JIN ENZHONG’S SABER MANUAL

實用大刀術
PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE LARGE SABER
金恩忠
by Jin Enzhong
[published June, 1933]

[translation by Paul Brennan, June, 2016]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - portrait

著者金恩忠小影
Portrait of the author, Jin Enzhong

實用大刀術目錄
CONTENTS

著者小影
Portrait of the author
序言
Preface
握刀式
HOLDING THE SABER
預備式
READINESS POSTURE
第一式…劈刀
Posture 1: CHOPPING
第二式…掛刀
Posture 2: HANGING
第三式…斬刀
Posture 3: SLASHING
第四式…掃刀
Posture 4: SWEEPING
第五式…撩刀
Posture 5: RAISING
第六式…掄刀
Posture 6: ROLLING
第七式…繳刀
Posture 7: TWINING
第八式…挅刀
Posture 8: HACKING
第九式…撥刀
Posture 9: DEFLECTING
第十式…拉刀
Posture 10: PULLING
第十一式…纒刀
Posture 11: COILING
第十二式…刺刀
Posture 12: STABBING
收勢
FINISHING

實用大刀術
PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE LARGE SABER

序言
PREFACE

最近我軍大刀隊迭獲勝利。知肉彈之堅。强於砲彈。我中華地大物博。以四萬萬七千萬同胞之血肉。與區區三島之小鬼相週旋。倘人人抱必死之觀念。各個有犧牲之决心。致勝非難也。兹參照國技扑刀。削刀。雙手帶。等術。研究實用大刀術十二式。其中無門路。無秘訣。無派別。無家法。簡稱之為大刀術。粉飾美觀之花法。忽進忽退之套路。一切配合而成之假打式。均不採用。取其直進殺敵之意。以東瀛刺槍術。直刺。滑刺。下刺。為假設敵。習是者。可以强壯其身體。增進其胆力。蓋胆力者。由自信力而發生。習技術者。有殺敵致勝之手段可恃。有恃無恐。於是自信力堅。自信力旣堅。胆力油然而生矣。簡而言之。養成今日之鐵漢。預備異日之肉彈。庶幾殺敵致勝雪恥。振威權。近今軍隊。雖相兼練習大刀術。然非春秋刀之變像。即雙手帶之套數。粉飾外觀。其式忽進忽退。或三䠀五路。學者感記憶之非易。亦乏實用之手法。雖稱靈活於平日。而不能適用於臨陣者居多。况無圖書可証。輾轉相傳。炫奇示異。未免失眞。誠其不能為用也。近以楡關之失。熱河之陷。凡我國民。無不氣奮塡胸。且知我國不與日本宣戰則已。如其宣戰。設非精熟拚命殺敵之劈刺術者。决難抵敵武士道大和魂肉彈主義之暴日。今研究實用大刀術十二式。旣不繁長。復合實用。苟操之以恒。持之以時。練習於平日備用於臨時。一旦遇事。奮其技能。振其精神。可以殺敵。可以防身。無論平時戰時。皆有利者也。
Recently, the large saber units of our armies have repeatedly been triumphant, letting us know that the strength of “human bullets” surpasses that of artillery shells. Our Chinese nation is a vast territory with abundant resources. We have four hundred seventy million bodies of compatriots to mingle amongst the trifling number of those Japanese goblins. If everyone were to embrace the notion that death is inevitable and be resolved to die like a martyr, victory will not be difficult.
     Examining our nation’s arts of pouncing saber, shaving saber, and dragging saber, I have now made a study of a dozen postures of practical large saber techniques. Within them there is no solo set, no secrets, no branches, no styles, just “large saber techniques”. I have used none of decorative prettiness of flowery postures, the sudden back and forth of solo sets, or any of the elegant structure of a series of phony poses. Selecting the intention of advancing directly to kill the enemy, I have made use of Japanese bayonet techniques – straight stab, sliding stab, downward stab – for the role of the imaginary opponents.
     Practicing this can strengthen one’s body and increase one’s bravery. Bravery is generated from the strength of one’s self-confidence. Practitioners of martial arts have such reliable methods of fighting opponents and obtaining victory that they do not fear failure. They thereby have a solid self-confidence. With a solid self-confidence, bravery arises automatically. Simply put, by cultivating “iron Chinamen” today, we prepare “human bullets” for tomorrow, with the hopes that they will fight the enemy, achieve victory, avenge humiliation, and engender awe.
     Even though our modern army trains in large saber techniques, they do not resemble the whirling of the spring & autumn halberd, or the numerous routines of the dragging saber, decorative displays of rushing back and forth in set after set that students find difficult to remember, with techniques so lacking in practicality that, despite being deemed unusually agile, they are hardly ever suitable to the critical moments in which they would actually be needed. Furthermore, without books to verify the material, the teachings have been passed down through the generations under the influence of the need to show off, and so it has inevitably lost touch with its original version and become truly useless.
     Due to our recent defeats [during the Defense of the Great Wall (Jan 1–May 31, 1933)] at Shanhai Pass [Jan 1—3, 1933] and Rehe [Feb 21—March 1, 1933], our people are all roused in anger and sticking out their chests in defiance, knowing there has not yet been a declaration of war between us and Japan. But if war is declared and we are not skillful at matching his bayonet techniques, it will be very difficult to resist cruel Japan’s bushido, national spirit [Yamato-damashii], and human-bullet mentality.
     Now study these dozen postures of practical large saber techniques. They are not complicated or elaborate, only practical. If you practice with perseverance and maintain constancy, regular training will prepare you for whatever may come. When you someday encounter peril, activate your skill and rouse your spirit. This art can be used for destroying the enemy and for protecting the self. Whether during peacetime or wartime, it is always has benefit.

[Included below is an additional preface, which accompanied the material in Jin’s manual when it was reprinted in serialized form in 國術週刋 Martial Arts Weekly over the course of 1935.]

