BAJI BOXING

八極拳
BAJI BOXING
繆淦傑
by Miao Ganjie
[published Nov, 1936]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Dec, 2015]

八極拳圖譜序
PREFACE [BY XU ZHEN]

同邑繆君淦杰。精研少林拳技十餘載。近著八極拳圖譜一編。請序于余。繆君之意。一以為八極拳動止整齊。用以敎練學校團體。尤稱宜適。一以為著圖譜。可使來者得以考見其體勢與法式。予惟八極拳與形意之連環拳雜式捶略相似。而剛猛特甚。旣簡約而易明。力量又易見加益。敎練學校團體。誠至善也。若夫拳技之流別。惟得其體勢與法式。乃可推較其同異。故圖譜行卽流別不至混淆難辨。今世言拳技師承者。大都誇誕不經。附會之談滋多。由于昔之授拳者。鮮有圖譜可考也。今太極八卦形意潭腿杳拳等皆已有書。而八極尚闕。然則繆君之為。固不容已者矣。吾聞有淸之世。南皮大馬家莊有周長春者。肥碩而短。善超躍。眈道術。當道光之末。已七十餘歲。習八極者推為得之眞傳。時人號為周大魔。言其道術之神也。今八極拳流行于山東河北。而河北尤盛。自首都設中央國術館。館中定八極為必修課。多延河北八極專家。來任敎師。故邇來江南一帶。亦頗流布焉。繆君八極之學。淵源于河北。不知其出于南皮周氏者乎。抑否乎。吾願繆君博訪而審辨之。而更有以語我也。吾常見演八極者。震步時用力太過。易于傷腦。謂宜去其震步之猛厲。繆君亦以為然。因釆此意。列于凡例。其諸變通而無弊者歟。
中華民國二十三年武進徐震哲東甫序于正德國技學社
Miao Ganjie is from my own hometown. He has studied Shaolin Boxing intensively for more than ten years. Having recently produced this handbook on Baji Boxing, he invited me to write a preface for it. Miao’s intention is firstly to standardize the Baji Boxing movements for educational purposes, for which he deserves special praise, and secondly to provide photographs so that practitioners can imitate the postures. [Unfortunately the photos in this priceless book are of very poor quality, making its text that much more important.] It seems to me that Baji Boxing somewhat resembles Xingyi’s Continuous set and Mixed Posture set, though with far more hardness and fierceness, for it is simple, clear, powerful, and its benefits are obvious. For teaching to large groups in schools, it truly is excellent stuff.
     Regarding the various branches of boxing arts, the similarities and differences of their postures and techniques can be analyzed, thanks to pictures of them being made to keep the styles from getting confused about the correct or incorrect way to perform their techniques. When people in our era speak of learning their boxing art as a disciple of a master, it is mostly a lot of groundless boasting. Such people discuss their arts in increasingly strained interpretations, and this is because those who taught boxing arts in former times rarely produced images with which we can verify the correct way to perform the postures. These days there are already books to represent Taiji, Bagua, Xingyi, Tantui, Cha Boxing, and so on, yet still none for Baji. Now Miao has made one and its contents are truly unique.
     I have heard that during the Qing Dynasty, there was a certain Zhou Changchun in the Ma Family Village, Nanpi County [in Hebei], who was short and fat, and yet an expert in leaping. He was obsessed with sorcery arts, and by the end of the reign of Emperor Guangxu [1850], he was already more than seventy years old. Practitioners of Baji proclaim that their genuine art was transmitted from him, and his contemporaries called him “Demon Zhou” because of his interest in sorcery.
     Baji Boxing is popular these days throughout Shandong and Hebei, especially flourishing in Hebei. Ever since the Central Martial Arts Institute was established [1928] in the capital [Nanjing], Baji has been a required part of the curriculum there. Many Baji experts have been invited from Hebei and appointed to teach it, and thus it has recently been spreading south of the Yangzte quite considerably. Miao’s Baji system originated in Hebei, but it is not known for sure whether or not it came from Mr. Zhou of Nanpi.
     I hope that Miao will visit every class and check up on things, then report back to me, for I have often seen people who are performing Baji using too much force when they stomp and easily harming their brains. I think they should get rid of the overly violent stomping, and Miao has the same opinion. Be discriminating on this point as you go through the movements in this book. Do always what is appropriate and never what is harmful.
     – written by Xu Zhen, called Zhedong, of Wujin [in Jiangsu], at the Virtuous Martial Arts Society, 1934

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

運動。是强國强民之基礎。為世界各國所公認。故無論何國。莫不注意民衆運動。吾國自鼎革以後。始漸知運動之重要。今政府亦竭力提倡之。運動之方法甚多。然終莫美于吾國之拳術。拳術之優點殊多。而練習尤易。不論農工商學兵。團體個人隨時隨地。皆可練習。較之他種運動。旣覺經濟亦更便利也。余並不反對其他各種運動。然終覺其時間金錢均太不經濟。如標一枝。價値十餘元。擲數次卽斷。斷後一無所用。餘如足球。籃球。跑鞋。球鞋等。其價値均在數元。至數十元間。而又非有大規摸之運動場不可。故除學校之外。軍隊中。略可練習。餘如農工商之大多數民衆。皆無練習之可能矣。試問國貧民窮如吾國。提倡此種貴族化之運動。能否普及。有無効果。雖愚婦稚子。亦能知之。且此類運動。于身所得之益。僅强健體格而已。吾國拳術運動。豈僅此而已哉。可以鍛練身心。培養道德。提高個性之當武、任俠、勇敢、冒險、無畏、奮鬥之精神。以及抵禦强暴之技能。于軍隊中衝鋒肉搏。尤有實効。在吾國民氣頹唐如死。國勢垂危之秋。捨認眞提倡拳術之外。實無其他强國强民之妙策。今有人謂提倡國術。無異于開倒車。余謂出此言者。必非了解國術之內容者也。今吾國之在野名流。曁政府之明達諸公。亦深知拳術之精妙。又切合于吾國之國勢民情。乃從事提倡。不遺餘力。幾將淪亡之國粹。得以挽囘。使全國民衆。認識拳術為精妙絕倫之運動。可謂有卓見者矣。惟昔之研究拳術者。大多本其師之指授。未曾著書以留傳于後。故今頗有失傳者。殊為可惜。今拳術著作。雖日漸衆多。而合于學校團體練習之敎材。仍不多覯。故余今特將此八極拳全套。依古人定法。照現代敎育程序。編為合于學校團體練習之敎材。並誌數語。質諸有道。
中華民國二十三年六月武進繆淦杰序于雙劍齋
Exercise is the foundation of “strengthening the nation by strengthening the people”. This is generally acknowledged by every nation in the world. Thus regardless of the country, they all pay attention to the exercising of the masses. In our nation since the revolution [1911], we have begun to gradually understand the importance of exercise, and the current government does its best to promote it.
     There are a great many methods of exercise, but ultimately nothing as beautiful as our nation’s boxing arts. The advantages of boxing arts are very numerous, particularly the fact that they are easy to practice. Regardless of farmer, laborer, merchant, scholar, or soldier, working in groups or individually, anytime and anywhere, all can practice them.
     Compared to other forms of exercise, they are also surely more convenient financially. I am by no means opposed to other forms of exercise, but in the end I feel they are all impractical in terms of time and money. Whenever special equipment is required, it may cost a pretty penny but then fall apart into uselessness after repeated sessions. For instance, soccer and basketball require special running shoes and gym shoes, which can cost anywhere from too much to much too much. Also, such sports cannot be engaged in without the proper athletic grounds. Therefore outside of schools or military compounds, they can rarely be practiced, leaving most of society – the farmers, laborers, and merchants, with no chance to take part in them.
     Let us ask: if a poor nation like ours encouraged those sorts of aristocratic sports, could they be popularized and would they produce results? Even idiots, women, and children are able to know the answer to this. Furthermore, the benefits to the body from these kinds of sports are merely a matter of strengthening the physique and nothing more. Our nation’s boxing arts exercises are more than this. They can train both body and mind, fostering moral development, improving one’s spirit of valor, chivalry, courage, daring, fearlessness, and striving, and build the skills to resist bullies, being especially effective for soldiers in hand-to-hand combat.
     Since the morale of the people seems fatally dejected and our national spirit is in critical decline, beyond earnestly recommending boxing arts there is really no other strategy for “strengthening the nation by strengthening the people”. There are nowadays those who say that promoting martial arts is no different from turning back the wheels of history. I say that whoever utters such words certainly does not understand the substance of our martial arts.
     Nowadays, the distinguished persons in political opposition and the sensible gentlemen who are in office all deeply understand the exquisiteness of boxing arts and how they are exactly suitable for our nation’s situation and the condition of our people. Thus these men do their utmost to encourage these arts and bring about a retrieval of our downtrodden culture, causing the whole nation and all that are in it to recognize that boxing arts are a superb and unsurpassed form of exercise. These can be called insightful men indeed.
     Previously those who studied boxing arts were for the most part those who were taught personally and who did not write books to transmit the knowledge to future generations. Because of this, many of these arts are now lost forever, which is a terrible pity. Nowadays boxing arts authors have been producing teaching materials suitable for practice in educational institutions, and although they are becoming gradually more numerous, I still hardly encounter them. Therefore I now present this complete set of Baji Boxing, according to the established methods of past practitioners while at the same time arranged into a pattern of modern instructional procedure*, compiled into a resource suitable for use in educational institutions. Let the record state over and over that it is something of substance and meaning.
     – written by Miao Ganjie of Wujin in the Double-Sword School, June, 1934

