THE BAGUA MANUAL OF YIN YUZHANG

八卦掌簡編
A CONCISE BOOK OF BAGUA PALMING
尹玉章
by Yin Yuzhang
王芹塘
edited by Wang Qintang
[published Jan, 1932]

[translation by Paul Brennan, April, 2017]

靑島市國術館
from the Qingdao Martial Arts Institute:
八卦掌简编
A Concise Book of Bagua Palming
胡家鳳題
– calligraphy by Hu Jiafeng

八卦掌簡編目次
CONTENTS

館長胡若愚先生像
Portrait of Director Hu Ruoyu
副館長胡家鳳先生像
Portrait of Vice-Director Hu Jiafeng
演述尹玉章編輯王芹塘像
Portrait of author Yin Yuzhang & editor Wang Qintang
引言
Foreward

Prefaces
例言
Introductory Remarks
八卦掌源流
On the Origin of Bagua Palming
八卦掌總論
Introduction
文王八卦方位圖解
Orientations According to the Bagua Diagram of King Wen
走掌姿式
WALKING POSTURE
開步姿式
INITIAL STEP
第一式換掌
Technique 1: SWITCHING PALMS
第二式第一動搭掌
Technique 2, Movement 1: CONNECTING
第二式第二動開掌
Technique 2, Movement 2: SPREADING
第三式第一動穿掌
Technique 3, Movement 1: THREADING
第三式第二動撲掌
Technique 3, Movement 2: POUNCING
第三式第三動托掌
Technique 3, Movement 3: PROPPING
第三式第四動搷掌
Technique 3, Movement 4: SMACKING
第四式第一動挑掌
Technique 4, Movement 1: CARRYING
第四式第二動震掌
Technique 4, Movement 2: SHOCKING
第四式第三動掖掌
Technique 4, Movement 3: BRACING
第四式第四動撩掌
Technique 4, Movement 4: RAISING
第五式第一動沖掌
Technique 5, Movement 1: THRUSTING
第五式第二動切掌
Technique 5, Movement 2: SLICING
第五式第三動推掌
Technique 5, Movement 3: PUSHING
第六式第一動截掌
Technique 6, Movement 1: CHECKING
第六式第二動削掌
Technique 6, Movement 2: SLASHING
第六式第三動砸掌
Technique 6, Movement 3: SMASHING
第六式第四動摔掌
Technique 6, Movement 4: THROWING
第六式第五動批掌
Technique 6, Movement 5: CHOPPING
第六式第六動抱掌
Technique 6, Movement 6: EMBRACING
第七式第一動閉掌
Technique 7, Movement 1: CLOSING
第七式第二動探掌
Technique 7, Movement 2: SEEKING
第七式第三動靠掌
Technique 7, Movement 3: BUMPING
第八式第一動擠掌
Technique 8, Movement 1: PRESSING
第八式第二動撞掌
Technique 8, Movement 2: CRASHING
結論
Conclusion

Postscript

館長胡若愚先生
Hu Ruoyu, Director [of the Qingdao Martial Arts Institute]

副館長胡家鳳先生
Hu Jiafeng, Vice-Director

尹玉章 王芹塘
Yin Yuzhang & Wang Qintang

引言
FOREWORD

往余讀華佗所傳五禽戲之術。謂可以除疾而當導引。未識其趣也。後留學東瀛。肄習柔術劈刺諸科。竊歎彼之能以武士道自雄者。誠屬有自。特怪吾國當秦漢之際。俠義之風猶盛。南北之民。各有所強。幾經網禁。今竟稱為東方之病夫矣。歸長憲校。生衆中有善國術摔角者。試與日籍教員搏。間亦能折其鋒。又幸先民之所垂遺者。正賴後人光大之也。乃於校中設置八卦掌一門。庶得藉以探討各家之源流而識其槪要。蓋技擊之學。於古皆祕而不傳。故練習者日見稀微。不然。歷代名將之以干戈矛矢制勝者。豈徒憑其天所授之力而已哉。雖藝文志載有劍道等篇。亦未能釋明其意旨。自達摩大師創龍虎五拳。為徒衆強身之用。後遂遞演為少林內外家之專技。然與華佗之術亦大同而小異。分門別類。幾至百數。而又各祕所珍。傳習之難。又一弊也。民質安得而不日即於弱乎。夫儒家之射御。道家之導引。釋家之強身。皆所謂後天而奉天時。使人皆可以為堯舜者也。於近世體育之旨。寧有異耶。邇來北地此科。蔚然成為大宗者。僅惟八卦形意太極三門。又以內外交修。名取諸易。而於剛柔健順之理。皆能殊途同歸。若合符節。三家遂有合一之勢。國人倘能急起而直追之。其成功當可計日而待。青市國術館以所輯八卦掌簡編見示。囑為審訂。余嘉其志之欲以公諸世也。特為之引伸其義云。漢陽殷學潢識。
I previously studied Hua Tuo’s art of Five Animal Frolics. I would say that it can prevent illness and is indeed a limbering art, but I did not find it to be very interesting. I later went to study abroad in Japan, where I trained in both Jujutsu and bayonet fighting. I sigh with admiration for the ability of those people to make themselves more heroic through their Bushido [“way of the warrior”], which they possess in droves. I find it very strange that chivalry in our nation flourished just as strongly in ancient times, northerners and southerners each having their special strengths, surviving even through periods when such arts were banned, but that nowadays we are called the “sick men of the East”.
     When I returned, I increasingly compared our ways, and I found that among the masses there are in fact experts of Chinese martial arts and wrestling who are able to dull the edge of Japanese instructors in challenge matches. It is hoped that what our forefathers passed down will reliably be carry forward by later generations. Hence within this school there is a course in the Bagua art. People should have the chance to examine the origins of various arts and know their essentials. Martial arts knowledge in old times was usually kept secret rather than taught, and so practitioners encounter more gaps with each passing day, alas.
     In order for the famous generals of history to win victories through use of weapons, their troops could not be expected to rely only on the skills they were born with, but although the “Bibliographical Records” [in the Books of Han] mentions that there were many chapters of swordwork, we will never be able to see what was in those lost texts. Master Damo created the five boxing arts of dragon, tiger, [leopard, crane, and snake] to strengthen the bodies of groups of students. From Shaolin later evolved the two approaches of the internal and external schools, which was not very distinct from Hua Tuo’s art. But different classifications continued to branch off until there were hundreds, and then as each style started to cherish its own “secrets”, it became more difficult for the training to be passed down, and it began to be so corrupted that people who received training soon ended up weaker than they started.
     Confucianists had their archery and charioteering. Daoists had their limbering arts. Buddhists had their health-improving exercises. They all shared this view [quoting from the Book of Changes, hexagram 1]: “[Do what is natural and Nature will not oppose you.] Do what is unnatural and Nature will assert itself.” They hoped to give everyone the ability to become like a Yao or a Shun [legendary sage-emperors], but modern physical education has a somewhat different purpose in mind.
     Lately this art has been flourishing in the northern provinces and has become a staple course of instruction. Only the three schools of Bagua, Xingyi, and Taiji cultivate both the internal and external equally. Their names are derived from the Book of Changes, and they have the principles of hardness and softness, strength and yielding. They can each reach the same goal via different paths, and so if they are all trained together, the three schools will merge as a single art. If our countrymen can awaken to these arts and devote themselves to them, our success can be assured. It is for this reason that the Qingdao Martial Arts Institute has produced A Concise Book of Bagua Palming. I encouraged you to examine it, for I commend their wish to share it with the world and I hereby further extend their good intentions.
     – written by Yin Xuehuang of Hanyang [in Wuhan, Hubei]

八卦掌簡編序
PREFACE [BY HU RUOYU]