大刀術序
PREFACE TO LARGE SABER TECHNIQUES

風雲變態,醜寇日急,在我火器落伍,械彈不裕,工業不發達,科學返退步之軍備狀况下,健兒禦侮,精神與方法,究應如何,乃為重要問題,興念及此,五內如焚,不禁絕然若喪,竊以我軍自衛隊旅第十九師第一旅第七旅第百零七師以來,即有技術隊之組織,蓋為傳統之經營,九一八奉垣事變,我軍首當其衝,馳聘東邊,轉覆幽燕,近且駐軍湘鄂,孰無胸心,飽嘗激刺,適我蔣委員長有提倡體育,發揚國術之先聲,我軍因有技術之普及計劃,所授應用體操,中華刺槍術,國術等課,均有專嘗,惟大刀一術,為歷來各軍隊有敎習之者,但尚乏專本,深為遺憾焉,前者本軍中華刺鎗術敎練班主任金君警鐘,曾有大刀術敎範一稿,已經該班學生付印,近者金君復出其經驗,輯實用大刃術一書,本軍己多採用,聊書數言,籍供同道之研習,應付科學化軍備强敵,惟恃無畏精神與內彈主義,大刀術應運而生,應敵新法,問題如是解决,故吾謂大刀術為無畏精神也,尤望吾儕靑年軍人,在自覺中,努力也可,願共勉之是為序,
中華民國二十四年一月 王以哲識
The situation has worsened and now those shameful invading Japanese are an urgent issue. This is because our firearms are outdated, our weaponry is not abundant, our industry is not flourishing, and our military is in a state of scientific regression. For our strong sons to fend off Japanese aggression, the right training for mind and method is the important question. When I think about this, I become so anxious [“my organs seem to be burning”] that I cannot help but appear to be in mourning.
     The 19th Division of our militias, its 1st Brigade and 7th Brigade, and the 107th Division, have been organizing skilled units, incorporating traditional methods. Because of the Mukden Incident [Sep 18, 1931], our troops dashed headlong, racing to the east to fortify northern Hebei, and have now garrisoned all the way through Hunan and Hubei as well. Everyone has a heart that has experienced the pricking of provocation, and so our committee head Chiang Kai-shek has been encouraging physical education, calling out for the promotion of Chinese martial arts. Our army has accordingly adopted a strategy of popularizing its techniques and has been giving instruction in the practical drilling of Chinese bayonet techniques and other martial arts, all conducted by experts.
     The large saber art is something every army throughout the ages has had instruction in, but it still lacked a specialized book, which was a great pity, until our army’s Chinese bayonet instructor Jin Jingzhong [Enzhong] produced a manual of large saber techniques. Having already been printed for the students in the course, he has recently put forth his experience again and compiled it into a proper book – Practical Techniques for the Large Saber. These techniques are already commonly drilled by the army, so his brief book is meant to share the training with like-minded people [i.e. extending this part of the military’s training to the civilian militias].
     To deal with the scientific military of our powerful enemy, we have to rely on a fearless spirit and a “human bullet” mentality. The large saber techniques have emerged as a response to the situation, to deal with the enemy’s new methods, and the problem in this way will be solved. Therefore I say the large saber techniques are a matter of fearless spirit. I especially hope our young soldiers will keep them in mind and work hard at them, and I hope we will all give them encouragement. Thus I write this preface.
     – written by Wang Yizhe, Jan, 1935

實用大刀術十二式
PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE LARGE SABER – TWELVE POSTURES

握刀式
HOLDING THE SABER

口令『立正』
Command: “Stand at attention!”

<動作>
Movement:
本操典中立正姿勢之動作。惟右手握刀。
Within this manual, the “movement” of the attention posture is simply the action of the right hand holding the saber. [See drawing 1:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 1

<姿勢>
Posture:
右手握刀柄上部。虎口向下扣勁。刀刃向下。刀頭向前。刀柄向後。刀身前後傾斜四十五度。右手脈窩附於右股。目視前方。餘與立正姿勢同。
Your right hand holds the upper part of the saber handle, the tiger’s mouth covering downward. The saber edge is facing downward, the saber tip pointing forward, the saber handle pointing to the rear, the saber body inclined at a forty-five degree angle forward and back, your right hand’s pulse area near your right thigh. Your gaze is forward. The rest is the same as the usual attention posture.

<功用>
Function:
為大刀術之基本柄向姿勢。(圖一)
This is the beginning posture for the large saber techniques.

預備式
READINESS POSTURE

口令『向右——轉』
Command: “To the right, turn!”

<動作>
Movement:
由握刀式。向右轉。同時右臂從胸前上屈。右手持刀。由胸前將刀頭轉向上方。刀刃向前。左手取捷路接握刀柄下部頭隨左轉。目視前方。
Continuing from the previous posture, turn to the right. At the same time, your right arm bends and goes upward in front of your chest, your right hand sending the saber tip arcing upward from in front of your chest, the saber edge facing forward, your left hand seeking the quickest route to catch the lower part of the saber handle. Your head correspondingly turned to the left, your gaze is forward. [See drawing 2:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 2

<姿勢>
Posture:
身體正面向右。左肩向前。右肩向後。右手握刀柄與刀盤密接。右手與右肩同高。左手握刀柄下部。隨刀身方向。刀身垂直。刀刃向前。形如托槍之第一動。右手虎口向前。左手虎口向後。刀身距胸約二十生的。目視前方。
Your body is facing to the right, your left shoulder aligned to the front, your right shoulder aligned to the rear. Your right hand is holding the saber handle close to the hilt, the hand at shoulder level, your left hand holding the lower part of the saber handle, aligned with the vertical position of the saber body. The saber edge is facing forward, like the first movement of holding up a rifle [similar to “Present arms!”], your right hand’s tiger’s mouth facing forward, your left hand’s tiger’s mouth facing to the rear, the saber body about twenty centimeters from your chest. Your gaze is forward.

<功用>
Function:
預備式。形如操法中之立正姿勢。亦行術殺敵之基本姿勢。姿勢雖簡。功用至大。其惟一之要項。即尚武精神之流露。攻擊精神之表現。宜閉口藏舌。靜心息氣。抱拚命之决心。必死之觀念。(圖二)
The readiness posture is like an attention posture when drilling and the basis of killing the enemy when fighting. Although the posture is simple, its functionality is vast. Its only requirement is that you show martial spirit, expressing attack. You should close your mouth, keep your tongue in, calm your mind, hold your breath, and be resolved to risk your life in the face of certain death.

第一式
POSTURE 1

口令『劈刀——一』
Command: “One – chopping!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。右震足地。左足向前進半步。足跟提起。同時右手向右扳刀。左手隨之向上移動。刀背抵肩窩。(圖三)
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot stomps the ground and your left foot advances a half step, heel lifted. At the same time, your right hand pulls back the saber, your left hand correspondingly shifting upward, the back of the saber propping against the hollow of your [right] shoulder. See drawing 3:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 3

隨即左足向左前進一步。右足不動。右手用力向左前推刀頭。左手合力向回收刀柄。猛力向左前斜劈一刀。右手虎口極力向左前扣勁。目隨刀頭行止。
Then your left foot advances a step to the forward left, your right foot staying where it is, as your right hand forcefully pushes out the saber tip to the forward left, your left hand correspondingly drawing back the saber handle, fiercely doing a diagonal chop to the forward left, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth having a strong energy of closing toward the forward left. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 4:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 4

<姿勢>
Posture:
左腿在左前躬起。右腿在後伸直。足跟登地。兩足尖向內扣勁。刀頭高。刀柄低。右手虎口向左前。左手虎口向右前。刀刃向左。刀身與左腿成直線。刀頭與眼同高。目視刀頭。
Your left leg is bent toward the forward left, your right leg straightening behind, the heel pressing the ground, the toes of both feet having an energy of closing inward. The saber tip is higher than the saber handle, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth facing to the forward left, your left hand’s tiger’s mouth facing to the forward right, the saber edge facing to the left, the saber body aligned with your left leg, the saber tip at eye level. Your gaze is to the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從正面順我刀之左側。刺我上部時。我震步作勢。以亂敵神。隨用刀刃中部。猛力劈敵持槍前手。順勢從敵槍左面。推敵槍於我之左前。敵槍直力較猛。我刀橫力較微。須右手推左手收。合力行之。右手須用虎口扣勁。(圖四)
When an opponent in front of me, to the left side of my saber, stabs to my upper body, I stomp my foot to rattle his spirit, then I use the middle section of my saber edge to fiercely chop to his front hand holding his bayonet, sending his bayonet away by pushing it to my forward left. The straight force of his bayonet is more aggressive, and the sideways force of my saber is more subtle. I have to push with my right hand and draw back with my left hand, the two actions working together. My right hand’s tiger’s mouth has to have a covering energy.