[*The set has been assigned six sections of eight postures each with a cadence of “1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8!” to guide the drilling of groups of practitioners. The set otherwise seems to fall into a more natural structure of four sections: (1) ten postures from the Preparation Posture to Posture 2.1, (2) sixteen postures: 2.2–4.1, (3) thirteen postures: 4.2–5.5, (4) ten postures: 5.6 to the end. This is because sections 1–3 end with the same posture, sections 1 and 3 even finishing with the same four postures. Once comfortably familiar with the set, there is no need for the contrived cadence and one may simply practice according to the rhythm of its more natural sections.]

凡例
GENERAL COMMENTS

一此編八極拳,震步甚多,惟震步用力過猛,腦部震動,練習者須注意及之,弗過于用力,免傷腦筋也。
[1] In this book of Baji Boxing, there are a great many stomping steps. When stomps are performed too aggressively, your brain will be shaken. While practicing, you must give this point attention and not use too much force, in order to avoid beating up your own brain.

一此編,取才于八極拳,因其合于團體練習,人數多少均宜。
[2] This book chooses to present Baji Boxing because it is suitable for group practice, whether the number of people be small or large.

一此編,依敎授程序,編輯,全套共分六節,每節,為八箇動作,每箇動作,均有詳細圖說,使學者易于了解。
[3] The material in this book is sequential. The whole set is presented in six sections, each section containing eight movements. Each movement has both an explanation and a photo so that you will easily understand.

一此編,若是箇人練習,不必喊口令,團體練習,則非喊口令,各人之動作不能整齊,故所定之口令,但有數,而無名,蓋欲求其簡捷爽快,雖是團體練習,亦能一氣呵成故也。
[4] When the material in this book is used for solo practice, it is not necessary to call out commands. During group practice, there has to be commands, otherwise people will not be able to move in unison. Therefore the standard commands to call out are the numbers rather than the names of the postures because I seek for it to be simple and straightforward, and then even during group practice, there can be a flow to the movements. [As the names vary in amount of syllables, they would therefore not have the same metronome effect as a simple count of the monosyllabic basic Chinese numbers.]

一此編,單練極為重要,而團體練習,尤為合宜,因其來去皆走直䠀,不與其他拳術之走四門,團體練習易于雜亂也。
[5] The material in this book focuses most of all on solo practice, but it is also particularly suitable for group practice because the set always travels along a straight line, not moving all over the place like in some other boxing arts, which would easily make group practice a mess.

一此編,因單練團體練,均極合宜,為拳術中不可多得之材料,故祗敍拳之眞意,實益,文字粗俗,求其易明也。
[6] The material in this book is entirely suitable for both solo practice and group practice,
and since this art is something unique among the boxing arts, I therefore only explain the techniques in the context of their true meaning and genuine benefit. Thus the writing style is down to earth, for I seek to make it easy to understand.

一此編,假定之行拳方向,『東南西北』為便于初學者之用,練習旣熟,當然可以隨便不拘,每一式之下,註明方向,使學者,無方向錯誤之苦。
[7] The material in this book goes according to orientations of “north, south, east, west” in order to make it easier for beginners to work with. Once it has been practiced to the point of familiarity, you will of course be able to practice the set in any direction you wish. In each of the postures below, its orientation is indicated so that you will not have to worry about moving in the wrong direction.

一此編,八極拳,全套中之術名辭句,有費解者,因尊重原來之意起見,未敢擅改也。
[8] In the Baji Boxing presented in this book, the names of the postures throughout the set are sometimes obscure. This is because I have respect for their original intention and I would not dare to alter them.

一此編,為供國術同志研究之參考,挂漏之處,在所不免,尚祈國術同志,加以指正為幸。
[9] The purpose of this book is to supply my martial arts comrades with reference material. It is inevitable that there are some aspects in which the book is incomplete. I hope my comrades will bless me by giving me corrections.

八極拳之練法
HOW TO PRACTICE BAJI BOXING

語云,獅子搏象用全力,搏免亦用全力,此二語,頗能代表練八極拳之意義也,練八極拳者,不練則已,一動手,渾身精神奮發,必須以全力貫注于手足,一舉手,一動足,莫不以全力赴之,而于下部工夫,尤當格外注重,其一脚之落地,要沉著,要有穩重如泰山之意,蓋下部為百骸之基礎,若下部不鞏固,卽手上有絕頂工夫,恐亦不足以應大敵,故練八極拳者,最宜注重下部之穩重,若僅拘拘其手法之攻守,則失八極拳之眞意矣,卽苦練十年,亦僅得其糟粕耳,故八極拳,實為研究拳術者,必練之拳,研究斯拳者,幸注意及之也。
There is a saying: “Whether a lion attacks an elephant or a rabbit, in either case it uses all of its power.” This saying can represent well the mentality in practicing Baji Boxing. For practitioners of Baji Boxing, if you don’t practice, then you’ve got nothing. As soon as you move your hand, rouse your spirit throughout your whole body. You must concentrate your full power through your hands and feet.
     Whenever you raise your hand or move your foot, always put your full power into it, and the skill to this lies in the lower body. You should give it particular attention. When your foot comes down, it should be heavy. You should have the notion of being as steady as a mountain. Your lower body makes the foundation for your whole body. If your hands above are extremely skillful but your lower body is unsteady, your skill will probably not be sufficient to deal with a powerful opponent. Therefore practitioners of Baji Boxing should pay the greatest attention to the solidity of the lower body.
     If you are only attacking and defending with formulaic techniques, then you will have lost the true meaning of Baji Boxing, and even if you have been practicing diligently for ten years, you will only have been wasting your time. Therefore in Baji Boxing, true students of the art must practice the techniques. To those who are studying this art, I hope you will give these points your attention.

八極拳之特點
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BAJI BOXING

拳術之門戶極多,而不論任何一門戶中,槪有趟子,連拳,基功,散手等,誠不勝繁雜,非三年苦功,不得結束,故學者,每有憚煩,而半途中輟者焉,若八極拳,則無是弊,旣簡易,習之尠有不成者,蓋本門功夫,僅有八極拳一趟,凡四十八手,平日不練基功,不練打法,功成自會打人,雖僅四十八手,然技擊之精華,罔一不具也,學者在未練時,或將疑此言為夸誕,但能認眞練去,一俟功成,定必詫為奇妙,誠為國術中,最名貴之精品也,學者,幸勿忽視之。
There are so many schools of boxing arts, but whatever the school, they typically have practice sets, drills, basic exercises, free sparring, etc. Indeed there is almost too much material to handle, and without thirty years of hard work, you will never get to the end. That is why students tend to become afraid of how much work it will take and give up halfway. But if you choose Baji Boxing, you will be without this problem, for it is so simple. There are few who practice it that do not complete the training. This is because in this art’s curriculum, there is only one Baji Boxing set, comprised of forty-eight postures.
     Generally, without practicing the basics, you will not be able to practice sparring. But once skill is achieved, you will naturally be able to spar with people. Although there are only forty-eight postures, the techniques are superb and are in no way incomplete. Before a student has practiced it, he will think these words are boastful. But if you can practice it seriously and wait patiently for skill to be achieved, you are sure to be surprised by how wonderful it is. Among Chinese martial arts, it is truly of the rarest quality, and I hope you will not overlook it.

