。」
When looking up, it is still higher. When looking down, it is still lower. When advancing, it is even farther. When retreating, it is even nearer.
仰而攻我,總覺高不可接,如隔雲天;俯以相就,又若深不可測,恐陷淵海;欲進則覺我愈長,手弗能及;欲退則見我愈偪,足弗能逃。此言斯拳『粘,連,黏,隨』之效力,有如是之著;惟練習專純者,方能悟其理也。
If an opponent goes upward to attack me, he feels me to be too high to get to, as though he is trying to reach the sky. Or if he goes downward to attack me, he likewise feels me to be too deep to find, as though he will fall from a precipice into the ocean. If he wants to advance, he feels me to be so far away that he cannot reach me with his hand. If he wants to retreat, he sees me crowding him so much that he cannot escape even by stepping away. These words describe the effects of “sticking, connecting, adhering, and following” and how to perform them. Only those who have practiced to the point of skill will be able to understand these principles.

「一羽不能加,一蠅不能落;人不知我,我獨知人,英雄所向無敵,蓋皆由此而及也。」
A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land. The opponent does not understand me, only I understand him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.
練拳者,能潛心造詣,技必精進,不期然而達於化境;所謂一臻絕妙,感覺靈敏,稍觸卽應,雖最輕微之羽蠅,亦不容加落;是以雙方之虛實,動作,惟我能知,我可以預防人,人不能應付我,故所向無敵也。
A practitioner of this boxing art is able to concentrate his mind on the goal is sure to progress in skill so much that he will achieve perfection before he expects to. It is said that once you are at a high level with your awareness and sensitivity, you will respond to the slightest touch. Even the lightest things, such as feathers and flies, cannot be put upon him. Therefore between myself and the opponent, the situation of our emptiness and fullness can only be understood by me. I am able to defend against him, but he is unable to respond to me. Thus I will be invincible.

「斯技旁門甚多,雖勢有區別,槪不外乎壯欺弱,慢讓快耳;有力打無力,手慢讓手快,是皆先天自然之能,非關學力而有為也。」
There are many other schools of boxing arts besides this one. Although the postures are different between them, they generally do not go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast. The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability and bear no relation to skill that is learned.
以上言外家拳術,雖派別甚多,要不外乎以有力欺無力,手快打手慢而已,我手快則我勝,彼力弱則彼敗,此關乎自然之本能,非全由學力之所致也;惟太極則否,能不恃力,不恃快,而自勝人也。
These words address external styles of boxing arts. Although there are many different branches of them, they really do not go beyond using strength to bully those without strength and using fast hands to defeat those with slow hands, nothing more than the notions that if my hands are fast, I will win, and if his strength is weak, he will lose. These things have to do with natural ability and are not purely the result of learning a skill. However, Taiji is the opposite, not needing to rely on strength or speed to defeat opponents.

「察『四兩撥千斤』之句,顯非力勝;觀耄耋能禦衆之形,快何能為。立如秤準;活如車輪。偏沈則隨,雙重則滯。」
Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed. Stand like a scale. Move like a wheel. If you drop one side, you can move. If you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck.
太極注重輕虛者,卽避重之意也;故練至神妙時,確能以四兩撥千斤;彼雖力大而背,我雖力小而順,以順黏背,對方卽失其靈活,快又何用。立式須如秤之準,方可沈氣頂勁;以腰為車軸,手足隨之,無不圓轉。凡遇敵時,雙方用力爭持,則力大者勝,謂之雙重,若一方用力,一方鬆勁,勁鬆則偏沈,彼雖有力,亦失其剛强,而隨我化走矣。
Taiji Boxing emphasizes lightness and insubstantiality rather than intentions of heaviness. Therefore once you have practiced to a highly skillful level, you will truly be able to use four ounces to move a thousand pounds. Even if the opponent has more strength than me, his energy is coarse. Even if I have less strength than he, my energy is smooth. I use the smoothness to adhere to the coarseness. The opponent loses his adaptability, and thus his speed is of no use. When standing, you must be as balanced as a scale. Then you will be able to both sink energy down and course energy up through to your headtop. Using your waist as an axle, your hands and feet will follow along with its movements by making movements that are always rounded. Whenever you encounter an opponent, if both of you contend against each other using force, then the one with greater strength will win, the situation of “double pressure”. If one uses force and the other relaxes his strength, the one relaxing is sinking is “dropping to one side”. No matter how powerful the opponent may be, he will lose his firm stability and slip away into my neutralization.