第二式
POSTURE 2

口令『掛刀——二』
Command: “Two – hanging!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。右足不動。左足收回半步。足跟提起。右手將刀頭向下沉。刀背向後。再掛向後方。轉向頭之右上。刀刃已向前。隨即收於右肩前。左手合力隨之。目隨刀頭行止。身稍下蹲。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot staying where it is, your left foot withdraws a half step, heel lifted, as your right hand sends the saber tip sinking down, the back of the saber facing to the rear, then hanging to the rear, arcing to the upper right of your head, the saber edge facing forward, then drawing in to be in front of your right shoulder, your left hand moving correspondingly. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip, your body slightly squatting down. [See drawing 5:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 5

<姿勢>
Posture:
身體正面向右。左肩向前。右肩向後。兩腿微屈。左足在前。足跟提起。右足在後。足尖向右。刀刃向前。右手與下額同高。虎口向前。左手虎口向後。刀身垂直。距胸約二十生的。目視前方。
Your body is squared to the right, your left shoulder aligned to the front, your right shoulder aligned to the rear. Your legs are slightly bent, your left foot forward, heel lifted, your right foot in the rear, toes pointing to the right. The saber edge is facing forward, your right hand at chin level, the tiger’s mouth facing forward, your left hand’s tiger’s mouth facing to the rear. The saber body is vertical, about twenty centimeters away from your chest. Your gaze is forward.

<功用>
Function:
敵從正面順我刀之右側。刺我中部時。我沉刀頭下壓敵槍右上面。隨即向後掛。已掛敵左面。向後一掛。已將敵槍掛於我之右前。即乘勢劈敵胸部。或持槍前手。持刀窺敵動靜。刀壓敵槍右上面。轉掛敵槍左下面。係用刀背向後掛。即繳纒之作用。(圖五)
When an opponent in front of me, to the right side of my saber, stabs to the middle of my body, I sink my saber tip, pressing down his bayonet in the upper right, then hang to the rear, hanging away his weapon to the left. Once I have hung away his bayonet to my forward right, I could then take advantage of the opportunity to chop to his chest or his front hand holding his bayonet, or I hold my saber and watch for what he will do next. My saber presses his bayonet to the upper right, then arcs into hanging away his weapon to the lower left. I use the back of my saber to hang to the rear, an action of twining and coiling.

第三式
POSTURE 3

口令『斬刀——三』
Command: “Three – slashing!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足向右前進半步。同時刀頭從上向前下沉。用刀背順右腿。右足向前進一步。(圖六)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot advances a half step to the forward right. At the same time, the saber tip goes from above, sinking downward and forward, the back of the saber parallel to your right leg as your right foot advances a step. See drawing 6:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 6

同時刀頭從左肩旁向上掛。掛至左上方。此時。刀刃已向後。左足再由右腿後偷進一步。同時刀頭從上轉刀刃向前。猛力向前斬去。目隨刀頭行止。動作須敏捷為功。
Then the saber tip goes upward beside your left shoulder, hanging until at your upper left, the saber edge now facing to the rear. Your left foot then advances a stealth step behind your right leg as the saber tip arcs from above so the saber edge is facing forward, fiercely slashing out forward. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. For this technique to work, the movement has to be nimble. [See drawing 7:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 7

<姿勢>
Posture:
兩腿如坐盤式。左膝蓋在右膝窩後。身體正面向左。右肩向前。左肩向後。刀頭與肩同高。刀刃向下。刀頭向前。刀柄下端在右股上。目視刀頭。右手虎口向前下方。
Your legs seem to be in a sitting twisted stance, your left knee behind your right knee. Your body is squared to the left, your right shoulder aligned to the front, your left shoulder aligned to the rear. The saber tip is at shoulder level, the saber edge facing downward, the saber tip pointing forward, the lower section of the saber handle above your right thigh. Your gaze is toward the saber tip. Your right hand’s tiger’s mouth is angled forward and downward.

<功用>
Function:
敵從我左前順我刀之左側。刺我中部時。我一面進步。同時用刀背掛敵槍右上面。隨向後掛於我之左前。敵正面已失防護。我即逼近。順勢刀由頭之左上方。猛力向前斬去。斬敵之上部及持槍前手。(圖七)
When an opponent from my forward left, to the left side of my saber, stabs to the middle of my body, I advance a step while using the back of my saber to hang aside his bayonet to the upper right, then going to the rear, hanging aside to my forward left. Now that he is unprotected in front, I crowd him, seizing the opportunity by sending my saber from the upper left of my head, fiercely slashing out forward, slashing to his upper body or to his forward hand holding his bayonet.

第四式
POSTURE 4

口令『掃刀——四』
Command: “Four – sweeping!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足取捷路。繞右腿向左前進一步。右足隨之向前進一步。須用一種靈活步度。取其臨機應變之實用。同時刀刃向左橫撥一刀。隨即向前下橫掃。目隨刀頭行止。右手虎口。向左下扣勁。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps as quickly as it can around your right leg to advance a step to the forward left, and your right foot then advances a step forward. There has to be a nimbleness to the stepping, a quality of practical adaptability. At the same time, the saber edge sweeps across to the left, then sweeps across forward and downward. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. Your right hand’s tiger’s mouth is covering toward the lower left. [See drawing 8:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 8

<姿勢>
Posture:
兩腿微屈。形如騎馬式。右足在前。左足在後。身體正面向左。右肩向前。左肩向後。刀刃向右。刀頭向前。刀柄高於刀頭。成小斜波形。右臂伸直。虎口極力向左前下方扣勁。左臂屈於小腹前。虎口向前。目視刀頭。
Your legs are slightly bent, almost making a horse-riding stance, your right foot in front, left foot behind. Your body is squared to the left, your right shoulder aligned to the front, left shoulder aligned to the rear. The saber edge is facing to the right, the saber tip pointing forward, the saber handle is higher than the saber tip, making a slightly diagonal wave shape. Your right arm is extended straight, the tiger’s mouth putting its energy into covering downward to the forward left, your left arm bent in front of your lower abdomen, tiger’s mouth facing forward. Your gaze is toward the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從左前順我刀之左側。刺我中部時。我一面進步。同時用刀刃撥敵槍左面。右手虎口向左扣勁。即將敵槍撥於我之左前。乘勢轉刀刃向右前。橫掃敵下部及持槍前手。(圖八)
When an opponent to my forward left, to the left side of my saber, stabs to the middle of my body, I advance a step while using my saber edge to deflect his bayonet to the left, my right hand’s tiger’s mouth covering toward the left. Once I have deflected his bayonet to my forward left, I take advantage of the opportunity by turning my saber edge to the forward right and sweeping across to his lower body or his front hand holding his bayonet.