强國强種 八極拳目次
CONTENTS

第一節
Section One
 第一圖 術名 曲膝連捶
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.1: BEND THE KNEES WHILE PUNCHING
 第二圖 術名 進步挑打
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.2: ADVANCE, CARRYING STRIKE
 第三圖 術名 或肘反挑打
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.3: TURNING OVER THE ELBOW, CARRYING STRIKE
 第四圖 術名 進步橫打
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.4: ADVANCE, HORIZONTAL STRIKE
 第五圖 術名 斜打
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.5: DIAGONAL STRIKE
 第六圖 術名 擠𦡁
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.6: PRESSING TO THE CROTCH
 第七圖 術名 擄踢
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.7: CAPTURE & KICK
 第八圖 術名 斜打
 Name of the technique for Posture 1.8: DIAGONAL STRIKE
第二節
Section Two
 第一圖 術名 打開
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.1: SPREADING OPEN
 第二圖 術名 卡肚
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.2: CROWDING THE BELLY
 第三圖 術名 泄卡肚
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.3: RELEASING FROM CROWDING THE BELLY
 第四圖 術名 斜托天勢
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.4: PROPPING UP THE SKY AT A SLANT
 第五圖 術名 翻身掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.5: TURN AROUND, PALM STRIKE
 第六圖 術名 右臂大纏
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.6: RIGHT ARM LARGE TWINING
 第七圖 術名 左臂大纏
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.7: LEFT ARM LARGE TWINING
 第八圖 術名 小纏窩心掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 2.8: SMALL TWINING, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS
第三節
Section Three
 第一圖 術名 上步窩心掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.1: STEP FORWARD, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS
 第二圖 術名 掛搭
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.2: HANGING & CROSSING
 第三圖 術名 上步架
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.3: STEP FORWARD, PROPPING UP
 第四圖 術名 打脆膝
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.4: STRIKE, KNEELING DOWN
 第五圖 術名 迎面掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.5: PALMS STRAIGHT AHEAD
 第六圖 術名 轉脚搓臉
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.6: PIVOT THE FEET, RUBBING STRIKE TO THE FACE
 第七圖 術名 腿避𦡁
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.7: THIGH GUARDING THE CROTCH
 第八圖 術名 十字架
 Name of the technique for Posture 3.8: CROSS-SHAPED FRAME
第四節
Section Four
 第一圖 術名 打開
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.1: SPREADING OPEN
 第二圖 術名 斜卡肚
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.2: DIAGONALLY CROWDING THE BELLY
 第三圖 術名 上步窩心掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.3: STEP FORWARD, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS
 第四圖 術名 右退步掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.4: RETREAT RIGHT LEG, PALM STRIKE
 第五圖 術名 左退步掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.5: RETREAT LEFT LEG, PALM STRIKE
 第六圖 術名 掛搭
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.6: HANGING & CROSSING
 第七圖 術名 小纏窩心掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.7: SMALL TWINING, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS
 第八圖 術名 退步換手扎
 Name of the technique for Posture 4.8: RETREAT, HAND-SWITCHING SMASH
第五節
Section Five
 第一圖 術名 轉脚踢
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.1: SWITCHING-FEET KICK
 第二圖 術名 翻札
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.2: TURN OVER & SMASH
 第三圖 術名 擠𦡁
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.3: PRESSING TO THE CROTCH
 第四圖 術名 擄踢
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.4: CAPTURE & KICK
 第五圖 術名 斜打
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.5: DIAGONAL STRIKE
 第六圖 術名 打開
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.6: SPREADING OPEN
 第七圖 術名 右臂小纏冲捶
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.7: RIGHT ARM SMALL TWINING, THRUST PUNCH
 第八圖 術名 亮開
 Name of the technique for Posture 5.8: OPENING UP
第六節
Section Six
 第一圖 術名 左臂小纏冲捶
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.1: LEFT ARM SMALL TWINING, THRUST PUNCH
 第二圖 術名 變鈎
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.2: CHANGING TO A HOOK
 第三圖 術名 拗步亮掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.3: CROSSED STANCE, SHOW A PALM
 第四圖 術名 轉身換鈎
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.4: TURN AROUND, CHANGE TO A HOOK
 第五圖 術名 劈心掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.5: CHOPPING PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS
 第六圖 術名 退步掌
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.6: RETREAT, PALM STRIKE
 第七圖 術名 竝步挑肘
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.7: FEET TOGETHER, CARRYING ELBOW
 第八圖 術名 還原
 Name of the technique for Posture 6.8: RETURN TO YOUR ORIGINAL POSITION

强國强種 八極拳
TO STRENGTHEN THE NATION BY STRENGTHENING THE PEOPLE – BAJI BOXING
武進工繆淦杰編輯
by Miao Ganjie of Wujin


西 + 東

S
W +  E
N

[This compass for the orientation of the postures is flawed and ought to have E and W flipped. Mentions of east and west have accordingly been corrected in the translation in order to reduce confusion.]

第一節 口令一二三四五六七八
SECTION ONE (The commands are: “1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.”)

預備
PREPARATION POSTURE

口令 預備
Command: “Ready!”

朝南立正。兩手握拳。置腰間。
Standing straight, facing south, your hands grasp into fists and are placed at your waist.

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.0

第一節 第一圖
Section One, Posture 1

口令(一)
Command: “1!”

術名(曲膝連捶)
Name of the technique: BEND THE KNEES WHILE PUNCHING

頭向左。目向左看。同時左拳向左前伸出。拳與肩成平形。虎口向上。右拳由腰間同時移置腹部。兩腿同時下曲。至與大腿成平形為止。兩脚仍竝緊不分開。如第一圖。(朝南)
Your head turns to the left, eyes looking to the left. At the same time, your left fist extends forward to the left at shoulder level, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, your right fist shifts to be placed at your belly area, and your legs bend downward until the thighs are flat. Your feet remain standing close together and do not separate. See photo 1.1 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.1

第一節 第二圖
Section One, Posture 2

口令(二)
Command: “2!”

術名(進步挑打)
Name of the technique: ADVANCE, CARRYING STRIKE

左脚向左跨出一步。脚尖向左。脚落地時。要有力。全身坐實在左腿上。同時右脚跟上一步。脚落在左脚前寸許。同時右拳向左前伸出。左拳稍曲。置右大臂間。如第二圖。(朝西)
Your left foot takes a large stride out to the left, toes pointing to the left. The foot should come down powerfully. The weight sits onto your left leg as your right foot also steps forward to come down about an inch [a foot] in front of your left foot. At the same time, your right fist extends forward to the left, your left arm slightly bending for its fist to be placed by your right elbow. See photo 1.2 (torso facing to the east) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.2

第一節 第三圖
Section One, Posture 3

口令(三)
Command: “3!”

術名(或肘反挑打)
Name of the technique: TURNING OVER THE ELBOW, CARRYING STRIKE

右脚用全力。脚尖朝南。同時左脚跟上一步。成一朝南坐馬勢。目向右看。右拳順勢而下。一直向右向上挑打。拳與肩成平形。虎口朝下。左拳向上曲。拳置肩上。虎口朝下。肘與肩成平形。如第三圖。(朝南)
Your right foot takes the weight, toes pointing to the south, as your left foot follows forward a step to make a south-facing horse-riding stance, your gaze to the right [left]. Your right fist at the same time goes downward and straight to the right with a carrying strike, the fist at shoulder level, tiger’s mouth facing downward, and your left arm bends upward so the fist is placed over the shoulder, tiger’s mouth facing downward, the elbow at shoulder level. See photo 1.3 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.3

第一節 第四圖
Section One, Posture 4

口令(四)
Command: “4!”