「每見數年純功,不能運化者,率皆自為人制,雙重之病未悟耳;欲避此病,須知陰陽,黏卽是走,走卽是黏,陰不離陽,陽不離陰,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁。」
We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is generally under the opponent’s control, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood. If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active. In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies.
練拳注重運用,如不悟此,雖數年之功,而出手仍為人制,是卽犯雙重之病,故凡欲避免斯弊者,須研究陰陽之理;夫陰陽者,卽虛實也。遇敵時,如覺雙重,我卽偏沈,敵虛我實,敵重我輕;黏着便走,走亦能黏,能黏能走,方知陰陽,乃能隨敵之動作而變化,應付裕如,殆可謂之懂勁也。
Practice the art with an emphasis on functionality. If you do not come to realize this point, then you may practice for many years and still by controlled by the opponent no matter what you try. This means you are committing the error of “double pressure”. If you want to avoid this error, you must study the theory of passive and active, which have to do with emptiness and fullness. Upon encountering an opponent, if I feel there is double pressure, I drop one side. If he empties, I will fill, but if he increases pressure, I will lighten the pressure. When sticking, also be yielding, and when yielding, also be able to stick. If you can both stick and yield, then you understand passive and active, and thus you will be able to adapt according to the opponent’s actions and respond to them with ease. You can pretty much say at this point that you are identifying energies.

「懂勁後,愈練愈精,默識揣摩,漸至從心所欲!本是捨己從人,多誤捨近求遠;所謂差之毫釐,謬以千里,學者不可不詳辨焉。」
Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want. The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent. We often neglectfully ignore what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances. For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” You must understand all this clearly.
太極拳最要之點,在懂勁,但懂勁後,仍須日日練習,加意揣摩,領會處卽是進步處,鎔之於心,鑄之於身,手,步,眼,故心動則身隨,四肢及焉,無不從心所欲矣。至此拳性質,完全立於被動地位,並非主動,總以敵方之動作為動作,不自主張,不許犯雙重之弊,專以偏沈取勝,若稍有抵抗之力,卽是不能捨已從人,棄本求末,必為人制,以至失敗,學者不可不注意,此千里毫釐之辨也。
The most important thing in Taiji Boxing is identifying energies. However, once you are identifying energies, you must still practice every day with increased attention and contemplation. With understanding comes progress. What is smelted in the mind becomes cast in the body, hands, stepping, and gaze. Thus when your mind moves, your body will follow along, your limbs complying to your wishes. Achieving this boxing quality is entirely a matter of taking a passive position rather than the initiative. Always move according to the opponent’s movements rather than your own volition. Do not allow the error of double pressure, focus on seizing victory by dropping one side. If there is the slightest force of resistance, you are unable to let go of yourself and follow along with him. You have abandoned the root to seek the twigs. You are sure to be under the opponent’s control and will lose. You have to pay attention to this concept, the difference between “miles” and “inches”.

3 十三勢歌
THIRTEEN DYNAMICS SONG

十三總勢莫輕視,命意源頭在腰隙;
變轉虛實須留意,氣遍身驅不少滯,
靜中觸動動猶靜,因敵變化示神奇。
勢勢存心揆用意,得來不覺費功夫。
刻刻留心在腰間,腹內鬆凈氣騰然,
尾閭中正神貫頂,滿身輕利頂頭懸。
仔細留心向推求,屈伸開合聽自由;
入門引路須口授,功夫無息法自修。
若言體用何為準?意氣君來骨肉臣。
想推用意終何在?益壽延年不老春。
歌兮歌兮百四十,字字眞切義無遺,
若不向此推求去,枉費功夫貽嘆息!
Do not neglect any of the thirteen dynamics,
their command coming from your lower back.
You must pay attention to the alternation of empty and full,
then energy will flow through your whole body without getting stuck anywhere.
     In stillness, movement stirs, and then in moving, seem yet to be in stillness,
for the magic lies in making adjustments based on being receptive to the opponent.
In every movement, very deliberately control it by the use of intention,
for once you achieve that, it will all be effortless.
     At every moment, pay attention to your waist,
for if there is complete relaxation within the belly, energy is primed.
Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop,
thus your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.
     Pay careful attention in your practice
that you are letting bending and extending, contracting and expanding, happen as the situation requires.
Beginning the training requires personal instruction,
but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.
     Whether we are discussing in terms of theory or function, what is the constant?
It is that mind is sovereign and body is subject.
If you think about it, what is emphasizing the use of intention going to lead you to?
To a longer life and a longer youth.
     Repeatedly recite the words above,
all of which speak clearly and hence their ideas come through without confusion.
If you pay no heed to those ideas, you will go astray in your training,
and you will find you have wasted your time and be left with only sighs of regret.
十三勢歌之意義,前巳講明,故不復為註釋。
The concepts within the Thirteen Dynamics Song have already been explained in the previous sections, and therefore will not be repeated with further annotation here.