第五式
POSTURE 5

口令『撩刀——五』
Command: “Five – raising!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足震步。身向後傾。同時刀背向上掛。掛至頭之右上方。右足向後退半步。(圖九)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot stomps, then your torso inclines to the rear as the back of the saber hangs upward until to the upper right of your head, your right foot retreating a half step. See drawing 9:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 9

同時刀刃從後轉。轉至右腿右方。猛力向前撩出。刀刃向上。(圖十)
Then the saber edge arcs from the rear until to the right of your right leg and fiercely raises out forward, the saber edge facing upward. See drawing 10:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 10

不停。左足由右足後向前偷進一步。同時刀頭從前向左轉。轉至左肩傍。刀背向前。猛力從下向前撩出。兩手虎口向前。目隨刀頭行止。
Without pausing, your left foot makes a stealth step behind your right foot, advancing forward, as the saber tip arcs to the left from in front, until beside your left shoulder, the back of the saber facing forward, and fiercely raises out forward from below, the tiger’s mouths of both hands facing forward. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 11:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 11

<姿勢>
Posture:
兩腿微屈。形如坐盤式。左膝蓋在右膝窩後。右肩向前。左肩向後。身體正面向左。刀刃向下。刀頭向前。與肩同高。兩手虎口向前上方。目視刀頭。
Your legs are slightly bent, almost making a sitting twisted posture, your left knee behind your right knee. Your right shoulder is aligned to the front, your left shoulder aligned to the rear, your body squared to the left. The saber edge is facing downward, the saber tip pointing forward at shoulder level. The tiger’s mouths of both hands are facing forward and upward. Your gaze is to the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從正面順我刀之右側。刺我上部中部時。我震步向上掛刀。即掛敵槍右面。向後扳右手。已將敵槍掛於我之右前。隨即進步用刀刃撩敵下部及持槍前手。敵復刺我上部。我向上轉刀時。即帶敵槍左面。向後一轉。已將敵槍帶於我之左前。偷步乘勢用刀背猛力撩敵持槍前手。惟須敏捷連貫為用。(圖十一)
When an opponent in front of me, to the right side of my saber, stabs to my upper body, I stomp, hanging my saber upward to hang aside his bayonet to the right, my right hand pulling to the rear. Once his bayonet has been hung aside to the forward right, I then advance and use the saber edge to raise to his lower body or front hand holding his bayonet. If he again stabs to my upper body as I arc my saber upward, I lead his bayonet across to the left side, arcing to the rear, and once his bayonet has been led across to my forward left, I make a stealth step and take advantage of the opportunity by using the back of my saber to fiercely raise to his front hand holding his bayonet, but I have to be nimble and flowing for this to work.

第六式
POSTURE 6

口令『掄刀——六』
Command: “Six – rolling!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。右足向前。急進一步。身體隨之向前傾。同時刀頭從前向下沉。沉至小腹前。取捷路從左肩向前轉刀刃。猛力向前掄去。右手虎口向前扣。目隨刀頭行止。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot urgently advances a step, your body correspondingly inclining forward. At the same time, the saber tip sinks down from in front until in front of your lower abdomen, then takes the quickest route forward from your left shoulder, the saber edge turning over and fiercely rolling out forward, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth covering forward. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 12:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 12

<姿勢>
Posture:
右腿在前躬起。左腿在後伸直。右肩在前。左肩在後。上身極力向前傾。身體正面向左。刀刃向前下方。刀頭與眼同高。刀頭向前順右肩之方向。右手虎口極力向前下方。目視刀頭。
Your right leg is bent in front, your left leg straightened behind. Your right shoulder is aligned to the front, your left shoulder aligned to the rear, your upper body putting its energy into inclining forward, your body squared to the left. The saber edge is facing forward and downward, the saber tip at eye level and aligned with the direction of your shoulder, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth putting its energy forward and downward. Your gaze is toward the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從正面順我刀之右方。刺我下部時。我向下沉刀。卽壓敵槍左面。向後一轉。已將敵槍帶於我之左方。乘勢隨槍進步。掄刀劈敵上部及持槍前手。如敵刺我上部。即用帶刀。以刀背將敵槍帶於我之右前。掌中須有作用。兩手須合力為功。(圖十二)
When an opponent in front of me, to the right [left] side of my saber, stabs to my lower body, I sink my saber downward to press his bayonet to the left, arcing to the rear, and once his bayonet has been led aside to my left, I take advantage of the opportunity by advancing and rolling over my saber to chop to his upper body or his front hand holding his bayonet, or if he is stabbing to my upper body, I use the back of my saber to lead his bayonet away to my forward right. For this technique to work, I have to have a sure grip and my hands have to act in unison.

第七式
POSTURE 7

口令『繳刀——七』
Command: “Seven – twining!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足向左前進一步。同時刀頭就原方向向下沉。右手虎口向左前下方扣勁。(圖十三)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot advances a step to the forward left. At the same time, the saber tip sinks down, still pointing in its original direction, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth covering downward toward the forward left. See drawing 13:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 13

右足向前進一步。刀頭已轉至右腿傍。刀背向後。刀頭向下。不停。向後繳。繳至刀頭在頭之右上方。(圖十四)
Your right foot advances a step to the front, the saber tip arcing until beside your right leg, the back of the saber facing to the rear, the saber tip pointing downward. Without pausing, twine to the rear until the saber tip is to the upper right of your head. See drawing 14:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 14

左足急向左前進一步。刀頭從上向左前劈去。右手虎口極力向左前。目隨刀頭行止。
Your left foot quickly advances a step to the forward left and your saber tip chops out to the forward left from above, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth putting its energy into facing to the forward left. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 15:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 15

<姿勢>
Posture:
左腿在左前躬起。右腿在右後伸直。足跟着地。兩足尖向內扣。右肩極力向前。左肩向後。上身向前傾。刀頭斜向右前方。刀刃斜向左前下方。右臂伸直。虎口扣勁。左臂屈於左股上。刀頭與眼同高。目視刀頭。
Your left leg is bent in front, right leg straightened behind, heel touching down, the toes of both feet covering inward. Your right shoulder puts its energy into aligning to the front, your left shoulder aligning to the rear, your upper body inclining forward. The saber tip is pointing diagonally to the forward right, the saber edge facing diagonally downward to the forward left. Your right arm is extended, the tiger’s mouth having an energy of covering, your left arm bent above your left thigh. The saber tip is at eye level, your gaze toward the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從正面順我刀之左側。刺我上部時。我向前下沉刀。即壓於敵槍左上面。向右後繳刀時。即順敵槍左下面。繳敵槍於我之右前。隨乘勢進步以取敵上部及持槍前手。此為繳纒式。惟腕關節及手掌虎口。均須有合力。步法亦須靈活為功。(圖十五)
When an opponent in front of me, to the left side of my saber, stabs to my upper body, I sink my saber forward and downward, pressing his bayonet to the upper left. Once I have twined my saber to the right rear, going along with his bayonet to the lower left and twining it aside to my forward right, I take advantage of the opportunity by advancing and seeking his upper body or his front hand holding his bayonet. For this twining circling technique to work, my wrist joints and tiger’s mouths have to act in unison, and my stepping also has to be nimble.