術名(進步橫打)
Name of the technique: ADVANCE, HORIZONTAL STRIKE

右脚進步。左脚隨轉。改成為一朝北坐馬勢。同時右拳用力橫打過去。拳肩仍成平一字形。虎口向北。手心朝地。拳背朝天。左拳順勢改置脅間。如第四圖。(朝西)
Your right foot advances, your left foot pivoting, your stance changing to a north-facing horse-riding stance. At the same time, your right fist strikes across forcefully, the fist remaining at shoulder level, tiger’s mouth facing to the north, the center of the fist facing to the ground, the back of the fist facing to the sky, your left fist switching to being placed at your ribs. See photo 1.4 (torso facing to the east [north]) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.4

第一節 第五圖
Section One, Posture 5

口令(五)
Command: “5!”

術名(斜打)
Name of the technique: DIAGONAL STRIKE

左拳由脅間。用力向右斜打出。手背向上。身體向右傾。下部由馬勢順勢改為半右弓步。右拳同時向裏曲。肩肘拳。成三角平形。手背向上。如第五圖。(朝西)
Your left fist leaves your ribs to forcefully strike out diagonally to the right, the back of the fist facing upward, your body inclining to the right, your lower body switching from a horse-riding stance to right half-bow stance. Your right arm at the same time bends inward so the shoulder, elbow, and fist are making a level triangle, the back of the fist facing upward. See photo 1.5 (torso facing to the east) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.5

第一節 第六圖
Section One, Posture 6

口令(六)
Command: “6!”

術名(擠𦡁)
Name of the technique: PRESSING TO THE CROTCH

左拳直向後轉打過去。身體隨之向後轉。待身體向轉至正中時。同時左脚收囘。與右脚相竝。左拳轉至近左腿約四五寸變掌。右拳儘力向下打。左掌向上之先。其時兩脚躍起。與右拳向下打去。同時落地。要用全身氣力。如第六圖。(朝東)
Your left fist arcs with a strike to the rear, your body turning around to the rear. Once you have fully turned, your left foot has withdraws to stand next to your right foot, your left fist swinging through until four or five inches from your left thigh and becoming a palm. With your right fist coming down forcefully, your left palm goes upward [though the photo is depicting the instant just before this], your feet hopping up and then coming down as your right fist strikes downward. You should use the strength of your whole body. See photo 1.6 (torso facing to the west) [side view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.6

第一節 第七圖
Section One, Posture 7

口令(七)
Command: “7!”

術名(擄踢)
Name of the technique: CAPTURE & KICK

左右肩處之左掌。用力由面前擄過去。一直到下。掌在𦡁前。手心朝外。再起右脚踢去。在右脚踢去後,未落地時。右拳就由下提起。從面前反打出下去。右脚同時落地。為右弓步。臂要直而有力。手心朝天。打至拳與肩齊為止。如第七圖。(朝東)
Your left palm in front of your shoulders forcefully captures from in front of your face, going straight downward so the palm is in front of your crotch, palm facing outward, then lift your right foot and kick out. [The photo included represents the movement at this point.] After your right foot kicks and before it comes down, your right fist lifts from below, then goes from in front of your face, turning over to strike downward [i.e. a backfist strike] as your right foot comes down to make a right bow stance. The arm should be straight and strong, the center of the fist facing to the sky, striking out until at shoulder level. See photo 1.7 (torso facing to the west) [side view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.7

[We can bring forward photo 4.8, which we can here treat as photo 1.7b, as it expresses the second half of this movement:]

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 4.8

第一節 第八圖
Section One, Posture 8

口令(八)
Command: “8!”

術名(斜打)
Name of the technique: DIAGONAL STRIKE

在𦡁前之左掌握拳。向前斜極力打出。與肩齊。同時右拳收囘。收囘時要將手心翻向下。拳肘肩成三角平形。與(五)之斜打同。惟須注意方向之不同如第八圖。(朝東)〔與第一節第五圖同〕
Your left palm grasps into a fist in front of your crotch and forcefully strikes out diagonally forward at shoulder level. At the same time, your right fist withdraws, should turn so the center of the fist is facing downward, and the fist, elbow, and shoulder are making a level triangle. The posture is the same as in photo 1.5, except you must pay attention to the difference in orientation (torso facing to the west):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.5

第二節 口令數二二三四五六七八
SECTION TWO (The commands are: “2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.”)

第二節 第一圖
Section Two, Posture 1

口令(二)
Command: “2!”

術名(打開)
Name of the technique: SPREADING OPEN

右拳變掌。移在左手之肘下。左手同時亦向上稍曲。變掌。右脚向裏曲起。脚尖至左腿灣處。隨卽極力向左右放出。成朝南坐馬勢。兩手同時極力分開。若舉石担然。如第二節。第一圖。(朝南)
Your right fist becomes a palm and shifts to be below your left elbow. At the same time, your left arm goes upward, slightly bending, the fist also becoming a palm, while your right leg bends and lifts inward, toes pointing toward your left knee. Then forcefully release to both sides, making a south-facing horse-riding stance. Your hands at the same time forcefully spread apart, as though lifting a stone barbell. See photo 2.1 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.1

第二節 第二圖
Section Two, Posture 2

口令(二)
Command: “2!”

術名(卡肚)
Name of the technique: CROWDING THE BELLY

屁股向左灣。腰隨屁股向左轉。轉至面朝正東。兩掌同時隨腰轉。而收緊併來如捧面。離面約五六寸許。全身乘勢坐實左腿。右脚提起。脚尖著地。稍收進。如第二節。第二圖。(朝東)
Your buttocks bend toward the left and your waist goes along with this action by turning to the left, turning until your torso is facing squarely to the west. Your palms at the same time go along with the turning of your waist by withdrawing closely as though holding something about five or six inches in front of your face. Your whole body goes along with the momentum, the weight sitting onto your left leg as your right foot lifts to be touching down with the toes, slightly withdrawing and advancing. See photo 2.2 (torso facing to the west):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.2

第二節 第三圖
Section Two, Posture 3

口令(三)
Command: “3!”

術名(泄卡肚)
Name of the technique: RELEASING FROM CROWDING THE BELLY

兩掌用力。右脚卽提起。兩掌猛力向下一撳。至丹田下。同時右脚落地。要有力有聲。同時左脚提起。須注意右腿。要曲。不可立直。左脚隨卽上步。落地成左弓步。同時兩掌稍提起。用力竝向前掌出。如第二節。第三圖。(朝東)
Your palms forcefully press down as your right foot lifts. Once your palms have pressed down below your elixir field, your right foot comes down, and should do so with a powerful sound, your left foot lifting at the same time. You must pay attention to your right leg bending, for it must not be straight. Your left foot then steps forward, coming down to make a left bow stance. At the same time, your palms slightly lift and forcefully strike out forward in unison. See photo 2.3 (torso facing to the west):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.3

第二節 第四圖
Section Two, Posture 4

口令(四)
Command: “4!”

術名(斜托天勢)
Name of the technique: PROPPING UP THE SKY AT A SLANT

右手收轉。直自腰間。間到後。由後到頭上。虎口與左手之虎口相對。如第二節。第四圖。(朝東)
Your right hand withdraws in an arc, passing your waist, going behind you, and then goes above your head, the tiger’s mouth facing your left hand’s tiger’s mouth. See photo 2.4 (torso facing to the west [north]):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.4

第二節 第五圖
Section Two, Posture 5

口令(五)
Command: “5!”

術名(翻身掌)
Name of the technique: TURN AROUND, PALM STRIKE

右脚提起。前進約一小步。一跳翻身。左脚落在右脚之後。左手翻向上。右手落下。從腰間掌出。與在頭上之左虎口相對。身朝北。面朝西看。如第二節。第五圖。(朝北)
Your right foot lifts, goes forward about a half step, and you perform a hop, turning your body [leftward turn], your left foot coming down behind your right foot, your left hand turning over upward as your right hand lowers and strikes out from your waist, the tiger’s mouth facing your left hand’s tiger’s mouth above your head. Your gaze is to the east. See photo 2.5 (torso facing to the north):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.5

第二節 第六圖
Section Two, Posture 6

口令(六)
Command: “6!”

