FURTHER TAIJI DISCUSSION FROM WU ZHIQING

太極正宗銓真
GENUINE EXPLANATIONS FOR AUTHENTIC TAIJI
吳志青
by Wu Zhiqing
[published Oct, 1943]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Dec, 2016]

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吳志青著
by Wu Zhiqing:
太極正宗銓真
Genuine Explanations for Authentic Taiji
張小廔署耑
– calligraphy by Zhang Xiaolou

太極拳正宗詮真 自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

余承師法著太極正宗稿成,蒙楊師指正,乃同門陳、胡二先生校訂,問世後風行海內,又荷謬許,益感愧恧,朝夕思之,應如何努力以報同道之企望,毋負楊師之心傳播,余雖不敏,感師友之督責未敢稍有自滿,乃對太極拳作進一步之探討,行將十年訪得名師益友傳授之心法,作太極正宗銓眞,以供愛好同道之印證。
蓋太極拳練習有架式有推手,推手為架式應用之試驗,架式為練習之體,推手為闡明架式之用,此為太極拳體用兼備一貫之體系也。
惟查近世以來,太極拳傳佈日廣有遍及全國之勢,此為太極拳之幸運也,然而日盈則昃月滿則虧,太極拳亦不能例外,於是傳之愈遠愈衍而晦,或難免不使體用兼備之太極拳失其本來面目,於是有志斯者惄焉憂之,此銓眞之所由述也。
按太極拳古法除架式與推手之練習法外,尚有十三字行功法、八字訣、十三字總勁、虛實法四種奧義,為歷代師尊不輕傳人之秘寶,此所以太極拳之架式雖推行甚廣,遍及全國,而太極拳之四種奧義眞傳則歷久而傳佈日稀,學者僅得其形式與皮毛,而失其靈魂與精華。
夫太極拳旣為時代之產物,不應秘而不傳,若傳之而失其眞,不若不傳之為愈,余有鑒於斯,爰將上述四種奧義銓解,廣為傳佈,附以筆者數十年之經驗所得,如中心與重心,力與勁,六合三摧,變化氣質,啓發潛能等理論,不厭求詳,引申其說,以明太極拳之效用,而發揚光大之,俾太極拳成為科學化之國術,推行於世,作强國强種之利器,是所企望也。
按太極拳每一動作均含圓形,圓中亦含方形,亦卽方中有圓,圓中有方之象徵也,但必須在渾圇中包攝之,以不露形不顯痕為原則,此卽中心與重心之運用,舉例言之如圓轉則自如,無方則不固,行方則滯,非圓不靈,方中有圓乃所以顯其靈活也,圓中有方乃所以求其穩定也,此為研究太極拳唯一之要訣。
太極拳以架式為體,以推手為用,以十三字行功法為體,以八字訣為用,以十三字總勁為體,以虛實行功法為用,換言之,架式與推手均為之體,十三字行功法、八字訣、十三字總勁與虛實行功法為之用,亦卽中心運用重心,重重演進之無上妙法,如中心穩定,重心必而運用自如,倘練架式者未能注意練習中心,必致守之則不固,攻之則無勁,所以徒運用重心而不明中心之理,不啻捨本遂末,徒勞無功,中心者:拳經云「尾閭中正神貫頂,滿身輕利頂頭懸。」此為正確架式姿勢之準繩也。
太極拳最高之哲理為虛實二字,拳經云「練拳不諳虛實理,枉費功夫終無成。」虛實者,換言之,卽中心與重心是也,按人體以軀為中心,為四肢為重心,推而廣之,肩與胯,肘與膝,手與足,及頭部共七部,俱各為各個之中心,亦卽為各個之重心也,此為人體外形之分解,茲以幾何畫為喻,於正圓中求一正方形,必先求中心之交點,方能畫成正方形,又如在正方形中求七個切邊圓形,亦必須先求得方中之中心交點,然後再畫七個切邊圓形之中心交點,方能畫成方中含有七個圓形,所以方中可有無數之圓,圓中亦可包含無數之方,雖每一個圓形之中,必有中心,亦卽每個方中亦有中心,其中心之外當為重心,此理甚明,而太極拳卽據此理而運用,於是凡研究太極拳者,以此為法,則姿勢易於正確,虛實之理亦在其中矣,又虛實二字亦可作客觀主觀之解釋,諸事持客觀態度,不為物所蔽,則明,持主觀態度,易為客氣所基,則暗,又太極拳視來勢應機而變化,非先立己見,固執其一也,所謂「練拳不諳虛實理,枉費功夫終無成。」卽是理也。
太極拳最妙之處,為全套架式之動作聯綿不斷,一氣呵成,且迂緩而冗長,作觀之似覺卑之無甚高論,其實妙處盡在其中,迂緩主於靜,則以靜制動,冗長主於持久,則以長而制短,以緩而應急,以虛而化實,此為太極拳之妙用也。
武術家功夫練至爐火純靑之候,雖是草莽武夫,不期然而然,深明大義,路見不平拔刀相助,如枳深井里者流,此所謂發潛能變氣質之明證也。
本書脫稿後,承查良釗,杜恩霖,蔣日庶,馬筱良,馬覺,李濟五,謝漢俊諸位先生,或校訂,或潤色,或合影而圖畫,各出餘緒,以成斯篇,特誌數語以表謝忱。
中華民國三十二年四月序於昆明國立西南聯合大學訓導處
I showed my teacher Yang Chengfu the manuscript for Authentic Taiji and received his corrections, and then my classmates Chen Weiming and Hu Pu’an also gave it their editorial input. After the book was published, it became popular, but it was still burdened with lingering mistakes. I was both grateful for having them pointed out and ashamed that they were there, obsessing about it day and night, feeling I should strive to convey better information to fellow practitioners and not dishonor the personal instruction Yang gave me. Although I am not clever, I do take the criticism of teachers and friends to heart, and I do not dare to become complacent. Thus I have delved further into the art in the years since making the book, inquiring of famous teachers and helpful colleagues about the core methods of their teachings, and have now written Genuine Explanations for Authentic Taiji in order to supply aficionados with improved material.
     In the practice of Taiji Boxing, there is the solo set and the pushing hands. Pushing hands is for testing the functionality of the solo set. The postures in the solo set are the substance of the training, and the pushing hands serves to clarify the function of the postures. This arrangement means that the art’s substance and function are always reinforcing each other.
     By now, the increasing spread of Taiji Boxing has brought it to the whole nation. The art has thus been fortunate. However, noon gives way to sunset. The moon is full, then wanes. Taiji Boxing can be no exception to this way of things. The more it spreads, the more diffuse the art becomes, and it is hard to keep it, in both substance and function, from losing its original essence. Therefore I worry for those who have aspirations in this art, which is why I have made this book.
     In the Taiji Boxing tradition, beyond practicing the solo set and pushing hands, there are also teachings such as “Methods of Practicing the Thirteen Terms” [presented in Chapter Five], “Eight-Word Formula” [Chapter Six], “Energies of the Thirteen Dynamics” [Chapter Eight], and “Methods of Practicing Emptiness & Fullness” [Chapter Seven]. These four profound texts are rare treasures that teachers from previous generations did not lightly pass down to anyone. Consequently, despite the Taiji Boxing solo set being so widespread as to be everywhere in the nation, these four essential texts have over time been shared only rarely. And so students have received only the postures and superficial teachings, while the spirit and essence of the art has been lost.
     Taiji Boxing is the product of an era in which people felt they had to keep secrets, thinking that if they passed something down it would only lose its essence, and so it was better to just not teach it at all. In view of this, I have also supplied commentary to the four texts mentioned above, so that they may be passed down even easier. Included are also essays on what I myself have learned in my decades of experience, such as “Centeredness & Balance” [Chapter Ten], “Strength & Power” [Chapter Nine], “The Six Unions & Three Urgings” [Chapter Eleven], “Transforming the Temperament” [Chapter Thirteen], and “How to Awaken Potential” [Chapter Fourteen]. Leaving nothing out, I have tried to explain fully by showing the effectiveness of Taiji Boxing as a way to carry it forward, so that it will become a more scientific martial art and thereby reach everyone. For it to be an effective instrument [a “sharp weapon”] for strengthening the nation and the people is my hope.
     Every movement in Taiji Boxing has to contain a quality of roundness, and within the roundness there is also a quality of squareness. This is the concept of roundness within squareness and squareness within roundness. However, you must everywhere hide these qualities away, the principle of revealing no shape and showing no trace, which is where centeredness and balance come into play. Consider that with roundness there is freedom of movement, but without squareness there is no solidity to your posture. Moving with squareness leads to stagnancy, for movement that is not rounded is not nimble. Use roundness within squareness to find nimbleness, and use squareness within roundness to seek stability. This is the most important thing in the study of Taiji Boxing.
     In Taiji Boxing, the solo set is substance and pushing hands is function. “Methods of Practicing the Thirteen Terms” is substance and “Eight-Word Formula” is function. “Energies of the Thirteen Dynamics” is substance and “Methods of Practicing Emptiness & Fullness” is function. Or another way of looking at it is that the solo set and pushing hands make the substance, while these theory texts make the function.
     It is centeredness that creates balance. Through repetition you will progress to the highest level. If you are centered and stable, your balance will be masterful. If a practitioner of the solo set is not able to give attention to practicing centeredness, this will surely result in a defense that is unsure and an attack that has no power. Therefore if you are making use of balance but do not understand the principle of centeredness, it is no better than abandoning the first stage in order to fulfill the final stage – futile. “Centeredness” is described in the boxing classics thus: “Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop, thus your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.” These are the criteria for performing the postures in the set correctly.
     Taiji Boxing’s highest principle is emptiness and fullness. It says in the classics: “In practicing boxing arts, if you are not well versed in the principles of emptiness and fullness, all your training will have been in vain, ultimately achieving nothing.” Emptiness and fullness in other words depends on centeredness and balance. The human body is centered and the four limbs are balanced. By the same token, we could say that when the seven sections (shoulder and hip, elbow and knee, hand and foot, and head) are all centered together, they are then given individual balance.
     To describe the body in external terms, let us use drawing geometric shapes as an analogy. To make a square inside a perfect circle [representing the whole body], you first have to find the center point to make [diagonal] intersecting lines, and then you will be able to draw the square [by connecting the dots at the ends of the intersecting lines]. If you then want to make seven bisected circles within the square [representing the seven sections of the body, even though this process would more naturally produce eight circles, and thus leaving one out somewhere], you first have to make a further set of intersecting lines [horizontal and vertical] from the center point of the square, then draw the center points for the seven circles by making more lines crossing over [producing a diamond shape within the square], and then you will be able to draw the seven bisected circles within the square. In this way, there can be countless circles within a square and countless squares within a circle. [Drawing shapes in this manner indeed reveals a progression toward infinity.] Within each circle, there will be a center, and within each square, there will also be a center, but outwardly this centering will be perceived as “balance” [a state between the nimbleness of roundness and the stability of squareness]. This principle should be quite clear.
     When Taiji Boxing is practiced according to this theory, students will thereby have an easier time correcting postures, and the principle of emptiness and fullness will thereby be more precise. Furthermore, “emptiness” and “fullness” could be interpreted either objectively or subjectively. In all matters, an objective approach keeps from being hidden, and so all is clear, whereas with a subjective approach, it is easy to get lost in subtlety, and so things become obscured. However, Taiji Boxing considers incoming force and adapts according to the situation rather than trying to start from and stick to one’s own agenda. Thus without understanding emptiness and fullness, you will achieve nothing. This is the point.
     Taiji Boxing’s most marvelous quality is that the movements of the entire solo set are an unbroken continuity, a single flow throughout. It is slow and drawn out, making spectators view it as a humble thing rather than producing grandiose remarks, for its marvels are all within. Slowness is host to stillness, hence using stillness to overcome motion. Drawing it out produces lengthiness, hence using the long to outlast the short, using leisureliness to respond to haste, using emptiness to neutralize fullness. These are the wonders of Taiji Boxing.
     Martial arts experts who have trained to a high level of skill but are rude warriors can nevertheless have a surprisingly strong moral sense, for they come to the rescue when they see injustice [“unsheath their swords to help others”]. Like a medicine flowing in a deep well, this demonstrates that the training also has the capacity to transform temperaments.
     This book was completed thanks to Zha Liangzhao, Du Enlin, Jiang Rishu, Ma Xiaoliang, Ma Jue, Li Jiwu, and Xie Hanjun, for their editing, proofreading, and photography, each doing more than asked to produce this volume, and so I here specially record my gratitude.
     – written in the dean’s office of National Southwest Associated University, Kunming, Apr, 1943

太極正宗銓眞目次
CONTENTS

一、凡例
One: Introductory Remarks
二、太極正宗銓眞槪論
Two: General Introduction
三、選材
Three: Picking a Style
四、增補太極正宗之小動作
Four: Additional Subtleties of Movement
五、太極正宗十三字行功法
Five: Methods of Practicing the Thirteen Terms
六、太極正宗八字訣
Six: Eight-Word Formula
七、太極正宗虛實行功法
Seven: Methods of Practicing Emptiness & Fullness
八、太極正宗十三勢總勁
Eight: The Energies of the Thirteen Dynamics
九、力與勁
Nine: Strength & Power
十、中心與重心
Ten: Centeredness & Balance
十一、六合三摧說
Eleven: The Six Unions & Three Urgings
十二、太極拳與生理衛生之關係
Twelve: The Relationship Between Taiji Boxing & Physiological Health
十三、太極拳有却病延年之功及變化氣質之益
Thirteen: Taiji Boxing’s Effects of Preventing Illness & Prolonging Life, and its Benefit of Transforming the Temperament
十四、如何發展人之潛能
Fourteen: How to Awaken the Body’s Potential
〔十五、推手與步法各項姿勢圖〕
[Fifteen: Photos for Each Method of Pushing Hands with its Footwork]
十五、定式單手練習推手法
Fifteen [Sixteen]: Fixed-Step Single-Hand Pushing Hands Methods
 第一法 鍾期聽琴
 Method 1: TOASTING WITH THE CUP, LISTENING TO THE ZITHER
 第二法 蛟龍探爪
 Method 2: FLOOD DRAGON EXTENDS A CLAW
 第三法 老龍舒筋上
 Method 3: OLD DRAGON LOOSENS ITS SINEWS – UPWARD POSTURE
 第四法 老龍舒筋下
 Method 4: OLD DRAGON LOOSENS ITS SINEWS – DOWNWARD POSTURE
十六、定式雙手練習推手法
Sixteen [Seventeen]: Fixed-Step Double-Hand Pushing Hands
 第五法 掤按對推法
 Method 5: Warding off and pushing
 第六法 捋擠對推法
 Method 6: Rolling back and pressing
 第七法 採挒換手法
 Method 7: Plucking and rending to switch hands
 第八法 肘靠換手法
 Method 8: Elbowing and bumping to switch hands
 第九法 採挒肘靠進退連用法
 Method 9: Plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping with continuous advancing and retreating
十七、順步推手練習(卽活步)
Seventeen [Eighteen]: Straight-Stepping Advance & Retreat Pushing Hands
 第十法 順步行動推手法
 Method 10: Straight-stepping moving-step pushing hands
 第十一法 順步擠按換步法
 Method 11: Straight-stepping pressing and pushing to switch the feet
 第十二法 順步採挒換步法
 Method 12: Straight-stepping plucking and rending to switch the feet
十八、拗步行動對推練習法(卽大捋)
Eighteen [Nineteen (Part 1)]: Twisted-Stepping Pushing Hands Methods (also called Large Rollback)
 第十三法 拗步推手法
 Method 13: Twisted-stepping pushing hands
十九、拗步行動變化對推練習法
Nineteen [Part 2]: Switching the Feet in Twisted-Stepping Moving-Step Pushing Hands
 第十四法 拗步推手換步法
 Method 14: Switching steps in twisted-stepping pushing hands
  第一種 三動換步法
  Version 1: Three-stage switching
  第二種 二動換步法
  Version 2: Two-stage switching
  第三種 一動換步法
  Version 3: One-stage switching

一 例言
ONE: INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

一、本書旨在練習國術鍛鍊體格,並非以血肉之軀抗衡現代武器,而係鍛練剛健之體魂,俾可運動現代之武器也,抗戰今日,凡百事業俱應以經濟為先,國術設備簡單,最合經濟原則,且中國人習中國歷代相傳之國術,國情民俗並皆相宜。
1. This book is about the practice of martial arts for building up the body, not really to turn the body into something that can contend against modern weaponry, but to develop enough vigor in body and spirit to be able to wield modern weaponry. In the current war of resistance [against Japan, 1937—1945], all undertakings should first of all be economical. Chinese martial arts equipment is simple, and so it is the most economical means at our disposal. Chinese people should also practice traditional Chinese martial arts because they suit the character of the nation and the people.

二、本書闡明太極拳致用之功,銓釋行功之竅要。
2. This book explains Taiji Boxing skills for practical use and elaborates on the secrets to training them.

三、本書對於力與勁之區分,及其練習方法,有深刻之見解。
3. This book contains deep insights on the distinction between strength and power, as well as the methods of developing them.

四、本書對於太極拳能啓發人體之潛能一點,有詳盡之解說。
4. This book contains thorough explanations on the capacity for Taiji Boxing to awaken the human body’s potential.

五、本書對於中心運用重心,以及每一動作均含有四種形態,有確實之論證。
5. This book contains reliable arguments for the concepts of centeredness determining balance and for each movement being imbued with the four features [of curved paths, rounded shapes, waves, and spirals].

六、本書闡明前人不傳之秘,實用推手法,由淺入深,舉例使用,將太極拳十三勢,亦即掤捋擠按採例肘靠進退顧盼定十三字行功法之原理、秘訣,揭發無遺,破除世人對於太極拳神秘之見。
6. This book explains secret teachings from previous generations [chapters 5-8] and practical pushing hands methods [chapters 15-20] going from the simple to the complex. For example, the principles of training Taiji’s thirteen dynamics (warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, bumping, advancing, retreating, observation, decision, and stability) are presented in full, the secrets fully exposed in order to do away with the common mystique people have toward Taiji Boxing.

七、本書闡明練習太極拳有却病延年之功,變化氣質之妙。
7. This book explains how practicing Taiji Boxing brings the effects of preventing illness and prolonging life, as well as the marvel of transforming one’s disposition.

八、本書為筆者搜集平日探討之所得,匯集而成,支離破碎,謬誤不免,敬希海內學者不吝指正!俾太極拳得以發揚光大,則筆者所馨香禱祝者也。
8. This book is a compilation of what I have gained over the course of daily study, gathered into something of a jumble. There are bound to be errors, and so I hope that experts throughout the nation will not hold back in giving corrections for the benefit of spreading the art, and in fact I sincerely wish for it.