4 行功心解註釋
UNDERSTANDING HOW TO PRACTICE – WITH COMMENTARY

「以心行氣,務令沉着,乃能收斂入骨;以氣運身,務令順遂,乃能便利從心。」
Use mind to move energy. You must get the energy to sink. It is then able to collect in your bones. Use energy to move your body. You must get the energy to be smooth. Your body can then easily obey your mind.
心為身之樞紐,意為心之表形,氣卽心意發勁之原料;故機樞一動,全部運行,所以心意之所至,氣亦必隨之而至,惟意至然後可以行氣;意要沉着,其氣方能收歛入骨;用功久純,自可以氣運身;但氣之所到,不可使有阻滯,悟乎此,則往來變動,無不從心矣。
The mind is the hinge of the body. Intention is the expression of the mind. Energy is the raw material with which the mental intention issues power. Therefore with a movement of the hinge, the whole thing is moved. Wherever your intention goes, energy will follow it there, thus if you can get your intention to a place, you can move energy. Your intention should be calm, and then energy can collect in your bones. If you work hard for a long time until you are skillful, naturally you will be to use energy to move your body. But where energy arrives, it must not cause any obstruction. Understanding this, then as your movements go back and forth, they will all come from your mind.

「精神能提得起,則無遲重之虞,所謂頂頭懸也;意氣須換得靈,乃有圓活之妙,所謂變動虛實也。」
If you can raise your spirit, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song]: “Your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended”. Your mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the qualities of roundness and liveliness. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song] that you are to “pay attention to the alternation of empty and full”.
太極拳最重精神,故貫神於頂,氣乃下沉於丹田,精神由此煥發,動作從心,自無遲滯之虞矣。與敵相黏,尤貴隨機換意,不用拙力,乃得靈通,如是,則虛實變換,無不如意,所以有圓活之妙也。
Taiji Boxing most of all emphasizes spirit. Thus spirit is to be coursing through to your headtop as energy is sinking down to your elixir field. With spirit expressing thus, movement will accord with your mind, and you will naturally be without the error of sluggishness. While sticking to an opponent, you particularly have to go along with the situation and adjust your intention accordingly, rather than using awkward effort, and thus you will achieve efficiency. If you do it in this way, your emptiness and fullness will be switching always as you intend, and then you will have the qualities of being rounded and lively.

「發勁須沉着鬆淨,專主一方;立身須中正安舒,支撑八面。」
When issuing power, you must sink and relax, concentrating it in one direction. Your posture must be straight and comfortable, bracing in all directions.
此言發勁時,心意手足,均須沉着;因無雜念則意淨,無拙力則體鬆,而精神貫注,無論敵方如何襲擊,皆能隨意應付。頂頭懸則身中正;氣下沉則體安舒,故一片穩定,自可支撑八面;八面者,卽『四正』『四隅』也。
When issuing power, your mind, hands, and feet, must all be calm. The reason for this is that if you are free of distracting thoughts, your intention will be focused, and you are without awkward effort, your body will be loose. With your spirit thereby concentrated, regardless of what kind of attack the opponent makes, you will always be able to deal with it easily. With your headtop suspended, your body will be upright. With energy sinking down, your body will be at ease. With such stability, you will naturally be able to brace in all eight directions – the four cardinal directions and the four corners directions.