我國拳術濫觴於古之技擊角觝厥後少林武當諸家繼起源遠而流益分然其健身禦侮之旨則一也近世論者鑒於國民體力弗充無以膺艱鉅於是提倡國術期挽孱弱柔靡之習青市國術館員尹君玉章王君芹塘合纂八卦掌簡編既成徵言於余余觀其術不以拳而以掌其所謂八卦者以人體諸部與八種姿式取譬八卦以立名并言按法練習氣貫於掌其力甚大又云練掌必先養氣使其能發能收用之不竭藉以持久庶可從容應付其言皆有至理吾謂天地一氣之所彌綸也陰陽剛柔闢闔動靜無不有氣運乎其間人居三才之中參天兩地果能善養吾氣沛然有餘大之可以充塞宇宙參贊化育次亦不失沖龢澹定却疾延齡彼區區掌術固其小焉者耳誠殫精研究運氣於掌舒卷自如收效尚如此其鉅况返而求諸身心性命之間如孟子所謂配義與道無是餒也是眞養氣之極則而非匹夫喑噁叱咤之勇所可同日而語余因是編言練掌術歸重養氣故為推論及此尤冀肄斯術者咸曉然於有勇知方毋若孟堅所譏以武犯禁則內以健身外以禦侮蔚成雄毅民族否則徒恃膂力逞一朝之忿暴戾鬭狠其流弊亦將不可勝道世有自強不息之君子當不以斯言為河漢也民國二十年十二月胡若愚序
Our nation’s boxing arts began with ancient methods of striking and wrestling, then later continued to develop through the schools of Shaolin and Wudang. Though distinct schools, their aims of strengthening the body and defending against aggression are the same. Modern commentators have noticed that the physical strength of the citizenry is not up to the task of facing hard times, hence the promoting of martial arts, which are a training for reversing frailty and eliminating weakness.
     Qingdao Martial Arts Institute staff members Yin Yuzhang and Wang Qintang have worked together to produce A Concise Book of Bagua Palming. With the manuscript now completed, they have asked me to provide a preface. I notice that this art does not use the fist at all, only the palm. It is called Bagua [“eight trigrams”] because it works the whole body with eight kinds of postures, analogous to each of the trigrams. As for its practice method, energy courses through to the palm to generate great power. But it is said [in the Introduction] that to train the palms, it is first necessary to nurture energy in order to “be able to use it in the right measure of expending and replenishing” so that “it never gets used up”, and then after a long time you will be able to “deal with situations quite calmly”, a useful set of maxims.
     When we speak of the “energy” of the world, it is a matter of common sense: between passive and active, hardness and softness, opening and closing, or motion and stillness, there is always a movement of energy. Our place among the three realms [sky, ground, mankind] is to reach for the sky and spread out over the ground, but if we can be good at nurturing our own energy so that we have more than enough, it can fill the universe and be transformative. Furthermore, as long as we do not allow it to leak away, it will prevent illness and prolong life. A trifling palm art is surely a minor tool for such work, but with sincere, thorough, and meticulous study, moving energy to your palms with fluency, the results you gain will be just as grand.
     If you go further and strive for the enriching of both body and mind, it will be as Mengzi said [Mengzi, chapter 2.1]: “[Energy] is the counterpart of justice and morality. Without it, your resolve will be weak.” This is indeed the proper approach to nurturing energy, and the spirited cries of ordinary warriors do not even merit consideration next to it. Because of this, I claim that practicing this palm art reinforces the status of nurturing energy, hence my discussion of it, and I particularly hope that practitioners of it will all understand proper conduct, not engaging in slandering others like the historian Ban Gu did, or [from Hanfeizi, chapter 49:] “using one’s martial skill to break the law”.
     Therefore inwardly strengthen the body, outwardly oppose foreign aggression, and spread the trend of our heroic national identity. Students might otherwise rely on brute strength, bursts of anger, and fight dirty, but such corruptions are no way to attain the Way. There are in the world gentlemen who ceaselessly work to improve themselves, and so you should not treat these words as empty assertions.
     – written by Hu Ruoyu, Dec, 1931


PREFACE [BY WAN YONGSHOU]

拳術之一門,則相傳相習之作也,惜皆口授,迄無正當著作,更兼門路之多,雖云為某某所傳遺,而實在亦無可考證,以拳家所談論,少林拳為最古,南北朝時有天竺僧名達摩者,講道於嵩山(即河南省)少林寺,傳諸弟子易筋經,運動手腳,以聚精養氣為主,即今所稱外力內氣是也。久練則免生疾病,精神可以延年,昔日修道者多習之,由此推測,拳術傳自達摩,由達摩傳於何人,何人傳至現在,苦於史書及野史上均無記載,而實難求其本源,以理揣想,當由少林寺諸弟子傳流海內,各持所好,分門分路,延至今日,派別之廣,不可勝記矣。惟形意,太極,八卦,三門,傳至現在,始終如一,並未另分門路,考八卦之源,於清嘉慶間,太監董海川,(河北省文安縣人)幼習長拳,中年在宮內,夜遇異人交手,彼此羡慕,盡傳其術,(惜異人不露名)十餘年苦功八卦專門成名,往投者數百,弟子中如瘦尹,美馬,眼鏡程,翠花劉,四人為董最得意之門牆,程之弟子李文彪,又受業於尹,盡得其術,尹第四子名玉璋者,頗能盡其家傳之妙,茲作譜攝影於青島國術館,八卦拳,分乾坎艮震巽離坤兌八式,八式中之進動各有不同,變化也繁,隨譜攝影,一覽即可了然形狀,噫,創練人之苦心於此可見矣。
民國二十一年一月鳳陽萬永壽序
A boxing arts system was traditionally passed down only through personal instruction, leaving no authoritative writings. Furthermore, although many schools claim that so-and-so passed down such-and-such, there is really no way to verify it. In a discussion of martial arts, it is Shaolin Boxing that is considered the oldest. During the Northern & Southern Dynasties [420—589], an Indian monk called Damo preached his doctrine at the Shaolin Temple at Mt. Song (in Henan), teaching all his pupils the Sinew Changing Classic for exercising the limbs. It emphasizes gathering essence and nurturing energy, and is nowadays described as external strengthening and internal energizing.
     Long-term practice will prevent the generating of illness, and the boosting of the spirit can prolong life. In former times, many who cultivated the Way practiced these exercises, and from this we can infer that the boxing art was passed down from Damo. But who exactly he taught it to and who it was that passed it down to us today is unfortunately not recorded in any historical records or even unofficial histories. This makes seeking its origins very difficult, but we can at least deduce this much: disciples from the Shaolin Temple spread the art throughout the nation, each emphasizing his own specialty, thereby splitting the art into many systems and styles. Today there are so many schools that they can hardly be listed.
     However, the three schools of Xingyi, Taiji, and Bagua have to this day remained consistent in their transmissions, rather than branching off into different systems. In particular, Bagua originated during the reign of Emperor Jiaqing [1796—1820] from the palace eunuch Dong Haichuan (of Wen County, Hebei). He had practiced Long Boxing in his youth. Middle-aged in the palace, he one night encountered an unusual man and they fought. Admiring one another’s abilities, they taught each other all of their skills. (Unfortunately this unusual man’s name was not revealed.) Then from more than ten years of hard work, Bagua arose as a particular system and became famous. It attracted hundreds of students, such as “Skinny” Yin, “Handsome” Ma, “Spectacles” Cheng, and “Jade-Blossom” Liu, who were the four disciples Dong was most proud of. Cheng’s student Li Wenbiao also learned from Yin and obtained the entire art.
     Yin’s fourth son, Yuzhang, is very capable at teaching all the subtleties of his family’s art. He has now produced a photographic manual from the Qingdao Martial Arts Institute on Bagua Palming. The art is divided into eight techniques to represent the eight trigrams of Qian, Kan, Gen, Zhen, Xun, Li, Kun, Dui. The successive movements are different for each technique, and the ways that one movement changes into another are somewhat complicated, but if you follow along with the photos in the manual, the postures will be clear at a glance. You will surely be able to sense the hard work he has put into it.
     – written by Wan Yongshou of Fengyang [in Anhui], Jan, 1932