二 「太極正宗銓眞」槪論
TWO: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

我國國術一道,自古迄今彪炳史册者不乏實例,惟僅紀其功,未紀其致功之究竟,縱或有之,亦不過戰術戰略而已,至明代戚少保繼光所著紀效新書,對於戰鬭之武器與應用之方法,始有詳盡之紀載。
或曰今之世為科學化,立體化之戰爭時代,非比昔日一刀一槍之戰鬭時代,國術何將所用乎?是誠然。今日之武器其犀利至不可思議,一秒之時達數十發,一彈之重達一二噸,堅城固壘當之立燬,況區區血肉之軀乎?然而武器雖利究為物質,非人運用不能自動,而遂用此種犀利武器之人,必須有健强之體魄,方克勝任,近年我國選拔學生赴美研習高深航空術,體格及格者百無一二,卽已受初級中級訓練之空軍學生,至美後尚有因體力不合而被遣返者,民國三十年空軍幼童學校,第二屆在昆明招生,應攷者七百餘名,體格及格者僅九人耳;國人體格之孱弱可以想見,縱有犀利武器,若無健强之體魄可以運用,亦屬徒然,故今日尚言國術者,非敎人以血肉之軀抗禦現代武器,而為敎人由是鍛鍊體格以運用現代武器也,
或又曰鍛鍊體格之法甚多,何必採用落伍之國術?不知國術為我國歷代相傳自衞衞國之一種國粹,吾國自開化以來,技擊之術學者倍出,此種技擊曾經千百人之心血,千百年之磨練。固有其優良獨到之處,實未可厚非,且中國人習中國歷代相傳之國粹,身體習慣,皆極適宜。
我國艱苦抗戰已歷六年於茲,為持久計無論國家與人民,允宜事事就經濟上着想,鍛鍊體格之法多端,而最經濟者莫如國術:因其設備簡單也,且此有歷史性之技擊,有不少俠義故事留傳民間,一徑推行,則前代之武俠精神不難重現。
近年國民政府頒布國民體育法,亦有拳術一項,可見政府諸公亦認為國術尚有體育之價値,淺見者以為外人不習中國拳卽以為中國拳術落伍,不知各國有各國之國民特性及流行之運動方法,故東西各國編訂軍式操典及各項運動規則,無不合乎其本國之國民性及其國民體魄之要求為原則,我國國術卽適合於我國民性及國民體魄,鍛鍊體格之方法也。
國術有少林武當之分,余以為執戈衞國之士,宜習少林拳,終日用腦之文人學士,宜習太極拳(卽武當)拙著太極正宗(民國廿四年上海大東書局出版現為合訂一册)卽詳述太極拳之練習法,初學已學者均能按圖索驥,一目了然。
或謂太極十三式為牽强坿會,掤捋擠按採挒肘靠等,不過為八種手法,任何專家亦難一一演出,只能以推手姿勢略為分析,至於前後左右中定五式,更屬含糊等語,蓋其未諳身賢奧旨,筆者特將太極十三字行功法,八字訣,虛實行功法,十三字總勁歌,一字一句加以詳確銓釋,使世人知太極拳十三式確非牽强坿會,實屬一字有一字之根據者,並將進退顧盼定五式,在十三字行功法中,亦闡述極詳。
各種運動方法,有僅人體局部之動作,亦有人體全部之動作,局部者卽單力之表現,全部者為合力之表現,太極拳卽後之一種,其每一動作皆由曲綫,弧形,波浪,及螺旋形等四種形態,協合而成,亦卽心身內外各機構所有之力量,一致集中於丹田(卽臍下三指腹部之中),運動此項合力,拳術家名之曰勁,蓋勁之力量,無形無跡,全以心思意識為主宰,卽心理上變態之力量,人於心緒緊張時心理變態每有超越尋常之力量,太極拳能鍛鍊此種無意識之力量,使其成有意識之勁,此種潛藏力量受理智之馴服卽思想神經控運制運動神經是也。鍛鍊之法,要在用意不用力,卽「鬆腰,塌肩,墜肘,上下相隨內外相合」處處留意曲,弧,波,旋等形態。
太極拳適合乎生理衞生,拳經曰「尾閭中正神貫頂,滿身輕利頂頭懸。」此卽合乎生理之正規姿勢,凡人在任何狀况下,必須保持身體正直,頭頂若懸之姿勢,則精神集中於腦而不散亂,又須絕不矜持,滿身輕快,則無拘束之弊,並在動中求靜,靜則心安神定,衞生之目的達矣。
人體各部在開始鍛鍊時,無論何種動作,必有不自然之感,須持之以恆,久之自成習慣,人體之構造極端複雜,太極拳之各種複雜動作,足以適應之,故太極拳者,為人身各部機構之優良鍛鍊工具也。
我國漢唐以前,人習六藝,寓兵於農,故國勢强盛,四夷懾服,五千之年歷史賴以維繫,中原之敎化得以昌熾,民族强弱與國家之興衰,其關係有如此者,何去何從吾為知所選擇矣,雖今日火器昌明戰鬭異其方式,但當肉搏衝鋒,决勝彊場之際,則端賴有健壯之體力,靈敏之腦筋,與夫矯捷之技擊術,方克致勝,故國術者無論古今其為用初無二致,小之足以健身自衞,大之可以保國衞民,此技擊之所以稱為國術也歟?
我國自古崇尚禮義,雖在用兵之際,亦復恩威相濟,禮義兼施,習國術者雖多紏紏武夫,但槪以俠義為重,蓋研習國術旣精,性質漸改,不期然而能路見不平拔刀相助矣,非如極權國之敎導國民專作侵略之工具,藐視禮義者可比也,太極拳之特性在于持久,力不外揚,中和涵蓄,不發則已,一發則不可遏止,此與中華之民族性恰相符合。
我國國術,昔時並無宗派之分,自達摩祖師東來公開傳導,至覺遠上人時武術大備,長拳短打經緯分明:宋末道家張三丰祖師又傳太極拳,後世稱為武當派,而以達摩所傳者為少林派。國術中包含至廣,如手眼身步法之正其步規其法,出手有一定之角度,轉身有一定之法規,中心正直而不動,重心因勢而轉移,每一轉動或九十度或四十五度,眼光隨手運轉,凡一舉動無不與現代科學暗合,决非隨意擺佈者;學習時姿勢如不準確,不僅功夫難得進境,抑且有碍於心身之發達,徒勞無功,故敎授國術應將繁複之動作析為簡單,簡單者演為繁複,因人施敎,以期學者易於領悟,而不失健身之要旨,世有習國術甚久,迄難致用者,非國術之過,實學者未深求動作之形態,或敎者不明敎學方法過也;又有同一宗派之國術,而習之者人各不同,敎者互有出入,則過去秘不公開,各眩奇異之故,非國術本身之罪也。
研究國術不宜性急,須按步就班,循序漸進,且時:注意姿勢之正確,急則囫圇呑棗,食而不化,不惟難得國術之眞妙,亦失健身之要旨矣。
研究國術尤須有堅毅之信念,百折不囘之决心,無論忙逸,每日必須於規定時間依法練習,苟一曝十寒,必難收健身之效也。
練習國術,原為鍛鍊心身,惟初習時筋骨略覺酸痛,世人每誤為適得其反,乃半途而廢,不知此乃生理上新陳代謝之變化,加强筋骨健壯肌肉之象徵,過此酸痛時間,自漸週身輕利矣。
太極拳之每一動作,皆半虛半實,與球之渾圓相似,所謂動作非僅謂大動作,乃全身任何部份之每一極小動作莫不皆然,自首至尾聯綿不斷,如宇宙之晝夜不息然,太極拳且以腹部為全部動作之軸心,俯仰轉側,抑揚頓挫,四肢軀幹均由腹部發動,再隨之而動,一如星宿之隨太陽而動者,故太極拳乃極合乎自然之運動。
練習太極拳無須任何設備,空間時間無不合乎經濟條件,兩人可練,一人亦可練,晝夜、晴、雨、室內、室外無不可練,尤不分男、女、老、幼皆可練習,此太極拳之特長也。
太極拳具有健身自衞增長呼吸,助長消化之功能,進一步言更有延年益壽之衞生術,此在習者能否寒暑無間,晨昏不斷揣摩習練耳,至習之而反身羸體弱者,實習之不得其法,誤入歧途,或一曝十寒,忽弛忽張,損及心身各部之組織所致。
綜之太極拳實為切合科學原則,適於實用之運動,世人不察以為好勇鬭狼之武技,此其罪究在誰乎?是以不敢重蹈前轍,有所知輒公之於世,使習者易於入其堂奧,不習者亦得窺其底蘊,庶幾可以移轉世人過去之評判,而成登此健康之路,則國術幸甚,民族幸甚。
The tradition of our nation’s martial arts has shined from ancient times to the present day, our historical texts replete with examples. But only the deeds were recorded, not the processes that led to them, and despite such examples, they are really only military tactics and strategies. It was not until the Ming Dynasty, when General Qi Jiguang wrote his New Book of Effective Methods, about combat weapons and practical methods, that we began to have detailed records.
     Someone may say: “We are now in an age of scientific industrialized warfare, nothing like the ancient days of sword and spear. So what is the use of martial arts?” Quite true. The effectiveness of weapons is beyond belief, firing ten rounds per second, and bombs as heavy as two tons obliterating the most solid fortifications. The mere human body of flesh and blood is so trivial in comparison. However, as potent as such weapons are, they cannot function without a person operating them, and for someone to operate these devastating weapons, he still has to have a strong body.
     In recent years, our nation specially selected students to go to America to study advanced aviation techniques. Barely one percent made it through the physical exam, even though they had already received beginning or mid-level air force instruction, and after arriving in America they were still not fit enough and were sent back. In 1941, at the Air Force Youth Academy, the second class of Kunming recruits had more then seven hundred who made the attempt but only nine who passed the physical exam. It is clear from this how weak the bodies of our countrymen are. Even though we have powerful weapons, they are useless if we do not have the strength to operate them. Therefore we still talk of martial arts nowadays, not to teach men to fight against modern weapons using their bodies, but to build them up to be able to wield these weapons.
     Some may also say: “There are so many methods of exercising the body. Why pick outdated martial arts?” They do not understand that our martial arts are the essence of our culture, a tradition of defending both self and nation carried through the generations. Ever since our nation began, students of these arts have only increased. These kinds of skills have been made through the efforts of countless people and have been tempered over the course of many centuries, and truly have such excellent and unique qualities that they cannot be faulted. Furthermore, for Chinese people to practice essential Chinese tradition as a physical custom is very appropriate indeed.
     Our nation’s arduous war with Japan has now lasted for more than six years, too long for both the nation and the people, and we should consider the economic ramifications of this situation. While there are many means of exercising the body, the most affordable is martial arts training, due to the simplicity of its equipment. There is also the historic significance of martial arts, so many folktales of heroes passed down through the generations. Through the act of practicing, the heroic spirit of former times is not difficult to regain.
     In recent years, our government has been promoting methods of physical education, one of those methods being boxing arts. It is clear from this that government officials think martial arts still have value as physical education. I believe that foreigners do not practice Chinese boxing arts because they think these arts are outdated, but they fail to understand that each nation has its own personality and popular methods of exercise. Thus all nations east and west compile their own military training into manuals and formulate their own principles of exercise, principles that always suit the requirements of the personality and physique of that nation’s people. As a method of exercise, Chinese martial arts are suited specifically to the Chinese personality and physique.
     Our martial arts divide into Shaolin and Wudang. I think that for soldiers defending the nation, it is better to practice Shaolin, and for scholars using their brains all day, it is better to practice Taiji (i.e. Wudang). I wrote Authentic Taiji (published in 1935 [1936] by Great East Bookstore of Shanghai), which details the method of practicing Taiji Boxing. Both beginners and intermediate students can follow its photos, which make it clear at a glance.
     It has been mentioned [by Xiang Kairan] that Taiji’s thirteen “postures” draw strained interpretations. Warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping are merely eight kinds of hand techniques, yet experts have always had an awkward time demonstrating them one by one, only able to analyze them within the context of pushing hands exercises. As for the five positions of forward, back, left, right, and center, these are even more vague and were not properly spelled out by previous masters.
     I specially present “Methods of Practicing the Thirteen Terms” [Chapter Five], “Eight-Word Formula” [Chapter Six], “Methods of Practicing Emptiness & Fullness” [Chapter Seven], “Energies of the Thirteen Dynamics” & the “Song [of the Internal Training of the Eight Techniques]” [Chapter Eight], with detailed commentary added for every sentence so that people may understand that Taiji Boxing’s thirteen dynamics are not strained ideas but are actually specific and precise concepts. Furthermore the five positions of advancing, retreating, observation, decision, and stability, as they appear in “Methods of Practicing the Thirteen Terms”, are also clarified in detail.
     There are various methods of exercise, some that only work certain parts of the body, and some that work the whole body. Those that work on isolated parts display one kind of strength a time, and those that work the whole body display a combined strength. Taiji Boxing is one of the latter. In each of its movements there are always four features – curved paths, rounded shapes, waves, and spirals – all functioning in harmony. There is also the strength of mind and body, of inside and out, being concentrated at the elixir field (located in the abdomen, three fingers below the navel). When exercise involves this kind of combined strength, boxing arts experts call it “power”.
     The strength of this power is without shape or trace. It is entirely determined by consciousness, for it is the strength of mind over matter. When people are in a tense state of mind, they undergo a psychological shift that always gives them extraordinary strength. Taiji Boxing can develop this kind of unconscious strength and turn it into conscious power, taming this hidden strength by using the intellect to gain conscious control over the motor nerves. The most important thing in the training method is to make use of intention rather than strength. This involves loosening your waist, sinking your shoulders and dropping your elbows, coordination between your upper body and lower, inside and out joining together. And always pay attention to the features of curving, roundness, waves, and spirals.
     Taiji Boxing conforms to physiological health. It says in the boxing classics: “Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop, thus your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.” This is a standard of posture that aligns with physiological health. Whatever the situation, you must always keep your body upright and your headtop suspended, and thereby spirit will be gathered in your brain rather than scattered. You also must never be constricted, instead let your whole body be lively, and thus you will be without the error of stiffness. Moreover, seek stillness within movement, and then your mind will be calm and your spirit will be stable. The aim of health will thus be attained.
     When you begin exercising your body, with whatever kind of movement, it will inevitably feel unnatural. But you have to persevere, and then after a long time it will become a habit. As the structure of the human body is very complex, the complex movements of Taiji Boxing suit it very well. Therefore it is an excellent training tool for exercising the various systems of the body.
     During the Han and Tang dynasties, people practiced the “six arts” [rituals, music, calligraphy, mathematics, archery, charioteering] and soldiers contributed to farmwork during peacetime. The nation was thereby both strong and prosperous, and neighboring tribes submitted in awe. Five thousand years of history depended on these things coming together and Chinese culture flourished as a result, but the strength or weakness of the people determined the rising or declining of the nation. In view of this, we know what we have to do. Even though we now live in an era filled with firearms, and combat is completely different, fighting hand-to-hand can nevertheless still determine victory in the field. Success comes down to robust strength, quick wits, and nimble skills. Therefore regardless of ancient or modern, martial arts are still eminently useful. In the smaller scale they can strengthen the body and defend the self, and in the larger scale they can guard the nation and defend the people. This is why these are arts are called “national arts”.
     Since ancient times, China has venerated propriety and righteousness. Even after resorting to arms, there was again a return to a balance between benevolence and authority, to propriety and righteousness being mutually applied. Although martial arts practitioners are often tough guys, they generally attach importance to honor. When you train in martial arts to a high level, your temperament gets gradually transformed until you surprise yourself by being willing to aid the weak when you see injustice. This is quite unlike a totalitarian nation that uses its people to make weapons to invade other nations, in contempt of propriety and righteousness. Taiji Boxing’s special feature lies in being drawn out. Its strength is not outwardly displayed, but contained within mildness. When not issuing, it is not expressing anything, but upon issuing, it cannot be held back. This accords well with the character of the Chinese people.
     Our martial arts in ancient times had no classifications at all. But once Master Damo traveled east to spread his teachings, it was at last felt that people had long before made martial arts ready, and so now they were grouped into the main distinctions of “long boxing” and “short fighting”. Then at the end of the Song Dynasty, the Daoist master Zhang Sanfeng passed down Taiji Boxing, which later generations deemed to be of the Wudang branch, whereas what Damo passed down was called the Shaolin branch.
     The contents of these martial arts are vast – methods of hand, eye, body, and step. Just as proper stepping follows certain rules, the hands go out at specific angles, and the body turns within certain parameters. Your center stays upright and constant while your balance adjusts and shifts with the situation. In every turn of ninety or forty-five degrees, your gaze goes along with the movements of your hands. Every movement adheres to modern science and is never just a random action. When learning, if the postures are not accurate, not only will skill be difficult to attain, it will also hinder the development of body and mind, and you will have worked in vain. Therefore martial arts instruction should break down complicated movements into simpler ones. By using simple movements to build up into complicated ones, this enables teachers to wait for the student to more easily understand. And never lose sight of the essential aim of strengthening the body.
     There are people who have trained in a martial art for a very long time but still find it difficult to apply. This is not the fault of the art, but actually of the student still not seeking deeply into the features of the movements, or of the teacher not understanding how to teach this. Also, students within the same martial arts system are nevertheless different people, and teachers are inconsistent with each other. Therefore when schools begin keeping secrets so they can show off how unique they are, the art itself is not to blame.
     In studying martial arts, you should not be impatient. You must follow the established process and go through it step by step, and constantly pay attention to the correctness of your postures. If you rush through the material, you will absorb it without processing it, eat it without digesting it. Not only would it then be difficult to obtain the true wonders of martial arts, you would also fail in the goal of building up the body. To study martial arts, what is especially needed is firm conviction and unyielding resolve. Regardless of whether you are busy or free, you must every day set aside time to practice the material. If you attend to it sporadically, it will be difficult to gain any results in building up the body.
     Practicing martial arts is based in training body and mind. But in the beginning of the training, the muscles will be slightly sore. People always mistake this as being something they do not want and give up halfway. They do not understand that it is a physiological phenomenon, a change in metabolism which indicates the muscles are building. After this period of soreness, gradually the whole body will feel lighter.
     Every movement in Taiji Boxing is always half empty and half full, and is like a round sphere. This is not only the case for large movements, but also for the smallest movement of any part of the body. From beginning to end, movement is continuous, like the ceaseless movement of the universe through the sky. Taiji Boxing uses the abdomen as the axis of the whole body, so that whatever way your are moving – forward and back, side to side, up and down, or reversing direction – the limbs and trunk are all being moved from the abdomen, going along with its movement like the stars following the setting sun. Therefore Taiji Boxing is an exercise that conforms very much to naturalness.
     To practice Taiji Boxing, you do not need special equipment. It can be done anywhere, anytime, and for free. It can be a partner practice or a solo practice. It can be practiced day or night, rain or shine indoors or out. All can practice, regardless of man or woman, young or old. These are qualities unique to Taiji Boxing.
     Taiji Boxing possesses the abilities of building up the body and defending the self, deepening the breath and improving the digestion, and we can even go so far as to say it is a health art for promoting longevity. But these things depend on practicing constantly, whether summer or winter, and contemplating practice continuously, day and night. Once practice has reversed bodily weakness, the practitioner might take it for granted and go astray. If practice is reduced to being attended to in fits and starts, going back and forth between laziness and motivation, this would instead diminish the effects on both body and mind.
     As Taiji Boxing conforms to scientific principles so well, it is suitable for practical exercise. Ordinary people do not look closely, they simply assume it is just another brawling art. And can they really be blamed for this? Therefore I do not dare to approach them impatiently stamping my foot, only to share this knowledge with the world so that practitioners may easily have access to deeper levels and those who do not practice it get a glimpse under the surface. If we can shift common indifference and take everyone along on this path of fitness, it will be fortunate indeed for both the arts and the people.

三 選材
THREE: PICKING A STYLE

語云「工欲善其事,必先利其器。」欲成一藝選材為必要之條件,材分敎材與師材,茲先言敎材,國術分少林武當二派,少林俗稱外家拳,種類之多不勝枚舉,武當俗稱家內拳包括太極,形意八卦三大種類,以區域分則有關中、湘、贛、川、黔、閩、粵、冀、魯,約言之可分為南北二派,南派拳術貴團緊主守,北派當開展長攻,北派拳術大致有彈腿,楂拳、紅拳、花拳、砲拳、潭腿、長拳、地躺、心意、六合、太祖、羅漢、太極、八卦、形意等門、南派則分鶴拳、蛇拳、豹拳、猴拳、孔家少林、孫家少林、少林大成、南太祖、八仙、少林雲、少林奇門少林外功禪門等,南北拳門下分套,套下又有徒手器械之分,單練對打之別,其實五花八門,莫非少林一脈相傳,所謂蓮蓬、花葉、藉同出一本也,敎材種類旣繁,必須審愼選擇,求其有體育之價値,能收敎育效果者,余以為太極拳,八卦、形意拳、彈腿、查拳、花拳、紅拳、砲拳均為上選,至於猴拳,地躺拳等則不合體育敎育之原理,蓋猴拳主要姿勢在像形,如楞眼聳肩縮肋,矮步此等姿勢實有背生理之發展,地躺拳主要動作為跌撲翻滾,初學者全身各部必受劇烈之震動,亦不合生理衞生之道。
公務員運用心神,與武士之執戈衞國逈然不同,公務員終日勞神枯坐,四肢疲乏,生理上受職業之限制不能平均發展,應選適當運動,以鍛鍊其體魄,調劑其精神,補充其平均之體態。否則甚難矯正文弱之弊,而公務員之適宜運動莫過於太極拳,太極拳勢輕而緩,由內而外,着重腹腰運動,一動則全身皆動,對於公務員之偏用手腦者稗益良多。
敎材之選擇如此,師材之選擇尤不可忽,必諗其精於何項國術,受自何人,修養若何,學問道德如何,敎學方法如何,能否破除舊習?方可從學。
It says in the Lun Yu [15.10]: “If a workman wants to make work of any worth, he starts by sharpening his tools.” If you want to achieve a skill, selecting the right material is the key factor. This is a matter of selecting a style and selecting a teacher. First we will discuss selecting the right style. Our martial arts divide into the two branches of Shaolin and Wudang. Shaolin is commonly called the external school of boxing, of which there are countless styles. Wudang is commonly called the internal school of boxing, its three major systems being Taiji, Xingyi, and Bagua. These arts come from many regions, such as Shaanxi, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian, Guangdong / Guanxi, Hebei, and Shandong, but we can consolidate the discussion by dividing into a mere two branches: “southern” and “northern”. Southern styles value tight postures and emphasize defense. Northern styles have stretched out postures and specialize in attack.
     The northern styles of boxing arts are generally comprised of Tantui [“snapping kicks”], Cha Boxing, Hong Boxing, Hua Boxing, Cannon Boxing, Tantui [Tan in this case being a place name], Long Fist, Ditang, Xinyi, Six Unions, Taizu, Luohan, Taiji, Bagua, Xingyi, etc. Southern styles are divided into Crane Boxing, Snake Boxing, Leopard Boxing, Monkey Boxing, Kong Family Shaolin, Sun Family Shaolin, Great Achievement Shaolin, Southern Taizu, Eight Immortals, Shaolin Clouding, Shaolin Qimen, Shaolin External Skill Zen, etc.
     Southern and northern schools have their specific practice routines, and the practice routines divide into empty-hand and weapons, solo and partner. Despite the variety, all derive from the Shaolin tradition. It is said: “Both seed and flower stem from the same root.” There are various kinds of styles, and you must select from them very carefully. Look for its value as physical education, and then you will be able to gain good results from it. I consider Taiji Boxing, Bagua, Xingyi Boxing, Tantui, Cha Boxing, Hua Boxing, Hong Boxing, and Cannon Boxing to be the best. As for Monkey Boxing, Ditang Boxing, and so on, they do not conform to the principles of physical education. Monkey Boxing emphasizes looking like a monkey – staring wide-eyed, shrugging your shoulders, shrinking back your ribs, stepping with a short stature. These postural features are actually contrary to our physiological development. Ditang Boxing emphasizes movements of falling and rolling around, making beginners receive strenuous shocks through the whole body. This also is incompatible with physiological health.
     Government officials use their minds, whereas soldiers grab weapons – totally different ways of defending the nation. An official overworks his mind all day long, wearying his limbs from too much sitting. Physiologically, he is unable to fully develop himself, due to the confinements of his profession. He should choose appropriate exercise in order to train his body, refresh his spirit, and regain a more complete poise. If he does not, it would be difficult to rectify the harms of increasing frailty. There is no more appropriate exercise for officials than Taiji Boxing. Its postures are gentle and slow, expressing outward from within, emphasizing moving from the abdomen, and moving the entire body once there is any movement. There are numerous benefits for officials, who otherwise work only their hands and brains.
     This is what it is like to select a style. But then selecting a teacher of it is especially not to be neglected. You have to consider his skill level, who he learned from, what his training was like, his knowledge and ethics, his teaching method, and whether or not he has what it takes to break you out of old habits. Then you will be ready to learn.

四 增補太極正宗之小動作
FOUR: ADDITIONAL SUBTLETIES OF MOVEMENT

太極拳傳自宋末張三丰祖師,由來已久,坊間印本有數十種之多,余感於學者莫知適從之苦,爰秉吾師楊澄甫先生之遺訓,及同門陳微明、胡樸安兩先生之攻錯,並參酌各家著述,著太極正宗,於民國二十四年付上海大東書局出版,此後因不斷之探討,又覺有略須補充者,茲將補充之小動作列表闡明如後:
Taiji Boxing was passed down from Zhang Sanfeng of the Song Dynasty, and so it has been around for a very long time. There are dozens of books on the subject to be found in bookshops, but I feel students do not understand the hard work involved in learning the art. I received instruction from my teacher Yang Chengfu, some polishing from my fellow students Chen Weiming and Hu Pu’an, contemplated the writings of experts, and wrote Authentic Taiji. Because I have unceasingly delved into the art since it was published, I feel some need to supplement that book with the additional details that are explained in the list below:

攬雀尾 四
Posture 2: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – movement 4

原文
Original text:
左脚向東南伸出
“Your left foot reaches out to the southeast.”
補充
Supplementary text:
左腿提起(大腿提平小腿垂直)然後向東南伸出(先以足跟着地再徐落全部脚掌)
Your left leg lifts (so the thigh is level, lower leg hanging down) then reaches out to the southeast (first touching down with the heel, then slowly lowering until the sole has come down fully).
理由
Reasoning:
一,關於生理方面:伸長靭帶,活動各部關節
1. Regarding physiology:
It lengthens the ligaments and livens the joints.
二,關於練功勁方面:暢通進路,運用各部關節集中力量,以應敵
2. Regarding developing power:
It makes a smoother advance, applying the collective power of every joint in order to deal with the opponent.

攬雀尾 六
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – movement 6

原文
Original text:
右脚向西伸出
“Your right foot reaches out to the west.”
補充
Supplementary text:
右腿提起(大腿提平小腿垂直)然後向西伸(先以足跟着地然後徐落全部脚掌)。
Your right leg lifts (so the thigh is level, lower leg hanging down) then reaches out to the southeast (first touching down with the heel, then slowly lowering until the sole has come down fully).
理由
Reasoning:
三,關於攻守方面:舉腿卽攻敵之小腹,垂腿卽守自身下部,伸足卽踢敵小腹
3. Regarding attack and defense:
Raise your leg to attack the opponent’s lower abdomen, hanging your lower leg to defend your own crotch, or reach out your leg to kick to his lower abdomen.
四,關於中心方面:提腿再伸卽(摺叠各部靭帶,將全部之力量集中丹田再伸長擊敵,猶摺叠之彈簧性作用,所用之力量則速而有勁,此為中心運用重心之法也。
4. Regarding centeredness:
Lift your leg, then extend it. (Fold at each joint, collecting all of your strength into your elixir field, then reach it out to strike the opponent. It is like the action of cocking a crossbow. When you use your strength, it is then sudden and powerful. This is the method of centeredness creating balance.)

如封似閉 一
Posture 11: SEALING SHUT – movement 1

原文
Original text:
左臂卽翻轉承於右臂下向前伸出掌心朝上
“Your left arm arcs to be below your right shoulder and reaches out forward, palm facing upward.”
補充
Supplementary text:
護於左臂旁之左掌心下按承於左肘臂下掌心朝下手腕往前向左抎撥平舉於左右捶變掌縮囘胸前手心朝上
[Your left hand] guards to the left side of your left arm, the palm pushing down until lower than the elbow, palm facing downward, then the wrist goes forward and lifts to cloud across to the left as your right fist becomes a palm and withdraws in front of your chest, palm facing upward.
理由
Reasoning:
一,關於生理方面:左掌下按,復旋轉掌心,再縮回兩掌於肋間又復伸長,此即活動肩臂肘腕各關節,加强伸縮力量並鍛鍊胸大肌斜方肌,二頭股肌,三頭股肌等肌肉。
1. Regarding physiology:
Your left palm pushes down, turns over, then both palms will withdraw toward your ribs, and then extend. This works your shoulder, elbows, and wrists, increasing your ability to extend and withdraw, and exercises your pectorals, trapezius, biceps, and triceps.
二,關於勁路方面,兩臂由大圓縮為小圓,卽為蓄勁集中於丹田,復由小圓放大圓卽為發勁,蓄勁比如開弓,發勁比如放箭,放箭逾快而逾有勁。
2. Regarding power transmission:
Your arms withdraw, going from large circle to small circle, storing power by concentrating it into your elixir field, and will then go from small circle to large circle to issue it. Store power like drawing a bow and release power like loosing an energy. The greater the power, the greater the speed of the arrow.

如封似閉 二
SEALING SHUT – movement 2

原文
Original text:
兩臂翻腕向左右撥開卽向後收回掌心向前手指微曲
“Your forearms rotate in unison, turning your wrists, deflecting aside to the left and right, and withdrawing to the rear, palms facing forward, fingers slightly bent.”
補充
Supplementary text:
左臂旋轉掌心朝上同時兩臂縮囘于兩肋間
As your left forearm rotates so the palm is facing upward, both arms are withdrawing toward your ribs.
理由
Reasoning:
三,關於攻守方面:左掌下按卽往前向左抎撥,為解除敵之威脅,復因其威脅,以捋勢將敵向懷中擄囘,敵如縮囘隨卽乘勢隨其劣勢往外發動,此所謂順水推舟之法也。
3. Regarding attack and defense:
Your left palm pushes down and goes forward clouding to the left to dispel the threat of the opponent’s attack, then continue into using a rollback action toward your chest to capture him. If he draws back, take advantage of his inferior position by issuing outward, what is called “going along with the current to push the boat”.

如封似閉 三
SEALING SHUT – movement 3

原文
Original text:
兩臂緩緩隨軀幹向東平按
“Your arms go along with your torso by slowly doing a level push to the east.”
補充
Supplementary text:
兩臂同時由肋間上托卽經右肩前徐徐東斜上伸
Your arms go from your ribs in unison, propping upward, passing in front of your right shoulder, and slowly extend diagonally upward to the east.