術名(右臂大纏)
Name of the technique: RIGHT ARM LARGE TWINING

右手向上收囘。左手向下迎。兩手相接。左手卽握住右手之脈息。用力一翻。向下一撳。右手背朝下。左手在上。仍握住。同時右脚提起。用力朝南落地要有聲。落地時與兩手向下。撳時同。不分先後。左脚亦同時跟上前。落在右脚之前。身朝立定後。左手卽向前用力掌出。目向東看。右手同時向上。架手背在頭上。離約三四寸許。如第二節。第六圖,
Your right hand withdraws upward, your left hand meeting it coming downward, your hands joining with your left hand grasping your right pulse area, forcefully turning over and pressing downward. The back of your right hand is facing downward, your left hand on top, still holding on. At the same time, your right foot lifts and comes down forcefully and audibly, pointing to the south. As it comes down, your hands move downward, pressing in unison, neither moving before nor after the other. Your left foot also at the same time follows a step forward, coming down in front of your right foot. Once your torso is facing to the south, your left hand forcefully strikes out forward as a palm, your gaze to the west [east]. Your right hand at the same time props upward, the back of the hand about three or four inches above your head. See photo 2.6 [torso facing to the south]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.6

第二節 第七圖
Section Two, Posture 7

口令(七)
Command: “7!”

術名(左臂大纏)
Name of the technique: LEFT ARM LARGE TWINING

左手向上收囘。右手向下迎。兩手相接。右手握住左手之脈息。用力一翻。向下一撳。同時左脚提起。朝北用力與手下撳時同落地。脚落地要有聲。右脚同時跟上前。落在左脚之前。身朝北。面向東。與右臂大纏同。惟左右手上下相換耳。如第二節。第七圖。(朝北)〔與第二節第五圖同〕
Your left hand withdraws upward, your right hand meeting it coming downward, your hands joining with your right hand grasping your left pulse area, forcefully turning over and pressing downward. At the same time, your left foot lifts and comes down forcefully and audibly, pointing to the north, your hands pressing downward in unison as it comes down. Your left foot at the same time follows a step forward, coming down in front of your right foot. Your gaze is to the west [east]. It is the same as in RIGHT ARM LARGE TWINING, except the left and right of the upward and downward movements are reversed. The posture is the same as in photo 2.5 (torso facing to the north):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.5

第二節 第八圖
Section Two, Posture 8

口令(八)
Command: “8!”

術名(小纏窩心掌)
Name of the technique: SMALL TWINING, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS

右手向上收囘。左手向下迎。兩手相接。左手卽握住右手之脈息。右手握拳向下一撳。同時右脚提起。與拳向下撳時同落地。左脚卽跟上一步。落在右脚前。身朝南。左手平掌出。同時右手仍握拳收囘至腰間。如第二節。第八圖。(朝南)
Your right hand withdraws upward, your left hand meeting it coming downward, your hands joining with your left hand grasping your right pulse area, your right hand grasping into a fist as it is pressed downward. At the same time, your right foot lifts and comes down as your right fist is pressed down. Your left foot then follows a step forward, coming down in front of your right foot, your left hand striking out with a level palm strike as your right fist withdraws until beside your waist. See photo 2.8 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.8

第三節 口令數三二三四五六七八
SECTION THREE (The commands are: “3, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.”)

第三節 第一圖
Section Three, Posture 1

口令(三)
Command: “3!”

術名(上步窩心掌)
Name of the technique: STEP FORWARD, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS

左掌收囘握拳置腰間。右脚向左上步。同時右拳從腰間用力掌出。身朝北。如第三節。第一圖。(朝北)
Your left palm withdraws, grasping into a fist, to be placed beside your waist. Your right foot steps forward to the left, your right fist at the same time forcefully coming out as a palm strike. See photo 3.1 (torso facing to the north) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.1

第三節 第二圖
Section Three, Posture 2

口令(二)
Command: “2!”

術名(掛搭)
Name of the technique: HANGING & CROSSING

左手拳由腰間變掌向上。伸至右肩定。右臂貼緊。左掌向上抽囘。至兩掌相叉。右脚亦同時移向後。右掌卽向下用力掌去。左掌向上一抬。掌在額前肘與肘與掌平。左腿稍曲成朝北半弓步勢。如第三節。第二圖。(朝北)
Your left fist goes upward from your waist, becoming a palm, until at your right shoulder, your right forearm coming in tightly as your left palm draws in upward so that your palms are crossed. Your right foot shifting to the rear, your right palm then forcefully strikes downward as your left palm lifts upward to be in front of your forehead, the elbow level with the palm. Your left leg slightly bends to make a half-bow stance facing north [south]. See photo 3.2 (torso facing to the north [south]):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.2

第三節 第三圖
Section Three, Posture 3

口令(三)
Command: “3!”

術名(上步架)
Name of the technique: STEP FORWARD, PROPPING UP

右脚上一步。右手由下上架。面朝西。似弓步。左手在腰間。如第三節。第三圖。(朝西)
Your right foot steps forward, your right hand propping upward from below. Your stance is almost a bow stance. Your left hand is at your waist. See photo 3.3 (torso facing to the east) [diagonal view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.3

第三節 第四圖
Section Three, Posture 4

口令(四)
Command: “4!”

術名(打脆膝)
Name of the technique: STRIKE, KNEELING DOWN

左脚上一步。上架之右手向腰間收囘。直至頭上。向面前直打下去。同時右膝脆下。離地約五寸許。左手由腰間稍向上。手與頭齊。如第三節。第四圖。(朝西)
Your left foot steps forward as your right hand withdraws to your waist, goes higher than your head, then strikes straight downward in front of your face [as a fist]. At the same time, your right knee bends downward to be about five inches from the ground, your left hand going slightly upward from your waist to be level with your head [shoulder according to the photo]. See photo 3.4 (torso facing to the east) [side view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.4

第三節 第五圖
Section Three, Posture 5

口令(五)
Command: “5!”

術名(迎面掌)
Name of the technique: PALMS STRAIGHT AHEAD

右手提起變掌。脆膝亦同時立起。變朝南坐馬勢。右掌用力平掌出。左手亦帶掌出。如第三節。第五圖(朝南)〔與第二節第六圖同〕
Your right hand lifts, changing to a palm, your kneeling knee also lifts [as your feet pivot, your right foot then stepping slightly to the west], your stance changing to a south-facing horse-riding stance, and your right palm forcefully strikes out with a level palm strike [to the south], your left hand drawn along by it also as a palm strike [also to the south]. The posture is similar to photo 2.6 [except with the hands striking out forward] (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.6

第三節 第六圖
Section Three, Posture 6

口令(六)
Command: “6!”

術名(轉脚搓臉)
Name of the technique: PIVOT THE FEET, RUBBING STRIKE TO THE FACE

右掌用力直向左推去。身亦順勢向左轉身。面由朝南轉至朝北。脚亦隨之旋轉而不動步。兩腿半交。至此時兩脚用力躍起。朝東落地。右掌向北用力平掌出。左掌在胸前。如第三節。第六圖。(朝東)
Your right hand forcefully pushes out to the left [with your left hand retracting], your body correspondingly turning to the left so that your torso goes from facing to the south to facing to the north. Your feet pivot at the same time, not leaving their location, and once your legs are halfway twisted, your feet forcefully hop up and come down pointing to the west, your right palm forcefully striking out to the north with a level palm strike, your left palm in front of your chest. See photo 3.6 (torso facing to the west) [side view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.6

第三節 第七圖
Section Three, Posture 7

口令(七)
Command: “7!”