PREFACE [BY WANG QINTANG]

天下的事業,學理,都有牠的意義,與其來源,祇要有精深的思想,細密的研究,與不懈的毅力,一定有所得可以進步無止境。例如英人瓦特發明汽機的動機,其始不過是觸景生情,出於偶然,他能精思深求,加以後人的繼續努力,方能將全球需要的汽機產生,并非是虛無縹緲,僥倖成功的。思想是光明之燈,研究是開門之鍵,毅力是成功之母,但是一般人無論是從事事業,探求學理,往往五分鐘熱度已過,即無繼續的意志,或一經試驗,半途中止,或心不專一,見異思遷,加之吾國遵古守舊的遺習,世世相傳,一成不變,古人的一言一行,皆是天經地義,祗可絕對服從與遵守,斷不容絲毫懷疑與批評,這也是吾國對於科學,沒有多少發明,與社會上各種事業無甚進展的重要原因。
技擊的原始,與人類的發生,本具有同等悠久的歷史。人類在原始社會的時期,就是徒手搏擊的時期,我們設想在原始社會中,人和人之間,以及和其他動物之間,日常便有生存競爭的事實,這是無可否認的。那時的人類,尚不甚知道利用任何器械,他們只知道利用自己強悍的肢體,和一種最原始的方法,與他們對敵者鬥爭,這種原始的方法,就是徒手搏擊的濫觴。但人為萬物一靈,因為有思想,研究,毅力,一天一天的發展,所以這生存競爭的方法,也漸漸的進步。由徒手的搏擊,進至木兵。『木兵始於伏羲,見太白陰經。』由木兵進至石兵。『石兵始於神農,見太白陰經。』由石兵進至弓矢。『銅兵始於黃帝,見黃帝本行記。』到了現在,鋼甲車,潛水艇,機關槍,毒瓦斯,以及飛機,兵艦,死光,電網,炸彈,大炮種種利器的產生,無非是因為生存競爭的方法日新月異,這許多利器便藉科學的力量應時而生。但是這種種利器的運用,是否須具有康健勇敢的精神與體力?要具有此等精神與體力,是否須有鍛鍊的方法?欲求鍛鍊的方法,國術就是先哲特創的技能,是練精,練氣,練神,練骨,練力的唯一無二的途徑。
我們既認為國術是鍛鍊身體求生存競爭的唯一的途徑,當然就要本著思想,研究,毅力,去不斷的努力。可惜牠在過去社會中,因受了黜武崇文的影響,埋沒了牠光榮可貴的本質!凡是通都大邑,人文薈萃之地,國術的蹤跡,便不容易看得見,只有窮鄕僻壤,深山野寺中,偶有牠的吉光片羽,在這環境中,牠不絕如縷的一線命運,幾乎不能保存,遑論有何文字的記載,牠的眞理奧義,既然是無從稽考,在人的心目中,簡直沒有絲毫國術的印象。於是齊東野人,裨官小說式的國術談,乘機發生,注重迷信,麻醉人心。相習既久,難怪國術不容易得到社會上有識階級的重視,原來牠既受了前時壓迫禁止的冤屈,使人忘了他與中華民族生死存亡有密切的關係,其後又以浮說魔術等說為不知者所倡導,可算是國術晦氣時期。
到了現在,提倡國術的聲浪,震遍全國。荒誕的神話,摒棄無遺,鴻溝似的門派,漸見同化,國術的奧義,次第披露,各地方國術先進,都在努力建設,著有專書,使學者不因山川修阻,望洋興嘆,祗要有志鍛鍊,即可按圖以索。從此國術的前途,可日見發展,許多人由思想,研究,毅力中,漸漸的得出空前的功效來。
我們青島國術館,也担負著強種救國的使命,懷抱著全民衆國術化的希望,願意把我們平日研究國術的心得,寫一本小冊子貢獻到社會上,為熱心國術的同志作鍛鍊的參考,不過我們因為參考材料的貧之,個人學識的膚淺,所述說的理論,是否眞確,所編的拳勢,是否清楚,實不敢完全自信。這僅是一種草創的東西,編者鼓起十二分勇氣,草創出這一本小冊子,恭請國術先進討論,修飾,潤色,并予不客氣的指導和批評,這便是拋磚引玉。
至於先編這本八卦掌的動機,并非是持有門派的偏見,實因牠有調和呼吸的能力,有屛除氣浮的功效,純係用掌,變換靈通,一勢一動,都含有很深的道理,所以第一步工作,先要把牠簡單的編出,然後再編著其他拳術和器械的理論與使用的方法。
還有須要向閱者聲明的,就是八卦掌的名義了。編者對於連山,歸藏,以及周易,素無研究,實不敢拿一知半解的知識,任便𢺟入。現在一切學理,注重科學的探求,對於這個名詞,編者不能妄加解釋。只好實事求是的簡單編出。
王芹塘 二〇,八,一〇
All of the world’s endeavors and ideas have a special source: simply depth of thought, meticulous research, and unstinting perseverance, from which the capacity for limitless progress is thereby assured. For instance, the Englishman James Watt invented the steam engine, simply because of a revelation sparked by a chance event [referring to the story of him noticing a kettle boiling]. He was able to think in such detail and inquire so deeply about it that later generations continued his efforts, and steam was able to became a global demand. This was no fanciful achievement, some triumph that came about through mere luck.
     Ideas are the light of the lamp. Research is the key to the door. Perseverance is the mother of achievement. For ordinary people, no matter what undertaking they are involved in, they often go into its details but cannot maintain their enthusiasm [“five minutes worth of cooking”], and then their commitment to the project fades away. Or once they have had some experience of it, they then give up halfway. Or their minds cannot stay focused, for they are distracted and fickle.
     On top of that, our nation is in the habit of sticking to old ways passed down unchanging from generation to generation. Whatever ancient people said or did, it was always right, and it is our place only to go along with it, not allowed to have even the slightest doubts or give any hint of criticism. This is the same attitude our nation has had toward science, and is the major culprit for why we have not invented much and have made such little advancement in large-scale public endeavors.
     The beginning of martial arts is as old as the emergence of mankind itself. The era of primitive society was a time of barehanded fighting. Though we picture primitive people living in harmony with each other and with animals, they undeniably lived in a state of day-to-day struggle for survival. People in those days did not really understand the advantages of weapons, they were only aware of the strengths of their own bodies and the most primitive methods of fighting against their enemies, and these primitive methods were the origin of barehanded fighting. However, humans are the most intelligent of creatures, due to our thought, research, and perseverance. With further developments day after day, our methods of surviving have gradually improved.
     From barehanded fighting, we progressed to wooden weapons, then to stone weapons (wooden weapons beginning with Fuxi, stone weapons beginning with Shennong, according to the Tai Bai Yin Jing [chapter 41]), then to bows and arrows (bronze weapons beginning with the Yellow Emperor, according to the “Record of the Yellow Emperor’s Deeds”). And now we have armored tanks, submarines, machine guns, poison gas, and are developing all sorts of weaponry, such as new types of planes and battleships, death rays and electrified nets, new bombs and artillery.
     The methods of the struggle for survival are changing every day, and so such weapons are created through the power of science as the need for them arises. However, to use these weapons, do we not need to be fit in mind and body? And for that, do we not need a method of training? If we are seeking a method of training, there are the special skills of martial arts developed by the wisdom of previous generations, and they are an unparalleled means of training essence, energy, spirit, bone, and strength.
     We know that martial arts are a means of training the body for the struggle for survival, and this of course requires thought, research, perseverance, and ceaseless toil. Unfortunately our society was affected by the trend of shunning martial qualities in favor of civil qualities, failing to appreciate the valuable substance of martial arts. Since cities tend to be centers for the more civil qualities, martial arts were not as easy to find there, and it was only in the likes of obscure villages or mountain temples that one could happen upon a sample of them.
     In such circumstances, the fate of these arts was precarious, barely able to be preserved, much less recorded in writing, and so there was no way to examine their profound principles, and then hardly even a memory of those arts being there at all. Therefore [from Mengzi, chapter 5.1:] “the crude men of eastern Qi” [i.e. uncultured people in general, the phrase being used here as a winking reference to the Qingdao area, which happens to be in the east of the territory that situated the ancient state of Qi] got their martial arts knowledge from novels, full of invention and superstition that dull the mind. Continuing along those lines for a long time, it is not surprising that martial arts were not given any importance by society, and were in fact unjustly prohibited, causing people to forget that these arts had been intimately connected to the survival of the Chinese nation itself, until eventually they were talked of by ignorant people as if discussing some nonsensical magic. Those days can be regarded as a rather inauspicious period for martial arts.
     But now enthusiasm to promote martial arts resounds throughout the nation. Absurd stories are being entirely discarded, divisions between styles are giving way to integrations, and the profound concepts of martial arts are being revealed one after another. These arts are advancing in every region, everyone carrying out the work to establish them there, and authors are making specialized books so that students will no longer feel cut off from the study [“mountains and rivers blocking the way”] or intimidated by the training [“look at the ocean and sigh at the scale of it”]. All that’s needed is the ambition to learn and then they will be able to follow along with the instructions. Because of this, the future for martial arts can expand further each day, and many people, by way of thought, research, and perseverance, will gradually achieve unprecedented results.
     The mission of our Qingdao Martial Arts Institute is likewise to strengthen the masses and rescue the nation. Cherishing the hope that the whole populace may be transformed by martial arts, we wanted to take what we have learned from our research and have it written into a small book to contribute to society, thereby providing our comrades who are enthusiastic about martial arts with reference material for their training. However, because we ourselves are poor in reference material and our knowledge is shallow, we do not presume to be entirely confident that the explanations of the principles are totally accurate or the presentation of the postures is thoroughly clear. Though this small book is somewhat crude, the author has shown extra boldness in producing it by cordially inviting martial arts experts to discuss its flaws, even to the point of giving it insulting criticisms, in order that his small efforts may bring about a large benefit [“toss out a brick to draw forth jade”].
     The motivation for producing this book of Bagua Palming is not to proclaim that this art is superior to others, but because this art happens to have the capacity to regulate the breath and has the effect of keeping energy from floating up. It exclusively uses palms because they adapt quicker [than clenched fists], and every action is imbued with deep principles. The first step in this work is to make a simple presentation of the art, then later the author will also present the theories of other arts and weaponry [as in Yin’s 1933 book of saber training], and their methods of application.
     It ought to better clarified for you what the name “Bagua” [eight trigrams] Palming signifies, but as the author has not made a proper study of [the divination texts of] Linking Mountains, Returning to Storage, and the Book of Changes [the source texts for the eight trigrams], he does not presume to mix in any uninformed ideas he may have. Nowadays, all theories are given over to scientific investigation, and so the author has not engaged in recklessly interpreting the eight trigrams, seeking only to make a straightforward presentation of the art.
     – [written by] Wang Qintang, Aug 10, 1931