十字手 三
Posture 12: CROSSED HANDS – movement 3

原文
Original text:
緩緩直立同時兩脚向內收囘與肩同寬兩脚互收成平行式
“Your legs slowly straighten to be standing, your feet gathering inward until at shoulder width, making a parallel stance.”
補充
Supplementary text:
同時右脚向內收半步膝微曲右脚再向內收半步膝仍微曲兩脚收齊平行後兩膝由左向右旋轉一週此時兩腿挺直腰胯再旋轉一週腰胯伸直同時兩臂由下垂隨兩膝腰胯旋轉時緩緩上升此時兩肩同樣由左往右旋轉一週兩掌朝內右手在內左手在外成交叉形。
As your right foot gathers inward a half step, your knees are slightly bent, then your right [left] foot gathers inward a half step, knees still slightly bent. Once your feet are both drawn in and standing parallel, your knees arc from left to right, straightening your legs, then your hips arc, straightening your lower body. At the same time, your arms go along with the rotation of your knees and hips by rising up from below, your shoulders rotating from left to right, palms facing inward, right hand inside, left hand outside, making a crossed shape.
理由
Reasoning:
一,關於生理方面:如果此式動作,為沿用直立不加調整,只有腿與臂之運動,關於膝胯肩肘,外形之動作消失,內部腸胃心臟之活動亦無影響,故有補充之必要。
1. Regarding physiology:
Without adjusting this movement in this way, it would involve nothing more than legs and arms. For the knees, hips, shoulders, and elbows, the outward appearance of the movement now melts away, and the functions within of the digestive organs and heart will remain uninfluenced by the movement. Therefore this is a necessary addition.
二,關於物理方面:凡物由下上升,若突然直上必為氣整所阻行動不暢,如以螺旋式旋轉上升,則暢行無阻,人由蹲勢突然直立,亦覺為氣壓所阻,肺部被迫而不暢,如旋轉而上則肺部不受壓迫,各關節亦得輕快之活動,有助於心身實非淺鮮。
2. Regarding physics:
If an object rises up from below suddenly, there will be friction from the air and its movement will not be smooth. But if there is rotation as it rises, there will be less friction. Suddenly rising from a squatted position, a person will feel pressure from the air in his lungs. But if he rotates as he rises, there will be less pressure and also greater liveliness in the movements of his joints. The benefit of this for both body and mind will not be meager.
三,關於練勁方面:運用全部各關節使其靈活,並加强靭帶之收縮力。
3. Regarding developing power:
This exercises the nimbleness of your whole body and enhances the withdrawing strength in your joints.
四,關於技術方面:鬆腰塌肩墜肘為國術中主要之技術,肩能塌,腰能鬆,肘能墜則氣自然下沉,而精神亦自凝固矣,是謂內外相合,意志力量均能集中,至於發放之動作,伸縮之肌肉,為達到運用自衞之技術,到此境界,卽以虛化實以實擊虛是也。
4. Regarding technique:
Loosening your waist, settling your shoulders, and dropping your elbows are fundamentals of technique in Chinese martial arts. If your waist can loosen, shoulders can settle, elbows can drop, then energy will naturally sink and spirit will naturally become firm. This is what is meant by “inside and outside join together”. When your intention and strength can be focused together, then your movements of issuing, and the extending and contracting of muscles, will be functional for self-defense techniques. When you achieve this condition, you will be using emptiness to neutralize fullness, and using fullness to attack emptiness.

抱虎歸山 一
Posture 13: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – movement 1

原文
Original text:
軀幹向西北轉動同時右手向西北斜下按身軀復向東南轉動左手隨卽向東南斜上托右足隨右手向西北退一步
“Your torso turns to the northwest, your right hand pushing diagonally downward to the northwest, your left hand going along with the turning of your torso by propping diagonally upward to the southeast, your right foot going along with your right hand by retreating a step to the northwest.”
補充
Supplementary text:
上列原文與師傳毫無脫漏惟按實際上小動作稍有補充,軀幹向東北轉動兩腿下蹲兩足掌稍向西北磨動同時兩手掌翻腕手心朝下握拳如虎爪形。
The original text is exactly as I was taught, nothing left out, but there is actually a small movement to supplement it [which could called movement 1 – part 1]: Your torso turns toward the northeast, your legs squatting down, the soles of your feet slightly pivoting [to point the heels] toward the northwest, your wrists at the same time turning over so the palms are facing downward and grasping into fists to be like tiger’s paws.
理由
Reasoning:
按兩掌翻轉握拳關于生理上與前各式同,關於技術上掌若不翻轉變虎爪拳則失拳術上眞義,翻轉握拳者卽「採」之義也,兩臂上下斜分,及右足向右後斜退者為「挒」之義也,若此小動作忽略則拳術之眞義失矣。
Your hands turning over and grasping into fists has to do with physiology in the same way as was discussed with the previous postures. In terms of the technique, if your palms do not turn over and change into tiger-paw fists, then the real meaning of the technique has been left out. When they turn over and grasp into fists, there is the intention of plucking. Then when your arms spread apart above and below, and your right foot retreats diagonally to the right rear, there is the intention of rending. If these small features are overlooked, then the true purposes of the technique would be lost.

左右抎手 三 五 七
Posture 27: LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS – movements 3, 5, 7 [3 & 6]

原文
Original text:
未曾將翻掌轉腕引肘向後之小動作說明如第三動作第五動作第七動作右(左)手由前繞轉一週抎至腹前
There are additional subtleties of turning the palm and drawing back the elbow. See this passage from movements 3, 5, 7 [3 & 6]: “Your right hand arcs from in front of you, clouding until in front of your abdomen.”
補充
Supplementary text:
在原文「右(左)手由前繞一週抎至腹前」必須改為右(左)手由左肩前繞至心前卽將掌心翻向下同時手掌下按右肘後引仍下按至右(左)腿旁臂垂直為度以下第五動作及第七動均接如斯而行
The original text has to be adjusted so that when your right hand goes from in front of your left shoulder, the palm turns over to face downward once it arcs past your centerline, then the palm pushes down, still pushing down as your right elbow draws back, until the hand arrives at your right thigh, the arm hanging straight. This adjustment then applies to movements 5 and 7 [movement 6].
理由
Reasoning:
此式手掌若不翻手腕亦不轉,關于生理上亦不能手臂肘二頭股筋三頭股筋各部份肌肉得到相當均匀活動,尤其關于技術上沉肩墜肘之功夫亦未如期做到,况翻腕引肘卽「捋」法中之要竅,以此法由自衞兼攻擊,如敵以拳衝擊而來,以掌格之,翻腕以按之,引肘以採之,此卽將敵直力化為橫力(格)復改變縱力(按)並加力牽引又變直力(引)將敵來勢分化為三節,我卽因翻掌引肘順敵之勢截分為三,而我防禦二者,兼而有之此為補充之意義也。
In this action, if the palm does not turn over, the wrist also does not turn. Looking at it from a physiological perspective, the biceps and triceps can only move if they operate correspondingly. In terms of technique, the principles of sinking the shoulder and dropping the elbow also have to be functioning at the same time. Furthermore, turning the wrist and drawing back the elbow are the keys to performing a rollback.
     This technique is for both defense and attack. If an opponent thrusts out a punch, I use a palm to obstruct it, turn over my wrist and push it down, and draw back my elbow to pluck it. This changes his straight force into a sideways force (by obstructing), then changes it to a vertical force (by pushing down), and then turns it back into a straight force (by drawing back). I divide his incoming force into three stages by turning my palm and drawing back my elbow. By going along with his single force while chopping it into three, I am both defending and countering. This gives the technique added meaning.

進步栽捶 一
Posture 33: ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH

原文
Original text:
同時右臂翻腕收囘于腰間隨卽握拳復往左腿前轉下栽捶
“Your right arm withdraws to your waist, wrist turning, then curls up into a fist and arcs forward and downward with a planting punch.”
補充
Supplementary text:
同時右臂翻腕掌心朝上由前經左脚往左後由後下轉臂由右外斜上繞至右斜上方卽將拳(以第二轉關節編成拳栽擊敵(頂腦)截至額前腰塌身立
Your right wrist turns so the palm is facing upward, goes from in front of your left leg to the left rear, arcs downward, and the arm goes outward to the right and diagonally upward until in the upper right corner, then send your fist in front of your forehead, waist settling, body upright (and use this second arc to do a planting strike onto the opponent’s head).
理由
Reasoning:
此式依原文「捲拳徐徐往左腹前斜下栽捶」顧名思義極其合理,然而關于技術上仍有研究餘地,蓋此一式與其下一式白蛇吐信,互相為用,此為佯攻,彼為實擊,若栽捶下至左腹前則拋物綫太長,而攻擊力亦超過限度,不但收效不易,而中心亦難穩固,反被制于人,不若取佯攻之姿態,收下式之效果,此為術中虛實之變化云爾。
The original version fits the name of the posture very well, but there is still more to the technique to be studied. This posture and the one that follows it, WHITE SNAKE FLICKS ITS TONGUE, may be combined together in application, this one being a feint, that one being the real attack. If you send the planting punch downward until in front of the left side of your abdomen, then the parabola would be too long and the force of the attack would be too great. Not only would it not easily be effective, but it would be difficult to keep your center stable, turning the tables and putting you under the opponent’s control. It is not as good as using the attack as a feint to gain a result from the following posture. This technique thereby contains the switching of emptiness and fullness.

如封似閉 仝前
Posture 43: SEALING SHUT (Same as described above.)
十字手 仝前
Posture 44: CROSSED HANDS (Same as described above.)
抱虎歸山 仝前
Posture 45: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (Same as described above.)
左右抎手 仝前
Posture 54: LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS (Same as described above.)
仝前 仝前
Posture 67: [LEFT & RIGHT CLOUDING HANDS] (Same as described above.)
如封似閉 仝前
Posture 79: SEALING SHUT (Same as described above.)
十字手 仝前
Posture 80: CROSSED HANDS (Same as described above.)

五 太極正宗十三字行功法
FIVE: METHODS OF PRACTICING THE THIRTEEN TERMS

太極拳之盛行已數十年,有關著述達數十種之多,但多標新立異,以眩獨得秘傳,分岐百出莫衷一是;余於研究之餘,確定八十一式,作太極正宗,民國二十九年春在滇,吾宗孟俠先生,轉請金一明先生介紹相識,孟兄精八卦,擅太極為當今國術界之矯矯者,一談傾心,相見恨晚,孟俠於太極正宗一書許為同調,惟書中未將十三字行功法刊入為惜!經余淸益,孟俠慨將歌訣十六句,計一百一十二字錄出,迴環把誦,一字有一字之用,一句有一句之法,字字珠璣,句句錦繡,復經孟俠不吝講解,乃如醍醐貫頂豁然開朗,茲得孟兄許可,特公之於世,並作釋義。
Taiji Boxing has now been popular for several decades, and dozens of books have been written about it. However, they are often attempts to present it in a unique way, flaunting some secret teachings, and so they end up diverging from each other in many ways, making it hard to tell which ways are right. In my own studies, I settled on eighty-one postures and wrote Authentic Taiji.
     In the spring of 1940, in Yunnan, my fellow clansman [i.e. sharing the same surname] Wu Mengxia asked Jin Yiming to introduce us. Elder brother Mengxia [Zhiqing was about twenty years older than Mengxia, so this use of “elder brother” has a different function.] is skilled in Bagua and Taiji, and is praised these days within the martial arts community. We had a captivating discussion and I regretted I had not known him earlier. He had liked almost everything about my book, but just thought it was shame that it did not contain “Methods of Practicing the Thirteen Terms”. I asked him for more information about this.
     He then shared some poems with me, amounting to sixteen phrases, a hundred and twelve characters, which he recited from memory. There was purpose in each word, principle in each phrase, every word like a gem, every phrase like a tapestry. He then went further and generously added explanations for each phrase. It was as though Truth itself had penetrated my head and suddenly all was clear. With his permission, I now specially present these [three] poems to the world, including his explanations [appearing below throughout the rest of this chapter and in Chapters Six and Seven].

歌訣
SONG [OF METHODS OF PRACTICING THE THIRTEEN TERMS]

掤手兩臂要圓撑 動靜虛實任意攻 搭手捋開擠手使 敵欲還着勢難逞
按手用着似傾倒 二把採住不放鬆 來勢兇猛挒手用 肘靠隨時任意行
進退反側應機走 何怕敵人藝業精 遇敵上前迫近打 顧住三前盼七星
敵人逼近來打我 閃開正中定橫中 太極十三字中法 精意揣摩妙更生
When warding off, your arms should be bracing with roundness,
then whether in a state of movement or stillness, emptiness or fullness, you may attack as you please.
Connect, rollback, and then press.
The opponent wishes to counter, but the situation is now beyond his control.
     When I perform the pushing technique, I appear as though I will topple over.
I pluck with a double grab and do not slacken.
When his force is ferocious, I use the rending technique.
Elbowing or bumping depends on the moment, so use them when it feels suitable.
     Advance, retreat, turn, responding according to the situation.
Why worry about the opponent’s expertise?
As you go forward to meet the opponent, closing in to attack,
observation covers the three fronts and decision lies in the seven stars.
     When the opponent closes in to attack me,
I dodge away from my vertical centerline to stabilize myself along his horizontal centerline.
If the methods within Taiji’s thirteen terms
are scrutinized and contemplated, they will produce yet further subtleties.

釋義
Explanations:

「掤」掤者二臂撑開如捧圓盤,穩定中心如盤之承珠,任敵攻擊,我惟以盤閃展迎擊,惟仍盤不離珠,亦卽不失中心之所寄,以中心為迎拒之謂。此卽「掤手兩臂要圓撑」「動靜虛實任意攻」是也。
此如敵方以按勢反攻,我難以圓形之掤勢承受來勢,惟仍急將腰胯後呑,身胸內歛,則敵按勢已如誤踏陷阱,脚底頓空,我再乘虛而入,强敵自摧矣,拳經云:「不得機不得勢,在腰胯中求之」老子曰「心要虛,腹要實」可為掤勢寫眞矣。
“Warding off” means that my arms are propped open as though they are holding a disc. A stable center is like a pearl balanced in the middle of the disc. When an opponent attacks, I just reach out with this disc to meet his attack, still keeping the pearl balanced. Never losing my center, I use my center to receive. Hence: “When warding off, your arms should be bracing with roundness, then whether in a state of movement or stillness, emptiness or fullness, you may attack as you please.”
     If he then counters with the push posture, it is difficult for me to use a rounded ward-off to receive his incoming force, so I absorb it by sending my hips to the rear and drawing in with my chest. His push energy is thus made similar to the act of accidentally stepping into a pit, nothing for the foot to come down on, and I then take advantage of his moment of weakness and charge in. Even a powerful opponent would naturally be defeated in this way. It says in the Taiji classics: “If you miss and your body easily falls into disorder, the problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there.” Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 3]: “Empty mind, full belly.” This can describe the ward-off energy.

「捋」捋者借敵攻勢,而順其勢反擊之謂也。
比如二人推手,敵方以左手掤來,而我左手扶住敵左腕,右掌扶住敵右肘,兩掌順勢,虛心歛腹,往懷中左下側擄開,則來勢因此而化,如乘機反攻,卽聯用擠手,敵一攻撲空,必定縮囘,不意我迅雷不及掩耳接踵撲入,怒風襲危牆,不到者幾希,此之謂「搭手捋開擠手使」「敵欲還着勢難逞」是也。
“Rolling back” means to borrow the opponent’s attacking momentum and go along with it to send it back at him.
     While pushing hands, if my opponent does a ward-off with his left hand, I use my left hand to support at his left wrist and my right hand to support at his right elbow, my palms going along with his energy as I empty my chest and draw back my belly, absorbing him toward my center and then doing a rollback to send him away to the left side. This causes his incoming force to change, so I seize the opportunity to counterattack, connecting to him by doing a press. Once his attack has missed, he is sure to withdraw. Not expecting me to follow him and pounce with lightning speed, it is like a fierce wind assaulting a weakened wall, no hope of staying up at all. Hence: “Connect, rollback, and then press. The opponent wishes to counter, but the situation is now beyond his control.”

「擠」擠者乘機突襲之手法也。
比如敵使右掤手,我以右手接應敵腕,左手背貼近敵右肘灣,敵則側身擎臂以護右肘,我乘此急將右掌按住自己左手尺骨處,出其不意直攻當胸,敵因側身,已失中心,遭此猛擠,則無不應手傾跌也。
“Pressing” means to take advantage of an opportunity to suddenly attack.
     If an opponent does a ward-off with his right hand, I use my right hand to connect to his wrist and the back of my left forearm to stick to his right elbow. He turns his body sideways, lifting up his other arm to protect his right elbow, so I take advantage of this by quickly pushing my right palm to the ulna area of my left forearm and take him by surprise with a straight attack to his chest. Because his body is turning sideways, he is already losing his balance, and so once he encounters this fierce pressing, he cannot keep himself from stumbling away.

「按」按者若推山入海,勢如奔馬,用兩掌按敵雙臂之謂也。
比如敵人以掤勢攻來,我在敵將達未達剎那之間,中途邀擊,急以雙手封敵,按手向上略逗,以鬆敵勁,再往下按,同時上身略向前傾,使用肩肘,及腰胯,足,膝等功勁由下而上,勢如烈風拔樹,則敵勢難再逞,所謂「按手用着似傾倒」是也。
“Pushing” is like pushing a mountain into the sea, having an energy like a running horse while using both palms to push on an opponent’s arms.
     When an opponent attacks with a ward-off, in the instant when it is about to arrive but has not yet arrived, I cut it off halfway, quickly sending both hands to seal him off, pushing upward to slightly slow him down to reduce his power, then push down. At the same time, my upper body leans slightly forward, bringing the complete power of my feet, knees, hips, and shoulders upward from below, the energy like a strong wind uprooting the trees, making it harder for him to want to try again. Hence: “When I perform the pushing technique, I appear as though I will topple over.”

「採」採者擒也,卽兩手粘敵,不卽不離,欲擒故縱,準備攻擊之勢也。
比如二人交手,兩手互使盤法,覺敵似有怯戰意,乃先發制人,粘住敵臂,不使敵離我掌握,我卽開始攻擊,此之謂「二把採住不放鬆」是也。
“Plucking” means to seize, using both hands to stick to the opponent, neither overreaching nor separating, just enough to prepare an attack.
     While sparring, the hands coiling around each other, if I feel the opponent seems too timid to fight, I first act to control him, sticking to his arm and not letting him escape my grasp, and I then initiate my attack. Hence: “I pluck with a double grab and do not slacken.”

「挒」挒者擰也,亦卽先採後挒以殺敵之勢也。
比如二人决戰時,敵以全力進犯,我先用採法粘住敵人兩手,而後藉敵兇猛之勢,加以自身力量,迅速轉動腰胯,同時一脚後撤,摧枯拉朽,摔敵於自身之外,此之謂「來勢兇猛挒手用」是也。
“Rending” means twisting. First pluck and then rend, destroying the opponent’s technique.
     While fighting, if the opponent attacks with his full power, I first use the plucking technique to stick to both of his hands, thus diminishing the fierceness of his force, then I add my own power by quickly turning my hips while withdrawing one of my feet, thereby wrecking his already destabilizing structure and throwing him away. Hence: “When his force is ferocious, I use the rending technique.”

「肘靠」肘靠者,以敵逼近身旁,我反守為攻,以肘克之,靠近敵身,使其無迴旋餘地。
比如敵以勢逼近我身,此時我兩手不及抽囘,或無法收囘,可急含胸歛腹閃開,以避其鋒,再以臂肘短兵相接,直封其面門同時以肩胯逼近敵身,使全身力量,迫敵離開中心,我卽乘機擺弄,則敵自傾,此所謂「肘靠隨時任意行」也。
“Elbowing” and “bumping” are for when the opponent is right next to me. I switch from defense to offense, using my elbow to attack, leaning in close to his body so he has no room to maneuver.
     When he uses a technique that brings him in close to my body, and it is too late for me to withdraw my hands or body, I can quickly hollow my chest and draw back my abdomen to evade it. Turning evasion into attack, I then use my elbow to deal with him at close range, sealing off the area directly in front of me. At the same time, I crowd against him with my shoulder and hip, using the strength of my whole body to compel him to abandon his center, and then I sway against him, causing him to collapse. Hence: “Elbowing or bumping depends on the moment, so use them when it feels suitable.”

「進退」進退者卽避實乘虛,不卽不離,伺機而動之法也。
比如(一)為活步推手時,敵進我退,卽避實之法也。(二)為大捋(卽拗步)推手時敵反擊我側,卽為乘虛之法,此所謂「進退反側應機走」「何怕敵人藝業精」是也。
“Advancing” and “retreating” has to do with avoiding fullness and attacking emptiness, neither overreaching nor separating, waiting for the right opportunity to act.
     For example: 1. During moving-step pushing hands, when he advances, I retreat, avoiding his fullness. 2. During large rollback (i.e. twisted-stepping) pushing hands, when he counterattacks, I turn to the side, then attack his emptiness. Hence: “Advance, retreat, turn, responding according to the situation. Why worry about the opponent’s expertise?”

「顧盼」顧者從容之看,盼者迅速之看也,看準敵手動靜,我已成竹在胸,須有泰山崩於前面不更色之從容,要有敵不動我不動,敵一動我先動之迅速,此全須顧得定,盼得準,所謂「遇敵上前迫近打」「顧住三前盼七星」是也。
三前者眼前手前脚前,此三前為敵我决勝之場合,七星者,頭,肩,肘,手,胯,膝,足,此七部為我攻敵之利器,亦為我被攻之弱點,故在我目中應如黑夜中七顆閃燦之明星,星一微動,我已瞭然,自可應付裕如,此之謂顧盼是也。
“Observation” means to look leisurely [i.e. to look generally]. “Decision” means to look quickly [i.e. to notice specifically]. Observing the actions of the opponent’s hands, I already know what to do. What is required for this is the quality of staying calm even if Mt. Tai is collapsing right in front of me. It should be that if the opponent is not moving, I am not moving, but once he moves at all, I am so quick that I move before him. This entirely depends on observation being steady and decision being accurate. Hence: “As you go forward to meet the opponent, closing in to attack, observation covers the three fronts and decision lies in the seven stars.”
     The three fronts are the areas in front of the eyes, hands, and feet. These three areas form the ground on which the opponent and I will determine victory. The seven stars are: head, shoulder, elbow, hand, hip, elbow, foot. These seven parts are my weapons for attacking the opponent, but are also weak points where I may be attacked. Therefore the view within my gaze should be like a dark night containing these seven little twinkling stars. If one of his stars shows the slightest movement, it is clear to me, and then I can easily deal with anything that comes. This is the meaning of “observation and decision”.

「定」定者穩定中心之謂也。
比如敵由前奔進攻我正面,我卽邁步閃開,側襲敵後,乘虛截擊敵之腰幹,(卽橫中)所謂「敵人迫近來打我」「閃開正中定橫中」是也。
“Stability” means stabilizing my center.
     If an opponent rushes forward to attack me head-on [i.e. toward my vertical centerline], I promptly step to dodge it, going to the side to then attack him from behind. When I take advantage of a gap and then intercept the opponent at his waist, this is the “horizontal centerline”. Hence: “When the opponent closes in to attack me, I dodge away from my vertical centerline to stabilize myself along his horizontal centerline.”

綜觀十三字之意義,均係脫險致勝,未經人道之妙法,所謂「太極十三字中法」「精意揣摩妙更生」意義雖大致如上釋,終不過皮毛膚淺之談,實際運用,仍須有深刻功夫,再四揣摩,方能奧妙無窮也。
Comprehensive analysis of the meanings of these thirteen terms has always had to do with escaping danger and achieving victory, never with the subtleties of the ways of people. However: “If the methods within Taiji’s thirteen terms are scrutinized and contemplated, they will produce yet further subtleties.” Although their general meanings have been explained above, they are really only superficial descriptions, and their practical usage still requires extensive training. Add in frequent contemplation, and then they will be able to produce endless subtleties.

六 太極正宗八字訣
SIX: EIGHT-WORD FORMULA

三換二捋一擠按 搭手遇撑莫讓先 柔裏有剛攻不破 剛中無柔不為堅
與人攻打要採挒 力在驚彈走羅旋 逞勢進取貼身肘 肩膝胯打靠當先
In three exchanges, there are two rollbacks, one press or push.
When you connect hands and meet his bracing, do not be the first to yield.
If you have hardness within softness, an attack cannot smash through.
But if you have no softness within that hardness, it will not hold up.
     To deal with an opponent’s attack, you should use plucking and rending.
As his force manifests with a sudden vibration, yield and spiral him away.
If the chance comes to close in and do a short-range elbow strike,
you should first lean into range to hit with shoulder, knee, or hip.

按八字訣者卽掤捋擠按採挒肘靠八字也,此八字訣為兩敵對壘,决勝負之秘訣。茲銓釋如後
(The “eight words” refers to the eight techniques of warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, bumping. It has to do with succeeding in the scenario of two opponents facing each other, each determined to win. It is analyzed below.)

三換二捋一擠按 搭手遇撑莫讓先
In three exchanges, there are two rollbacks, one press or push.
When you connect hands and meet his bracing, do not be the first to yield.

此如逢敵推手,已經「三換(卽三掤)二捋」當知來敵不弱,應卽以「擠按」之法制之,所謂「搭手遇撑莫讓先」,撑者掤也,有捧卽非俗,不必多耗光陰,應以當仁不讓之决心先發制人。
When pushing hands with an opponent, as you go through the course of three exchanges (i.e. ward-offs), there are two rollbacks, and once you know how to attack the opponent without being in the weaker position, you should use the technique of press or push to control him. “Bracing” means warding off, or less commonly called “propping”. It is not necessary to spend a lot of time in this position. You should have the resolution of “a man in the right does not compromise” [Lun Yu, 15.36] to issue first and take control.