第八式
POSTURE 8

口令『挅刀——八』
Command: “Eight – hacking!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足向前進半步。同時刀頭從上向前下沉。(圖十六)刀刃向下。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot advances a half step as the saber tip goes forward, sinking down from above, the saber edge facing downward. See drawing 16:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 16

隨翻腕用刀背向後掛。同時右足進一步。掛至右後方。(圖十七)
Then turn your wrists over and use the back of the saber to hang to the right rear, your right foot advancing a step. See drawing 17:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 17

不停。左足再進一步。右足隨進半步。進於左足右後方。足跟提起。同時刀刃轉向前方。從右上方。猛力向前下挅去。右手虎口向前下方扣勁。目隨刀頭行止。
Without pausing, your left foot advances another step and your right foot then advances a half step, advancing to the right rear of your left foot, heel lifted. At the same time, the saber edge arcs forward from the upper right, fiercely hacking out forward and downward, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth covering forward and downward. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 18:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 18

<姿勢>
Posture:
兩腿微屈。左足在左前。右足在右後。足跟提起。兩足相距約五十生的。身體正面向左前。左肩向後。右肩極力向前。刀頭與眼同高。刀柄正對左膝。刀身順左膝之方向。刀刃向左前下方。兩手虎口向前。右手極力向左前扣勁。右臂伸直在上。左臂微屈於下。目視刀頭。
Your legs are slightly bent, your left foot in the forward left, your right foot in the right rear, heel lifted, your feet about fifty centimeters apart. Your body is squared to the forward left, your left shoulder aligned to the rear, your right shoulder doing its best to align to the front. The saber tip is at eye level, the saber handle in line with your left knee, the saber body following the same direction as the knee, the saber edge facing downward to the forward left. The tiger’s mouths of both hands are facing forward, your right hand putting its energy into covering toward the forward left, your right arm extended above, your left arm slightly bent below. Your gaze is to the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從前方或右方順我刀之左側。刺我上部中部時。。我向前下沉刀。壓敵槍左上面。即向右後繳。繳至身之右後。乘勢挅敵上部及持槍前手。此為最應用之連環式。苟能熟習之。臨敵致勝不難矣。惟掌中之作用。兩手之合力。步法之靈活為用。(圖十八)
When an opponent in front of me or to my right, to the left side of my saber, stabs to my upper body, I sink my saber forward and downward, pressing his bayonet to the upper left, then once I have twined it aside to my right rear, I take advantage of the opportunity by hacking to his upper body or his front hand holding his bayonet. This is a very practical flowing technique. If you can become skillful at it, you will face an opponent without victory being difficult. However, its effectiveness depends on a sure grip, both hands acting in unison, and nimble stepping.

第九式
POSTURE 9

口令『撥刀——九』
Command: “Nine – deflecting!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足向右前橫進半步。同時刀刃向前。刀頭向左傾。(圖十九)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot advances a sideways half step to the forward right while the saber tip inclines to the left with the saber edge facing forward. See drawing 19:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 19

右足向右前橫進一步。左足隨右足進半步。足跟提右。同時刀刃仍舊。猛力向右前橫撥刀刃已向右。(圖二十)
Your right foot advances a sideways step to the forward right, then your left foot advances a half step, heel lifted, while the saber edge fiercely deflects across to the forward right, the saber edge remaining positioned as before and now facing to the right. See drawing 20:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 20

不停。右足向左前橫進半步。同時刀刃仍向前。刀頭向右傾。(圖二十一)
Without pausing, your right foot advances a sideways half step to the forward left while the saber tip inclines to the right with the saber edge again facing forward. See drawing 21:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 21

左足向左前橫進一步。右足隨進半步。足跟提起。刀刃仍舊。
同時刀頭向左前橫撥一刀。刀刃已向左。目隨刀頭行止。
Your left foot advances a sideways step to the forward left, then your right foot advances a half step, heel lifted, while the saber edge fiercely deflects across to the forward left, the saber edge remaining positioned as before and now facing to the left. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 22:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 22

<姿勢>
Posture:
兩腿微屈。左足在左前。右足在右後。足跟提起。兩足距約五十生地。身體正面向左前。左肩向後。右肩向前。刀刃向左。刀頭微高於刀柄。刀頭與胸同高。順左腿之方向。右臂伸直。虎口極力向左前扣勁。左臂收屈於左股上。身體微屈。胸向左前傾。目視刀頭。
Your legs are slightly bent, your left foot in the forward left, your right foot in the right rear, heel lifted, your feet about fifty centimeters apart. Your body is squared to the forward left, your left shoulder aligned to the rear, your right shoulder aligned to the front. The saber edge is facing to the left, the saber tip slightly higher than the saber handle, the saber tip at chest level, pointing along the same direction as your left [right] leg. Your right arm is extended, the tiger’s mouth putting its energy into covering toward the forward left, your left arm bent in above your left thigh. Your body is slightly bent, your chest inclined to the forward left. Your gaze is to the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從左前順我刀之左側。刺我上部中部。適從右前來敵。順我刀之右側。刺我上部中部時。我橫步向左傾刀。即壓左前敵槍之左面。右手虎口扣勁。已將左前敵槍壓於我之左前。乘勢進步橫刀。壓於右前敵槍右面。即將右前敵槍壓於我之右前。乘勢撥擊敵持槍前手。此為先防左前後攻右前。忽又從右前順我刀之右側。刺我上部或中部。適從左前來敵。順我刀之左側。刺我上部中部時。我仍用橫步向右壓刀。壓於右前敵槍之右面。壓於我右前。乘勢橫掃左前敵槍左面。即將敵槍撥於我之左前。順勢取敵持槍前手。此為先防右前後攻左前。此式為一人應付數敵拚鬥之式。然苟非步法靈活。手法敏捷。不為功也。蓋驚上取下。聲東擊西之意。(圖二十二)
When an opponent from the forward left, to the left side of my saber, stabs to my upper body, and an opponent from the forward right, to the right side of my saber, stabs to my upper body, I step sideways, my saber inclining to the left, pressing the bayonet on the left to the left, my right hand’s tiger’s mouth having an energy of covering. Once I have pressed his bayonet away to my forward left, I take advantage of the moment to advance and send my saber across to the opponent on the right. Once I have pressed his bayonet away to my forward right, I take advantage of the opportunity by doing a deflecting strike to his front hand holding his bayonet. This action is for first defending to the forward left and then attacking to the forward right.
     If suddenly the opponent from the forward right, to the right side of my saber, stabs again to my upper body, and the opponent from the forward left, to the left side of my saber, stabs to my upper body, I again step sideways, my saber now inclining to the right, pressing the bayonet on the right to the right. Once I have pressed his bayonet away to my forward right, I take advantage of the moment to sweep across to the opponent on the left, deflecting his bayonet to my forward left and seeking his front hand holding his bayonet. This action is for first defending to the forward right and then attacking to the forward left.
     This technique is for dealing with several opponents attacking together. If the stepping is not nimble and the actions of the hands are not quick, it will not work. It has the strategy of “surprising above to catch below” and “giving warning in the east in order to attack in the west”.

第十式
POSTURE 10

口令『拉刀——十』
Command: “Ten – pulling!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足後退一大部。須足掌不離地。向後拉步。右足隨之後退半步。足掌亦不離地。同時刀刃轉向下方。兩手虎口向下扣勁。合力向下向後連壓帶拉。目隨刀頭行止。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot retreats a large dragging step to the rear, the sole of the foot staying in contact with the ground, then your right foot retreats a half step, the sole also staying in contact with the ground. At the same time, the saber edge turns to be facing downward, the tiger’s mouths of both hands covering downward, your hands going downward and to the rear, working in unison as you perform all at once the qualities of connecting and pressing, leading and pulling. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 23:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 23

<姿勢>
Posture:
右腿在前略伸。足跟離地。左腿在後略躬。足跟着地。右肩在前。左肩在後。刀刃向下。刀頭與腹同高。刀頭向前。刀身成斜波形。刀頭微高於刀柄。右臂伸直向前下。左臂微屈於左股上。兩手虎口向前。目視刀頭。
Your right leg is almost straightened in front, the heel lifted, your left leg slightly bent behind, heel down. Your right arm is aligned to the front, your left arm aligned to the rear. The saber edge is facing downward, the saber tip at belly level, pointing forward, the saber body making a diagonal wave shape, the saber tip slightly higher than the saber handle. Your right arm is extended forward and downward, your left arm slightly bent above your left thigh, the tiger’s mouths of both hands facing forward. Your gaze is to the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從正面順我刀之左側或右側。刺我中部下部時。我退步收刀。連拉帶壓。壓敵槍右面或左面。壓於我右前或左前。即乘勢進步以刺之。或窺敵動靜。(圖二十三)
When an opponent in front of me, to either side of my saber, stabs to my middle or lower body, I retreat, withdrawing my saber, connecting and pulling, leading and pressing, sending his bayonet away to the right or left. Once it has been pressed away, I could take advantage of the situation by advancing with a stab, or simply watch for what he will do next.