編者例言
AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

一是編以普及國術,闡明宗派而作,名為八卦掌簡編,共為八勢,計有二十五動,詮釋圖解,一一載明,學者按此定法,尋繹揣摩,自易洞悉。
– The purpose of this book is to spread martial arts, expounding upon one style in particular. Called A Concise Book of Bagua Palming, it features eight techniques, divided into twenty-five movements, which are individually explained in detail. If you rely on these standard methods and constantly ponder the material, you will easily achieve a thorough grasp of the art.

一編者雖囿於見聞,倉卒脫稿,但類同書典,槪不抄襲,荒誕之說,尤所摒棄。
– Despite my limited knowledge, I have managed to complete this manuscript. While I have relied very little on drawing material from similar books anyway, I have particularly left out any of the more absurd explanations that appear in them.

一是拳命名八卦,意在象形,以定方位,然不敢以深奧之易理,作附會之解釋,深盼有以科學說明方符作者本旨。
– This boxing art is named Bagua [“eight trigrams”] for it involves a symbolic representation for each of the [eight] directions. However, I have not dared to delve deeply into the theory of the Book of Changes to come up with strained interpretations for these things, for my purpose lies in a strong hope that this art will instead conform to scientific explanations.

一是編插圖,全係拍照,練習時按圖以索,即能明晰,但書內所載之各勢解說用法,僅擇其一端,略加說明,以便學者易於參悟。
– The images in this book are all photographs. During practice, relying on these images can help clarify the movements. As for the application explanations for each posture, I have chosen only one version of how it is to be applied and have explained it very concisely in order for you to more easily understand the techniques.

一是編取法講義體裁,淺明易解,固無文理之可言。
– This book is written in the style of teaching materials: simple, clear, easy to understand. There are no literary flourishes to speak of at all.

一八卦掌原本走圈,循環迴轉,其方向地位,較編他拳尤為難定,特於走掌姿勢中,說明足踏巽方,面向乾方,為起訖之點,此不過作初學者之標準,並非一定不移之限制。
– Bagua Palming is based in circle walking, round and round in both directions. Thus position and orientation are far more difficult to explain than in other boxing arts books. For instance, within the explanation for the walking posture, it says that your feet stand at the Xun position and then you face toward the Qian position [i.e. standing you at a corner facing toward the opposite corner, rather the usual north-south usages in other manuals]. This serves as a starting and finishing place, and is only meant as a standard for beginners to work from, not really as an unchanging restriction.

一走掌時圈線無分大小,時間亦無長短規定,但須走掌姿勢,始終如一,既無拳套之限制,盡可順其自然,不必過力,久則功效自見,義理自明。
– While walking, the size of the circle does not matter, nor the amount of time, only that the walking posture stay consistent from beginning to end. There are no restrictions to the techniques [i.e. no requirements as to their order or on which side they are performed], and so you can always flow into whichever one feels natural at the moment. It is not necessary to put forth any excessive effort, just do it for a long period, and then results will naturally manifest and the principles will seem obvious.

一凡言乾方,坎方,艮方,震方,巽方,離方,坤方,兌方,上方,下方,前方,後方,係指場地及人之方向而言,如言左右,不加方字者,即指本身流轉而言。
– Qian, Kun, Gen, Zhen, Xun, Li, Kun, Dui, up, down, forward, back – these words represent where you are and the direction you are facing. Mentions of left or right, without including any words of orientation, have to do with the rotation of your body.

一吾國國術,發源最早,師生授受,素守祕密,至八卦掌之著述,更如鳳毛麟角,此書為提倡國術,力求公開起見,凡所見聞,一字不隱,以示知無不言之意。
– Our nation’s martial arts originated an extremely long time ago. Passed down through personal instruction, they were usually kept secret. As for writings on Bagua Palming, they are rarer than most. The purpose of this book is to promote martial arts, my motive being to make this art more publicly known. I have not concealed even one word of what I have learned, for my intention is to share all that I know.