柔裏有剛攻不破 剛中無柔不為堅
If you have hardness within softness, an attack cannot smash through.
But if you have no softness within that hardness, it will not hold up.

世人以太極拳練時多不使力,便謂無力,不知其外表似柔,內中蓄勁如剛,有守時如處女,走時如脫兎之勢,所謂「柔裏有剛攻不破,剛中無柔不為堅」是也,若一味柔若無骨,雖有十年苦功,亦難當大敵也。
People think that while practicing Taiji Boxing there is never any strength being used, coming to the assumption that it has “no strength”. They do not understand that although it outwardly appears to be soft, the power stored within seems to be hard. When defending, be like a shy maiden, then when taking action, be as sudden as a bolting rabbit. If you are stubbornly being so soft that you seem to have no bones, then even after ten years of hard work, it would still be difficult for you to stand up against a powerful opponent.

與人攻打要採挒 力在驚彈走羅旋
To deal with an opponent’s attack, you should use plucking and rending.
As his force manifests with a sudden vibration, yield and spiral him away.

假使對方來勢兇猛,當虛以待實,所謂「借人之力順人之勢」採挒者卽以逸待勞,借敵力為我用,所謂「四兩撥千斤」是也,敵來攻擊,我於確定敵方虛實之點後,便可使用「力在驚彈走羅旋」之訣,力者為敵「力」聚集所「在」,走者粘住敵方,化敵力反為我用,「驚彈」為觸覺之靈,敏若雀鳥之驚彈,使出動作如螺絲之旋轉,無堅不入卽於極細微之間,將敵主力化去,我乘虛而入之謂,又發放敵人非直力所能奏效,應以螺旋力撼敵。
If the opponent’s incoming force is fierce, I should empty and wait to fill, what is called “borrowing his force and going along with his energy”. To pluck and rend, I patiently wait for him to spend his energy, then borrow his force for my own use, as in “four ounces of force moving that of a thousand pounds”. Once I determine the status of his emptiness or fullness as he attacks, I can then apply the trick of spiraling him away. When his force gathers and expresses, I yield, sticking to him, to neutralize his force and turn it into my own. The “sudden vibration” has to do with sensitivity of touch. As quick as a gunshot at a bird, his movement comes out. If I then use a spiraling rotation, there will be nothing he can do that is strong enough to hold me back from getting into the smallest gaps. Once I have neutralized the bulk of his force, I take advantage of the opportunity by invading into a weak area. To send him away, direct force would not be effective, so I should use a spiraling force to surprise him.

逞勢進取貼身肘 肩胯膝打靠當先
If the chance comes to close in and do a short-range elbow strike,
you should first lean into range to hit with shoulder, knee, or hip.

比如敵來攻我,我急趁勢利用肩胯膝三部挺身靠進,使敵不及騰挪,我再以短兵相接,迫之以肘,此所謂「逞勢進取貼身肘,肩胯膝打靠當先」是也。
If an opponent comes to attack me, I take advantage of the situation by employing shoulder, hip, or knee, straightening my body and leaning in close, giving him no room to move. I then use short-range fighting, crowding him with my elbow.

七 太極正宗虛實行功法
SEVEN: METHODS OF PRACTICING EMPTINESS & FULLNESS

虛虛實實神會中 虛實實虛手行功 練拳不諳虛實理 枉費功夫終無成
虛將實發術中竅 中實不發藝難精 虛實自有虛實在 實實虛虛攻不空
Emptiness emptying, fullness filling… spirit is gathered within.
Emptiness filling, fullness emptying… hands are performing skillfully.
In practicing boxing arts, if you are not well versed in the principles of emptiness and fullness,
all your training will have been in vain, ultimately achieving nothing.
     Empty to defend, then fill to attack. This is the key to the art.
If you spot the moment to become full and yet do not issue, the art will be difficult to master.
There is emptiness and fullness within emptiness and fullness.
When your “fullness” is really full and your “emptiness” is really empty, you will attack without missing.

練武術者務須研究虛實之理,不僅太極拳如此,其他武術亦莫不皆然,惟此中竅要,神妙異常,初學者實難索解,兹釋之如後。
Practitioners of martial arts have to study the principle of emptiness and fullness. It is not only a feature of Taiji Boxing, all other martial arts have it too. However, this trick contains unusual ingenuity, and so beginners find it quite difficult to understand. Therefore explanation is provided below.

虛虛實實神會中 虛實實虛手行功
Emptiness emptying, fullness filling… spirit is gathered within.
Emptiness filling, fullness emptying… hands are performing skillfully.

虛實二字,在技擊上意義廣大,今舉例明之,「虛」者空洞無物之謂,虛則圓轉自如,不為外物所牽引,「實」者為堅固之體,固則滯碍橫生,易為外物所毀,技擊之學,貴乎自如(卽主動)則人為我制,滯碍(卽被動)則受制於人。
又固如山者,眞空不滅,實物易毀,故有愚公之誠,終有可移之山,空者虛也。
又如白雲之行跡靡定,若受外力(風)激動,東來則西推,西來則東浮,此為吸引外力為已行動之助也。佛偈曰「本來無一物,何處惹塵埃」,可謂深得虛實二字之三昧者也。
The two terms “emptiness” and “fullness” have very broad meanings in martial arts. I will try to make them clearer. “Emptiness” means totally insubstantial. With emptiness, you are in a state of complete freedom, nothing outside you able to entice you in. “Fullness” means substantial to the point of solidity. With solidity, you will be obstructed from every direction, easily driven to distraction by external objects. In the study of martial arts, I value freedom (i.e. taking charge), through which the opponent will be under my control, rather than obstruction (i.e. being acted upon), whereby I would be under his control.
     Solidity is like a mountain. True emptiness cannot be extinguished, but material things are easily destroyed. Therefore if you have the sincerity of the Foolish Old Man [Liezi, chapter 5], you will ultimately be able to shift a mountain [who achieved it by having his sons and grandsons continue the project].
     Insubstantiality is like the movement of clouds, which leave no trace. If they are agitated by an external force (i.e. the wind) coming from the east, they will be pushed away to the west, or if coming from the west, will drift to the east. This is instead the act of drawing in an external force to aid movement. A Buddhist verse goes [from Huineng’s “On Enlightenment”]: “There is nothing at all in the first place, so why would there be any dust to wipe away?” This can be considered the deepest understanding of emptiness and fullness.

練拳不諳虛實理 枉費功夫終無成
In practicing boxing arts, if you are not well versed in the principles of emptiness and fullness,
all your training will have been in vain, ultimately achieving nothing.

習國術者如不明虛實之道,雖有十年苦功,不能當為名家之一擊,語云:「拳不攻力,力不克功,功不勝巧」巧者卽虛實之理,能運用已實攻人之虛運已之虛代人之實,非執一不變之謂,所以善用虛實者,卽應用巧妙之機動戰術也。
If a martial arts practitioner does not understand the concept of emptiness and fullness, then even if he goes through ten years of hard training, he will not be able to deal with a single strike from an expert. A saying goes: “Mere boxing cannot win against strength, strength cannot win against training, and training cannot win against skill.” By “skill” is meant the principle of emptiness and fullness, the ability to use your own fullness to attack the opponent’s emptiness and to use your own emptiness to absorb his fullness, not to cling to a technique unadaptively. Therefore one who is good at using emptiness and fullness skillfully applies adaptive military tactics. [The concept of emptiness and fullness forms the title and theme of chapter 6 of the Art of War.]

虛守實發術中竅 中實不放藝難精
Empty to defend, then fill to attack. This is the key to the art.
If you spot the moment to become full and yet do not issue, the art will be difficult to master.

按此二句為虛實應用之體,遇虛則守,逢實則發,「虛守實發」是技擊上攻守不易之法,無上之巧妙,比如敵以猛力(卽實)攻來,我不作正面之對抗,以免元力之虛耗,待敵撲空,化實為虛時。我卽乘虛而入,「中實者敵虛我實,未卽進攻以致坐夫良機,「不放」之謂,似此不能確定虛實,其勢自難精湛。
These two phrases form the theory of how to apply emptiness and fullness. When it is time for emptiness, defend, and when it is time for fullness, attack. “Empty to defend. Fill to attack.” This is an unchanging rule of attack and defense in martial arts, the highest skill. If the opponent attacks with fierce power (i.e. fullness), I do not resist him directly, instead I avoid his main force to let it dissipate. Once he has missed and switches his fullness to emptiness, I immediately enter while he is empty. To “spot the moment to become full” means that when he empties, I fill. But if I do not attack at that moment, the result will be that I have let opportunity pass me by. To “not issue” in such a moment indicates that you are unable to determine emptiness and fullness, and the techniques will naturally be difficult for you to master.

虛實自有虛實在 實實虛虛攻不空
There is emptiness and fullness within emptiness and fullness.
When your “fullness” is really full and your “emptiness” is really empty, you will attack without missing.

細味「虛實在」「攻不空」之意義,兵法云「虛則實之,實則虛之」,善用虛實二字則守能堅,攻能克,所謂「虛實自有虛實在」,實實虛虛攻不空」是也
Carefully ponder the meanings of “emptiness and fullness within” and “attack without missing”. The Art of War says: “Where he is empty, fill, and where he is full, empty.” [This is a popular paraphrasing. The actual Sunzi quote is: “Avoid where is empty and attack where is full.”] If you are good at using emptiness and fullness, your defense will be sure and your attack will be overwhelming.

[A lone couplet:]
雙重行不通 單重使成功
With double pressure, movement will not flow.
With single pressure, you will then succeed.

單重,雙重卽虛實之形容也,雙重則滯,故「行不通」者執滯也,單重則活,活則圓轉自如則易於「成功」,雙重卽如佛經所云:「有相」單重「卽無相」,無相則一切皆空,便是虛,有相則一切實在,卽固體也,總之實可攻人,但澀滯不靈,虛易被擊,但圓活靈便,虛實之分,在毫厘千里之間,純在體會敏捷,使用得當,有非楮墨,所能形容者,故習國術者,縱有聰穎之資質,多年之功夫,如無明人指導,虔心體會,殊不易豁然開朗,而能於千鈞一髮之時判斷孰實孰虛也。
“Single pressure” and “double pressure” are the manifestations of emptiness and fullness. With double pressure, there is stagnation, hence “movement will not flow” because it is being held back. With single pressure, there is liveliness. With liveliness, there is complete freedom of movement and easily “you will succeed”. Double pressure is like what Buddhist texts call “facing the other” and single pressure is like “facing nothing”. By “facing nothing”, everything disappears and becomes empty. By “facing the other”, everything fills in and becomes solid.
     Basically, fullness can attack, but the consequent stagnancy reduces sensitivity, and although emptiness makes it easy to get hit, it is easier in such a state to maintain sensitivity. The distinction between emptiness and fullness is a case of “miss by an inch, lose by a mile”. It depends entirely on your level of sensitivity. Applying it properly is difficult to describe in words. Therefore for practitioners of martial arts, even those who have a natural intelligence and many years of training, if they do not have a discerning teacher or an open-mindedness to experience, it will be very difficult to have a sudden illumination, or to be able in a critical moment to identify emptiness and fullness.

上釋各義多為虛實之道,行功二字則未談及,行功者心領神會之後,再身體力行,勤加研練,朝於斯,夕於斯,行之有恆,積成工夫,所謂精神揣摩,肉體鍛鍊是也。
The explanations above all concern the concept of emptiness and fullness, but the “practicing” of it has not really been addressed. To practice it, once the concept has clicked, your body then has to act in accordance with it. Train at it increasingly, until is a part of you day and night. Practicing with perseverance, you will accumulate skill. It is said: “Mind ponders, body trains.”

八 太極正宗十三勢總勁
EIGHT: THE ENERGIES OF THE THIRTEEN DYNAMICS
[The text for this chapter is largely drawn from a 1935 book by Wu Gongzao.]

太極拳法共有十三勢,蓋根據五行八卦之理而成者,五行又分內外,形於外者為進退顧盻定,發於內者為粘連黏隨不丟頂,八卦亦分內外,形於外者為四正四隅,蘊於內者為掤捋擠採挒肘靠八法,推手亦然,形於外者為勢,蘊於內者為勁,用勁之時其根在足,發於腿,主於腰,而形於指,故盤架子所以練勁,推手所以懂勁也。
Taiji Boxing has a total of thirteen dynamics because they are the five elements plus the eight trigrams. There are two versions of the five elements – internal and external. Externally, they are advancing, retreating, observation, decision, and stability. Internally, they are the qualities of sticking, connecting, adhering, following, and neither coming away nor crashing in. The eight trigrams also have internal and external versions. Externally, they are four cardinal directions and corner directions. Internally, they are the eight actions of warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping. When pushing hands, they are expressed outwardly as postures, but dwell within as energies. When applying power, it “starts from your foot, issues through your leg, gets directed at your waist, and is expressed at your fingers.” It is by practicing the solo set that we train the energies, and by practicing pushing hands that we learn to identify the energies.

「粘」如兩物相交,粘之使起,在太極拳則謂之勁,而非直接粘起之謂,乃間接以生,含有勁意,比如推手或交手時,敵對者體質强大,氣力充實,馬步穩固,似難將其掀動,移其重心,惟有使其全神上注,體重足輕,因其自動而失重心,我則順勢撒手,而以不丟不頂之勁,引其懸空,是曰粘勁。
夫粘勁如粘球,一撫一提之間,運用純熟,則球不離手,粘之卽起,語云粘卽是走,走卽是粘,對方實力充足,據險以守,不畏攻勢,不畏力敵,惟有處以鎭靜,或尋瑕抵隙,出其不意,攻其無備,此而不畏,則故顯破綻,誘之使進,使其棄守為攻,使其實力分散,而後因鎖帶擊,則未有不敗敵於不知不覺之間者,所謂之誘而殺之,使其自取敗亡,所謂攻其所必守,守其所必攻之道。
Sticking is like two objects becoming stuck together. It is referred to in Taiji Boxing as an “energy” because it is an indirect rather than a literal form of sticking. It contains both energy and intention. When pushing hands or sparring, if the opponent’s physique is large and powerful, he is full of strength, and his stance is stable, it will seem difficult to move him or even affect his balance. The only thing to do is to cause all of his spirit to concentrate upward, with the result that his body may be heavy but his feet will become light, causing him to lose balance due to his own reaction, and I simply go along with it and allow it to happen, using the energy of neither coming away nor crashing in to lead him into emptiness. This is the energy of sticking.
     This energy is like a sticking to a ball. [Imagine dribbling a basketball.] Give it a pat and then lift your hand. If this is done right, the ball will seem to not lose contact, sticking to your hand as you lift it. It is said: “Sticking is yielding and yielding is sticking”. An opponent may be very strong, is in a solid defensive position, is not worried about being attacked, or about how strong I may be, he simply stays calm and looks for a gap in order to catch me off guard and attack me where I unprepared. I will not panic because of this, instead I will deliberately reveal a weak point to lure him in, causing him to abandon his defensive position in order to attack, scattering his strength, and then lock him up to attack him, bringing him unwittingly to defeat. Thus I trick him into fighting, and thereby he defeats himself. This is the principle of “attack where he will have to defend and defend where he will have to attack”.

「連」連貫之謂,手法毋中斷,毋脫離,接續連綿,無停無止,無休無息,是謂連勁。
Connecting means “linking together”. Do not interrupt the movement or come out of synch with it. Let it be continuous, without any pauses or haltings. This is the energy of connecting.

「黏」黏貼之謂,彼進我退,彼浮我隨,彼沉我鬆,丟之不開,拔之不脫,如粘如貼,不丟不頂,是謂之黏勁。
To adhere means to “be glued”. As he advances, I retreat. When he is floating, I follow. When he is sinking, I loosen. He tries to disconnect but cannot come away. He tries to pull back but cannot escape. I stick as though glued to him, neither coming away nor crashing in. This is the energy of adhering.

「隨」隨者從也,緩急相隨,進退相依,不先不後,捨己從人,量敵而進,是謂隨勁。
Following means to “go along with”. Match the opponent’s speed. Coordinate with his advancing and retreating. Neither acting before nor after, let go of yourself and go along with him. It is by observing the opponent that you will know when to attack. This is the energy of following.

「不丟頂」不脫離,不抵抗,不搶先,不落後,是謂不丟頂勁。
To neither come away nor crash in is to neither separate nor resist. Do not force your way ahead nor lag behind. This is the energy of neither coming away nor crashing in.

內功八法歌訣
SONG OF THE INTERNAL TRAINING OF THE EIGHT TECHNIQUES

掤勁作何解 如水負行舟 先實丹田氣 次緊頂頭懸
全體彈簧力 開合一定間 任有千斤力 飄浮亦不難
What is meant by “warding off”?
It is like water floating a moving boat.
First fill your elixir field with energy,
then you must suspend your headtop.
Your whole body has a springy force
in the instant between opening and closing.
Do not worry about a thousand pounds of force coming at you.
Just float it and there will be no problem.

按此處以水力雖微,而竟能因物自中空,乃負其重之意義,以喻掤勁,於此可知其義,卽搖動敵人之重心,使敵勢空虛,而後出我之銷閃法,以化敵之謂。
Commentary:
Here it is shown that although the power of water may seem weak, it actually can cause objects to be held up as if they are nothing. This idea of floating a weight gives us an analogy for ward-off energy by which we can understand the concept. By rocking the opponent’s balance, I cause his posture to become empty, and then I cancel out whatever he tries to do, neutralizing him.

捋勁作何解 引導使之前 順其來勢力 輕便不丟頂
力盡自然空 丟擊任自然 重心自維持 莫被他人乘
What is meant by “rolling back”?
Induce the opponent to come forward.
Then go along with his incoming force,
but staying nimble, neither coming away nor crashing in.
Once his power has naturally dissipated,
then you may disconnect and attack as you please.
Maintain your own balance
so that you do not instead become his victim.

此說明借敵人攻我之力,引之使前,俾拋離其重心之謂,故遇敵切忌硬對硬,務以柔制剛,順其來勢,拖之前傾,但自已之重心須絕對保持,勿為人所乘。
This describes borrowing the opponent’s attacking force by luring him forward in order to get him to lose his balance. Therefore when encountering an opponent, it is crucial that I avoid meeting hardness with hardness, instead I should use softness to overcome hardness. I go along with his incoming force to draw him into leaning forward, but I absolutely need to maintain my own balance and not end up under his control.

擠勁作何解 有時用兩方 直接單純意 迎合一動中
間接反應力 如球撞壁還 又如錢投鼓 躍然擊鏗鏘
What is meant by “pressing”?
There are two ways to apply it.
You may act directly from your own clear intention,
dealing with him in a single action.
Or you may act indirectly, reacting to his force,
which will make him like a ball bouncing off a wall,
or like a coin tossed onto a drum
that then leaps away with a chiming sound.

此擠字之用義,如球撞壁,以錢投鼓,已曲形其義,蓋卽借人之勁,以擊其人,亦卽乘機陷敵之意也。
To depict the effect of pressing as similar to a ball thrown at a wall or a coin tossed onto a drum implies the roundness of its shape. It is a matter of borrowing the opponent’s force to attack him with it, an intention of seizing the opportunity to spring a trap on him.

按勁作何解 運用似水行 柔中寓剛强 急流勢難當
遇高則澎滿 逢窪向下潛 波浪有起伏 有孔無不入
What is meant by “pushing”?
It is like flowing water.
Within its softness lurks hardness.
Is it not difficult to stay up when standing in rapids?
Meeting a tall obstacle, water swells up heavily.
Finding a hole, it floods down into it.
Waves rise and fall.
There is no gap that water does not enter.

此又以水為譬,意謂水性雖柔,然疾流衝下,為勢難當,故遇敵時,手法宜急轉直下神出鬼沒,必陷敵於無備,所謂按卽交手時必以手按於敵手,而乘隙急取是也。
The water represents the arms. The meaning seems to be that even though water is soft, it flows fast and rushes downward, making it difficult to stand up against. Therefore when you encounter an opponent, your hand techniques should be sudden and unpredictable, and you must catch him when he is unprepared. When crossing hands with an opponent, you have to use your hands to push on his hands and quickly seize upon any gap.

採勁作何解 如權之引衡 任你力巨細 權後知輕重
轉移只四兩 千斤亦可秤 若問理何在 槓桿之作用
What is meant by “plucking”?
It is like the counterpoise of a steelyard scale sliding out to balance something.
No matter how great or small the opponent’s force is,
you will know the weight of it once it is balanced.
Even the shifting of a mere four ounces
can balance out a thousand pounds.
What is the theory behind this?
That of the lever.

此則以秤為臂,意謂交手時先探對方之力量,然後以四兩撥千斤之法以禦之,秤錘雖小,然引之平衡,則千斤可平,能知此理,則所謂四兩撥千斤殊非奇事也。
The steelyard scale is an arm. The meaning seems to be that when you cross hands with an opponent, you first try to measure his force, then deal with it by using the principle of four ounces moving a thousand pounds. A counterpoise may be small, but if it can be slid far enough along the steelyard beam, even a thousand pounds could be balanced. If you can understand this principle, then the concept of “four ounces moving a thousand pounds” will no longer be a bizarre trick.

挒勁作何解 旋轉若飛輪 投物於其上 脫然擲尋丈
君不見漩渦 捲浪若螺紋 落葉墜其上 倏爾便沉淪
What is meant by “rending”?
It rotates like a flywheel.
Throw an object at it
and it will immediately be hurled over ten feet away.
Have you ever watched a whirlpool?
The waves curl in like the threads around a screw.
Any leaf that falls onto it
is quickly engulfed.

此先以飛輪能擲物於尋丈之外為譬,指動作如敏捷,則借來物之主力而擲出之,實至易易,來勢愈猛,則擲出愈遠,繼又以漩渦為譬,因其漩轉而發出帶引之力至巨,故雖至輕如落葉,遇之亦無不沉,由是可知太極拳之動作,必取圜形者蓋以此。
The first analogy, that it is like a flywheel able to hurl objects more than ten feet away, indicates the nimbleness of the movement, borrowing incoming force and throwing it out. This is really very easy, for the more aggressive the opponent’s incoming force, the farther away he will be thrown. Then there is the analogy of the whirlpool. Due to such rotation, the greater his incoming force, the more he will be drawn in. Even something as light as a falling leaf will sink away once it meets it. From this can be understood the movement in Taiji Boxing. You must strive for this kind of encircling quality.

肘勁作何解 方法有五行 陰陽分上下 虛實須辨明
連環勢莫當 開花捶更凶 六勁融通後 運用始無窮
What is meant by “elbowing”?
The technique contains the five elements.
The passive and active aspects will be revealed above and below.
Emptiness and fullness have to be clearly distinguished.
Continuous techniques are harder to defend against.
A “blooming-flower punch” [i.e. a backfist unfurling out of a stopped elbow attack] is even more brutal [than the prevented elbow would have been].
Once your “six energies” [of structure (supporting forward and back, left and right, up and down)] are unified,
you will be able to apply endless techniques.

此乃說明能融六勁,則運用無窮,明虛實,察陰陽,連環使,引敵深入,而後乘消解之,運肘攻入,無有不見克者。
It is explained here that if you can unify your “six energies”, you can then apply techniques limitlessly. Distinguish between emptiness and fullness, observe for the passive and active aspects, and move continuously. Lure the opponent into overcommitting, seize the moment to send him into disarray, and then attack with an elbow. In this way, you will always see victory.

靠勁作何解 其法分肩背 斜飛勢用肩 肩中還有背
一旦得機乘 轟然如倒塌 仔細維重心 失中便無功
What is meant by “bumping”?
The technique divides into using the shoulder or the back.
The DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE uses the shoulder,
but when using your shoulder, you can also continue into using your back.
If suddenly you have the opportunity,
crash into him as though you are collapsing onto him.
But be very mindful about maintaining your balance,
for if you lose it, you will have wasted your effort.

此法乃深入敵境,逼進敵身,以肩背制敵,作斜飛勢、野馬分鬃,均為靠勁之架勢,非功深技熟者不能致勝,將反為人制,又靠為肘所克,肘又為如封似閉所化,此乃輾轉循環,運用克敵之法,非執一之謂也。
靠勁運用肩背,乘機而發,勢如山崩地塌,其勢莫當,雖然,必須保持中心,不失重心,則敵為我制矣。
This technique penetrates deeply into the opponent’s space, closing in on his body and using the shoulder or back to subdue him. When you perform DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE or WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE, they both exhibit the bumping energy. But one who has not trained to a deep level of skill will not be able to succeed and will instead end up under the opponent’s control. Bumping may be defeated with elbowing, but elbowing can in turn be neutralized by the technique of SEALING SHUT. Such is the back-and-forth course of wielding techniques to defeat an opponent. Do not stick stubbornly to just one technique.
     Bumping energy uses the shoulder or back, issuing once the opportunity arises. The energy is like a landslide, nothing able to stand against it. However, it is necessary for me to maintain my center and not lose my own balance, and then the opponent will be under my control.