第十一式
POSTURE 11

口令『纒刀——一』
Command: “Eleven – coiling!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。兩手從下向左上翻腕。手心向右。刀刃轉向右上方。(圖二十四)
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands go to the upper left from below, the wrists turning over, the center of your [right] hand facing to the right, the saber edge turning over to face to the upper right. See drawing 24:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 24

再向右下纒。纒至刀刃向上。即如用刀刃從下向左上。再向右上。再向右下。再向左上。轉一圈之意。即行抽刀。抽至右手抵胸。刀刃仍向上。刀頭向前。身體正面向左。同時右足提起。收於左腿裏股。成為左足獨立式。(圖二十五)
Then coil around to the lower right until the saber edge is facing upward. The saber edge seems to go from below to the upper left, to the upper right, lower right, and again to the upper left, with the intention of making a complete circle. Then draw in the saber until your right hand is against your chest, the saber edge still facing upward, the saber tip pointing forward, your body squared to the left. At the same time, your right foot lifts and withdraws to the inside of your left thigh, making a posture of standing one-legged on your left foot. See drawing 25:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 25

不停。右足向前躍進一步。左足隨即提起。收於右腿裏股。成為右足獨立式。同時將刀從原方向。向前猛力刺去。刀刃仍向上。(圖二十六)
Without pausing, your right foot advances with a lunging step forward, your left foot promptly lifting and gathering in to the inside of your right thigh, making a one-legged stance on your right foot. At the same time, send the saber fiercely stabbing out forward, still pointing in its original direction and with the saber edge still facing upward. See drawing 26:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 26

不停。左足隨即後退一步。足掌不離地。須向後拉步。右足隨之後退半步。足跟提起。同時刀刃轉向左方。向左向後猛抽。目隨刀頭行止。
Without pausing, your left foot promptly retreats a step and does a dragging step to the rear without the sole leaving the ground, your right foot following it by retreating a half step, heel lifted. At the same time, the saber edge turns to be facing to the left, fiercely drawing back to the left rear. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 27:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 27

<姿勢>
Posture:
右足在前微躬。足跟提起。左足在後微躬。足跟着地。右足尖向前。右肩在前右臂伸直。左肩在後。左臂微屈。刀刃向左。刀頭與胸同高。刀柄微低於刀頭。虎口向左前。目視刀頭。
Your right leg is slightly bent forward, heel lifted, and your left leg is slightly bent to the rear, heel on the ground, your right toes pointing forward. Your right shoulder is aligned to the front, the arm extended, and your left shoulder is aligned to the rear, the arm slightly bent. The saber edge is facing to the left, the saber tip at chest level, the saber handle slightly lower than the saber tip, your tiger’s mouths facing to the forward left. Your gaze is to the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵從正面順我刀之右側。刺我上部中部時。我向上翻腕纒刀。即接敵槍左下面。向右下纒。即壓敵槍左上面。向後抽刀。即將敵槍纒於我之左方。乘勢躍步刺敵上部。不停。即退步抽刀。順勢橫撥敵持槍前手。此式須掌中作用。腕關節之翻轉。與步法之靈活。方為功。(圖二十七)
When an opponent in front of me, to the right side of my saber, stabs to my upper or middle body, I turn my wrists over, coiling my saber, connecting with his bayonet in the lower left and coiling around to the lower right. Then I press his bayonet to the upper left, drawing back my saber to the rear. Once I have coiled away his bayonet to my left, I take advantage of the opportunity by stabbing to his upper body. Without pausing, I then retreat, drawing back my saber, deflecting across to his front hand holding his bayonet. For this technique to work, I must have a sure grip, rotation in my wrists, and nimbleness in my stepping.

第十二式
POSTURE 12

口令『刺刀——二』
Command: “Twelve – stabbing!”

<動作>
Movement:
承上式。左足足掌撑地。支撑右足向前進一步。左足不離地。隨進半步。足跟提起。同時右手虎口向前扣勁。將刀刃轉向下方。猛力向前刺去。(圖二十八)
Continuing from the previous posture, the sole of your left foot braces against the ground, propping forward your right foot into an advancing a step forward, and your left foot follows forward a half step without leaving the ground, the heel lifted. At the same time, your right hand’s tiger’s mouth covers forward as you turn the saber edge to be facing downward and fiercely stab out forward. See drawing 28:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 28

不停。左足向左前進半步。刀頭向前下沉。(圖二十九)
Without pausing, your left foot advances a half step to the forward left, the saber tip sinking forward and downward. See drawing 29:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 29

右足向進一步。刀背向後。已轉至後上方。(圖三十)
Your right foot advances a step and the back of the saber goes to the rear, arcing until in the upper rear. See drawing 30:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 30

左足再向左前進一步。刀頭從右上方。猛力向前刺去。同時右足足不離地。隨進半步。足跟提起。(圖三十一)
Then your left foot advances a step to the forward left, the saber tip going from the upper right and fiercely going out forward with a [chop continuing into a] stab as your right foot follows forward a half step without leaving the ground, the heel lifted. See drawing 31:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 31

不停。右足後退一步。左足隨退半步。足跟提起。同時刀刃轉向右方。右手反腕在前。左手反腕在後。刀頭向前。與肩同高。(圖三十二)
Without pausing, your right foot retreats a step and your left foot follows it back a half step, heel lifted. At the same time, the saber edge turns to be facing to the right, your right wrist turning over in front, your left wrist turning over behind, the saber tip pointing forward at shoulder level. See drawing 32:

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 32

不停。左足隨向前進半步。將刀刃轉向前方。猛力向前。連劈帶刺。左腿隨即躬起。右腿隨即伸直。目隨刀頭行止。
Without pausing, your left foot advances a half step, the saber edge turning to be facing forward and going forward with a chop continuing into a stab, your left leg bending, right leg straightening. Your gaze goes along with the movement of the saber tip. [See drawing 33:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 33

<姿勢>
Posture:
左腿在前躬起。右腿在後伸直。身體正面向右前。左肩向前。右肩向後。右臂在前伸直。左臂在後微屈。刀刃向前下方。刀頭向前。與肩同高。刀頭柄低於刀頭。兩手虎口向前。目視刀頭。
Your left leg is bent in front, your right leg straightened behind. Your body is squared to the forward right, your left shoulder aligned to the front, your right shoulder aligned to the rear, right arm extended forward, left arm slightly bent behind. The saber edge is facing forward and downward, the saber tip pointing forward at shoulder level, the saber handle lower than the saber tip, your tiger’s mouths facing forward. Your gaze is to the saber tip.