八卦掌源流
ON THE ORIGINS OF BAGUA PALMING

八卦掌傳自董海川先生。先生為河北省文安縣城南朱家務人。少任俠。不治生產。濟困扶危。不遺餘力。性好獵。又嗜技擊。遍游吳越巴蜀張綏等地。凡名山大川奇寺古廟。無不探臨。冀有所遇。以壯其襟懷。其後由江南返里。途中過亂山。見小僧以掌向樹旋走。先生訝之。小僧曰。是掌術之精也。先生恃其勇武。與之角。蹶焉。乃謁老僧。盡傳其術。先生復勵志鍛鍊。益以師友聞見。遂成八卦掌之絕技焉。先生疾惡如讎。面露英氣。雖虛心退讓。卒不免人猜嫌。然既負絕技。游其門者。幾及千人。其高足中有尹福者。能得其箇中三昧。福又盡傳其技於其子玉章。是以玉章為先生再傳弟子。先生享年最高。年八十七歲而歿。營葬於北平東直門外里許之牛房村云。
Bagua Palming was passed down by Dong Haichuan, who was from Zhu Family Village in southern Wen’an County, Hebei. He was a gallant and chivalrous youth. Incapable of producing children, he instead put all his energy into helping people in peril. He was fond of hunting and obsessed with martial arts. He roamed everywhere, east and west, north and south, visiting the unique temples and ancient shrines built upon famous mountains and next to grand rivers, exploring everything in hopes of meeting people who would enrich his mind.
     After his travels, he started back home from the Jiangnan area, and while on a winding mountain path, he saw a young monk pointing his palms at a tree and walking in circles around it. When Dong expressed his surprise, the young monk told him it is the basic exercise of the palming art. Dong wanted to test the prowess of this art, so he grappled with the monk, and got thrown. He was then introduced to an old monk, who taught him the whole art. Dong trained with determination, benefiting from the knowledge of his teacher, and subsequently achieved a consummate skill in Bagua Palming.
     Dong despised and opposed evil, and had a heroic bearing on his face. Despite his egoless humility, there were always people who were jealous of his abilities, and were always defeated by his great skill. There were perhaps a thousand people who came to learn from him. Among his best students was Yin Fu, who was able to obtain the highest level. Yin Fu then also taught the whole of his art to his son, Yuzhang, who is therefore a second-generation disciple of Dong. Dong lived a very long life, dying at the age of eighty-seven. He was buried about a third of a mile beyond Beijing’s eastern gate in Niufang Village.

八卦掌總論
INTRODUCTION

國術之派別多矣。長拳之雲手踢打。閃轉騰挪。手眼身腰步。識膽精氣神。類皆可取。地工之單尖腳。破差腳。錯剪。倒剪等法。無不含有制勝奇妙。又如太極拳者。一舉一動。極意和緩。若抽絲然。亦似少女歌舞。節奏及拍。固足以舒展筋骨。調和血氣。陶冶性情。運勁無過不及。發達順乎自然。力避暴戾之氣。可謂身心兼修。功效易見。至如其他拳術。亦各有所長。然不勝記載。
八卦掌者。以人身各部與八種形式。譬諸八卦以立名也。其異於他拳之點甚多。特其八式之中。全係用掌。不作拳擊。其用掌之蓄意。因掌長於拳。變化靈通。按法練習。氣貫於掌。力量甚大。走掌之時。環轉圈行。不取直徑。如人或直行數十華里。尚可不蹈疲乏之虞。倘圈行五六分鐘。則必頭暈而神勞矣。此無他。未嘗鍛鍊之弊也。諺云。習慣成自然。八卦掌具此圈行之技能。凡遇敵人。則繞之環轉。取隙乘虛以示擊。若用兵也然。只以正面攻擊。奏功有時或難。苟形成四面禁歌。八方橫陣。敵必禦此失彼。其敗必矣。又其走掌之姿勢。於防禦之法亦周。其伸出一掌。高與眉齊。頭部與咽喉之間。即可防禦而有餘。其又一掌停於伸掌之肘下。肘對心口。得以護心。而掌亦可以護肋。行步扣襠。且能護陰。孫子曰。善戰者先為不可勝。以待敵之可勝。吳子曰。壁壘森嚴。以察敵懈而後取。正此意也。
惟歷傳人身取於八卦之配置。係本周易說卦之乾為首。坤為腹。震為足。巽為股。坎為耳。離為目。艮為手。兌為口。因之傳八卦者。則兼形意而象之。云乾三連。為掌肘肩也。坎中滿。為氣沈丹田也。艮覆碗。即腦骨形圓。如碗覆於頂端也。震仰盂。為人之口。如仰盂之蓄水也。巽下斷。即腿部也。又周易有巽為風之辭。藉取行如䞶水走如風之意。離中虛。即為含胸。便於呼吸之流通也。坤六斷。即兩肩兩胯兩膝。共為六數。示有互相之功能也。兌上缺。即挺頸也。而釋兌義者。有直字之取意。又為人之上部也。故以是命名。究之此項傳說。弗獲實證。抑或師生授受。便於記憶全身之部分耳。處此科學時代。似不應述此穿鑿之語。但對於八卦掌之命名。必與周易有密切之關係。故述此以俟識者之定評。
八卦掌之走掌姿勢。已如上述之矣。其鬆肩弝背。臂伸自長。沈肘開腕。蓄勁待發。合膝邁步如䞶水。放足須平如順風。至云舌抵上顎以養心。目應專視以養肝。口宜緊閉以養脾。鼻隨呼吸以養肺。耳不邪聞以養腎。挺頸含胸。氣勿阻滯。頭部庶得以俯仰。踢㬪嘢肚。氣沈丹田。脊背切忌向後張。倘或鼓胸張背。其氣必旋於胸際。偶爾動作。則氣喘莫可遏抑。其弊害將有不可勝言者。所謂毫釐之差。千里之謬也。
甚矣。氣之作用。非紙上空談。所能領略者也。然八卦掌最重養氣之功。不得不詳為言之。孟子曰。持其志勿暴其氣。孫子曰。兵者氣也。沉而勿浮。制勝之道。八卦掌之養氣亦然。凡收掌之始。吸氣為妙。發掌之時。呼氣為佳。運之則奔行週身。蓄之則墳隆一處。提之則來。放之則散。若離若合。能聚能分。苟無氣行筋絡之間。則掌擊之處必無勁。即或見其有隙可乘。敢於發掌進攻。而氣不能蓄。亦只坐誤時機。故練將必先練膽。而練掌則必先養氣。使之能收能發。用之不竭。藉以持久。庶可從容應付。免有氣喘上浮之弊。是故養氣得法。則能手到眼到身到腰到步到。精神自然煥發。膽力必增進矣。但養氣之法。又貴在蓄神。不在聚氣。凡當練習之時。務使呼吸自然。持住丹田之氣。五行相順。愈練愈精。切勿以聚氣為妙用也。學者千萬愼之。
再擬練習後三法。貢獻讀者。走掌後不可大開肺量。逞其呼吸。此其一。不可即行坐臥。驟使之靜。致有氣血不匀之弊。此其二。不宜急於飲食。須隨意行走十分鐘後。以待氣血既定。再進飲食。此其三。
There are many systems of martial arts. For instance, there is Long Boxing, which contains CLOUDING HANDS, KICK & HIT, DODGE & TURN, and LEAP & SHIFT. It has handwork, eyework, bodywork, waistwork, footwork, as well as knowledge, courage, essence, energy, spirit. Everything in it is worthwhile. Or in Groundwork Boxing [Digong, often known as Ditang] there is SINGLE TOE-KICK, BREAK-FALL KICK, SCRAPING SCISSORS, TOPPLING SCISSORS, and so on. All of the techniques within it are marvelous means of subduing opponents. Or in the case of Taiji Boxing, every action has a strong intention of gentleness, as though drawing out a thread of silk. It is also like a young woman singing and dancing, rhythmic in its timing. It is truly sufficient for stretching out the sinews and bones, regulating the blood and energy, and molding the temperament. In wielding power, it neither overdoes nor underdoes, developing a smooth naturalness and deterring any urge toward aggressive energy. It can be said that it cultivates body and mind simultaneously, and its effects are easily seen. With regard to other boxing arts, they all have their strong points, but I cannot list every art here.
     Bagua Palming works every part of the body with eight kinds of techniques that are analogous to each name of the trigrams. It differs from other boxing arts in many ways. In particular, the eight techniques entirely use palms rather than fists to strike. It exclusively uses the palm because the palm has a greater reach than the fist and adapts quicker. As for the method of practice, energy courses through to the palm to generate great power.
     While walking, it travels around in a circle rather than along a straight path. If someone walks straight ahead for many miles, it may wear him out, but if he walks for a mere five or six minutes in a circle, then he will surely become dizzy and mentally fatigued. For this reason alone, do not practice improperly. As the saying goes: “What is habitual will become natural.” Because Bagua Palming possesses this skill of circle walking, whenever you encounter an opponent you may whirl around him to find a gap and then seize the opportunity to attack. It is the same as in using an army. Relying only on frontal assaults will sometimes be effective but can lead to terrible difficulties. If the formations of “four-sides enduring song” or “eight-directions crosswise array” are made, the enemy is sure to resist against it in one area, but will collapse in another and ultimately lose.
     Furthermore, the posture while walking is comprehensively defensive. One palm is reached out at eyebrow level, able to defend the area between headtop and throat, and beyond. The other palm is extended until below the [forward] elbow, the [rear] elbow aligned with your solar plexus to guard your chest, and the palm can also be guarding your ribs. The steps cover over your crotch to be able to guard your groin. Sunzi said [Art of War, chapter 4]: “Skilled warriors first put themselves into an invulnerable position and then wait for the enemy to reveal where he is vulnerable.” Wuzi said [this quote appearing nowhere in the six chapters of Wuzi]: “From behind strong fortifications, watch for the moment the enemy drops his guard and then attack.” This is exactly the idea.
     It was taught long ago that the human body matches the trigrams. It says in the “Explanation of the Trigrams” from the Book of Changes: “Qian corresponds to the head. Kun corresponds to the abdomen. Zhen corresponds to the feet. Xun corresponds to the thighs. Kan corresponds to the ears. Li corresponds to the eyes. Gen corresponds to the hands. Dui corresponds to the mouth.” Because the art is passed down as “eight trigrams”, it has the same kind of situation as in Xingyi [which has its interpretation of the five elements]. It has been said that:
     ☰ Qian connects three parts: palm, elbow, shoulder.
     ☵ Kan fills within, energy sinking to the elixir field.
     ☶ Gen covers like a bowl, the roundness of the skull like a bowl covering the headtop.
     ☳ Zhen is an upright basin, meaning the human mouth, which is like a basin containing water.
     ☴ Xun cuts off below, meaning the legs. It is said in the Book of Changes [hexagram 57] that “Xun corresponds to wind”, giving the sense that your steps are like you are walking on water, fast as wind.
     ☲ Li empties within, the hollowing of the chest making the breathing smoother.
     ☷ Kun divides at six places – the shoulders, hips, and knees – demonstrating their interfunctionality.
     ☱ Dui reduces above, by way of straightening the neck. The significance of Dui, that of straightness, also applies to the upper body.
     This is a way in which the trigrams have been used. But if we study these points, we do not find any meaningful evidence to back up these ideas. They were perhaps just helpful hints that teachers would give to students for remembering things about the parts of the body. In this scientific age, such strained interpretations do not seem appropriate. But since the art is called “Bagua” Palming, an intimate relationship with the Book of Changes is inevitable, therefore such ideas are acceptable in this case.
     Bagua Palming’s walking posture is just like in the descriptions above. Furthermore, loosen your shoulders and round your back, extend your [forward] arm to a natural length, sink your elbows and straighten your wrists, store power and wait to issue, close your knees as you step as though walking on water, and keep your feet level as they step out, as though they are being blown along by wind. Additionally: your tongue touches your upper palate, thereby nourishing your heart; your eyes should focus, thereby nourishing your liver; your mouth should be closed, thereby nourishing your spleen; breathe through your nose, thereby nourishing your lungs; your ears do not get distracted by random noises, thereby nourishing your kidneys.
     Straightening your neck and hollowing your chest will keep energy from being obstructed. If your head leans forward or back, it will spark tension in your armpits and belly. Energy should be sinking to your elixir field, and so your spine must not be reaching out behind you, for if your poke out your chest and reach with your back, energy would get stuck in your chest, and while you move you would not be able to keep yourself from panting. The harms of this error are beyond description. As it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.”
     The functioning of energy is truly not a matter of mere hollow words, and here I will give a sense of this. Bagua Palming’s major practices for nurturing energy have to be presented in detail. Mengzi said [Mengzi, chapter 2.1]: “Maintain your willpower, but do not harm your energy.” Sunzi said [this quote appearing nowhere in the thirteen chapters of the Art of War]: “The method of controlling victory is a matter of the army’s energy sinking down and not floating up.” It is the same for Bagua Palming’s nurturing of energy.
     When withdrawing your palm, inhaling is best. When shooting out your palm, exhaling is best. When moving, energy courses through your whole body. When storing, energy concentrates at one place. When lifting, energy activates. When releasing, energy disperses. Whether separating from or joining with [the opponent], energy can be concentrated or spread. If there is no energy moving between your muscles and tendons, then there will be no power when your palm strikes.
     If you spot a gap to exploit and you dare to attack with your palm, but you have not been able to store any energy, then it would be no better than missing the opportunity altogether. The training requires that you first train your courage. But to train your palms, it is first necessary to nurture your energy in order to be able to use it in the right measure of expending and replenishing so that it never gets used up, and then after a long time you will be able to deal with situations quite calmly, avoiding the harms of panting and of energy floating up.
     Once you have grasped the method of nurturing energy, you will have the ability of hand arriving, eyes arriving, body arriving, waist arriving, and step arriving all at the same time. Your spirit will naturally glow and your courage is sure to be boosted. However the method of nurturing energy also values storing spirit more than gathering energy. When practicing, make your breath natural, keeping energy at your elixir field, and the five elements [i.e. the major organs] will function in smooth coordination. The more you practice, the more refined this will become. But you must never treat the accumulating of energy as something magical. Be mindful of this.
     Here are three tips I offer for following a practice session:
     1. After circle walking, you must not expand your chest and take in giant lungfuls of air.
     2. You must not sit or lie down, becoming abruptly still, for this would result in the harm of the rhythms of energy and blood being made uneven.
     3. You should not eagerly eat or drink. Instead you must casually walk around for ten minutes, waiting for your energy and blood to stabilize, and then you may eat and drink.