九 力與勁
NINE: STRENGTH & POWER

太極拳之動作,用意不用力,意者意思也,乃由於大腦之作用,縱然用力亦非一般人固有之體力,而係由鍛鍊所產生之靈活力,此種靈活運用之力,國術家稱之曰勁,故勁實國術家應有之本能。
分析之則勁之成分仍不能離力,但人之思想極端複雜,而國術之動作亦極複雜,故勁與本能之力有密切關係,而與非國術家及任何動物所發揮運動之力截然不同。
力人皆有之,勁則惟我中國國術家方有之,蓋外國拳術家所練者為動力,亦卽活力,乃重量及速度之和,中國國術家所練之勁,則除重量速度之外,猶須將其面積縮至極小,並具意識之滲透可不任何方式所限制。
練力易練勁則難,因練力較為具體,易得標準對象,祇須有適當方法,(商務出版趙竹光譯烈戴氏著練力方法)如籍某種物質,練習提或舉之動作,久之力自漸增,勁則難籍物質鍛鍊,此須利用人體各部關節之抵抗力,與爭衡力,再加意識而鍛鍊,練力可以文字指導,可以函授,練勁則非有名家之活動指導不為功,文字祇能解釋其要義,而不能對勁加以形容,此乃我國國術精妙之處,任何事物皆有定理,虔心研討,自能豁然貫通如其適合人生需要,亦應使其科學化,或以為勁有神秘性,實為皮相之談,惟願以簡單文字將其解釋明白,形容得體,自非易易,但如能虔心研練,則勁之闡明,亦非難事。
當吾人敎學時,常以手按學者用力部份,囑其無用力,但學者關節之抗力(抵力)則不斷發生,抗力者蓋在一進步階段首先發現,換言之每於動作增加困難時乃自然暴露,實為習練國術之障碍,幸其僅短時期內存在,如能繼續鍛鍊,則終被克服,拙力退盡後,則變為柔順,柔順能使血液暢行,提高體內新陳代謝之機能,使感覺靈敏,須知神經作用之加强,與肢體關節之靈活運用,乃互為因果,意識支配運動,力由起點至終點,經過各關節時,自能暢通無阻,倏然而來,倏然而去,運用隨心,效力偉大,是謂之勁。
Taiji Boxing’s movements use intention rather than strength. “Intention” means thought, action that comes from the brain. This “strength” that is mentioned is not really the innate strength of ordinary people, but is more related to the elastic strength that is produced from exercise. Martial arts experts call this nimble kind of strength “power”. Therefore power is something that actually ought to be intuitive to martial artists. If we analyze power, we find it cannot be separated from strength. Human thought is very complex and so martial arts movements are also very complex, but although power and instinctive strength are intimately connected, the power of martial artists is completely different from the strength of animals.
     Strength is something everyone has, but this kind of “power” is found only in Chinese martial arts. What foreign boxers train for is a dynamic or vital “strength”, a blend of weight and speed. Chinese martial artists train for power, and so beyond weight and speed it is as though they are actually trying to shrink their surface area so that the permeation of consciousness will not get restricted to any particular section.
     Developing strength is easy, but developing power is hard. Because developing strength is more concrete, it is easier to get to a standard level. You only need to have a proper method. (See Earle Liederman’s Secrets of Strength [1925]. A Chinese translation by Zhao Zhuguang was published by The Commercial Press, LTD [Jan, 1937].) [The four quotes from Liederman’s book below are all from its second chapter – “Power and Strength”.] If you make use of certain equipment to practice lifting exercises, after a long time your strength will gradually increase. However, it is difficult to use special equipment to train power. To do this, you have to put your entire body through resistance and strength training, and then add the training of consciousness.
     Methods of training strength can be learned from reading or through correspondence courses, but training power will not work unless you have a qualified teacher directing your exercise. Words can only give a general idea and are incapable of really describing power. It is a very refined part of our martial arts. But like everything, it has its principles, and if you study with sincerity, you will naturally have a breakthrough. To suit the biological requirements of your body, make your study more scientific. Some people think power is something mystical, but that is just superficial gossip. Though I seek only to use simple language to explain it more clearly, to do this properly is indeed no easy task. However, if you are able to be sincere in your studies, then power will become clear and no longer be a difficult matter.
     When we teach, we constantly put our hands on areas of the student’s body where he is using effort and encourage him not to, but he continues to produce resistance. This resistance is the first stage of progress. In other words, whenever movements increase in difficulty, there is naturally an exhibiting of undue effort which actually hinders the training. But it is fortunately only temporary, and if you can continue in your training, you will ultimately conquer it.
     Once awkward effort fully recedes, you will switch to softening. Softening can cause unimpeded blood circulation, serving to elevate metabolism and leading to a heightened sensitivity. It has to be understood that enhancing the function of the nervous system and exercising the nimbleness of the limbs build on each other. When consciousness controls exercise, force travels from its starting point to its ending point, able to proceed through each joint without obstruction, coming and going in a flash. When movement follows mind, the result is extraordinary. This is what is meant by “power”.

沉長快
On Heaviness, Extension, and Quickness:

在中國國術中具有沉長快三種必備之條件,設國術家忽此三點,或練習之方法不當,或練習之法雖當,而不能混合應用皆難臨機致勝。
All Chinese martial arts have the three essential elements of heaviness, extension, and quickness. If a martial artist neglects these three things, or his method of practicing them is not suitable, or his method of practicing them is suitable but he cannot blend them into practical application, in each case it would be difficult for him to control the situation and succeed.

「沉」
Heaviness:

沉乃由活動關節,鍛鍊而生者,如有人垂手站立,我以手托其臂,為覺其臂沉重,但其重非其全臂之重,因其意識在不知不覺中已牽動其臂,而成減輕其一部重量矣,一如以手托酣睡者之臂,必覺其臂較前者尤重,卽係無意識之牽動其臂,而臂關節自然鬆活之故,如再以手托以關節鬆動之國術家之臂,亦必覺其與睡者有同等沉重。
在習太極拳推手時,可察覺對方功夫大者其臂較工夫小者沉重,卽其肢體關節較功夫小者靈活,其身體不至牽掣其臂,臂不牽肘,肘不牽手,於是出擊之拳,為全身之動力迅速集中,自然沉重矣。
烈戴氏著練力方法中曾述「百年前英倫有一百四十磅之拳術家,發出之拳,其重舉世無匹,但因體重過輕,終難敵重量級拳術家,但如彼此立於凳端,而足不動以對擊,則世界任何拳術家,彼皆能敵矣,因如此對擊,乃靠實力與擊力,體重於此無關」綜觀上述,可想像此英倫拳術家,其出拳甚重,乃其臂關節較一般拳術家靈活之故,惜其忽略全體關節之鍛鍊,否則全部配合使用,則重量級之拳術家,亦必非其敵矣,
Heaviness is produced by practicing liveliness of the joints. A person stands straight, arms hanging, and I use my hand to prop up his arm. If I feel his arm is heavy and yet is not the weight of his whole arm, it is because his mind is unconsciously influencing his arm and lightening it for me. If I pick up the arm of a person who is sound asleep, I will of course find it to be much heavier. This is because there is no unconscious influence upon the arm and the joints are naturally relaxed. If I then use a hand to prop up the arm of a martial arts expert, I will indeed feel it to be about the same kind of heaviness as that of the sleeping person.
     When practicing Taiji Boxing’s pushing hands, you can perceive in your opponent a high level of skill if his arms are much heavier and his limbs more nimble than those of someone of little skill. His body does not pull back on his arm, nor his arm pull back on his elbow, nor his elbow pull back on his hand, and so when he attacks, the force of his whole body is quickly concentrated and there is natural heaviness.
     Liederman said: “A century ago in this country [his book being written in England although he was American] there was a 10 st. [140 lbs.] pugilist who was supposed to be able to hit as hard as any man of his time. His supporters admitted that he was too light to be successful against the heavy-weights, but offered to back him against any man in the world, if both fighters were strapped straddled on a bench, facing each other. In that position the bodily weight was nullified, and the only thing that counted was sheer strength and hitting power.” From this description, it is clear that the English boxer punched with great heaviness due to the joints of his arms having greater liveliness than that of ordinary boxers. Unfortunately he neglected the full training of the joints of the rest of his body, otherwise he would have been able to use the combined skill of every part of his body, and then even a heavyweight boxer would be no match.

「長」
Extension:

長亦由活動關節中練習而生者,練習之法,乃根據生理之要求,組成一有系統而簡單之姿勢,然後按此姿勢不斷練習,習時須時刻注意鬆肌肉,鬆關節,以操練韌帶。能鬆卽能長,能長卽能摺叠,能摺叠卽能柔順,能柔順卽能沉重,卽對方身長力大,祇須我折叠柔順之程度高超,則能牽掣並化其擊力,籍其擊力以擊其人,此點外國拳術家無中國國術運動之巧妙,卽係無妥善之姿勢以供學者練習折叠,柔順等基本動作。
中國國術之極妙處,為能借力擊人,不受身體重量與力量大小之限制,而在外國拳術則否,故烈戴氏云:「未有輕量級拳術家,可以擊敗技術精到重量級拳術家者,因人之體重與其拳上所發之力甚有關係,設爵單士與李安納對擊,每人在同距離擊一拳,則爵單士之體較重,自能便宜多了。」
Extension is also produced by practicing liveliness of the joints. The practice method is in accordance with the demands of physiology, comprised of systematic and simple postures, and is to be drilled unceasingly. When practicing, you must pay attention to loosening your muscles, loosening your joints, and training your ligaments.
     To be able to loosen is to be able to extend. To be able to extend is to be able to fold. To be able to fold is to be able to soften. To be able to soften is to be able to become heavy. Against an opponent who has a long reach and great power, I only need to have a high level of skill at folding and softening, then I can control and neutralize his attacking force, borrowing his force and using it to attack him. This particular subtlety in Chinese martial arts is something foreign boxers do not have. When postures are performed improperly, have the student practice the fundamental actions of folding and softening.
     The greatest subtlety of Chinese martial arts is the ability to borrow the opponent’s strength to attack him with it. It is not limited by weight, strength, or size. Therefore foreign boxing is inferior. Liederman said: “Nobody is foolish enough to expect a light-weight boxer to defeat a good heavy-weight – because they know that a good fighter has to have the knack of getting all his weight behind a blow. If Dempsey and Leonard [who were about fifty pounds apart] were fighting and both landed on the other at exactly the same instant – then Dempsey with his weight would have all the advantage.”

「快」
Quickness:

快亦由關節靈活中練出,關於快之練習,世人皆以應從快動作中練習,此係外國拳術以及一部份中國國術之練法,但太極掌中之快,乃由慢動作中積漸而來,使其蘊藏於慢動作中,故快乃蘊藏非表現也。
蘊快之術在動作時,關節中須蘊含抵抗與爭衡力,沉長之成分亦不能少,練時外形惟慢在習者意識上則甚忙迫,蓋須注意姿勢內之要求,與外形之標準。
內容充實後,外形始能表現出勁,勁有姿態美,此種姿態與江湖拳之形式美迥異,設非國術有深造者,不易辨別。
練習慢中需快之法,要有蓄力,因蓄力卽快之準備,譬諸射箭,弓開愈滿,箭發愈快而用力開弓卽蓄力也,無蓄力之快,乃普通拳術家皆能之快,有蓄力之快始為難測之快,此等快法每一出手踢腿,皆難分辨,以此對敵,自易致勝。
胖人習拳必先使其脂肪成分減少,始能練到快,否則難達目的,減去脂肪之法,只有每日勤習不輟,則肌肉纖維自能發展,脂肪自漸減縮矣,烈戴氏云:「大體度者,未必有力,縱然體高五尺十寸,體重二百七十五磅,抑或力氣毫無亦未可定,蓋其體重大部皆係脂肪,故無具有健康肌肉者力大,且以脂肪多反阻碍其動作,故更無速度可言,雖在有限方面,亦能出些須之力,但多數胖人則無力氣。」
Quickness is likewise produced by practicing liveliness of the joints. Regarding the training of quickness, everyone assumes this means practicing fast movements, but that is a matter of looking at Chinese martial arts from the point of view of foreign boxing. The quickness within Taiji Boxing is instead built up gradually by way of slow movement. By containing it within slow movement, quickness is stored but not shown.
     Once your movement contains the element of quickness, your joints will contain the qualities of defiance and ambition, and without diminishing the qualities of heaviness and extension. When practicing, let there be only slowness on the outside, so that your consciousness can then be highly charged. You have to pay attention to the internal requirements of posture as well as the standards of its external appearance. Once you are filled internally, your external appearance will then be able to exhibit power. Power has a beautiful poise. This poise is very different from the pretty postures of itinerant street performers, but for those who have not deeply studied martial arts, the distinction is not easy to spot.
     Within slow practice, there has to be methods of quickness, and there should be storing of force, because stored force is the basis of quickness. For an analogy, let us use archery. The more fully the bow is drawn, the faster the arrow will go. A strongly drawn bow is stored force. Quickness without stored force is the kind of quickness all boxers already possess, but if quickness has stored force, it is then more difficult to read. With this kind of quickness, whenever you shoot out a hand or kick out with a leg, it will be difficult for him to know which one he was hit with. Using this against opponents, you will easily win.
     Fat people practicing boxing arts have to start by losing weight. They can then progress more quickly, but would otherwise have a difficult time obtaining their goal. The method of reducing fat is simply consistent daily hard work, whereby muscle fiber will naturally develop and fat will naturally decrease. Liederman said: “Size alone does not make a man powerful: he must have strength along with his bulk. A fat man might be 5 feet 10 inches tall and weigh 17 st. 7 lb. [245 lbs.], and yet not be powerful at all. Most of his weight would be made up of soft flesh, which has not the driving power of well-conditioned muscle, and which further interferes with his freedom of movement, and makes any speed impossible. Most ‘fat men’ are far from being powerfully built, although their very weight enables them to exert some power in certain limited ways.”

烈戴氏又云;「運動家欲有活力,定須有速度技巧,平衡於量與實力之方面。」
如此觀之,西洋運動家亦將識勁之意義矣,勁雖似難練,但如有正確之方法,精確之指導,亦非難事,如習之不得其法,必至徒勞無功。
夫力者為人所固有,加以體重遂成人身之力量,但力亦可訓練,如舉重,提重,或拉彈簧器,均可增體力,惟此為籍鍛鍊而生單純局部之力,非蘊藏體內之力,卽物理學所謂單力,俗稱氣力,國術家則稱為拙氣拙力,而非合力也。
勁之來源,與練力之法相反,力可籍器械練出,勁則不能利用器械,乃依生理學物理學與心理學訓練而生,將人體蘊藏無限之力,集中鍛鍊而生者。
Liederman also said: “To apply power the athlete must have speed, skill, balance, weight and strength.” Looking at it this way, Western athletes also ought to recognize this kind of power. Although power seems difficult to practice, there nevertheless seems to be a correct method and precise guidelines, so it should not be a difficult task. But if you train without obtaining the right method, all your work will be in vain.
     Strength is inherent to a person, in addition to the ability to carry around one’s own weight. But strength can also be further trained. For instance, doing weightlifting or using resistance machines can increase strength. However, these are kinds of exercises that will build strength in only parts of the body, rather than training [full-bodied] internal strength. In physics, it would be called “single force”. Often referred to as “vital strength”, martial arts experts instead call it “clumsy strength”, for it does not make use of “net force”.
     Power comes from methods opposite to that of developing strength. Strength can be trained by working with machines, but to train power you cannot use machines. It emerges in accordance with physiology [1], physics [2], and psychology [3]. Cause your body to store limitless power by concentrating it, and thereby it will be generated.

一、順生理自然之構造,將全身骨骼關節各部重心集中一點,再加意識之主宰操縱,然後由中心發出,是之謂勁。
1. Going along with physiological naturalness gets all of the parts of your body to be concentrated upon a single point, and by adding intention to control the action, you then express from your center. It is this that is “power”.

二、將人體全部機構極端舒長,然後又將各部關節極端縮短(卽折叠)在縮短舒長之間,運用疾徐有致,順其勢(卽沉快合作)不用絲毫拙力,再憑意識之主宰(卽用意不用力)與四肢百骸合作,凡一動作,須有下列四種動態配合運用。
甲弧線 乙曲線 丙浪紋 丁螺旋
上列四種動態,配合全身各部關節,舒長摺叠,練習純熟後,身體自然柔順,則發動之力乃靈活而具彈性之力,此種彈力卽由沉長快三字練出之勁。
2. Make the structure of your whole body stretched out, then shrink every part in (i.e. fold). Between stretching out and shrinking in, use acceleration and deceleration to make it happen, smoothness of posture (i.e. merging heaviness with quickness), and do not use the slightest bit of awkward effort, instead controlling actions by way of consciousness (i.e. making use of intention rather than strength) so that your limbs and every part of your body are working together.
     With each movement, you need to have these four features working in tandem: A. curved lines, B. rounded shapes, C. waves, D. spirals. These four features involve the coordination of every part of the body, extending and folding. Once you have practiced to the point of skillfulness, your body will naturally become supple. This will make strength more elastic, until it becomes springy. This kind of springy force is the power that comes from training the three qualities of heaviness, extension, and quickness.

三、譬諸彈簧機器,機器本係靜物,不能發生彈性作用,因於機構中裝有活動之彈簧,於是機器亦有彈力,彈簧本係其線形之鋼條,須經琢磨鍛鍊盤成螺旋,其中必含無數甲乙丙丁之形態,乃成有規則之彈簧,方能發生彈性作用,亦卽多量甲乙丙丁聯合行動之力量,若非經此過程,仍為一直線形鋼條,則其附着之機器,亦必失去彈性,如果器機構組織健全,加以人意之操縱,自能運用如意矣。此機器內之彈簧,卽猶人體內蘊藏之勁。
3. Imagine a mechanism with a spring. If the mechanism is held immobile, the spring cannot function. It is because the mechanism contains a movable spring that it has a springy force. A mechanical spring is a steel wire that has to be coiled into a spiral and able to adopt a variety of shapes. Fulfilling this requirement, the spring is then able to generate springing actions and has the capacity to be used in a countless series of linked tasks. But if this is not done and the steel wire is placed in the mechanism still as a straight line, it would fail in its task of springiness. Once the mechanism is properly put together, all it needs is the human will to operate it, and then it can be used as you please. The spring in this mechanism is like the power stored within the human body.

十 中心與重心
TEN: CENTEREDNESS & BALANCE

重心對於練拳之關係至重,然重心之運用,又須中心為之主宰,否則重心無所寄託,反將被人利用。
太極拳擊人,外形雖似以拳之力,實則由於中心所發之勁,設非由中心所發,則係局部之力,其力易於渙散,有為人各個擊破之虞。
國術練至上乘功夫,有如衡之引權,能以中心運用重心,則所發之拳沉而有勁,以此摧敵,何敵不克,身軀穩如泰山,以此自衞,重心有主,何隙可乘。
人之中心在脊柱腰胯之中,四肢為重心所寄,發出之勁,由腰腹而出,達於週身,拳經所謂,「氣貫丹田」,丹田卽在腰腹之中,初步習拳有拳法手法之分,出手卽為重心之運用,站䂯卽為練習重心俗所謂𦡁勁者,卽重心也。
站馬䂯須脊豎、腰塌、頭懸、鼻尖膝蓋及足尖須成垂直線,穩住中心,卽所以保持重心也。
太極拳之勁所以由丹田而發,係因丹田位居中央,四肢百體散漫之力必先集中於此,而後發則為勁而非力,比如意欲發右拳擊敵,必先將左足跟及左膝左胯之力集中於丹田,然後由右腰胯達於肩臂肘手,迨後左臂與右腿佐以爭衡之力,則右拳自沉而有勁矣,如以右拳比諸箭之簇,則左臂與右腿便如弓胎弓弦,弓開飽滿發出之矢,未有不速而有勁者
若中心偏倚,不但妨礙動作,且拳出無勁,反受牵掣,何異受敵以柄,自陷敗境。
中心之於練拳其要點有三。
一、中心穩定則氣血易於暢通。二、中心不偏則姿勢正確發揮之力大。三、中心端正易於制人而不被人制。
Balance is of great importance in practicing boxing arts. But making use of balance depends on a sense of centeredness, otherwise your balance will not be stable and you will instead give the opponent an advantage over you. When Taiji Boxing is used to strike a person, it seems outwardly to be strength from the fist, but is actually power issued from the center. If it is not issued from the center, it would only be a local strength, which is easily scattered, and so there would be the risk of being defeated piece by piece.
     When martial arts are trained to the highest level, it is like a steelyard scale leveling off to measure weight. If you can use centeredness to create balance, then wherever you send your fist will be crushed by power. Destroying your opponent in this way, what opponent could you not defeat? Let your body be as stable as Mt. Tai. Defending yourself in this way, balance is in charge, and you will have no gaps to be taken advantage of.
     A person’s center is in the area of the spine and hips, and balance is sent to the four limbs. Power issued comes from the lower abdomen and reaches your whole body. It says in the boxing classics: “Energy sinks to the elixir field”. The elixir field is within the lower abdomen. In the beginning of practicing boxing arts, there is a distinction between fist techniques and hand techniques. The hand goes out from a state of balance [whereas the fist seems to simply be punching]. Stance training develops a balance that is commonly called “crotched energy”, meaning that when standing like a horse-hitching post, you must straighten your spine, settle your waist, suspend your head, have a vertical line from nose to knee to toes, and stabilize your center, and you will thereby maintain balance.
     Taiji Boxing’s power is issued from the elixir field because it is located at the center. The scattered strength of the rest of the body has to first be gathered there, and then upon issuing there will be power rather than strength. For example, if you want to send your right fist to strike the opponent, you first have to send the strength of your left heel, left knee, and left hip to gather at your elixir field, and then from your right hip to the shoulder, elbow, and hand. Your left arm and right leg will also provide counterbalance for this action, and so your right fist will naturally land heavily and powerfully. If we think of the right fist as an arrowhead, then the left arm and right leg are like the bowstring. When a bow is drawn to its full to release an arrow, it is always fired with speed and power. If your center is leaning, not only would this hinder movement, the fist would also go out with no power and even hold power back, and so it would be no different from being under his control in the first place and falling into a trap.
     There are three essentials to centeredness when practicing boxing arts: 1. When your center is stable, you will have unobstructed circulation of blood and energy. 2. When your center is not leaning, your posture will be correct, giving you greater strength. 3. When centeredness is constant, it is easy to control the opponent and not be controlled by the opponent.

十一 六合三摧說
ELEVEN: THE SIX UNIONS & THREE URGINGS

國術中有術語曰六合,所謂六合,卽心與意合意與氣合,氣與力合,是謂內三合,手與足合,肩與胯合,肘與膝合,是謂外三合,內外相合故曰六合,乃國術中上乘功夫之抽象名詞。
內三合以心為主宰,意為判斷策劃之參謀,氣為活動人身各部之使者,凡人心思一動,意識隨動,氣受反應而奔走,氣之所至卽力之所在,所謂心意氣與力合是也。
思想動意識不動,則無以明是非,意識動而無氣力推行,亦為幻想,必也心意氣三者聯繫一體,方能發生作用。
內心旣有所驅策,必執行於外,則外三合尚矣,譬諸作戰,手足為衝鋒陷陣之先鋒,肘膝為督粮運械之後方勤務部,肩胯則如臨陣之指揮官,三者缺一,每戰必敗,三者合一,成功可待。
六合之外又有三摧之說,卽肩摧肘,肘摧手是也,亦卽肩擠肘,肘擠手,節節相擠,推動整個合作力量,足膝胯之摧擠與肩肘手相同,惟以足跟為起點,而膝而胯,各部骨骼與筋肉聯成一氣,一旦着的,立卽發揮其功用,倘有一處脫節則全盤失效,手足膝胯肩肘與韌帶活動之力相互緊凑,集中一點發出之力,卽國術家之活力。
思想主於內,動作形於外,內外相合,得心應手,是謂六合,思想意識與手足之行動已如上述,茲再申敍氣與力,氣也者順生理之自然,循血運之暢行,順則氣舒,滯則氣阻,逆則氣閉,氣舒則各部精神充實而活潑,猶之皮球,未打氣之前癱扁癟陷,旣打氣之後激之則飛躍,此乃由氣之充實而發生彈力,語云:「頤指氣使」實氣與力合絕妙之形容詞也,又如水性下流,若加以壓力必反上激,氣之壓力愈大則激射之力亦愈高,此氣與力合又一證也。
總之六合者,卽思想與行動合一,表裏一致之功夫,亦卽王陽明先生「知行合一」之功夫,此乃我國國術最高之哲理也。
There is a term in martial arts called “six unions”: The mind is united with the intention, the intention united with the energy, and the energy united with the power. These are called the “three internal unions”. The hand is united with the foot, the elbow united with the knee, and the shoulder united with the hip. These are called the “three external unions”. The internal and external together make six unions. It is an abstract term that expresses the highest level of skill.
     For the three internal unions, the mind is like a ruler, the intention his advisors, and the energy is the messengers telling the body’s parts how to move (whereas ordinary people have an impulse to move, intention follows movement, then energy reacts and races to be part of it). Once energy arrives, power manifests. Therefore mind, intention, and energy unite with power.
     When thoughts are moving around unconsciously, there is no distinction being made between what to do or not to do. When consciousness is moving, but there is no energy or power going along with it, everything is again only in your head. Mind, intention, and energy are three that have to be integrated into one, and then you will be able to produce function.
     Internally, the mind is giving orders, but these orders still have to be carried out externally. The three external unions are thus analogous to the army. Hands and feet are the vanguard charging the enemy, elbows and knees are the logistical support of supply lines, while shoulders and hips are the formation commanders. If the three are lacking even one, you will lose every fight. If the three are united into one, success can be expected.
     Beyond the six unions, there are also the “three urgings”: The [1] shoulder urges the [2] elbow urges the [3] hand. Also described as “shoulder presses elbow, elbow presses hand”, it is the act of the joints pressing each other in succession to push out together with their combined power. The foot, knee, and hip press in the same way as the shoulder, elbow, and hand, but with the heel as the starting point, then the knee, then the hip [i.e. moving toward the body in the case of the legs and away from the body in the case of the arms]. There is a single flow connecting through the tissues of the joints which is rapidly executed and immediately produces function. If there is discontinuity in any part, then the overall process will be rendered ineffective. From foot to knee to hip to shoulder to elbow to hand – there has to be a tight linking through this chain of joints for power to be moved along, and the power is to be concentrated at a single point. This is the key to the vigor of a martial arts expert.
     Thoughts command within and movements outwardly take shape. Internal and external join together and your hands perform what is in your mind. Thus it is with the six unions. Now that mind, intention, and the movements of the limbs have been addressed, let us discuss energy and power. Energy is a matter of physiological naturalness, the flow of unimpeded circulation. If there is flow, then energy is smooth. If there is stagnation, then energy is slowed. If there is resistance, then energy is blocked.
     When energy is smooth, then the whole body is full of spirit and liveliness, like an inflated ball. Before the ball is inflated, it simply caves in when you hit it, but after it is inflated, hitting it makes it fly away. This depicts how fullness of energy produces a springy force. There is a saying [from Annals of Tang, volume 81]: “Cheeks point and energy is sent.” [It is based on an earlier version from Books of Han, bios – part 42: “Eyes point and energy is sent.” The phrase came to mean simply “arrogant” since it describes the haughty look of someone who expects obedience without even giving orders.] Energy and power are here cleverly merged to make an adjective. [When a man is puffed up with his own importance, he does tend to push people away.] They are also like water, which will flow downward, but if pressure is added, it will surge upward. The greater the pressure on the energy, the higher the power will shoot. This demonstrates how energy and power are combined.
     In short, the six unions are the merging of mind and movement into one, the skill of inside and out functioning in tandem, the skill of what Wang Yangming called “the unity of knowing and doing”. These are the highest principles of our martial arts.