術名(腿避𦡁)
Name of the technique: THIGH GUARDING THE CROTCH

左手掌翻。手心朝天。由胸前用力向下轉。仍轉至面前胸下。惟左掌向下轉時。手指須打到大腿。大腿被打到時。順勢放開。改為坐馬勢。同時左掌握拳挺直。用力向下橫打下去。左手卽順勢抓住右臂灣處。如第三節。第七圖。(朝東)
Your left palm turns over to be facing upward, then forcefully arcs downward from in front of your chest until below your chest [abdomen]. When your left palm arcs downward, its fingers must strike your thighs. Once your legs are being struck, they must spread apart to put you into a horse-riding stance. At the same time, your left [right] palm grasps into a vertical fist and forcefully strikes across below [i.e. swinging downward and inward, the tiger’s mouth facing to your left] your left hand grabbing your right elbow area. See photo 3.7 (torso facing to the west) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.7

第三節 第八圖
Section Three, Posture 8

口令(八)
Command: “8!”

術名(十字架)
Name of the technique: CROSS-SHAPED FRAME

右拳變掌提起。平向後縮。手指朝上。掌肩肘成平三角形。同時。左掌亦向上向前用力推出。兩腿同時變為右弓步。身面斜朝東北。形似十字。如第三節。第八圖。(朝東北)
Your right fist lifts, changing to a palm, and withdraws to the rear, fingers pointing upward. The palm, shoulder, and elbow make a level triangle. At the same time, your left palm forcefully pushes out upward and forward [to the west], your legs switching to a right bow stance. The shape of the posture looks like a cross [i.e. your feet aligned along one direction (north-south) while your hands are aligned along another (east-west)]. See photo 3.8 (torso facing diagonally to the northwest) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.8

第四節 口令數四二三四五六七八
SECTION FOUR (The commands are: “4, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.”)

第四節 第一圖
Section Four, Posture 1

口令(四)
Command: “4!”

術名(打開)
Name of the technique: SPREADING OPEN

左手不動。右掌伸至左手肘下。右脚不動。左脚提起。脚尖拘住右腿灣。再與右手用力一同放開。成朝南坐馬勢。如第四節。第一圖。(朝南)〔與第二節第一圖同〕
Your left hand staying in its position, your right palm extends under your left elbow, and with your right foot staying where it is, your left foot lifts, toes close to your right knee. Then in unison with your right hand, forcefully spread outward, make a south-facing horse-riding stance [which brings your left hand over toward the east]. The posture is the same as in photo 2.1 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.1

第四節 第二圖
Section Four, Posture 2

口令(二)
Command: “2!”

術名(斜卡肚)
Name of the technique: DIAGONALLY CROWDING THE BELLY

面向左看。右手向上後轉至右腿處。落腿卽提起。待右手轉過去後卽落地。腰部亦要順勢軟動。同時右手卽握拳收至腰間。全身坐實右腿。左脚脚尖著地。身面朝西。左手掌原式不動。掌在面前。如第四節。第二圖。(朝西)
Look to the left as your right hand, which is upward to the rear, arcs until by your right thigh, the leg lowering then lifting [the leg lifting], then coming down once your right hand has finished its arc. Your waist should correspondingly soften during this action. Your right hand grasps into a fist as it gathers in beside your waist. The weight sits onto your right leg, your left toes touching down. Your left palm has not moved from its previous position and is now in front of you. See photo 4.2 (torso facing to the east) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 4.2

第四節 第三圖
Section Four, Posture 3

口令(三)
Command: “3!”

術名(上步窩心掌)
Name of the technique: STEP FORWARD, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS

左掌收囘置腰間。同時右脚上步右拳從腰間掌出。目看如第四節第三圖(朝北)〔與第三節第一圖同〕
Your left palm withdraws to be beside your waist [grasping into a fist]. At the same time, your right foot steps forward, your right fist going out from your waist as a palm strike. Your gaze [is toward your right palm]. The posture is the same as in photo 3.1 (torso facing to the north) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.1

第四節 第四圖
Section Four, Posture 4

口令(四)
Command: “4!”

術名(右退步掌)
Name of the technique: RETREAT RIGHT LEG, PALM STRIKE

右脚退後一步。同時右手掌翻朝天。用力收囘至腰間握拳。同時左手自腰間用力掌出。目看左掌。如第四節。第四圖。(朝南)〔與第二節第八圖同〕
Your right foot retreats a step, your right palm turning over to face upward and forcefully withdrawing beside your waist, grasping into fist, your left hand at the same time forcefully going out from your waist with a palm strike. Your gaze is toward your left palm. The posture is the same as in photo 2.8 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.8

第四節 第五圖
Section Four, Posture 5

口令(五)
Command: “5!”

術名(左退步掌)
Name of the technique: RETREAT LEFT LEG, PALM STRIKE

左脚退後一步。同時左手竝翻朝天。用力收囘。至腰間握拳同時右手自腰間用力掌出。目看右掌。如第四節。第五圖。(朝北)〔與第三節第一圖同〕
Your left foot retreats a step, your left palm turning over to face upward and forcefully withdrawing beside your waist, grasping into a fist, your right hand at the same time forcefully going out from your waist with a palm strike. Your gaze is toward your right palm. The posture is the same as in photo 3.1 (torso facing to the north) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.1

第四節 第六圖
Section Four, Posture 6

口令(六)
Command: “6!”

術名(掛搭)
Name of the technique: HANGING & CROSSING

左拳自腰間變掌。伸至右肩處停。右臂貼緊。左掌向上抽囘。至兩掌相交叉。右脚亦同時移向後。右掌卽向下用力掌去。左掌向上一抬在額前。肘與掌平。左腿稍曲。成朝北半弓步勢。如第四節。第六圖。(朝北)〔與第三節第二圖同〕
Your left fist goes [upward] from your waist, becoming a palm, until at your right shoulder, your right forearm coming in tightly as your left palm draws in upward so that your palms are crossed. Your right foot shifting to the rear, your right palm then forcefully strikes downward as your left palm lifts upward to be in front of your forehead, the elbow level with the palm. Your left leg slightly bends to make a half-bow stance facing north [south]. The posture is the same as in photo 3.2 (torso facing to the north [south]):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 3.2

第四節 第七圖
Section Four, Posture 7

口令(七)
Command: “7!”

術名(小纏窩心掌)
Name of the technique: SMALL TWINING, PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS

左手向下,右手向上,兩手相接。左手卽抓住右手脈息處。右脚卽提起收囘。右手握拳用力向下冲打。同時右脚朝東落地。左脚稍提起。脚尖著地移朝東。同時左掌用力掌出。右手收至腰間。如第四節。第七圖。(朝南)〔與第四節第二圖同〕
Your left hand lowers and your right hand goes upward, your hands coming together with your left hand grasping your right pulse area, your right foot lifting and gathering in. Your right hand grasps into a fist and forcefully strikes downward, your right foot at the same time coming down pointing to the west [south]. Your left foot slightly lifts [and steps out to the east], toes touching down slightly shifted to point to the west [south], your left palm at the same time forcefully striking out, your right hand withdrawing until beside your waist. The posture is the same as in photo 4.2 [2.8] (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.8

第四節 第八圖
Section Four, Posture 8

口令(八)
Command: “8!”

術名(退步換拳扎)
Name of the technique: RETREAT, FIST-SWITCHING SMASH

將在前之左脚。退至後變右脚在前。同時左掌收囘變拳至左腰間。換右腰間之右拳。向上向下打。如第四節。第八圖(朝西)
Your left foot retreats to make your right foot the forward foot, your left palm at the same time withdrawing as a fist to the left side of your waist, alternating with your right fist going upward from the right side of your waist to strike downward [as a backfist]. See photo 4.8 (torso facing to the east [north]) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 4.8

第五節 口令數五二三四五六七八
SECTION FIVE (The commands are: “5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.”)

第五節 第一圖
Section Five, Posture 1

口令(五)
Command: “5!”

術名(轉脚踢)
Name of the technique: SWITCHING-FEET KICK

右脚提起卽落地。在未落地之時。在後之右脚用力向前踢出。右脚先落地。左脚亦隨之落地。如第五節。第一圖。(朝西)
Your right foot lifts and comes down [as your right fist withdraws to your waist], but right before it comes down, your right [left] foot forcefully kicks forward. Your right foot will come down first, then your left foot. See photo 5.1 (torso facing to the east) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 5.1

第五節 第二圖
Section Five, Posture 2

口令(二)
Command: “2!”