<功用>
Function:
敵在正面。有隙可乘。即急進步以刺敵上部或中部或持槍前手。敵不支而退。我繳刀以進。追刺敵上部中部。敵回身順我刀之右側。刺我上部。我收刀壓敵槍左面。向後抽刀。將敵槍抽於我右側。順勢撥敵持槍前手。急進步猛力向前劈刀。取敵上部。此法為連環殺敵之式。步法須靈活。腕關節須敏捷。掌中之作用。虎口之扣勁方為功。(圖三十三)
An opponent in front of me leaves a gap I can exploit, so I quickly advance and stab to his upper body, middle body, or his front hand holding his bayonet. Unable to withstand it, he retreats, and I twine my saber around, advancing, and chase him with a stab to his upper or middle body. He evades his body to the right side of my saber and stabs to my upper body. I withdraw my saber, pressing his bayonet to his left as I draw back to the rear. Once I have drawn his bayonet aside to my right, I seize the opportunity to deflect to his front hand holding his bayonet and urgently advance, fiercely chopping forward, seeking his upper body. This technique is a method of continuous attack. For it to work, my stepping has to nimble, my wrists have to be quick, my grip has to be sure, and my tiger’s mouths have to have an energy of covering.

收式
FINISHING
口令『停』
Command: “Halt!”

<動作>
Movement:
左足不動。右足靠向左足。同時刀頭從前下沉向右後轉。轉至刀身在右肩。此時身體正面向右。
Your left foot stays where it is and your right foot moves next to it. At the same time, the saber tip sinks down in front and arcs to the right rear until the saber body is by your right shoulder. Your body is now facing to the right. [See drawing 34:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 34

<姿勢>
Posture:
與預備式同。
Same as the READINESS POSTURE.

<功用>
Function:
練畢收式。以便自習。(圖三十四)
At the end of the drill is the finishing posture, in order for there to be a natural moment of rest.

刀放下
LOWERING THE SABER
口令『向左——轉』
Command: “To the left, turn!”

<動作>
Movement:
一面向左轉。同時將刀分手。取捷路仍歸原位。
Turn to the left, the saber separating from your [left] hand, and take the quickest route back to your original position. [See drawing 35:]

《實用大刀術》 金恩忠 (1933) - drawing 35

<姿勢>
Posture:
與握刀式同。
Same as HOLDING THE SABER.

<功用>
Function:
操作完了。以資休息。(圖三十五)
The exercise finishes, providing a rest.

– – –

[Included below is a trio of related contemporary articles published in 國術週刋 Martial Arts Weekly, from issues #80 (Sep, 1932), #85 (Oct, 1932), #101 (Sep, 1933).]

談大刀隊 李親民
DISCUSSING THE LARGE SABER UNITS by Li Qinmin [Sep, 1932]

前滬淞一月餘之抗日血戰,大刀隊參加殺敵,忠勇莫倫,有口皆碑,茲述大刀隊之類別,以質高明讀者。
專用大刀之大刀隊,無其他武器,作戰時居步騎兵之後,迨短兵相接,衝鋒肉搏,一聲噱殺,躍出前敵,大刀砍處所向披靡,倭人每見刀光不覺其膝之屈,或足向後轉,此輩或擇兵士訓練而成,或之民衆激於義僕而來此者,蓋皆熱血男兒也。
兼用大刀之大刀隊,實卽軍中之步兵也,彼輩手提長槍,背負大刀,作戰時,遠以槍擊,近則荷槍而用刀,蓋槍刺刀,不若大刀劈殺之快利也,劉峙之第一師。前四月間由開抵京,進駐常州,吾見其軍中步兵,背際各插大刀一柄。可知大刀隊在現代新戰術上,亦有其重要性。
全身武器之大刀隊,大刀之外,腰懸盒子砲,及手溜彈,而腿綁布中均藏匕首,作戰時,宜用槍者,則盒子砲發如聯珠,宜用彈者,則手溜彈投擲必中,苟敵方彈來如雨,無可避讓,則揮舞大刀,寒光閃爍,不見其人,但聞彈為刀格,錚錚作響,不能及其身。國術中之善使刀劍者,衣白衣,舞至酣暢時,但覺刀光劍影,寒氣逼人,潑以濃墨,盡為刀障,迨其舞罷,白衣無半點汚痕,大刀隊殆亦具此神技歟。與敵人肉搏,每以大刀砍劈,當者立斃,若寶刀不幸而折,則棄之而出匕首,短刀狂舞,亦所向辟易,此全身武器之大刀隊,遠射近攻,無往不利焉。
按大刀隊仍用古代武器而參加二十世紀之科學戰爭者,一為戰術上之臨時所必需其實謂習之有素,頗具藝高胆大之肝胆,故能運用國術,而得肉搏時之勝利。竊嘗聞前西北軍,曾以大刀隊著,其素日所習者,卽將我國國術中之刀術,舞得花飛,彼是以每戰勝利,而敵人聞之輒寒心云。所謂滬戰大刀隊之勝利,亦卽國術一部份之試驗也。
For over a month during the bloody resistance against Japan in Shanghai and at the Song River, large saber units joined in to fight the enemy. Their loyalty and courage is beyond compare, and they have been praised by everyone with a mouth. Here is a discussion of the large saber units for your edification.
     When the large saber units that exclusively use the large saber, without using any other weapon, enter into combat, they march behind the cavalry until the fighting is at close quarters, then they charge in, up close and personal, giving a holler of gleeful slaughter, jumping out in front of the enemy, their large sabers cleaving invincibly. Whenever the Japanese see their sabers gleaming, they either unconsciously go down onto their knees or spin away on their feet. These troops are sometimes specially trained soldiers, sometimes righteous citizens roused to come forth, all hot-blooded young men.
     The large saber units that use other weapons besides the large saber are actually the regular infantry within the army. They hold long rifles and carry large sabers on their backs. When in combat, they shoot at long range, and then at short range they sling their rifles and use their sabers. The stabbing of bayonets is not as efficient as the chopping of large sabers. The First Division, under the command of Liu Zhi, has since last April been fortifying Nanjing and has garrisoned Changzhou. As we see a saber handle sticking out from behind every infantryman, we can know that large saber units still have significance in modern military tactics.
     As for a soldier’s arsenal in the large saber units, beyond his large saber, hanging at his waist is a Mauser pistol and some hand grenades, and wrapped to his leg is a hidden dagger. When in combat, he starts with his rifle, then continues with his pistol, uses his bullets, then hurls his grenades. If the enemy’s bullets come like rain and there is no way to avoid them, he then wields his large saber. There are flickerings of light, but he is not seen, and there is the sound of bullets clanging against his saber, unable to reach his body.
     There are martial arts experts who can keep their clothes white by wielding a sword, moving it so fast that they seem covered in the gleam of the metal and create a cold breeze. If you splash ink at such a person, it all gets obstructed by his sword, and then when he ceases his movement, his white clothes are unstained. The large saber units have nearly this level of skill.
     When fighting at close quarters with the enemy, they all cleave and chop with their sabers, standing proud in the face of death. If their precious sabers happen to break, they throw them aside and take out their daggers, and the crazy dance of those short blades also makes the enemy run away in fear. With such an arsenal, the large saber units shoot when at a distance and then attack when close up, and thus they are successful in every situation.
     As for the large sabers units still using ancient weapons while taking part in the scientific warfare of the twentieth century, it is a temporary military tactic [i.e. a last resort in the absence of other weaponry], and which actually requires a solid foundation of training in order to possess the courage that is based on great skill. Therefore they are able to apply Chinese martial arts and gain victory at close quarters.
     I have heard that the former Northwest Army [i.e. the Guominjun] used large saber units and that it was a typical component of their training. The saber techniques of our nation’s martial arts are beautiful and fast, successful in any battle, and when the enemy hears of them, it freezes his heart. The large saber units were victorious during the fighting in Shanghai, and that has proven the worth of a part of our martial heritage.