十二 太極拳與生理衞生
TWELVE: TAIJI BOXING & PHYSIOLOGICAL HEALTH

其人身之構造至為複雜,如各部發育有失平衡,則健康必受其影響,欲補此弊,惟有從事適宜之運動,使身體各部獲得平均發展,卽體育是也,我國國術卽體育中完美之運動者也。
我國國術由一般抽象之觀察,似乎僅為好勇聞狠技擊,此特皮相之談,而未明國術本質之泛論,實則國術不但助長身體各部之平均發育,且有攝生養性之功能,茲就呼吸,循環、消化、排泄、神經各機構,以太極拳之動作比證,以明其功效。
The structure of the human body is complex. If any part develops an imbalance, it will have an influence on your health. To fix such a problem, you need only engage in appropriate exercise. To cause the body to gain and build a balanced condition is what physical education is for. Our martial arts are the consummate form of exercise within the field of physical education.
     At face value, our martial arts seem to be only about fighting. But this is a very superficial view and lacks an understanding of the full substance of martial arts. Indeed, martial arts will not merely help develop a balanced condition throughout the body, they also serve to strengthen the body and discipline the temperament. Below are discussed the various systems of the body – respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion, nervous system – to show the effects that Taiji Boxing has on each of them.

一、呼吸:
1. Respiration:

人之呼吸每分鐘皆有定數,每運動劇烈時,呼吸必促,而自然定律為其破壞,心房之伸縮亦受影響矣:太極拳為溫和持久之運動法,疾徐開闔,與夫吐納,均與人體自然韻律相配合,無乍弛乍張之弊,吸必沉之丹田,呼必發於丹田,與深呼吸運動之旨趣相合,太極拳之「掤」卽吸,「擠」卽呼、「捋」卽呑,「按」卽吐,故攬雀尾一式,卽包括轉側俯仰開闔呑吐等動作。
A human breath occurs a standard number of times each minute. During strenuous activity, breaths will shorten, violating their natural rhythm and affecting your heartbeat. Taiji Boxing is a method of mild protracted movement, brisk and slow, opening and closing, releasing and receiving, always coordinated with the natural rhythms of the body to prevent the error of inhaling or exhaling abruptly. Inhale has to sink to the elixir field and exhale has to issue from the elixir field. This conforms to the objective of deep breathing. Taiji Boxing’s basic techniques work in this way: ward-off – inhale, press – exhale, rollback – “absorb” [i.e. deeper inhale], push – “shoot” [i.e. deeper exhale]. Hence the posture of CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL contains movements of rotating side to side, inclining forward and back, opening and closing, absorbing and shooting.

二、循環:
2. Circulation:

血液循環,平時尤有定率,其血管構造之堅韌性,洽可供其運用,如循環之速率驟加,則血管必受其刺激,而有破裂之虞,故運動過劇有時吐血,思想太多有時致腦充血,卽為驟失循環之速度使然,太極拳之動作和緩,冗長,在此運動過程中,血液有均匀之流動,血管作秩序的弛張,習之旣久,靑年人之循環器固富抵抗力,老年人之血管亦可由脆弱變為堅韌則腦充血,中風等症自可免除,試觀一趟拳練過不氣促不面紅卽其明證。
Blood circulation is usually at a standard level. The structure of blood vessels is sufficiently resilient to enable the movement of blood. But if blood flow races, the vessels will receive excessive pressure and may rupture. Thus when exercise is too severe, there may be spitting of blood, or when thinking too hard, it may spark hemorrhaging in the brain. These are caused by stress-induced violations of the proper speed of circulation. Taiji Boxing’s movements are mild and drawn out. In the course of such exercise, blood will flow evenly, keeping the right pressure on the blood vessels. After practicing over a long period, the vessels of young people will become even more resilient, and the vessels of old people can also be turned from fragile to strong. Thus brain hemorrhage and stroke can naturally be avoided. Notice that when someone goes through the solo set, there is neither panting for breath nor reddening of the face, clearly demonstrating this point.

三、消化:
3. Digestion:

腸胃為人身資源之轉運機構,關係健康甚鉅,世有患腸胃病者,並因食物無節制所致,欲免此病,除節制飲食外,惟有以適宜之運動,助腸胃之消化,斯太极拳之推手之動作,轉側,俯仰,抑揚,頓性,兼而有之,特着重於腹腰運動,有助於腸胃之消化無疑。
The digestive organs are the body’s machinery for transporting resources, and thus they hugely affect your health. People suffer from digestive disorders because of excessive eating. If you wish to avoid this problem, beyond moderating your eating and drinking, all you need is suitable exercise in order to aid digestion. The movements of Taiji Boxing’s pushing hands – including going side to side, forward and back, up and down, or reversing direction – specially emphasize movement of the abdomen area, surely encouraging digestive function.

四、排泄:
4. Excretion:

排泄與消化有密切之連帶關係,消化之機能强,排泄之機能滯,卽便祕也,則消化亦將因銷路不暢而告怠工矣,至於皮膚之汗線,亦排泄器之一也,故汗線通暢則精神爽,汗線滯閉則病痛生,欲保持汗線之健康,必注意淸潔及有適宜之運動,蓋血液因運動而增速,而加熱,而蒸發,皮膚中之汗線卽將一部水分及廢物排出,而週身爽快矣。
Excretion is closely related to digestion. When digestive function struggles, excretory function stagnates, resulting in constipation, which then causes digestion to clog up and slow down. The sweat glands under the skin are also excretory organs. When these glands are functioning smoothly, spirit shines brightly, but when the glands are performing sluggishly, ache is produced. If you wish to maintain the health of your sweat glands, you must give attention to hygiene and get appropriate exercise. When blood flow increases, heat increases, and sweat is generated. The sweat glands under the skin send out moisture and also discharge waste material, thereby refreshing the whole body.

五、神經:
5. Nervous system:

神經為人體之司命,哨佈全體,主持思想動作,世有患神經衰弱或肢體不仁者,蓋以腦神經運用過度,及運動神經缺乏活動所致,求諸藥石,甚難奏效,惟有適宜之運動,方易恢復固有之精神,太極拳對於思想與動作神經之活動恰兼而有之,因其每一動作,均極繁複,四肢百骸之聯繫,亦卽全部神經系之活動也。
Nerves are in charge of the body’s fate, sending information throughout the body, directing thought and movement. Everyone worries about nervous breakdown and physical numbness, about overuse of the cranial nerves leading to failure of the motor nerves. You can seek out medicinal remedies, but they are hardly ever effective. Only with appropriate exercise is it easy to restore reliable neurological health. Taiji Boxing works on both the nerves of thought and the nerves of movement at the same time. Because each movement is very complex, the interconnectedness of every part of the body livens the entire nervous system.

人之生理純由自然之勢,不可勉强,偶有障碍,亦應以自然之法糾正之,否則其害必甚於本身之害,如方士服丹以求長生,反以戕生,卽其例也,太極拳之動作,皆合乎自然,絕不勉强,故對於生理衞生之功效至大。
The body’s physiology is based entirely in naturalness and must not be made to undergo strain. If you encounter difficulties, you should likewise respond with naturalness to deal with them, otherwise you would bring harm to yourself, just like an alchemist taking a dose of cinnabar in the quest for long life and instead dying even sooner because of it. The movements of Taiji Boxing always conform to naturalness, never straining, and therefore it has an enormous impact on physiological health.

十三 太極拳有却病延年之功及變化氣質之妙
THIRTEEN: TAIJI BOXING’S EFFECTS OF PREVENTING ILLNESS & PROLONGING LIFE, AND ITS MARVEL OF TRANSFORMING THE TEMPERAMENT

太極拳法,出手均取圜形,與太極圖近似,世人以其得名蓋在乎是,雖然此特言其形似耳,不知此種拳法,由動向靜,以虛化實,蘊於內者不形於外,而實內外相合,總之無極之二氣未分,渾然一物,故太極拳者由無極而生,此其實在之眞義,非僅形似而已也。
太極拳以靜為主,以柔制剛,與外家拳純其剛性者不同,所謂虛並非虛無縹緲,乃故作空虛,使內蘊不形於外,蓋虛則靈而神足,神氣充沛,舉動自敏捷靈活矣,又虛空而外,更須以靜,故練架子出手愈慢愈佳,氣沉丹田,呼吸深長,當其動也,須完整一氣,毫不散亂,用意不用力,動之所向意卽隨之,心意俱靜,內勁自生。
太極拳之動作,槪本先天形狀,純以自然出之,故所取姿勢為頭懸,項豎,含胸,拔背,沉肩,墜肘,尾閭正中,使身體各部不悖於先天,而無絲毫矯揉造作,此外則盡出以柔,務使氣血暢行,筋絡舒張,練成內勁柔而且順,內勁旣得,則靜可以却病延年,遇侮則能自衞衞國,以柔制剛矣。
太極拳旣順自然之序,作極柔之動作,呼吸深長,血脈通暢,臟腑舒展,筋骨堅韌,故凡神經衰弱消化不良,貧血充血,以及臟腑,骨骼筋絡違和等症,均可從事練習,往往有藥石無靈之痼疾,而獲治於太極拳者,惟心臟病劇及肺病甚深者,不可操之過急,須循序漸進始有功效,故謂太極拳為輔助醫藥之療病法,亦未為不可。
太極拳之力主虛動作主靜,虛則心氣平,靜則神志淸,習之旣久,氣質自變,復因順生理之程序,作自然之動作,使全身無畸形發展,由是態度雍容,氣魄沉雄,性情和靄,而無驕矜之氣矣。
In the method of Taiji Boxing, the hands express always in rounded shapes, akin to the roundness of the taiji symbol itself. People therefore assume that is the reason for the name, that this special term is being used descriptively. They do not understand that this type of boxing method is inclined less to movement and more to stillness, using emptiness to neutralize fullness, containing internally instead of showing externally. But actually internal and external are merged together, as in the state of nonpolarity when the two energies [of passive and active] are not yet distinguishable, mixed as a single substance. Therefore this “grand polarity” [tai ji] art is born of a state of nonpolarity. This is actually the real meaning of the name, which does not merely represent how it looks.
     Taiji Boxing emphasizes stillness, using softness to overcome hardness. It is quite different from the pure hardness of the external styles of boxing. Its “emptiness” is not really empty, but a show of emptiness, containing something internally that is not shown externally. With emptiness, spirit is full. With fullness of spirit, movement will naturally be nimble and lively. Beyond emptiness, stillness is also required. Therefore when practicing the techniques in the solo set, the slower the better. Energy sinking to your elixir field, your breathing deep and long – it is this kind of movement. There has to be a complete flow, without any moments of disorder. Make use of intention rather than strength, the movement following along with the intention. With your mind entirely calm, internal power will naturally be generated.
     Taiji Boxing’s movements have a quality of innateness, an expression of pure naturalness. Therefore seek during the postures to suspend your head and straighten your neck, contain your chest and pluck up your back, sink your shoulders and drop your elbows, center your tailbone. This will cause every part of your body to act innately and without the slightest artificiality of movement. Furthermore, a quality of softness will emerge, ensuring unimpeded circulation and relaxed muscles. Practice develops an internal power that is soft and smooth. Once such internal power is obtained, the resultant quietude can prevent illness and prolong life, and in the event of encountering aggression, you will be able to defend yourself or even your country, using softness to overcome hardness.
     The Taiji Boxing solo set follows a natural sequence, making extremely soft movements. The breathing is deep and long, the blood circulation is smooth, the organs are comfortable, and the physique becomes resilient. Therefore ailments such as nervous disorders, digestive issues, or circulatory troubles, as well as misalignments of the organs, bones, or musculature, all can be dealt with through practice, and even chronic illnesses for which medicines are often ineffective will be cured by means of Taiji Boxing. (But in the case of severe heart or lung disease, you must not be eager for results, instead progress gradually in order to succeed.) Thus it is said that Taiji Boxing is an “auxiliary method of medicine in the treating of illness”, and one that always works.
     Taiji Boxing’s strength lies in emptiness, and its movement lies in stillness. With emptiness, the mind is calm, and with stillness, thought is clear. After practicing over a long period, the temperament will naturally be transformed. Because it accords with physiological processes, it makes natural movements, giving the whole body a balanced development, and consequently a dignified manner, a heroic bearing, an amiable disposition, and a humble air.

十四 如何發展人之潛能
FOURTEEN: HOW TO AWAKEN THE BODY’S POTENTIAL

上古時代,人類穴居野處,與鳥獸互競生存,於是自衞與獵取為生活必備之條件,惟當時人類知識簡陋,其自衞獵取之技能不外奔躍,投擲搏鬭而已,厥後人類逐漸進化,思想由簡而繁,潛能漸次發展,但思想愈進步,機械愈增加,則人體運用之機會少,而日趨退化矣?
潛能者天才也,非學而知之之謂也,有如蘊藏於地下之實藏,經風雨之剝蝕,地壳之震動,自然流露,經人發現,加以發掘提煉,遂成有用之物,人之天才亦須鍛鍊其神經,運用其腦力,潛能一動,始有非常之智慧,發明奇異之事物?
人體之組織極其複雜,大之如肢體,小之如髮膚,槪以天演公例用之則進化,不用則退化,故此繁複之機構,亦各具有潛能,如加以適宜之鍛鍊,卽有無限之進展,警諸千戶自動電話機,平日可同時接話,如電機線路少有故障,則必有一部不能通話,必須整飭機械,調整線路,方能再通,人之神經系卽電話線路,大腦其總機,全身各部千百用戶也,配合完整自無扦格之弊,整飭之調理之,非籍動作練習不為功。
動之練習可分二種,一為單純之練習,一為複式之練習,卽單純之運動與合力之運動是也,合力運動為鍛鍊神經之最善法則,蓋神經最敏,如得適宜之鍛鍊,思想自能發達而敏捷,合力運動法以太極拳為適宜,因太極拳之動作,適合生理組織,並運用心理之潛意識,配合活動也。
(甲)生理方面,因其動作均取圜形,對於縱、橫、平、側、上、下、左、右、前、後皆有,適當之活動,神經系可得和緩之活動,靈機自敏。
(乙)物理方面,太極拳之動態,旣以圜形為主,又含有弧形,曲線,波浪,螺旋四種形態,故能發揮合力之效,助長神經之聯繫,兼收動之效率,如螺旋而增大推進之速度,波浪弧形能滅輕來勢之衝激,掀動巨大之動力,曲線能增大支撐力,再配合內在之意識,外形之動作,集中一致,自然發揮潛能之功效?
(丙)心理方面,正常之心理,有意識,有理性,反常之心理,則失其意識之控制,而失主宰,故神經病者,文弱之人可變而為力大無窮之蠢漢,粗野者可變而為溫文儒雅之態,喜怒哀樂,不能自主,蓋皆失主意識之作用,興奮其潛意識所致,如善為誘導其潛意識,使神經作用入於主意識,則反常之態除,而潛能之正常發展可期矣。
發展人之潛能,必須鍛鍊全部神經系,神經健全則思想縝密,自能才智堪深,語云:「健全之精神,寓於健全身體中」,故期發展潛能必須有鍛鍊神經系之適當運動法,太極拳之姿勢,一動全身皆動,為鍛鍊神經系最良運動法。
In ancient times, human beings lived in caves and in the wilderness, competing with animals in order to survive. Thus self-defense and hunting were essential conditions of existence. Human knowledge at that time was crude. Skills of self-defense and hunting did not go beyond running and jumping, throwing things, and wrestling. Since that time, human beings have gradually progressed, thought has gone from simple to complex, and our potential has increasingly expanded. However, the more that thought has advanced, the more that machines have improved, leaving us with fewer opportunities to use our bodies, and hence we daily deteriorate.
     Potential is inherent talent, not something learned from study. It is like some valuable material hidden in the ground, which due to erosion by the elements and the quaking of the earth, it naturally becomes exposed, then once noticed by people, it gets excavated and refined, and made into useful things. Human talent requires stimulating the nervous system and using the mind. Once this potential is tapped, it gives rise to extraordinary intelligence and the inventing of astounding things.
     The structure of the human body is extremely complex. On the larger scale, there are the limbs and trunk, and on the smaller scale, there is the hair and skin. As a general rule of evolution, if the body is used, it will develop, but if it is not, it will deteriorate. Thus there is potential in each part of this complex machine, and with the addition of appropriate training, there will be limitless progress. Take as an analogy the idea of a thousand households making telephone calls. Ordinarily, all of these calls can get through at the same time, but if there is a breakdown at the switchboard, then someone will be denied a conversation. Mechanisms will have to be repaired and lines adjusted for calls to be able to get through. The body’s nervous system is like telephone wires, the brain like a switchboard, the various parts of the body like countless callers. When there is coordination and integration, nothing will interrupt any connections, and everything will function in good order. But without practicing movement, this will not be achieved.
     Movement practice can be divided into two types: simple postures, complex postures. Simple movements are “combined-strength” movements [i.e. whole-bodied]. Combined-strength exercise is the best method of developing sensitivity. Your sensitivity will reach the highest level if you get the right training, and then your thoughts will naturally become nimble. Combined-strength methods suit Taiji Boxing because its movements are a cooperative exercise between physiological soundness and the performance of the subconscious [i.e. a body in perfect condition doing actions that have become second nature].
     A. Regarding physiology:
     Because the movements always seek to have roundness, then whether moving vertically or horizontally, double-sided or one-sided, upward or downward, left or right, forward or back, the movements are always appropriate. Your nervous system can thereby receive gentle exercise, allowing your brain activity to become more agile.
     B. Regarding physics:
     Taiji Boxing’s movements emphasize circles, containing the four features of rounded shapes, curved lines, waves, and spirals. It can therefore develop the effects of combined strength, improving both the connectivity of your nervous system and your efficiency of movement. Spiraling can intensify speed. Waves or curved shapes can dissipate or at least diminish a powerful incoming attack, the swell lifting away even an enormous moving force. Curved lines can amplify structural support, and also match intention within with movement outside, focusing both onto the same goal. These things will naturally have the effect of enhancing potential.
     C. Regarding psychology:
     A normal mind is aware and rational. An abnormal mental state is out of control and unpredictable. Mental disorders can turn a cultured and delicate man into an aggressive moron, or conversely give a ruffian the demeanor of a gentleman. The range of emotions can no longer be controlled, and once conscious control is lost, the subconscious becomes overexcited. If you are good at guiding your subconscious [which the practice helps you to do], you can get your nervous system under conscious control, thus dispelling abnormal behavior, and constant improvement in potential can be expected.
     To expand your potential, you have to train your entire nervous system. With your nervous system boosted, your thoughts will be more precise, and you will naturally be able to deepen your abilities. As the saying [by Juvenal] goes: “Mens sana in corpore sano [Healthy mind in a healthy body].” Therefore if you hope to increase your potential, you have to train your nervous system with appropriate methods of exercise. Taiji Boxing’s postures are such that when one part moves, the whole body moves, and so it is the best method for training the nervous system.

十五、推手與步法各項姿勢圖
FIFTEEN: PHOTOS FOR EACH POSTURE OF PUSHING HANDS WITH ITS FOOTWORK

定式單推手雙人手法姿勢圖
Fixed-step single-hand pushing hands:

第一圖 右者為蛟龍探爪 左者為鍾期聽琴。
Photo 1: (The person on the left performs FLOOD DRAGON EXTENDS A CLAW. The person on the right [Wu Zhiqing] performs TOASTING WITH THE CUP, LISTENING TO THE ZITHER.)

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第二圖 老龍舒筋(上式)
Photo 2: (OLD DRAGON LOOSENS ITS SINEWS – UPWARD POSTURE)

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第三圖 老龍舒筋(下式)
Photo 3: (OLD DRAGON LOOSENS ITS SINEWS – DOWNWARD POSTURE)

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上項1、2、3三圖,為單手練習方法,動作說明詳銓眞第四九頁至第五一頁
(The three photos above depict the single-hand practice method, the movements of which are explained below in Chapter Sixteen.)

定式雙推手法姿勢圖
Fixed-step double-hand pushing hands:

說明:書中稱左者為乙方,右者為甲方
Note: Within this book, the person on the left in the photos is Person B and the person on the right is Person A.

第四圖 右者取攻勢為掤,左者取守勢為按。此為預備式。
Photo 4: (A attacks with ward-off. B defends with push. This is the initiating posture.)

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第五圖 右者反守為攻左者以攻為守,此謂之掤按互換法。
Photo 5: (A turns attack into defense. B turns defense into attack. This is the method of ward-off and push reversing roles.)

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第六圖 右者以攻為守謂之擠,左者以守為攻謂之捋。
Photo 6: (A turns defense into attack with pressing. B turns attack into defense with rolling back.)

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第七圖 右者使擠手,左者用採法 此謂之以虛化實。
Photo 7: (A performs press. B performs pluck. This is using emptiness to neutralize fullness.)

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第八圖 右者以實擊虛,左者用挒法以虛化實。
Photo 8: (A uses fullness to attack emptiness. B performs rending, using emptiness to neutralize fullness.)

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第九圖 右者乘勢以靠法攻之,左者順勢以承之。
Photo 9: (A takes advantage of the situation by attacking with bumping. B seizes the opportunity to capitalize on it…)

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第十圖 左者順勢擊之以肘,此為以實擊虛法也。
Photo 10: (… by performing elbowing, using fullness to attack emptiness.)

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第十一圖 右者承上勢,用如封似閉,化去左者之肘。
Photo 11: (A continues by performing SEALING SHUT to neutralize B’s elbow.)

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說明 以上八圖為掤捋擠按採挒肘靠八法連環姿勢圖,
Note: The eight photos above depict a continuous process of the eight techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, push, pluck, rend, elbow, bump.
四、為預備姿勢,
Photo 4: Initiating posture.
五、右為按左為掤,
Photo 5: A pushes, B wards off.
六、右為擠左為捋,
Photo 6: A presses, B rolls back.
七、右為擠左為採,
Photo 7: A presses, B plucks.
八、右為擠左為挒,
Photo 8: A presses, B rends.
九、右為靠左為擠,
Photo 9: A bumps, B presses.
10、左為肘右為按,
Photo 10: B elbows, A pushes.
11、左為掤右為如封似閉。
Photo 11: B wards off, B performs SEALING SHUT.
圖之說明詳銓眞第五二頁至第五八頁
(The movements for these eight photos are explained below in Chapter Seventeen.)

順步推手法姿勢圖
Straight-stepping pushing hands:

第十二圖 步法右者後退,左者前進,手法左者掤右按。
Photo 12: (A retreats, warding off. B advances, pushing.)

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第十三圖 步法右者進,左者退,手法右者按,左者掤。
Photo 13: (A advances, pushing. B retreats, warding off.)

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動作說明詳銓眞第五九頁至第六〇頁
(The movements for the two photos above are explained below in Chapter Eighteen.)