文王八卦方位
ORIENTATIONS ACCORDING TO THE BAGUA DIAGRAM OF KING WEN

SE         S        SW
東南     正南     西南
XUN       LI       KUN
巽       離       坤
☴☲☷
E   正東     ZHEN    震    ☳    ☱    兑     DUI      正西    W
☶☵☰
艮       坎       乾
GEN    KAN    QIAN
東北     正北     西北
NE        N        NW

N

|
W 西–|–東  E


S

說明
Explanation:
如置圖於案上。觀圖者依照向例應取之標凖。必須面北瀏覽。故將八卦方位附畫圖線。并注以東西南北字樣。盖練八卦者原係繞圈而轉。藉此以定變化起訖之點。且使閲者易於了然。
The diagrams above are to be viewed according to the standard convention of facing toward the north. Therefore next to the trigram positions are also included their corresponding compass directions. Because practicing Bagua involves walking in circles and making turns, such a map will keep you from shifting the place where you begin and finish, and will also help you more easily understand [the use of the trigram names in the instructional text].

走掌姿式
WALKING POSTURE

練法
Practice method:
足踏巽方 面向離方立正 兩掌從巽方抄舉 由頭頂下沉 右掌停於乾方 肘微屈 掌與眉齊 目向食指第一線注視 左掌停於右肘下 肘對心口 兩腿稍彎 挺頸 含胸 弝背 溜臀 下頷收回 對右肩窩 閉口 用鼻呼吸 氣沈丹田 順其自然之性 週身須靈活敏捷 不必用力 現從容狀態
With your feet standing at XUN [SE], face toward LI [S], standing straight, as your palms scoop up from XUN [SE] and then sink down from headtop level, your right palm finishing by pointing toward QIAN [NW], elbow slightly bent, palm at eyebrow level, your gaze level toward the forefinger, your left palm finishing below your right elbow, your left elbow in front of your solar plexus. Your legs are slightly bent. Straighten your neck, hollow your chest, round your back, and tuck in your buttocks. Pull back your chin toward the pit of your right shoulder. Close your mouth and breathe through your nose. Energy sinks to your elixir field. With an attitude of naturalness, your whole body will be lively and nimble, and as it is not necessary to use any force, you will display a leisurely manner.