術名(翻扎)
Name of the technique: TURN OVER & SMASH

此式與第五節第一圖。連左脚踢出後落地。同時左拳卽自腰間向上向下。用力翻扎出去。目看左拳。拳背向地。如第五節。第二圖。(朝南)〔與第四節第八圖同〕
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down after it kicks, your left fist at the same time going upward from your waist and then forcefully smashing downward [as a backfist strike]. Your gaze is toward your left fist. The back of the fist is facing downward. The posture is similar to photo 4.8 [except with left and right reversed, and so we can simply flip the image] (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 4.8

第五節 第三圖
Section Five, Posture 3

口令(三)
Command: “3!”

術名(擠𦡁)
Name of the technique: PRESSING TO THE CROTCH

左拳向後轉身。與面亦隨之而向後轉。由朝南轉向朝東。臂直拳向下。兩脚稍交卽躍起變並脚。脚尖朝東落地。同時右拳自腰間向上伸與頭齊。再用力向下打。左拳趁勢稍向上抬。至胸前。如第五節。第三圖。(朝東)
Your left fist goes to the rear as your body turns around [leftward] so you are facing to the rear, your torso going from facing to the south to facing to the west, your arm straightening as the fist goes downward. Your legs slightly twist, then with a hop you switch to your feet being together, coming down pointing to the west. At the same time, your right fist extends upward from your waist until at head level, then forcefully strikes downward, your left fist correspondingly lifting up until in front of your chest. See photo 5.3 (torso facing to the west) [side view] [This tragically faded and consequently entirely useless photo makes us wish the book had drawings instead.]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 5.3

[Fortunately the posture described is the same as in photo 1.6 (The photo used above is a damaged reuse of photo 1.7, which is the incorrect image anyway.):]

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.6

第五節 第四圖
Section Five, Posture 4

口令(四)
Command: “4!”

術名(擄踢)
Name of the technique: CAPTURE & KICK

左拳由面前擄過去至𦡁前。右脚向前踢出。落地時。右拳卽提起反打出去。拳背朝下。如第五節。第四圖。(朝東)
Your left fist goes from in front of your face with a capturing action to be in front of your crotch [with the back of the fist facing downward] as your right foot kicks out forward. [The photo below represents the movement at this point.] As the foot comes down, your right fist lifts, turns over, and strikes out with the back of the fist facing downward. See photo 5.4 (torso facing to the west) [side view] [Instead of simply reusing photo 1.7 here, a different photo was taken of the same posture, perhaps because the left hand appears to be somewhat different in this case.]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 5.4

[As before, see photo 4.8, which shows the second half of the movement:]

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 4.8

第五節 第五圖
Section Five, Posture 5

口令(五)
Command: “5!”

術名(斜打)
Name of the technique: DIAGONAL STRIKE

左拳自𦡁前提起。拳背翻向上。用力打出。右拳同時亦將拳翻朝下曲回。拳肘與肩成三角形。右腿弓步。如第五節。第五圖。(朝東)
Your left fist lifts from in front of your crotch, the back of the fist turning over to face upward, and forcefully strikes out, your right fist at the same time withdraws so the fist, elbow, and shoulder are making a triangle. Your right leg is making a bow stance. See photo 5.5 (torso facing to the west) [Here again is a photo too ruined to be of any use.]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 5.5

[Fortunately the posture is a repeat of what is in photo 1.5 and is evidently a damaged reuse of that very photo:]

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.5

第五節 第六圖
Section Five, Posture 6

口令(六)
Command: “6!”

術名(打開)
Name of the technique: SPREADING OPEN

左右拳均變掌。左掌移至右臂肘下。左脚提起脚尖。拘住在右腿灣處。用力打開;變朝南坐馬勢。如第五節。第六圖。(朝南)〔與第二節第一圖同〕
Both fists become palms. Your left palm shifts to be below your right elbow, your left [right] foot lifting and hooking the toes in toward your right [left] knee. Then forcefully spread apart, changing your stance to a south-facing horse-riding stance. The posture is the same as in photo 2.1 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.1

第五節 第七圖
Section Five, Posture 7

口令(七)
Command: “7!”

術名(右臂小纏冲捶)
Name of the technique: RIGHT ARM SMALL TWINING, THRUST PUNCH

右掌變拳向下向左左掌向下向右。拳掌相接左掌。卽抓住右拳之腕。順勢稍向右推。卽用力向下向左上冲出。同時右腿提起向左進一步。與左脚竝落地。左脚卽提起前進一步。惟拳向左上冲與右脚落地左脚進步是同一動作。不分先後。學習者須注意之。如案五節。第七圖。(朝西)
Your right palm changes to a fist and goes downward to the left as your left palm goes downward to the right. Fist and palm cross, your left palm grabbing your right wrist and pushing slightly to the right, then forcefully go downward and thrust out upward to the left, your right leg lifting and advancing to the left, coming down next to your left foot, then your left foot lifting and advancing a step. Your [right] fist thrusts upward to the left [with your left hand still holding the wrist] as your right foot comes down and your left foot advances, occurring as a single movement, neither preceding nor following [the left step]. You must pay attention to this. See photo 5.7 (torso facing to the east) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 5.7

第五節 第八圖
Section Five, Posture 8

口令(八)
Command: “8!”

術名(亮開)
Name of the technique: OPENING UP

左手放掌右拳亦變掌向下。經腰間向右上至臂直掌心。朝東身亦轉向朝東坐寔。左腿右腿脚尖只轉朝東變點步。如第五節。第八圖。(朝東)〔與第二節第二圖同〕
With your left hand letting go to become a palm, your right fist also changes into a palm and goes downward along your waist, then upward to the right until the arm is straight, the palm facing to the west. Your torso also turns to be facing to the west [south], sitting fully on your left leg, as your right toes turn to point to the west, making a pointing stance [same as an empty stance]. The posture is similar to photo 2.2 [except with the arms spread apart to the front and rear] (torso facing to the west [south]):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.2

第六節 口令數六二三四五六七八
SECTION SIX (The commands are: “6, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.”)

第六節 第一圖
Section Six, Posture 1

口令(六)
Command: “6!”

術名(左臂小纏冲捶)
Name of the technique: LEFT ARM SMALL TWINING, THRUST PUNCH

左掌變拳向下向右。左掌向下向左。掌拳相接右掌卽抓住左拳之腕。順勢稍向左拉卽用力向下向右上冲出。同時左脚提起向右進一步。與右脚竝落地。右脚卽提起前進一步。掌冲出與左脚落地右脚進步同一動作。不分先後。與第五節第七圖同。僅左右相換耳。如第六節。第一圖。(朝東)
Your left palm changes to a fist and goes downward to the right as your left [right] palm goes downward to the left. Fist and palm cross, your right palm grabbing your left wrist and pulling [pushing] slightly to the left, then forcefully go downward and thrust out upward to the right, your left leg lifting and advancing to the right, coming down next to your right foot, then your right foot lifting and advancing a step. Your palm [left fist] thrusts upward [to the right] [with your left hand still holding the wrist] as your left foot comes down and your right foot advances, occurring as a single movement, neither preceding nor following [the right step]. It is the same as in Posture 5.7, except left and right are reversed. See photo 6.1 (torso facing to the west) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 6.1

第六節 第二圖
Section Six, Posture 2

口令(二)
Command: “2!”

術名(變鉤)
Name of the technique: CHANGING TO A HOOK

左拳放開變鉤手。手指向裏搭在右腕下臂上。用力向外一翻。右手鬆開變掌手指朝上。左手指朝下。如第六節。第二圖。(朝東)
Your left fist opens and changes to a hooking hand, the fingers pointing inward and touching on top of your right forearm behind the wrist, then forcefully turning over outward [i.e. coiling around your right wrist], your right hand letting go and expressing as a palm, fingers pointing upward. The fingers of your left hand are pointing downward. See photo 6.2 (torso facing to the west) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 6.2

第六節 第三圖
Section Six, Posture 3

口令(三)
Command: “3!”