拗步推手步法姿勢
Twisted-stepping pushing hands:

第十四圖
Photo 14:

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第十五圖
Photo 15:

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第十六圖
Photo 16:

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第十七圖
Photo 17:

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動作說明詳銓眞第六一頁至第七一頁
(The movements for the four photos above are explained below in Chapter Nineteen.)

十六 定式單手練習推手法
SIXTEEN: FIXED-STEP SINGLE-HAND PUSHING HANDS METHODS

太極拳單鍊者,謂之練架式。對練者,謂之推手。前者為手眼身步法鍛練筋骨為致用之體。後者為經歷應用之法,由簡而繁,分為五步(一)為定式單手練習對推法,(二)為定式雙手練習推手法,(三)為順步進退對推練習法,(四)為拗步行動對推練習法,(五)為行動變化對推練習法。茲對各法分別例舉,以便初學有所問津。
Taiji Boxing’s solo practice is the solo set, and its partner practice is pushing hands. The former is the essentials of hand, eye, body, and step, developing the body to carry out the techniques. The latter is for experiencing these techniques. Going from simple to complex, pushing hands is divided into five stages: 1. fixed-step single-hand, 2. fixed-step double-hand, 3. straight-stepping advancing and retreating, 4. twisted-stepping moving-step, 5. moving-step with switching the feet. Each of these methods is subdivided into specific exercises to make it easier for beginners to find their way through.

單手練習推法準備姿勢:
Initiating posture for single-hand pushing methods:

1.假定二人,右曰甲,左曰乙,以下稱甲乙,均為二人之代名詞。
There are two people, Person A on the right, Person B on the left, from this point on referred to only as A and B.
2.甲西向立,乙東向立,二人相距兩步。
You stand two paces apart from each other, A facing to the west, B facing to the east.
3.甲乙二人各出左脚,向前邁一步,左膝曲成九十度,右脚伸直成四十五度,各成左弓右箭步。
You each step your left foot forward, bending the left knee for ninety degrees and straightening the right leg for forty-five degrees, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow.
4.甲乙二人,頭要懸,身要竪,腰要塌,為不偏不倚之自然姿勢。
For both of you, the head should be suspended, body upright, waist settled, in a natural posture of neither leaning nor inclining.
5.甲乙二人,眼注視對方,目光平射。
You both look at each other with a level gaze.
6.甲乙二人,各伸右手以掌緣平對向,兩腕相接成交叉形。
You each extend your right palm toward each other, using the edge of the palm, and the wrists touch to make a crossed shape.

開始單手推法:
To begin single-hand pushing:

此法初步練習,分練腕,練肘,練臂,進于肩胯,腿,膝,足之法。
(These beginning practice methods divide into training the wrist, elbow, and arm, and attacking with the shoulder, hip, thigh, knee, and foot.)

第一法 甲方鍾期聽琴 乙方蛟龍探爪
Method 1: A performs TOASTING WITH THE CUP, LISTENING TO THE ZITHER. B performs FLOOD DRAGON EXTENDS A CLAW.

甲方右手前伸,手腕已被乙方右手粘住,觸覺感勢猛勇,有襲右肩之勢,轉臂以手外撇,粘住乙方手背,不使逼近我身,急用肘牽引乙方之手於右側外圍,則來勢化去矣。同時含胸,斂腹轉胯,身體轉成九十度,左腿由曲而伸,成四十五度,右脚由伸而曲膝彎成九十度成左虛式,眼注視對方之手,成鍾期聽琴勢,
A, your right hand extended forward, your wrist already sticking to B’s right hand, feels an aggressive attack toward your right shoulder. Rotate your forearm in order to deflect outward with your hand, sticking to the back of B’s hand, not allowing him to approach your body, quickly using your elbow to lead his hand outward to the right side, neutralizing his incoming force. At the same time, hollow your chest, withdraw your abdomen, and rotate your hips, your torso turning ninety degrees, your left leg going from bent to straight, making a forty-five degree angle, your right knee going from straight to bent, making a ninety degree angle, your left leg emptying, your gaze to the opponent’s hand, performing the posture of TOASTING WITH THE CUP, LISTENING TO THE ZITHER.
乙方伸右臂為左拗步,成蛟龍探爪勢。
B, extend your right arm to make a left crossed stance, performing the posture of FLOOD DRAGON EXTENDS A CLAW.

第二法 甲方蛟龍探爪 乙方鍾期聽琴
Method 2: A performs FLOOD DRAGON EXTENDS A CLAW. B performs TOASTING WITH THE CUP, LISTENING TO THE ZITHER.

甲方旣化去乙方來勢,復乘機趁勢粘住乙方之手,向對方肩前撐去,目的為傾跌敵方,眼隨掌轉,右腿由曲而伸,左腿由虛而實,成左拗步,為蛟龍探爪勢。
A, neutralize B’s incoming force, then take advantage of the opportunity by sticking to his hand and bracing out forward toward his shoulder, with the aim of getting him to fall away, your gaze going along with your palm as it arcs. Your right leg is going from bent to straight, your left leg going from empty to full, making a left crossed stance, as you perform the posture of FLOOD DRAGON EXTENDS A CLAW.
乙方右手觸覺,感受甲方右掌有反功意,急將右腕翻轉,以手前外撇,粘住甲方手腕,以肘臂牽引甲方之手於右側外圍,則來勢又為化解矣。同時含胸斂腹,轉胯,身軀轉成九十度,左腿由曲而伸,成四十五度,右腿由伸而曲,成九十度,成左虛式,眼注視對方之手,成鍾期聽琴勢。(上二法見推手姿勢圖第一圖)
B, your right hand feels that A’s right palm has a counterattacking intention, so quickly turn over your right wrist and deflect aside with your hand, sticking to the back of A’s hand, using your elbow to lead his hand outward to the right side, also neutralizing his incoming force. At the same time, hollow your chest, withdraw your abdomen, and rotate your hips, your torso turning ninety degrees, your left leg going from bent to straight, making a forty-five degree angle, your right leg going from straight to bent, making a ninety degree angle, your left leg emptying, your gaze to the opponent’s hand, performing the posture of TOASTING WITH THE CUP, LISTENING TO THE ZITHER. (These movements are represented by photo 1.)
附註:依上第一第二兩法,甲乙二方,互相往返推行,謂之單手右推法。如此循環不已,或以時計或以數計,右手若干時間,或若干數次,再換左手,法與右手同。
Note: The two movements above, involving A and B pushing back and forth at each other, make single-hand pushing with the right hand. It recycles indefinitely, or you can use a timer, working your right hand for a certain amount of time, or for a certain number of repetitions, then switch to the left hand, performed the same way as with the right hand.
再換步法,甲方右脚前邁一步,乙方左脚同時後退一步,而手仍不變換,亦如上項左手若干,右手若干,使左右手或左右足,得平均運動為原則。
Then switch feet. A, step forward with your right foot. B, step back with your left foot at the same time. But do not switch the hands yet, still continuing as before. Do a certain amount with your left hand, then a certain amount with your right. Work each hand and each foot, the idea being to have a balanced exercise.

第三法 甲、乙、老龍舒筋(上)
Method 3: OLD DRAGON LOOSENS ITS SINEWS – UPWARD POSTURE

甲乙兩方,步法一如上例,祇推手法略變,兩手由上斜垂、轉向上斜前舉,仍成交叉形,掌心向外,兩臂仍相粘,肩背肘仍由外而內運轉,目標意在對方肩部(如第二圖),為練習肩臂肘之聯繫,使關節活動,協同運動之法,步與手法變換,如第一法。
For both of you, the stepping method is the same as above, but the pushing method is slightly different. Your hands hang diagonally downward, then arc upward to be lifted diagonally forward, still making a crossed shape, palms facing outward, arms still sticking to each other, the shoulder, arm, and elbow still arcing from outward to inward, aiming for the opponent’s shoulder area. (It is similar to photo 2.) This trains the integrating of shoulder, arm, and elbow, livening the joints with a method that develops them equally. The methods of switching hands and feet are the same as in the first exercise.

第四法 甲、乙、老龍舒筋(下)
Method 4: OLD DRAGON LOOSENS ITS SINEWS – DOWNWARD POSTURE

甲乙兩方,如第三法,右手由上往外翻轉,手掌朝外,兩臂相粘,鬆肩垂背,鬆腰轉胯,步法各成左拗步或右拗步,左右之變換步位及進退一如上法(如第三圖)
For each of you, continue from the previous movement, your right hand arcing outward from above, palm facing outward, arms sticking to each other. Loosen the shoulder and hang the arm, loosen your waist and rotate your hips. Use also a crossed stance on each side, switching left and right by advancing and retreating as before. (It is similar to photo 3.)
附註:其餘類推,上舉四法,為初學推手入門之法也。
Note: These four methods described above form the basic pushing hands methods for beginners.

十七 定式雙手練習推手法
SEVENTEEN: FIXED-STEP DOUBLE-HAND PUSHING HANDS

雙手推法準備姿勢:
Initiating posture for double-hand pushing:

1.甲乙二人對立,如出左脚在前,左曲右伸,成左弓右箭式,二人距離各以左脚同時在一線上為準。
A and B, stand facing each other. Step your left foot forward, left leg bending, right leg extending, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. The distance between you is established by stepping your left foot onto the same line in front of you.
2.假定甲方先以右手平環於身前,手心朝內(卽掤手),
A, start by using your right hand to make a level curve in front of your body, palm facing inward. (This is warding off.)
乙方急於左掌扶按甲方之右肘,手指朝上,右手扶按甲方之右腕,兩手臂撑開如圓形。
B, you are intent on using your left palm to push on A’s right elbow, fingers pointing upward, and using your right hand to push on his right wrist, your arms propped open to make a round shape.
甲方急將左掌扶按乙方之右肘,指尖朝上,兩臂亦撐開如圓形。(如第四圖)
A, you are intent on using your left palm to push on B’s right elbow, fingertips pointing upward, [and using your right hand to push on his right wrist,] your arms also propped open to make a round shape. (It is similar to photo 4.)

第五法 掤按對推法
Method 5: Warding off and pushing

由上項準備姿勢:
Continuing from the initiating posture:
1.乙方兩掌往前下按甲方右臂
B, use both hands to push forward and downward on A’s right arm.
2.甲方含胸斂腹右腿由伸而曲,左脚由曲而伸,成左虛式,同時右掌撇開乙方右肘急囘至右臂肘兩臂平行以手背承托乙方之之右按掌同時右臂肘脫離乙方之按手,右掌急往乙方左側扶按乙方之左肘撐開如圓形,(如第五圖)
A, hollow your chest and withdraw your abdomen, your right leg going from straight to bent, your left leg going from bent to straight, making a left empty stance. At the same time, use your right palm to take aside B’s right elbow, quickly withdrawing your own right elbow, your arms moving level, using the back of your hand to prop up B’s right pushing palm, your right elbow coming away from B’s [left] pushing hand, and your right palm quickly goes to B’s left side and pushes on his left elbow, bracing away with a round shape. (It is similar to photo 5.)
3.乙方右掌撇開甲方左腕,急以右掌扶按甲方左肘,指尖朝上,同時右掌旣被甲方左手背抵住,急轉掌扶甲方之左腕,仍成兩臂撐開,如圜形
B, use your right palm to take aside B’s left wrist and quickly use your right palm to push on A’s left elbow, fingers pointing upward. At the same time, your right palm is obstructed by the back of A’s left hand, so turn your palm and put it on his left wrist, your arms again bracing away with a round shape.
4.甲方兩掌往前下按,乙方右臂同時左脚由伸而屈,右脚由屈而伸成左弓箭步。
A, use both hands to push forward and downward on B’s right arm, your left leg going from straight to bent, your right leg going from bent to straight, making a left bow and arrow stance.
5.含胸斂腹,左腿由曲而伸,右腿由伸而曲成右虛式,同時撒開甲方左肘,急囘至左臂肘內線兩臂平行,以手背承托乙方之右按掌,同時右臂肘脫離甲方之按手,左掌急往甲方之右肘,兩臂仍撐開如圓形。(與第五圖相反)
B, hollow your chest and withdraw your abdomen, your left leg going from bent to straight, your right leg going from straight to bent, making a right empty stance. At the same time, [use your left palm to] take aside A’s left elbow, quickly withdrawing your own left elbow inward, your arms moving level, using the back of your hand to prop up B’s right pushing palm, your right elbow coming away from A’s [left] pushing hand, and your right palm quickly goes to A’s right elbow, your arms again bracing away with a round shape. (It is the reverse of photo 5.)
上例1.2.3.4.5.五動為推動半個圓週,甲方由左下往右上環繞推動,乙方由右下往左上環繞推動。
(These first five movements have made a half circle, A circling from the lower left to the upper right, B circling from the lower right to the upper left.)
6.乙方兩掌往前下按,同時左腿由伸而曲,右腿而曲而伸,成左弓式。
B, use both hands to push forward and downward [on A’s right arm], your left leg going from straight to bent, your right leg going from bent to straight, making a left bow stance.
7.甲方卽第2.動之動作。
A, repeat movement 2.
8.乙方卽第3.動之動作。
B, repeat movement 3.
9.10.兩動與4.5.兩動之動作同,以下兩方為週而復始之循環下推若干時間,或若干數量,此為初步推手之掤按法
A and B, repeat movements 4 and 5, and then go through this whole process over and over, pushing for a certain amount of time or a certain number of repetitions. This is the basic pushing hands exercise of ward-off and push.

第六法 捋擠對推法
Method 6: Rolling back and pressing

承第五法乙方之掤手,甲方之按手,此法係將左右手互換掤擠推動。
Continuing from Method 5, B warding off, A pushing, in this method your hands switch between rolling back and pressing.
1.甲方將右掌翻轉,手心朝上,以手背將乙方之右手腕向本身右側牽引,卽「捋法」同時使用「擠法」,逼迫乙方之右肘,同時步法亦由左弓式變成右虛式,身胸內斂目注意對方。
A, turn your right palm over to be facing upward and use the back of the hand to draw B’s right wrist toward the right side of your body, rolling back and then pressing [with your left hand] toward B’s right elbow. At the same time, switch from a left bow stance to right [left] empty stance, your chest drawing in, your gaze toward B. [It is similar to photo 6.]
2.乙方兩臂觸覺,感受威脅將手鬆開,順勢前伸撒開左手,囘至右臂內圍,兩臂平行,將手背承托甲方之左「擠」掌於是右臂之威脅已化,急將右掌扶按甲方之左肘,步法同時由左虛式變成左弓式。
B, as your arms feel this threat, loosen your right arm to go along with the energy and extend it forward, your left hand withdrawing to the inside of your right arm, your arms moving level. Use the back of your [left] hand to prop up the pressing of A’s left hand, thereby neutralizing the threat to your right arm, and quickly put your right palm on A’s left elbow. At the same time, switch from a left empty stance to a left bow stance.
3.甲方覺乙方以「掤」法化去「擠」法,左肘腹受乙方「擠」法威脅,急將右腕翻轉,以掌扶住乙方左肘,四臂互相捋擠如第七圖。
A, as you feel B’s ward-off neutralize your press, your left elbow then feels the threat of B’s press, so quickly turn over your right wrist to put the palm on B’s left elbow, and now the roles of rolling and pressing are switched among the four arms. (It is similar to photo 7.)
4.甲乙兩方換手法,以「捋擠」二法更變手法,仍成掤按原來姿勢,於是依第五法,週而復始,循環下推至若干數量為止。
Having switched roles of rolling back and pressing, return to the warding off and pushing of Method 5, then recycle this exercise over and over for a certain number of repetitions.
附註:換手法卽攻擊與防禦互用法,甲攻乙禦,攻中有禦,禦中亦有攻,非攻非禦卽虛實變化之法,左手如換右手、亦如此換,甲方如此換,乙方亦如此換舉一反三以下仿此類推。
Note: “Switching hands” means attacking and defense reversing roles, so that A is now attacking and B is now defending. There is defense within attack and attack within defense. When there is neither attack nor defense, it means emptiness and fullness are switching roles. The left hand switches in this way, and then so does the right hand. A switches in this way, and then so does B. Let this be a single explanation covering several explanations, as the rest of the descriptions below will follow this method [of switching].

第七法 採挒推手法
Method 7: Plucking and rending to switch hands

假定:甲方兩掌按住乙方右臂,乙方左掌按住甲方左肘各撐開如圓形
Suppose that A’s palms push on B’s right arm and B’s left palm is pushing on B’s left elbow, both propping open with rounded shapes.
1.甲方右掌按住(指尖朝上)乙方右腕左掌按住(指尖朝上掌心朝下)。乙方右肘右掌急翻轉迅速擒住乙方之右腕卽「採」法,往右側後摔卽「挒法」,身閃轉右,含胸斂腹,步法由左弓式變成左虛式,目注視對方三前如第八圖
A, use your right palm (fingers pointing upward) to push on B’s right wrist, and use your left palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing downward) to push on B’s right elbow. Your right palm quickly turns and grabs B’s right wrist, performing plucking, and throws aside to the right rear, performing rending, as you dodge your body by turning to the right, hollowing your chest and drawing back your abdomen, your stance switching from left bow stance to left empty stance, your gaze on A’s three fronts. (It is similar to photo 8.)
2.乙方觸覺感受甲方使用「採挒」之法,將有被其摔倒之勢,急將右臂鬆肩墜肘急化去甲方之摔勁,左掌撒開,甲方右肘迅至右臂內圍使用「掤」法,以手背承托甲方之左掌,同時右掌急向甲方左肘扶按,則將來勢自然化去,身步二法不變。
B, when you feel that A’s plucking and rending is about to throw you out, quickly use your right arm, by loosening the shoulder and dropping the elbow, to neutralize his throwing energy, your left palm releasing from his right elbow and quickly going to the inside of your right arm to perform a ward-off. With the back of your left hand propping up A’s left palm, quickly bring your right palm around to push on his left elbow, naturally neutralizing any incoming energy. Your body position and stance have not changed.
3.甲方使用「採挒」之法為乙方化去,復為乙方以右手之「掤」左手之「按」肘反攻,以左掌翻腕(掌心朝下)按乙方之左腕,右掌同時急扶按乙方之左肘,身步二法與第一動同(以下甲乙二人互換手法練習)
B, now that you have neutralized A’s plucking and rending, ward-off with your right hand and put your left hand on A’s elbow to counterattack. Turn your left wrist (so the palm is facing downward) to push on B’s left wrist, your right palm at the same time quickly pushing on B’s left elbow, your body position and stance still the same. (Practice this also with the hands switched.)

第八法 肘靠換手法
Method 8: Elbowing and bumping to switch hands

準備姿勢與第(1.)同。
The initiating posture is the same as in Method 1.
1.甲方由上準備姿勢,兩臂將乙方之右臂向右往下按,右臂垂直於右脅旁,左掌(掌心朝下)護於右肩前,同時左脚原地活步,右脚前進一步,踏入乙方之中宮(卽內𦡁)右膝彎左脚直,成右弓式,急以右肩靠近乙方胸脯,協同腰胯腿足之勁靠敵,謂之「靠」法卽野馬分鬃之右式如第九圖
A, continuing from the initiating posture, use both arms to push B’s right arm down to the right so your right arm is hanging straight down beside your right ribs, your left palm (palm facing downward) guarding in front of your right shoulder. At the same time, your left foot stays where it is but adjusts as your right foot advances to step into B’s “central palace” (i.e. below his crotch), your right knee bending, left leg straightening, making a right bow stance, and quickly use your right shoulder to bump against his chest, coordinating with the energy of your hips, leg, and foot to lean you against the opponent, performing bumping. It is similar to WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE on the right side. (It is similar to photo 9.)
2.乙方觸覺感受身軀被脅,急向左閃身撤步,化去來勢,迅將右臂肘由下撤囘轉臂或握拳,以肘橫封乙方面門,卽「肘」法,右掌護於右肩前(掌心朝下)同時左脚向左後撤步成右虛式。
B, as you feel the threat of this, quickly dodge your body to the left and withdraw a step to neutralize the incoming force, then quickly withdraw your right elbow from below and roll it over, perhaps making a fist, and send your elbow horizontally to seal off B in front of you, thus performing elbowing. Your right palm is guarding in front of your right shoulder (palm facing downward), and your left foot at the same time withdraws a step to the left rear, making a right empty step.
3.甲方進步「靠」已被乙方右臂肘封住面門,急閃身右轉,右掌由下繞上,使用「抎手」「採」住乙方右腕,向右後「挒」左手由左上下按,垂直於左脅旁,以肩再「靠近乙方之胸脯,右掌(掌心朝下)護於左肩前,協同腰胯運用,肩背向乙方進逼,謂之「靠」卽野馬分鬃之左式,同時右脚原地活步,左脚向乙方內𦡁邁進一步,成右弓式。
A, with your bumping sealed off by B’s elbowing, quickly dodge your body by turning to the right, your right palm arcing upward from below, performing CLOUDING HANDS, then plucking B’s right wrist and rending it to the right rear, and your left hand pushes down from the upper left to hang straight down beside your left ribs as you use your [left] shoulder to again bump against B’s chest, your right palm (palm facing downward) guarding in front of your left shoulder. Coordinating with your hips, your shoulder goes forward to crowd into the opponent, performing bumping. It is similar to WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE on the left side. At the same time, your right foot stays where it is but adjusts as your right foot advances to step below B’s crotch), making a right bow stance.
4.乙方右腕觸覺感受甲方威脅進逼之意,急向右閃身撤步,化去來勢,迅將左臂肘由身前轉臂握拳(手心朝上),以肘橫封甲方之面門,同時右脚由前後撤一步,成左虛式(如第十圖)。
B, as you feel the threat of A closing in, quickly dodge your body to the right and withdraw a step to neutralize the incoming force, then quickly withdraw your left elbow from in front of you and roll it over, making a fist (the center of the hand facing upward), and send your elbow horizontally to seal off A in front of you. Your right foot at the same time withdraws a step to the rear, making a left empty stance. (It is similar to photo 10.)
5.甲方再換左手抽身,右手變按,閃身向左旋轉避開乙方之左臂肘,急以左掌由下繞上,按住乙方左腕,右掌同時按扶乙方左肘,同時步法由左弓式變成左虛式(如第十一圖)。
A, your left hand then switches to withdrawing and your right hand switches to pushing, your body dodging by turning to the left to evade B’s left elbow, and quickly arc your left palm around from below to push on B’s left wrist, your right palm pushing on his left elbow. At the same time, switch from left bow stance to left empty stance. (It is similar to photo 11.)
6.乙方換手法,由封門肘變掤左腕觸覺,感受甲方威脅急轉臂,(手心朝內)彎成掤手,卽左臂環前平曲於身前,右掌急由左肩前扶按甲方左肘,步位仍左虛式。
B, switch from sealing off with your elbow to warding off with your left wrist as you feel the threat from A, quickly rotating your arm (so the palm is facing inward), and bending to make a ward-off. As your left arm becomes rounded, bent level in front of your body, your right palm quickly goes from in front of your left shoulder to push onto A’s left elbow. Your position is still a left empty stance.
附註:以上為甲攻乙守,演至左右均衡之局後,卽可改換乙攻甲守,動作與方法依據甲方和乙方第1.2.3.4.5.五囘動作,循環運用便可。
Note: In the description above, A is attacking and B is defending. Once it is performed on both the left and right sides, you can then switch to B attacking and A defending, the movements performed as above, only with A and B reversed, and the exercise can be recycled over and over.