要點
Important points:
走掌者 右掌護喉 左肘護心 扣襠護陰 此所謂先為不可勝 以待敵之可勝
While walking, your right palm protects your throat, your left elbow protects your solar plexus, and your crotch is covered to protect your groin. This is as an example of “first putting yourself into an invulnerable position and then waiting for the opponent to reveal where he is vulnerable”.

開步姿式
INITIAL STEP

練法
Practice method:
走掌姿式作成後 即開始行走 上身不動 先邁右腿 右掌與左足根上下斜對 放足要平 不准拔根跈鑽 走須圓形 取八卦圓形之意 換句話說 就是走圈 掌向圈中心 掌永不動 人圍掌轉 如換左掌 即先邁左腳 左右掌互換 邁步亦如上類推
Once you have made the walking posture, then begin to actually walk. With your upper body not moving, step first with your right leg, your right palm and left heel aligned with each other diagonally above and below. When placing the foot, it should be flat, the heel neither lifted nor digging into the ground. The stepping has to be circular, in order to live up to the intention of the circle of eight trigrams, or more simply put, walk in a circle. [When your right hand is extended, you walk clockwise.] The [extended] palm points toward the center of the circle, never moving from its position, your body surrounding your palm as your palm orbits the center. If you switch to your left palm, you would first step out with your left foot, and likewise when switching to your right palm, you would first step out with your right foot.

要點
Important points:
開步者 須氣沉丹田 兩膀輕鬆 取䞶水之勢 故曰 行如䞶水走如風
When stepping out, it is necessary to sink energy to your elixir field, relax your arms, and seek to have a sense of walking on water. It is said: “Step as though you are walking on water, moving like the wind.”

第一式換掌
TECHNIQUE 1: SWITCHING PALMS

練法
Practice method:
左足停於巽方 右足尖向坎方撇出 左掌在左足停止 右足撇出時 從右肘下順勢伸出 與眉齊 右掌同時扯回 停於左肘下 歸走掌原式
Your left foot stops at XUN [SE] and your right toes swing out toward KAN [N] as your left palm reaches out from below your right elbow to be at eyebrow level, your right palm at the same time pulling back to finish below your left elbow, and you return to the walking posture [now going counterclockwise around the circle].

用法
Application:
設敵用右手迎面擊我 應抽身閃至敵後方 用左掌擊敵右耳門 是為抽身換影
If an opponent uses his right hand to strike to my face, I respond by dodging around behind him and using my left palm to strike to his right ear. This is an example of “switching your body with your shadow”.

要點
Important points:
換掌者 須兩臂用力 疾伸如電 大有搓錯之槪
Switching requires using the strength of the arms. Quickly reach out, fast as lighting, so that there will be a strong sense of friction.

第二式第一動搭掌
TECHNIQUE 2, MOVEMENT 1: CONNECTING

練法
Practice method:
右足停於巽方 左足與右足靠齊 左足根提起 向乾方橫一大步 成騎馬式 左掌在左足橫邁時 用滾掌向乾方搭出 掌心向乾方 指尖向下 左肘與左膝蓋上下對齊 右掌隨時扯回 停於胸前 掌心向上 對齊心口 目注乾方
[From walking in a counterclockwise circle, your left hand extended,] your right foot stops at XUN [SE], your left foot goes next to your right foot, heel lifted, then takes a large sideways step toward QIAN [NW], making a horse-riding stance. As your left foot makes its sideways step, your left palm rolls over to face toward QIAN [NW] and goes outward to connect, the center of the palm facing toward QIAN [NW], fingers pointing downward, your left elbow and left knee aligned with each other above and below. Your right palm at the same time pulls back, stopping in front of your chest, the center of the palm facing upward, level with your solar plexus. Your gaze is toward QIAN [NW].

用法
Application:
設敵兩手握我左臂 向回扯領 應順勢搭於敵之丹田 此為借水行舟
If an opponent uses both hands to grab my left arm, I pull it back, then respond by going along with his energy to connect to his elixir field, an action of “going along with the current to move the boat”.

要點
Important points:
搭掌者 勁在掌心 須橫步沈腰 效力方大
Connecting expresses power at the center of the palm. You have to step sideways and sink your waist for it to be most effective.

第二式第二動開掌
TECHNIQUE 2, MOVEMENT 2: SPREADING

練法
Practice method:
右腿向乾方邁一大步 足尖向乾方 右掌由左掌下伸出與眉齊 掌心向上 臂須伸直 左掌停於右肘下 右足尖向坎方撇出 左足提起向坎方一步 足尖向艮方 右掌向巽方開出 身亦轉向巽方 右掌於五步內 從容翻立 歸走掌原式
Your right leg takes a large step toward QIAN [NW], the toes pointing toward QIAN [NW], as your right palm reaches out from below your left palm until at eyebrow level, the center of the palm facing upward, arm straight, and your left palm stops below your right elbow. Your right toes swing out toward KAN [N], your left foot lifts and takes a step toward KAN [N], toes pointing toward GEN [NE], your right palm spreading toward XUN [SE], your torso also turning toward XUN [SE]. (Within five steps, your right palm leisurely turns to be upright, and you return to the walking posture [now walking clockwise].)

用法
Application:
設敵用左手迎面挖目 應用左掌開出 隨時向敵擠步 復用右掌推敵肋部
If the opponent uses his left hand to rake my eyes, I respond by using my left [right] palm to spread outward while taking a crowding step toward him, then use my right [left] palm to push to his ribs.

要點
Important points:
開掌者 須含胸 擰腰 自然靈便
When spreading, you must hollow your chest and twist your waist, and thereby you will naturally perform it with nimbleness.

第三式第一動穿掌
TECHNIQUE 3, MOVEMENT 1: THREADING

練法
Practice method:
左足停於巽方 右足與左足靠齊 右足根提起 向震方一步 左足尖隨時轉向兌方 左腿向艮方一步 同時左掌順右肘上穿 舉至頂上 臂須伸直 右掌附於左肩 面向震方 左掌心向巽方 兩目平視
[From walking in a clockwise circle, your right hand extended,] your left foot stops at XUN [SE], your right foot goes next to it, heel lifted, then takes a step toward ZHEN [E], your left toes turning toward DUI [W], and then your left leg takes a step toward GEN [NE]. At the same time, your left palm goes along your right elbow and threads upward, rising until above your headtop, arm straight, your right palm going near your left shoulder as you face toward ZHEN [E], the center of your left palm facing toward XUN [SE]. Your gaze is level.

用法
Application:
設敵用右手泰山壓頂 擊我天門 我將左腿 向左半步 右足隨時與左足靠攏 右掌上穿 敵手自然落空
If an opponent uses his right hand to perform the technique of MT. TAI CRUSHES THE HEADTOP, striking to my forehead, I send my left [right] leg a half step to the left [right], my right [left] foot going next to it, as my right [left] palm threads upward, easily causing his hand to miss.

要點
Important points:
穿掌者 須挺胸 沈腰 用掌面直向上穿
Threading requires that you reach with your chest and sink your waist. Express through the “palm face” [i.e. the back of the hand] to thread straight upward.

第三式第二動撲掌
TECHNIQUE 3, MOVEMENT 2: POUNCING

練法
Practice method:
兩足尖擰向坤方 右腿向乾方撤一大步 右腿伸直 右掌隨時向乾方撲去 掌心向坎方 橫於右足面 左掌向震方伸出 掌與頂齊 掌心向艮方 左腿下灣 大腿取平 膝蓋不得過足尖 身向坤方 目注右掌
The toes of both feet are twisted toward KUN [SW] and your right leg withdraws a large step toward QIAN [NW], the leg straightening, as your right palm pounces out toward QIAN [NW], the center of the palm facing toward KAN [N], the palm angled sideways near the top of your right foot, and your left palm extends toward ZHEN [E], the palm at headtop level, the center of the palm facing toward GEN [NE], your left leg bending downward until the thigh is flat, but the knee should not go past your toes. Your torso is facing toward KUN [SW], your gaze toward your right palm.