大刀隊奏奇功於滬上 張之江
LARGE SABER UNITS PERFORMING GREAT FEATS IN SHANGHAI by Zhang Zhijiang [Oct, 1932]

此次滬淞戰事,我十九路軍將士,自衞奮鬥,捷報頻傳,聲威一振,外人始知中國不可侮,而尤足放一異彩者,則我大刀隊之殺敵是已,
初,歐美軍事專家在滬觀戰者,以彼軍火器精利過勝我軍,咸為我危,而我軍每次肉搏相接,大刀隊頗奏奇功,各國在滬人士,咸稱我國軍奮勇殺敵,具有歐戰之精神,前之輕視我者,至是眼光一換,咸表敬意,滬上中外報紙,曾詳載此事,固非子虛,
在中央國術館初成立時,社會智識階級,紛紛懷疑,以為居此火器戰爭時代,何必提倡此古代陳舊之學術?然幸因數年努力國術普及於軍隊,卒有今日大刀隊殺敵之表現。當其衝鋒直人,一往無前勇猛叱咤,如迅雷颶風,遂使敵人馬不及旋,槍不及發,裂膚斷指,斫臂洞胸,十步之內,血流成渠,彼恃其新武器械。以為數小時內可解决滬北者,而乃屢受挫折於巷戰之大刀隊,我固不敢以此沾沾自喜,然以事實證明,彼謂今日不必提倡國術者,其亦醒覺矣乎,
大刀誠國術一部份,若全部國術,普及全民,效果又當如何?同志們,同胞們,奮起奮起,願全民衆,皆國術化,積極練習自衞奮鬥,打倒帝國主義,以博最後之勝利。
During the recent fighting in Shanghai and at the Song River, our 19th Route Army fought to defend us. With news of victory so frequently coming in, our prestige was given a boost, and foreigners started to know that China cannot be humiliated, that we in fact demonstrate glory, and it is due to our large saber units.
     At first, the European and American military experts in Shanghai who observed the fighting considered that the Japanese firepower would be superior to our forces, and that we were in peril, but every time our forces were engaged at close quarters, the large saber units made outstanding achievements. People of every nation represented in Shanghai praised our troops for fighting the enemy so courageously, and saying that they all have the European War [i.e. World War I] spirit. Those who previously despised us now see us differently and show us respect. Foreign newspapers in Shanghai explained the events in detail, and without any exaggeration at all.
     When the Central Martial Arts Institute was established, those in the intellectual class each had their doubts, considering this to be an era of firearm warfare and that there is no necessity to encourage this antique and obsolete learning. But fortunately, due to many years of effort, Chinese martial arts has spread throughout the army so much that large saber units can be seen fighting the enemy. They charge right in, unstoppably advancing with bold shouts, like thunderclaps in the midst of a hurricane, causing the enemy to not be able to turn his horses around fast enough or have a chance to fire his guns. The blades rip open skin and sever fingers, hack off arms and pierce through chests, and within a mere ten paces, blood is already flowing enough to make a river.
     Relying on modern weapons, the enemy assumed he could decisively take Shanghai in just a few hours, but was repeatedly thwarted in the streets by the large saber units. Though we should not dare to take our success for granted, the evidence of that success is at least clear, and those who said that there is nowadays no point in encouraging martial arts are waking up to the truth.
     The large saber is truly a part of our martial arts. But if all of our martial arts were spread to our whole populace, just imagine the effect. Comrades and compatriots, rise up, rise up! We want the masses to be transformed by Chinese martial arts, to train vigorously to fight for our defense, overthrow imperialism, and achieve final victory!

神勇之大刀隊 仙秀山
THE AMAZING BRAVERY OF THE LARGE SABER UNITS by Xian Xiushan [Sep, 1933]

違日宋哲元部在喜峯口一帶,浴血抗戰,發賊逾萬,兵士多用大刀,鋒鋩銳利,所向披靡,足見今日鍜練國術,純然精練之所致,且宋氏對兵士訓話有,「有進無退,死而後已」之語,由是將士用命,勇往直前,而收戰勝之果也,當宋部開往前方時,限六小時跑步,趕百六十里之長途接防,行軍之神速,可見一斑,其對兵士講話,以烏鴉喩飛機,烏鴉遺矢,幾會落到人身,飛機拋彈,何能傷我之散兵綫乎?譬喩可謂透澈,足以鼓勵士氣也,且倭寇雖攘其巨砲利械,而兵士久未作戰。經驗缺乏,見大刀之劈面砍來如,飛將軍從人而卜。驚心震魄叩頭乞饒,續械而逃,我軍遂得砲械子彈等勝利品無算,戰勝之餘,士氣大振,斬將搴旗,以一當百,我中華民族之眞精神,為不可沒滅也,滾滾熱血,蓬蓬浩氣,以洗我仇。雪我恥,復我河山,爭我國格,望我全國軍人,均憑勇往直前之壯氣,踏着神勇大刀隊之血跡、衝上前去,除此日落崦嵫之倭寇,強弩之末的暴日,必能得最後之勝利,而執東亞之牛耳也,將拭目以待。
When defier of Japan, General Song Zheyuan [29th Corps] was at Xifengkou Pass [during the Defense of the Great Wall, Jan—May, 1933, action at Xifengkou taking place during March and early April] engaged in bloody resistance, he delivered incredible casualties upon the enemy, his soldiers often using large sabers, sharp, keen, and invincible. This is enough to demonstrate the effectiveness in the present day of practicing our martial arts, and what can come of ardent training.
     General Song admonished his soldiers with the saying: “Keep advancing, no retreating, until you are dead.” And so they obeyed their orders, advanced bravely, and were victorious as a result. When Song set out for the front, he kept his troops at a running pace for six hours, and they ran for nearly fifty miles to relieve a garrison, moving his forces with such speed that they looked like a single stripe. He spoke to his troops using birds as a metaphor for aircraft: “Crow droppings usually land on someone. Bombs from planes could damage our lines.” The parallel was penetrating enough to motivate his men.
     Moreover, although the Japanese pirates brought huge cannons and sharp weapons, their soldiers had often not yet faced combat, lacking in experience, and when they saw those large sabers chopping down toward their faces, even the best of them fell to ground, frightened to their very souls, kowtowed and begged for mercy, laid down their arms and fled. Our forces then secured their cannons, weapons, and ammunition, countless spoils of victory. More than that, morale was boosted so high that every general killed and every flag taken was worth a hundred.
     The true spirit of us Chinese cannot be wiped out. Our blood surges and our spirit roars. We will wash away our enemies, rub out our humiliation, recover our rivers and mountains, and contend for our national dignity. I hope the soldiers of our entire nation will all have the heart to advance courageously, following in the footsteps of our brave large saber units, charging ahead. We will eliminate these Japanese pirates who want to extend their land of the setting sun to where we keep ours at Mt. Yanzi [to the far west in Gansu], reducing cruel Japan to a spent force, and we will surely be able to obtain final victory and hold the power in East Asia. Just let them wait and see…

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