第九法 採挒肘靠進退連用法
Method 9: Plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping with continuous advancing and retreating

準備姿勢,甲方以左掤右按,乙方則雙按手。
The initiating posture is A using his left hand to ward off and his right hand to push, B doing a double-hand push.
1.甲方左掌翻腕(手心朝下),右掌同時翻腕(手心朝上),兩掌卽握乙方之左臂卽「採」法往左側後摔,卽「挒」法閃身向左後退一大步,左膝曲,右脚伸,成右虛式。
A, turn your left wrist (so the palm is facing downward), your right wrist turning (so the palm is facing upward), and use both palms to grab B’s left arm, performing plucking, and throw to the left rear, performing rending, as you dodge your body by retreating a large step to the left rear, your left knee bending, right leg straightening, making a right empty stance.
2.乙方左臂觸覺感受甲方有被擒摔出之意,趁勢左脚原地活步,右脚急向甲方內𦡁踏進一步,成左弓式,同時側身以右肩逼近甲方胸脯,卽「靠」法,右臂垂於右脅旁,左手護於右肩前,頭左轉。
B, when your left arm feels that A is about to throw you out, take advantage of the situation, your left foot staying where it is but adjusting as you quickly advance your right foot below A’s crotch, making a left bow stance. At the same time, your right shoulder crowds toward A’s chest, performing bumping, your right arm hanging beside your right ribs, your left hand guarding in front of your right shoulder, your head turned to the left [right].
3.甲方感受乙方逼迫,急以右手握拳(掌心朝上)以臂肘由右繞轉,用肘封乙方面門卽肘法,右手護於右肩前,同時右膝彎左脚伸,成右弓式。
A, as you feel B crowding in, quickly arc your right elbow from the right, the hand making a fist (the center of the hand facing upward), and seal off B in front of you, performing elbowing, your right hand guarding in front of your right shoulder. At the same time, your right knee bends and your left leg straightens, making a right bow stance.
4.乙方面門感受甲方封住,急閃身住右,使右手撥開甲方之右臂反擒之,左手卽擒甲方之右肘,同時右脚往右後退一大步,兩手採往甲方之右臂向右側後摔,卽用「挒」法,右脚曲左脚伸,成左虛式。
B, as you feel A sealing you off, quickly dodge your body to the right as use your right hand to deflect aside A’s right arm and then grab it, your left hand grabbing his right elbow, your right foot at the same time retreating a large step to the right rear. Your hands pluck A’s right arm to then throw him to the right rear, performing rending, your right leg bending, your left leg straightening, making a left empty stance.
5.甲方右臂感受乙方「採挒」之法,急將右脚原地活步,左脚急進一步,踏入乙方內𦡁,以肩「靠」近甲方胸脯,左臂垂於左脅旁,右手護于左肩前,左膝曲右脚伸,成左弓式。
A, as you feel B’s plucking and rending, quickly adjust your right foot where it is for your left foot to advance to step below B’s crotch, and use your shoulder to bump to B’s chest, your left arm hanging down beside your left ribs, your right hand guarding in front of your left shoulder, your left knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a left bow stance.
6.乙方「採挒」之法旣為甲方「靠」法所破左手急轉臂或握拳(掌心向上)以臂肘由左橫封甲方面門,右手護于右肩前,步法由左虛式變成左弓式
B, once your plucking and rending is ruined by A’s bumping, quickly roll your left arm, the hand making a fist (the center of the hand facing upward), and bring the elbow across to seal him off in front of you, your right hand guarding in front of your right shoulder, your stance switching from a left empty stance to a left bow stance.
坿注:換手法說明:抎手解封肘如封似閉封採挒,甲方以抎手封住乙方之肘,乙方以如封似閉解去甲方之封,則甲乙兩方左右手與左右步均因之而變換。
Note: Switch hands by way of CLOUDING HANDS to seal off the elbow, then SEALING SHUT to deal with the plucking and rending. A, use CLOUDING HANDS to seal off B’s elbow. B, use SEALING SHUT to dispel A’s sealing. Then both of you switch hands and switch feet.
7.甲方感受乙方之肘壓迫,急將右掌向上以掌腕撥開乙方左臂,卽「抎手」封閉乙方之肘,卽以抎手封閉敵肘之謂也。
A, as you feel B’s elbow pressing in close to you, quickly send your right palm upward and use the wrist to deflect aside B’s left arm, performing CLOUDING HANDS to seal off his elbow.
乙方左臂觸覺感受甲方威脅,急以右手由肩前經左肘下伸將出來(手心朝上)左掌變拳(手心朝上)同時翻腕以掌按扶甲方之左臂,卽「如封似閉」使採挒是也。
B, as your left arm feels the threat from A, quickly take your right hand from in front of your right shoulder and reach it out under your left elbow (palm facing upward), and your left hand, which had become a fist (the center of the hand facing upward) now turns over as a palm to push on A’s left arm, performing SEALING SHUT to then go into plucking and rending.
8.乙方由上項換手法以「如封似閉」解去甲方之「抎手」,扶按甲方之臂肘,急將甲方左腕肘緊握不放,卽「採」法同時左脚向左後退一大步,急將甲方之臂往左後摔,卽「挒」法左膝彎,右脚直,成右虛式
B, now that the hands have switched, use SEALING SHUT to dispel A’s CLOUDING HANDS, pushing on A’s left arm, then quickly grab the wrist and elbow tightly and perform plucking, your left foot at the same time retreating a large step. Quickly throw A’s arm to the left rear, performing rending, your left knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a right empty stance.
9.甲方由上項換手法以「抎手」撥開,急被乙方以「如封似閉」解去,左脚原地活步,右脚急向乙方內𦡁踏進,以肩逼近乙方胸脯,運用腰膝勁以肩背進逼,謂之「靠」右臂垂于右脅旁,左手護于右肩前,右脚彎左脚伸,成右弓式,頭左轉
A, now that you have been stopped by B’s SEALING SHUT, adjust your left foot for your right foot to step in below B’s crotch and use your shoulder to crowd his chest, using energy from your hips to send your shoulder forward, performing bumping. Your right arm is hanging down beside your right ribs, your left hand guarding in front of your right shoulder, your right leg bending, left leg straightening, making a right bow stance, your head turned to the left [right].
10.乙方「採挒」之法被甲方以「靠」法所解而被逼,急閃身以右肘由右側橫截以封其面門,步法仍成右虛式
B, with your plucking and rending dispelled by A’s bumping, quickly dodge your body and send your right elbow across to seal him off in front of you, still making a right empty stance.
11.甲方使用「採挒」法,
A, perform plucking and rending.
12.乙方以「靠」法解去甲方「採挒」法
B, perform bumping to dispel A’s plucking and rending.
13.甲方使「肘」法解去乙方之「靠」法
A, perform elbowing to dispel B’s bumping.
以上項之動作與8.9.10.三動同,惟甲乙兩方互換耳。
Movements 11-13 are the same as movements 8-10, only with A and B reversed.
坿注:第九法如用「挒」法,退一大步,用「靠」法進一大步或二三步不等,總以趕上「靠」步,如用右肩必須左脚在前,退步必須退至一百八十度,則挒法功效顯著矣。
Note: When performing rending, retreat a large step. When performing bumping, advance a large step, or two or three smaller steps, always using chasing steps to perform bumping. When using your right shoulder, if your left foot is in front, retreating it will turn you a hundred and eighty degrees, and then rending from that position will be remarkably effective.

十八 順步進退對推法
EIGHTEEN: STRAIGHT-STEPPING ADVANCE & RETREAT PUSHING HANDS

第十法 順步行動推手法
Method 10: Straight-stepping moving-step pushing hands

準備姿勢:如第四圖
The initiating posture is the same as in photo 4.
甲乙兩方姿勢,甲方順步左脚在前成左弓式,左掤手掤乙方,以右「按」手扶按乙方之左肘。

A, step your left foot forward, making a left bow stance, and use your left hand to ward off B, putting your right hand on his left elbow.
乙方順步亦以左弓式,以雙手按扶甲方之左臂,
B, step your [right foot back] to also make a left bow stance, putting both of your hands on A’s left arm.
1.順步者,卽甲方左脚在前,乙方亦是左脚在前,兩脚相對各成左弓式。
“Straight stepping” means that if A’s left foot is forward, B’s left foot is also forward, both people facing each other in a left bow stance.
2.行動者,假如甲進乙退,甲方先提左腿前進,繼進右脚,再進左脚,
“Moving step” means that if A advances, B retreats. A, first lift your left leg and advance, then continue by advancing with your right foot, and then again with your left foot.
乙方則先活動右脚,繼退左脚,再退右脚,
B, first move your right foot, then continue by retreating with your left foot, and then again with your right foot.
各動三步仍各成左弓式為進退活動,各順其勢互相進退,謂之活步行動,反之乙方提左腿前進,則甲方右脚活動後退一步,亦是各動三步,如斯循環往返,謂之活步卽順步也。如第十二及第十三兩圖
Both of you advance and retreat by taking three steps that bring you again into a left bow stance, both going along with the advancing or retreating of each other, hence “moving step”. Then reverse roles. B, lift your left leg and advance. A, move your right foot and retreat. Again it makes three steps. Recycling back and forth in this way is called “straight-stepping moving-step”. (This is similar to photos 12 and 13.)
3.推手者,卽定式之雙手推法之「掤捋」等手法,如「掤捋擠按」四法運用,純熟「採挒」二法,均可任意使用,惟「肘靠」二法,在順步行動實施時,用於承轉之處為變化之換手法,假如第九法中7.8.9.三種換手法。
The pushing method in this case is that of the fixed-step double-hand ward-off and rollback method from the four-techniques method of ward-off, rollback, press, push, or simply the method of plucking and rending. All methods can be used, except the elbowing and bumping method, because when you are performing the straight-stepping moving-step exercise, the alternating steps would switch your hands, same as the triple hand switch of movements 7-9 of Method 9.

第十一法 順步擠按換步法
Method 11: Straight-stepping pressing and pushing to switch the feet

1.承第十法,甲乙兩方步法,各方均以左脚在前,右脚在後之姿勢。
Continuing from Method 10, both of you put your left foot forward, right foot back.
2.甲方如換右脚在前。卽用右手按住乙方之右肘,用「擠」手則乙方左脚後退一步,而甲方趁勢進右步,於是則甲乙兩方之步法已更換右脚在前矣,例如乙方用「按擠」換步,亦如上法行之。
A, to switch to your right foot forward, use your right hand to push on B’s right elbow and perform pressing. As B’s left foot retreats, go along with it by advancing with your right foot. Now both of you have switched to having your right foot forward. If it was B instead using pushing and pressing to switch feet, it would be the same action.

第十二法 順步採挒換步法
Method 12: Straight-stepping plucking and rending to switch the feet

1.承第十法準備姿勢。如第四圖
Start from the initiating posture from Method 10 (the same as in photo 4).
2.乙方如換左脚在前,可使用「採挒」法,以右手「採」住甲方左腕,左手「採」住甲方左肘,乘甲掤勢逼近,急撤右脚往後退一步同時趁勢使「挒」手,則甲方必然進左脚,於是甲乙步法已換左脚在前矣,行動仍以進三步退三步,如前法甲乙兩方如須換步,均可依此而行。
B, to switch to your left foot being forward, you can perform plucking and rending, using your right hand to pluck A’s left wrist and your left hand to pluck at his left elbow, and then going along with A’s approaching ward-off by quickly retreating your right foot. At this moment, seize the opportunity to perform a rending technique, then A will have to advance with his left foot, and both of you will have switched your feet so that the left foot is now forward. Walk again with three steps as before. If either of you need to switch your feet, this method can be used.

十九 拗步推手習練法(卽大捋)
NINETEEN [Part 1]: TWISTED-STEPPING PUSHING HANDS METHODS (also called Large Rollback) [This is related to photos 14-17.]

拗步推手法與活步定步各法之「掤捋擠按」等手法相同,不同者步法耳。故于此手法從略,僅言步法。定步與活步,甲乙兩方各均以左脚在前,或右脚在前,惟拗步甲乙兩方所站步位,均係同方向,如甲方為右,乙方則以左脚踏進甲方之內𦡁,此為拗之一例也。所踏入𦡁內之脚(脚凹朝外)與他脚成「之」字形,卽拗步是也。
Twisted-stepping pushing hands has the same method of ward-off, rollback, press, push as in moving-step and fixed-step pushing hands, just the stepping is different. Therefore there is no description of the hand movements here, only the footwork. Whether fixed-step or moving-step, each of you put your left or right foot forward, but as this version has twisted stepping, you are both stepping onto the same side. If A puts his right foot out, then B steps his left foot below A’s crotch. This is an example of twisted stepping. The foot that steps between the other person’s crotch (the arch of the foot facing outward) makes a Z shape [Z for zigzag] in relation to the opponent’s foot. This makes it a “twisted step”.

第十三法 拗步推手法
Method 13: Twisted-stepping pushing hands

1.拗步推手法開始前之預備姿勢,為甲乙兩方相對立,甲方開脚直立,左脚在前,右脚在後,乙方成立正姿勢,如左圖
Twisted-stepping pushing hands begins from an initiating posture. Both of you stand facing each other. A, step out straight ahead so your left foot is forward, right foot behind. B, you are standing at attention, as in the drawing below:

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
乙預右
B’s right foot – start
甲預左
A’s left foot – start
甲預右
A’s right foot – start

2.乙方由預備式步位,先以右脚繞遇甲方左脚前,踏入甲方之內𦡁(脚凹朝外蹩成「之」字形),逼退甲方所佔陣地,則甲方有不得不放棄之勢,此為乘虛襲擊,截擊進迫之法。甲方覺受乙方右脚有進逼之勢,急將左脚向左後撤退一步而成「之」字形以避之。如左圖:
B, from your initiating posture, first step your right foot in a curve to go around in front of A’s left foot to step below his crotch (the arch of the foot facing outward, the ankle making a Z shape), advancing to occupy A’s position so that he has no choice but to abandon it. Now take advantage of this gap and attack, catching up to him and crowding him. A, as you perceive B’s right foot advancing, quickly step your left foot to the left rear, making a Z shape as you evade. See the drawing below:

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
乙預右
B’s right foot – start
甲預左
A’s left foot – start
乙 1 右
B’s right foot – 1
甲預右
A’s right foot – start
甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2

3.乙方見甲方閃身撤步,避我正面攻擊,速以左脚再進迫一步,仍向甲方右脚前繞進,踏入甲方內𦡁,步位圖中之(3)
B, when you see A retreat to avoid your forward attack, quickly use your left foot to take another step forward, again stepping in a curve, now around the front of A’s right foot, stepping below his crotch (step 3 in the drawing below).
甲方覺乙方左脚繼續進逼,乃急將右脚復向右後撤一步,以避其鋒,如圖中之(4)。
A, when you notice B continuing his advance with his left foot, quickly retreat your right foot to the right rear to avoid the brunt of his attack (step 4 in the drawing).

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
乙 1 右
B’s right foot – 1
甲預右
A’s right foot – start
乙 3 左
B’s left foot – 3
甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2
甲 4 右
A’s right foot – 4

4.乙方見目的未達,再進右脚仍繞甲方左脚前踏入甲方內𦡁,希達目的而後己,如圖中之(5)。
B, seeing that this is not working, again advance your right foot in a curve around the front of A’s left foot to step below his crotch, hoping one more time that this will work (step 5 in the drawing below).
甲方感觸乙方一連緊逼,趁乙方右脚將踏入內𦡁,而立足未穩之際,急將左脚提起,繞過乙方右脚踏入乙方內𦡁反迫之,如圖中之(6)。
A, noticing B’s continued advance, take advantage of B stepping his right foot below your crotch. In the instant before B’s foot has come down firmly, quickly lift your left foot and curve around B’s right foot to step below his crotch, reversing your positions (step 6 in the drawing).

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乙 1 右
B’s right foot – 1
乙 3 左
B’s left foot – 3
甲 6 左
A’s left foot – 6
甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2
乙 5 右
B’s right foot – 5
甲 4 右
A’s right foot – 4

5.乙方內𦡁感受甲方反攻之威脅,急將由右脚由前後撤一步,閃身避讓,以待良機,如圖中之7。
B, noticing below your crotch the threat of A’s counterattack, quickly retreat your right foot to evade him and wait for opportunity (step 7 in the drawing below).
甲方見乙方避讓,自的未達,再進右脚繞過乙方左脚前,踏入內𦡁以逼之,如例圖中之(8)。
A, seeing B evade and that your attack will not work, advance again, your right foot going in a curve around the front of B’s left foot to step in below his crotch and crowd him (step 8 in the drawing).

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乙 7 右
B’s right foot – 7
甲 8 右
A’s right foot – 8
乙 3 左
B’s left foot – 3
甲 6 左
A’s left foot – 6
乙 5 右
B’s right foot – 5
甲 4 右
A’s right foot – 4

6.乙方感受甲方進逼,左脚再往後方閃身撤步,如圖中之(9)。
B, as you feel A crowding you, step back again with your left foot to get out of the way (step 9 [4] in the drawing below).
甲方覺乙方左脚退避,趁虛再進迫一步,以左脚仍繞過乙方右脚前,踏入乙方內𦡁,如圖中之(10)。
A, as you notice B retreating his left foot to evade, take advantage of the gap and advance another step, again curving your left foot around in front of B’s right foot to step below his crotch (step 10 in the drawing).

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乙 9左
B’s left foot – 9
甲 10 左
A’s left foot – 10
乙 7 右
B’s right foot – 7
甲 8 右
A’s right foot – 8
乙 3 左
B’s left foot – 3
甲 6 左
A’s left foot – 6

7.乙方感受甲方之逼,急趁甲方來勢將達之際,乘機反擊,急將右脚提起,繞轉甲方右脚前,佔領其內𦡁,以還打擊者以打擊,如圖中之(11)。
B, as you feel A crowding in, take advantage of the instant before his incoming force has arrived and seize the opportunity to counterattack by quickly lifting your right foot, curving around in front of A’s right [left] foot, and occupying the space below his crotch in order to send an attack back at him (step 11 in the drawing below).

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乙 9 左
B’s left foot – 9
甲 10 左
A’s left foot – 10
乙 7 右
B’s right foot – 7
乙 11 右
B’s right foot – 11
甲 8 右
A’s right foot – 8

註一:以上所述甲乙兩方,互相攻守,來囘各一次,謂之一囘合。如繼續演進,依式往來,各人均係進三步退二步,卽拗步之運用矣。
Note 1: The description above depicts one person attacking and the other defending in a single series of movements, and then how it reverses. As you continuously advance, then go back and forth, you each advance three steps and retreat two steps, making the “twisted stepping”.
註二:凡步法圖中註甲者卽甲方,註乙者為乙方。左右者卽左右腳也。阿刺伯數字,在指明動作之先後秩序。
Note 2: Within the drawings, “A” indicates A’s foot, “B” indicates B’s foot, “left” and “right” indicate the left or right foot, and the number inscribed indicates the sequence of the movements.
註三:凡進步踏入內𦡁,脚凹均向外,蹩成三角步「之」字形。內𦡁者,卽一方兩脚之中間,謂之內𦡁。
Note 3: When you step forward below your opponent’s crotch, the arch of the foot is facing outward and your ankle traces a triangular Z shape. “Below his crotch” means the space between his feet.

十九 拗步推手行動換步法
NINETEEN [Part 2]: SWITCHING THE FEET IN TWISTED-STEPPING MOVING-STEP PUSHING HANDS

第十四法 拗步推手換步法
Method 14: Switching steps in twisted-stepping pushing hands

拗步推手行動換步法,其法不一,變化多端,略舉一二為例。第一為三動換步法,第二為兩動換步法,第三為一動換步法。惟動作雖不同,方法則一。學者純熟後,運用自如,隨機應變,無論一動二動或三動換步,均可隨意應用,要在學者之神會與貫通耳。茲舉例節述如左。
There is more than one way to switch steps, a whole variety of variations. Just a few are listed below, first a three-stage switching, second a two-stage switching, and third a one-stage switching. Although the movements are different, the method is the same. Once you are skillful at them, you can apply them fluently and according to the situation. Regardless of the one-stage, two-stage, or three-stage version, they can all be applied as you please. The main thing is simply that you understand them well. These three versions are described below:

第一種 三動換步法
Version 1: Three-stage switching

按三動換步法之動作,卽第十三法所列之七種步法,聯成一氣。而進退運用是也。甲乙兩方各以進三步退二步為原則,互相進退攻守,繼續運用,其總過程有如下圖。
The movements of three-stage switching are simply the seven steps of Method 13, a continuous flow of advance and retreat, A and B each advancing three steps and retreating two steps as they attack and defend against each other seamlessly. The whole process of this is represented in the drawing below:

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甲 14 右
A’s right foot – 14
乙 15 右
B’s right foot – 15
甲 12 左
A’s left foot – 12
甲 16 左
A’s left foot – 16
乙 13 左
B’s left foot – 13
甲 8 右
A’s right foot – 8
乙 11 右
B’s right foot – 11
甲 10 左
A’s left foot – 10
乙 9 左
B’s left foot – 9

第二種 〔二〕動換步法
Version 2: Two-stage switching

兩動換步法之預備姿勢與第十三法預備姿勢同,如左圖
The initiating posture is the same as in Method 13, represented below:

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
乙預右
B’s right foot – start
甲預左
A’s left foot – start
甲預右
A’s right foot – start

1.第一動乙方以右脚進攻甲方,如步(1),
The first step: B, advance your right foot to attack A, (step 1 in the drawing below).
第二動甲方感受乙方之威脅,急將左脚撤一步,如步(2)。
The second step: A, as you feel the threat from B, quickly retreat your left foot, (step 2 in the drawing).

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
乙預右
B’s right foot – start
甲預左
A’s left foot – start
乙 1 右
B’s right foot – 1
甲預右
A’s right foot – start
甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2

2.第三動乙方覺甲方退避,再進左脚,攻入甲方內𦡁,如步(3)。
The third step: B, as you feel A’s evasion, advance again, now with your left foot, to step below A’s crotch (step 3 in the drawing below).
第四動甲方感乙方再逼而來,迅將右脚提起,繞過乙方之左脚,急踏入乙方之內𦡁,如步(4)。
The fourth step: A, as you feel B crowding in, quickly lift your right foot and curve around B’s left foot to step below his crotch (step 4 in the drawing).
註:此卽二動換步法,反以乙攻而甲守,如步法圖之八、九兩圖是也。
Note: This “two-stage” switching involves the reversal of roles, B attacking and A defending, represented with the drawing above and the drawing below.

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乙 5 左
B’s left foot – 5
甲 6 左
A’s left foot – 6
乙 1 右
B’s right foot – 1
甲 4 右
A’s right foot – 4
乙 3 左
B’s left foot – 3
甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2

3.第5動第6動第7動,以上三動,反其道而行之,乙為守,甲為攻,進退互換,如步,圖之九與十兩圖。
Steps 5, 6, and 7 [in the drawing below] build on the three steps above, reversing roles so that B is defending, A is attacking, and their advancing and retreating has been switched, represented with the drawing above and the drawing below.

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乙 5 左
B’s left foot – 5
甲 6 左
A’s left foot – 6
乙 7 右
B’s right foot – 7
乙 3 右
B’s right foot – 3
甲 4 右
A’s right foot – 4

第三種 一兩動換步法
Version 3: One-stage switching

預備姿勢與第十三法預備步法同,如左圖。
The initiating posture is the same as in Method 13 (reiterated again with the drawing below).

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
乙預右
B’s right foot – start
甲預左
A’s left foot – start
甲預右
A’s right foot – start

一動換步法,茲舉四例以明之。
One-stage switching is expressed through the following four examples.
1.乙方進襲甲方,以右脚繞過甲方左脚,踏入甲方內𦡁,如步(1)。
B, advance to attack A, use your right foot to curve around A’s left foot and step below his crotch (step 1 in the drawing below).
而甲方迅提左脚,急繞乙方將踏入之右脚而反攻之。甲方反攻後,步位仍未動,而方位則變矣,如步圖(2)
A, quickly lift your left foot and curve around B’s right foot to step in and counterattack. You are now the attacker, your position not yet changing, but your role changing (step 2 in the drawing).

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
乙預右
B’s right foot – start
甲預左
A’s left foot – start
甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2
乙 1 左
B’s left foot – 1
甲預右
A’s right foot – start

2.乙方不待甲方侵入,仍以右脚再提起繞過甲方左脚,攻入甲方內𦡁,如步(3)。
B, do not wait for A to step in all the way, instead lift your right foot and curve around A’s left foot to step below his crotch and counterattack (step 3 in the drawing below).
甲方感一再被迫,左脚後撒一步,如步(4)
A, as you feel B crowding in, retreat your left foot (step 4 in the drawing).

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乙預左
B’s left foot – start
甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2
乙 1 右
B’s right foot – 1
乙 3 右
B’s right foot – 3
甲預右
A’s right foot – start
甲 4 左
A’s left foot – 4

3.乙方左脚復進一步,繞過甲方右脚,踏入甲方內𦡁,如步(5)
B, advance another step, now with your left foot, curving around A’s right foot to step below his crotch (step 5 in the drawing below).
而甲方感覺被逼,不待乙方左脚侵入,迅將右脚提起,繞過乙方左脚,反攻入乙方內𦡁如,步(6)。此為反客為主之法也。
A, as you feel B crowding in, do not wait for his foot to step in all the way, instead quickly lift your right foot and curve around B’s left foot to step below his crotch and counterattack (step 6 in the drawing). The roles of attacker and defender are now reversed.

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甲 2 左
A’s left foot – 2
乙 3 左
B’s left foot – 3
甲 6 右
A’s right foot – 6
甲預右
A’s right foot – start
乙 1 右
B’s right foot – 1
乙預左
B’s left foot – start

4.乙方感甲方反攻勢急,迅將左脚提起,繞過甲方右脚,踏入甲方內𦡁,如步(7)
B, as you feel A counterattacking, quickly lift your left foot and curve around A’s right foot to step below his crotch (step 7 in the drawing below).
而甲方感受逼迫,迅將右脚撒退一步,如步(8)。
A, as you feel B crowding in, quickly retreat your right foot (step 8 in the drawing).

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甲 8 右
A’s right foot – 8
甲 4 左
A’s left foot – 4
乙 7 右
B’s right foot – 7
乙 5 左
B’s left foot – 5
甲 6 右
A’s right foot – 6
乙 5 右
B’s right foot – 5

一動之換步法,卽以其人之道,還制其人之身,此法之妙,在為策動機先,不為敵算所謂敵不動,我不動,敵一動,我先動是也,此種妙法非膚淺功夫者,能得到,必須功夫熟練,方能體會之。
One-stage switching makes use of the opponent’s plan to take control over your body. The key to this method is to take the initiative and not allow the opponent to strategize. As it is said: “If he takes no action, I take no action, but once he takes even the slightest action, I have already acted.” These methods cannot be attained if your skill is shallow. You have to train to a good level and then you will be able to learn them by way of experience.

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