「行氣如九曲珠,無微不到;運勁如百練鋼,何堅不摧。」
Move energy as though through a winding-path pearl, penetrating even the smallest nook. Wield power like tempered steel, so strong there is nothing tough enough to stand up against it.
四肢百體,雖至細微處,若意有所注,氣無不到,有似珠之圓滑,故力無不化。太極之運動,在表面觀,似不着力,但勁自內發,最無窮盡,如百鍊之鋼,無堅不摧。
Throughout your body, at no matter how small an area, if intention is focused there, energy will always go to it. You will seem to have the roundness of a sphere, and thus any force coming your way will be neutralized. The movements in Taiji Boxing appear to have no strength. But the power that is issued from within is limitless, like steel folded hundreds of times, nothing tough enough to stand up against it.

「形如搏兔之鶻;神似捕鼠之貓。靜如山岳;動若江河。」
The shape is like a falcon capturing a rabbit. The spirit is like a cat pouncing on a mouse. In stillness, be like a mountain, and in movement, be like a river.
動作變換之形狀,如凌空搏兔之鶻,盤旋莫定;凝神蓄勢而待發,似伏地捕鼠之貓,相機便至。不動如山岳,喻其穩實不浮也;動若江河,喻其氣勁不斷也。
The manner of the changing movements is like a falcon in the sky suddenly dropping to capture a rabbit. This means to circle unpredictably. The concentrating of spirit and storing of power waiting to be issued is like a cat crouching down about to pounce on a mouse when the right moment comes. To be as still as a mountain is a metaphor for being fully stable and solid rather than floating up. To move like a river is a metaphor for the energy flowing ceaselessly.

「蓄勢如張弓,發勁如放箭。曲中求直,蓄而復發。力由脊發,步隨身換。」
Store power like drawing a bow. Issue power like loosing an arrow. Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue. Power comes from your spine. Step according to your body’s changes.
張弓如望(十五日)月,此言蓄勁之滿;放箭若流星,是謂發勁之速。以柔化人之剛曰曲,敵剛旣化,我必乘機往攻,勁發而得直矣。沈肩貫氣,力由脊發,而及指端;步法則隨身轉動,變換不定。
Drawing a bow all the way into a half moon shape, right down to the fifteenth day of the month, means storing up energy fully. Loosing an arrow is then like a shooting star, representing the speed with which power is issued. To neutralize an opponent’s hardness is a matter of curving. Once it has been neutralized, I have to take advantage of the opportunity to attack. For power to issue is a matter of straightening. By sinking your shoulders, energy will course through. Power will go from your spine to your fingertips. Footwork goes along with the movements and turnings of your body, steps alternating without pattern.

「收卽是放;斷而復連。往復須有摺疊;進退須有轉換。」
To gather is to release. Disconnect but stay connected. In the back and forth [of your arms], there must be folding. In the advance and retreat [of your feet], there must be variation.
收卽黏化;放為擊敵。故能化人者,方能擊人。惟擊人之時,其勁似斷,但其意能復黏連。摺叠者,卽內外變化之作用也。其往來之摺叠,虛實不定,而有變化;步法須要變換,進退方得如意。
Gathering means sticking and neutralizing. Releasing means attacking the opponent. Once you are able to neutralize him, then you are able to attack him. When attacking, your power will seem to finish, but your intention is able to adhere and reconnect. Folding means the act of transforming inside and out. As folding comes and goes, emptiness and fullness are not fixed, and thus there is transformation. Your footwork must have a quality of variation, and then your advancing and retreating will happen as you wish.