術名(拗步亮掌)
Name of the technique: CROSSED STANCE, SHOW A PALM

右掌向後下至大左大腿處。左脚卽提起與右掌同向前進步。右掌挑出臂直虎口對面。左手同時向上下變後吊手。如第六節。第三圖。(朝東)
Your right palm goes downward to the rear until by your left [right] thigh, then goes forward as your left foot lifts and advances, the palm carrying outward until the arm is straight, tiger’s mouth toward your face. Your left hand at the same time goes upward and downward [downward and upward] to become a hanging hand to the rear. See photo 6.3 (torso facing to the west) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 6.3

第六節 第四圖
Section Six, Posture 4

口令(四)
Command: “4!”

術名(轉身換鈎)
Name of the technique: TURN AROUND, CHANGE TO A HOOK

右掌變鈎手直向後轉。同時雙脚竝起。一躍轉變朝北。雙脚落地要有力有聲。左掌順勢改在胸前。右肩處。如第六節。第四圖。(朝北)
Your right palm changes to a hook hand and arcs straight to the rear. At the same time, your feet lift, coming together, and do a hop which turns them to be pointing to the north. Your feet should come down with a powerful sound. Your left palm goes along with the movement to shift in front of your chest until by your right shoulder. See photo 6.4 (torso facing to the north) [diagonal rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 6.4

第六節 第五圖
Section Six, Posture 5

口令(五)
Command: “5!”

術名(劈心掌)
Name of the technique: CHOPPING PALM STRIKE TO THE SOLAR PLEXUS

右手變拳收至腰間。左掌向西用力掌出。身亦順勢轉朝西脚不動。如第六節。第五圖。(朝西)〔與第二節第八圖同〕
Your right hand changes to a fist and withdraws to be beside your waist as your left palm forcefully strikes out to the east. Your torso goes along with the movement by turning to be facing to the east, your [right] foot not leaving its location [while your left foot retreats]. The posture is similar to photo 2.8 [except with the feet reversed left and right] (torso facing to the east):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 2.8

第六節 第六圖
Section Six, Posture 6

口令(六)
Command: “6!”

術名(退步掌)
Name of the technique: RETREAT, PALM STRIKE

左掌變拳收囘至腰間。右脚退後一步。同時右拳變掌自腰間掌出。如第六節。第六圖。(朝西)〔與第四節第二圖同〕
Your left hand changes to a fist and withdraws to be beside your waist as your right foot retreats a step. At the same time, your right fist changes to a palm and strikes out from beside your waist. The posture is similar to photo 4.2 [except with the hands reversed left and right] (torso facing to the east) [rear view]:

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 4.2

第六節 第七圖
Section Six, Posture 7

口令(七)
Command: “7!”

術名(竝步挑肘)
Name of the technique: FEET TOGETHER, CARRYING ELBOW

右掌變拳向下向後轉。挑出虎口向下。身亦隨之轉向朝南。左脚退下與右脚竝。兩腿皆曲左拳之肘。同時用力向上挑拳在肩上。虎口朝下。如第六節。第七圖。(朝南)
Your right palm changes to a fist and arcs downward to the rear, then carries outward with the tiger’s mouth facing downward. Your torso at the same time turns to be facing to the south, your left leg retreating and coming down next to your right foot, both legs bent. Your left elbow at the same time forcefully carries upward, the fist over the shoulder, the tiger’s mouth facing downward. See photo 6.7 (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 6.7

第六節 第八圖
Section Six, Posture 8

口令(八)
Command: “8!”

術名(還原)
Name of the technique: RETURN TO YOUR ORIGINAL POSITION

兩腿變立直兩拳同時垂下至腰間如第六節。第八圖。(朝南)〔與預備式同(完)〕
Both legs straighten so you are standing, your fists at the same time lowering until beside your waist. It is the same as the Preparation Posture, and this completes the set (torso facing to the south):

《八極拳》 繆淦傑 (1936) - photo 1.0

[This book lacks any explanation for the term “Baji” itself, and so the article below, which was written not long before the book was produced, is included here to fill that gap:]

八極拳攷證
EXAMINING BAJI BOXING
姜容樵
by Jiang Rongqiao
[published in the 中央國術館 Central Martial Arts Institute’s
國術週刋 Martial Arts Weekly, issue #91, Feb 11, 1933]

八極拳。盛行於河北山東一帶。創自何人。係何朝代。詢之傳授斯技者。則言人人殊。標榜各異。有謂係採取八卦八門之意。換言之卽拳法遍走八方。所謂八方者。四方四淮。謂之八方,又史記。六合之內。八方之外。亦與斯術吻合。八卦係指乾,坎,艮,震,巽離,坤,兌,而言。八門係指休,生,傷,杜,死,景,驚,開,所說。此二說。一則河圖洛書。取之易理。似頗可用。一則遁甲奇術。跡近怪誕似不可取。有謂八極者。係指拳法。採取八方極遠之地。攷斯說有淮南子之八紘之外。仍為八極。後漢書。恢弘八寅。八寅之外。有八紘。八紘之外。有八極。此外又有謂係八際者。乃為取八方極遠之意。晉書,鼓洪流於八際。卽洪流無邊也。綜以上三說,以八極為最適宜。其源流旣無從稽攷。姑以八極為定名。深望海內國術同志。如有悉其源流。創自何人者。隨時示知。以便補正幸甚。
Baji Boxing is very popular in the regions of Hebei and Shandong. As to who created it and in which era, when we ask those who are teaching this art, everyone gives a different version. They also each give a different meaning:
     Some say the idea of “ba ji” [meaning “eight poles” or “eight extremities”] has to do with the “eight gates” of the eight trigrams symbol. In other words, the boxing techniques express toward all eight directions. The “eight directions” are the four main compass points plus the four corners. It says in the Historical Records [book 117 – Bio of Sima Xiangru]: “Within the six unions [the three dimensions of forward-back, left-right, up-down – i.e. the whole world] and beyond the eight directions [i.e. even beyond the horizon – referring to the far-reaching influence of rulers]…”
     To coordinate them with this art, the eight trigrams are [rotating clockwise through the post-nature version of the trigrams]: Qian [northwest (lower right)], Kan [north], Gen [northeast], Zhen [east], Xun [southeast], Li [south], Kun [southwest], Dui [west].

☴☲☷
☳    ☱
☶☵☰

The corresponding eight gates are: the beginning gate, the restful gate, the birth gate, the wounding gate, the finishing gate, the scenic gate, the death gate, the startling gate. Of these two things [the trigrams and gates], one [trigrams] is based on the He River Diagram and the Luo River Document, from which were devised the principles in the Book of Changes, and thus seems to be of some use, whereas the other [the gates] is rooted in ancient sorcery arts, on a course for the bizarre, and thus is effectively meaningless.
     Then there are those who say that “eight poles” means that the boxing techniques reach far out to the eight directions. Regarding this explanation, there is this remark from Huainanzi [chapter 4 – “Topography”]: “Going beyond the eight alignments, there are the eight connections… and beyond them are the eight poles.” And from the Books of Later Han [book 2 – Annals of Emperor Xianzong Xiaoming]: “The extensiveness of the Great Way reaches as far as the eight poles.”
     There are also those who say it has to do with the “eight boundaries”, which has the sense of reaching far out to the eight directions. From the Books of Jin [book 119 – Chronicles of Yao Hong]: “Their drums thunder to the eight boundaries.” This means the sound carries boundlessly.
     Of these three explanations [eight poles, eight directions, eight boundaries (which all amount to the same idea)], the “eight poles” term seems the most appropriate. As the art’s origin and development cannot be verified, “eight poles” will suffice as a name for the time being. I sincerely hope that my martial arts colleagues throughout the nation, if you have knowledge of its origins, such as who created it, will notify me at any time in order that I may make corrections, for which I would feel fortunate indeed.

[Xu’s preface supplies us with a who and a when, but this article remains valuable for giving us a sense of what it is we mean when we talk of Baji. Connotatively, the notion of the “eight poles” could perhaps be rendered as “Everywhere Boxing”, bracing in all directions in terms of structure, filling our surroundings in terms of power.]

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