「極柔軟然後極堅剛;能呼吸然後能靈活。氣以直養而無害;勁以曲蓄而有餘。」
Extreme softness begets extreme hardness. Your ability to be nimble lies in your ability to breathe. By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted. By storing power in crooked parts, it will be in abundant supply.
太極拳以柔為剛,演習之時,極柔緩者,其勁愈長,其氣至剛,故天下之至柔者,能至剛也。呼吸卽氣之出納。善養氣者,必能直引而歸于丹田,然後週於全體,意至氣到,四肢靈活,而無神態呆滯之弊,所謂浩氣常存,用之則行也。遇敵時,曲蓄其勁以待發,不發則已,一發而莫之能禦也。
Taiji Boxing uses softness as hardness. When practicing, one who moves very softly and slowly builds that much more power until his energy becomes indomitable. Therefore the softest thing in the world can achieve hardness. “Breathing” means the giving out and taking in of energy. One who is good at nurturing energy is able to draw it right it and send it to his elixir field, then send it throughout his whole body. Wherever his intention goes, energy arrives, and his limbs become livened. He does not have the error of a stiff and sluggish manner, and thus for him a vastness energy is a constant, functioning whenever he applies it. When encountering an opponent, your crooked parts will store power and standby to issue. If there is no issuing, no power gets used, but upon issuing, no one would be able to resist it.

「心為令,氣為旗,腰為纛。先求開展,後求緊凑,乃可臻於縝密矣。」
Your mind makes the command, the energy is its flag, and your waist is its banner. First strive to open up, then strive to close up, and from there you will be able to attain a refined subtlety.
心為主帥,用以發號施令也;氣為旗官,用以傳達命令也;四肢之運用,以腰為中軍,乃纛之所在,用以監督左右前後而攻敵也。凡練架子及推手,均要開展得法,各部動作,始能接應如意;所謂求緊凑者,卽由大圈以歸小圈,小圈以歸無圈,無圈則是藏於密也;惟功夫精純者,乃可以言此,卽能『收,放』之意而已。
Your mind is the commander issuing orders. The energy is then the flag which conveys the orders, sending them to your limbs. Your waist is the middle of the army, where the large banner stands and functions to control the troops to the left, right, forward, behind, in the attacking of the enemy. When practicing either the solo set or the pushing hands, you should open up to grasp the method. Then once the movement of every part can coordinate efficiently, strive to close up, big circles turning into small circles turning into no circles, whereupon what you are doing will be hidden in subtlety. Only one who has a refined skill can discuss this, for his intention is able to be reduced to nothing more than: gather, release.

「又云:先在心,後在身。腹鬆淨,氣斂入骨,神舒體靜,刻刻在心。切記一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜。」
It is also said:
First in your mind, then in your body. Your abdomen relaxes completely and then energy collects in your bones. Your spirit should be comfortable and your body should be calm – at every moment be mindful of this. Always remember: if one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.
太極拳以心意為機樞,以身體為機件,故先心意而後身體。腹任自然則鬆,無雜念則淨,其氣自能收歛入骨,故神安體靜,應變整暇而不慌亂。表裏聯成一氣,所以有動則俱動,靜則俱靜之功效也。
In Taiji Boxing, the mental intention drives the machine, the body being the machinery. Therefore intention comes first, then the body. When your belly feels natural, it is relaxed, and when you are free of distracting thoughts, you are relaxed completely. Your energy will naturally be able to gather into your bones, and thus your spirit will be comfortable and your body will be calm, and you will respond leisurely to changing circumstances instead of getting flustered and confused. When inside are connected and operating in unison, the effect is that movement involves the movement of all parts and stillness involves the stillness of all parts.

「牽動往來氣貼背,斂入脊骨,內固精神,外示安逸。邁步如貓行;運勁如抽絲。」
As the movement leads back and forth, energy stays near your back and gathers in your spine. Inwardly bolster spirit and outwardly show ease. Step like a cat and move energy as if drawing silk.
與人較技時,因往來角逐之牽動,易犯樁輕氣浮之病,故須沉氣貼背,歛於脊骨,則力由脊骨趨出,運行于各部,神固體逸,自能示人以鎭靜。步法取貓行之聯絡姿勢;運動若抽絲之貫串不斷。
When fighting with an opponent, it is easy in the midst of contending back and forth for control to make the errors of your stance lightening or your energy floating up. Therefore you must sink energy and get it to stick to your back to gather in your spine, then power will come from your spine and be sent to every part. With your spirit firm and your body at ease, you will naturally be able to show the opponent nothing but composure. Footwork that imitates the stepping of a cat links the postures. Movement that is like the drawing of silk is continuous and uninterrupted.

「全身意在精神,不在氣,在氣則滯;有氣者無力,無氣者純剛。氣若車輪,腰如車軸。」
Throughout your body, your mind should be on your spirit rather than on the energy, for if you are fixated on the energy, your movement will become sluggish. Whenever your mind is on the energy, there will be no power, whereas if you ignore the energy and let it take care of itself, there will be pure strength. The energy is like a wheel and your waist is like an axle.
太極拳專尚精神,不尚氣力,彼尚氣力者,必為濁氣與拙力而已。故善養氣者,當以腰為發動之中樞,氣為輪,若軸之貫輪旋轉,運輸以及全身,而無絲毫之阻滯。
Taiji Boxing focuses on spirit and does not emphasize strength. Those who emphasize physical strength are sure to have nothing more than the chaotic energy that comes with awkward effort. Therefore those who are good at nurturing energy will use the waist as the center of expressing movement. The energy is like a wheel that is rotated around this axle and is thereby transported to the rest of the body without the slightest obstruction.

5 打手歌註釋(按打手卽推手也)
PLAYING HANDS SONG – WITH COMMENTARY (note: playing hands means pushing hands)

「掤,捋,擠,按,須認眞,上下相隨人難進,任他巨力來打我,牽動四兩撥千斤!引進落空合卽出,粘,連,黏,隨不丢頂。」
Ward-off, rollback, press, and push must be taken seriously.
With coordination between above and below, the opponent will hardly find a way in.
I will let him attack me with as much power as he likes,
for I will tug with four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds.
Guiding him in to land on nothing, I then close on him and send him away.
I stick to him and go along with his movement instead of pulling away or crashing in.
掤,捋,擠,按,四字,均須按照師傳之規矩,絲毫不能違誤!練久功深,方能上下相隨,一動無有不動,敵不能進攻,彼雖以巨力打來,略為牽動,則我之四兩,自可撥彼千斤!當其用力時,方向必不能變,我卽隨彼之方向而引進,彼自落空矣。然必須粘,連,黏,隨,不丢,不頂,乃克臻此也。
[line 1] The four techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push must all be in accordance with the standards of the teaching as it has been passed down, and must not be even slightly violated.
[line 2] By working at it over a long period, skillfulness will deepen, and then there will be coordination between the upper body and the lower. When one part moves, every part will move. The opponent will be unable to attack.
[line 3] Even if he comes in to hit me with a lot of power,
[line 4] I slightly tug on his movement with a little extra, and so my “four ounces” naturally can move his “thousand pounds”. When he applies such force, he will be incapable of altering his direction once he has started along it.
[line 5] I follow his direction and tempt him farther along it. His attack thus lands on nothing.
[line 6] But it is essential that I stick to him and move along with him rather than pull away from him or crash into him. Thus I will have attained this skill.

「又曰:彼不動,己不動;彼微動,己先動。勁似鬆非鬆,將展未展;勁斷意不斷。」
It is also said:
If he takes no action, I take no action, but once he takes even the slightest action, I have already acted. The power seems relaxed but not relaxed, about to expand but not yet expanding. When my power finishes, my intent of it continues.
打手時,靜待敵勢,彼不動,我亦不動,彼如微動,必有方向,我意在彼先,隨其方向而先動,則彼必跌出矣;故敵用力愈大,受跌亦愈重也。未動時,一種凝神蓄勢之姿態,意似鬆而未鬆,勁將展而未展,遇機放勁;放時,勁似斷而意仍不斷也。
During playing hands, I calmly await his action. If he takes no action, I take no action. If he takes the slightest action, his action will assuredly be in some direction, so my intention will move ahead of his action by going along the path he wants to take, and I will then take the initiative before he does and he will consequently stumble away. Therefore the more effort the opponent uses, the heavier he will fall. When he has not yet acted, I am in a posture of concentrating spirit and storing power. My intention seems relaxed but not relaxed. My power is about to expand but not is yet expanding. Once the opportunity comes, I release power. When I release, the power seems to finish but the intent of it does not finish.

以上先師遺著,已將太極拳精微奧妙之處,闡發無遺,因欲求顯淺,以便後之有志斯道者,故略加註釋,以為入門之助云爾。
The texts above from past teachers present Taiji Boxing’s profound subtleties in full. Because I wished to make the theory clear and simple for those of future generations who have aspirations in the art, I have made these brief annotations in order to aid beginners.

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