用法
Application:
設敵由右方猛擊 不能抵抗時 則可蹲身下坐 用右掌撲敵膝蓋以上
If the opponent attacks from the right so fiercely that I cannot defend against it, I can squat my body down and use my right palm to pounce to his knee.

要點
Important points:
撲掌者 勁在虎口 全身重量 在於左腿
Pouncing expresses power at the tiger’s mouth. The weight is on your left leg.

第三式第三動托掌
TECHNIQUE 3, MOVEMENT 3: PROPPING

練法
Practice method:
右掌向乾方托起 高於頭頂 掌心向坎方 臂須伸直 左掌隨時停於腰間 掌心向上 兩腿在左右掌運動時 成弓登式 (右腿弓左腿登) 兩足尖向兌方 身向乾方 兩目平視
Your right palm props up toward QIAN [NW], higher than your headtop, the center of the palm facing toward KAN [N], arm straight, as your left palm goes beside your waist, the center of the palm facing upward. At the same time, your legs make a bow stance (right leg bending, left leg pressing), the toes of both feet pointing toward DUI [W], your torso facing toward QIAN [NW]. Your gaze is level.

用法
Application:
設敵用左手貫耳 我用右掌向上托起 掌尖直沖敵目
If the opponent uses his left hand to swing at my ear, I send my right palm upward to prop it away, the fingers then thrusting straight to his eyes.

要點
Important points:
托掌者 勁在肘腕外面 臂須高過頭頂 肋胯亦必連帶助力
Propping expresses power at the outer side of the forearm. The arm has to go higher than your headtop. Your ribs and hips also have to be involved to assist the power.

第三式第四動搷掌
TECHNIQUE 3, MOVEMENT 4: SMACKING

練法
Practice method:
左腿提起 大腿取平 足尖向下 左掌由肘下向乾方上搷 臂須伸直 掌與肩平 掌心向上 右掌扯回 停於左肘下 目注左掌 右腿挺直 成金雞獨立式 隨時左掌向巽方開轉 面亦轉向巽方 左足落於兌方 歸走掌原式
Your left leg lifts until the thigh is level, toes pointing downward, as your left palm goes from below your [right] elbow, smacking upward toward QIAN [NW], arm straight, the palm at shoulder level, the center of the palm facing upward, and your right palm pulls back until below your left elbow [to the upper right according to the photo], your gaze toward your left palm, your right leg straightening, making a “golden rooster on one leg” stance. (Then your left palm spreads in an arc toward XUN [SE], your face also turning toward XUN [SE], your left foot coming down at DUI [W], and you return to the walking posture [counterclockwise].)

用法
Application:
設敵用左手反砸頭頂 我須左腿後撤半步 用右掌心搷敵左肘
If the opponent uses his left hand to smash to my headtop, I have to draw in my left leg a half step while I use the center of my right [left] palm to smack away his left elbow.

要點
Important points:
搷掌者 勁在掌心 必須發掌疾猛 蹲身吸腰 搷力必倍
Smacking expresses power at the center of the palm. You have to shoot out your palm with rapid ferocity. Squatting your body down and drawing back your waist will double the power.

第四式第一動挑掌
TECHNIQUE 4, MOVEMENT 1: CARRYING

練法
Practice method:
右足停於巽方 足尖向震方 左足根約離右足尖 三十生的 足尖向乾方 成坐虎式 右掌從左肘下上挑 掌與肩平 臂須伸直 掌心向坤方 左掌向乾方探出 掌與肩平 掌心向下 右掌隨時向艮方上滾 高過頭頂 指尖向乾方 兩目平視
[From walking in a counterclockwise circle, your left hand extended,] your right foot stops at XUN [SE], toes pointing toward ZHEN [E], your left heel going about thirty centimeters away from your right toes, your left toes pointing toward QIAN [NW], making a sitting tiger stance, as your right palm goes from below your left elbow and carries upward to shoulder level, arm straight, the center of the palm facing toward KUN [SW]. Then your left palm reaches out toward QIAN [NW] at shoulder level, the center of the palm facing downward, as your right palm rolls over upward toward GEN [NE] to be higher than your headtop, fingers pointing toward QIAN [NW]. Your gaze is level.

用法
Application:
設敵用左手擊面 我應用右掌挑起 隨起滾掌 敵身自然後仰 我將右腿先邁 作擠走前進 用左掌探敵咽喉
If an opponent uses his left hand to strike to my face, I respond by using my right palm to carry it, then roll my palm over upward. He will naturally lean away, so I send my right [left] leg forward with a crowding step while using my left palm to seek his throat.

要點
Important points:
挑掌者 勁在手腕內面 須探身擠步 挑力更大
Carrying expresses power at the inner side of the wrist. You have to reach with your body and crowd with your step, and then the force of your carrying will be even greater.

第四式第二動震掌
TECHNIQUE 4, MOVEMENT 2: SHOCKING

練法
Practice method:
左腿先邁 作擠步向乾方三步 走須直線 至第四步時 左腿向乾方邁一大步 成騎馬式 左掌在左腿向乾方邁步時 向乾方猛震 掌心向乾方 指尖向上 目注左掌
Your left leg first steps, then you take three more crowding steps [right, left, right] toward QIAN [NW], walking in a straight line, and then add a fourth step, your left leg taking a large step toward QIAN [NW] to make a horse-riding posture, as your left palm fiercely shocks toward QIAN [NW], the center of the palm facing toward QIAN [NW], fingers pointing upward. Your gaze is toward your left palm.

用法
Application:
如我掌探敵咽喉 敵用手按住時 我應乘勢震掌 其效方大
When my palm seeks the opponent’s throat, if he uses a hand to push down on it, I follow along with the momentum of this and perform shocking, to great effect.

要點
Important points:
震掌者 先以指尖中敵 復用掌心連環震擊 其力發自丹田
Shocking first uses the fingers to target the opponent, then uses the center of the palm to continue into a shocking strike, power issuing from the elixir field.

第四式第三動掖掌
TECHNIQUE 4, MOVEMENT 3: BRACING

練法
Practice method:
左腿向巽方撤一大步 右掌向乾方橫掖 掌心向乾方 指尖向坤方 臂須伸直 目注右掌 左掌在左腿向巽方撤回時 由目前轉向巽方扯起 高過頭頂 掌肘肩成三角形 掌心向坤方
Your left leg withdraws a large step toward XUN [SE] as your right palm does a sideways bracing action toward QIAN [NW], the center of the palm facing toward QIAN [NW], fingers pointing toward KUN [SW], arm straight. Your gaze is toward your right palm. As your left leg withdraws, your left palm arcs from in front of your face, rising up and pulling back toward XUN [SE], higher than your headtop, the palm, elbow, and shoulder making a triangle shape, the center of the palm facing toward KUN [SW]. [According to the photo, the hand instead lowers and pulls back in front of your solar plexus.]

用法
Application:
設敵由後方雙風貫耳 我應用左腿向前方 急進一步 用右掌掖敵心口
If the opponent then comes from behind me to attack with DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS, I respond by quickly advancing [retreating] my left leg while using my right palm to do a bracing action to his solar plexus.

要點
Important points:
掖掌者 勁在手掌 肘須微屈 其力發自全身
Bracing expresses power at the palm. The elbow has to be slightly bent. Power is issued from the whole body.

第四式第四動撩掌
TECHNIQUE 4, MOVEMENT 4: RAISING

練法
Practice method:
右腿向巽方一步 足尖向巽方 作弓登式 (右腿弓左腿登) 左掌由上向乾方撩出 與左胯齊 掌心向離方 右掌停於胸前 掌心對心口 目注左掌 隨時左腿提起 右掌向乾方伸出 歸走掌原式
Your right leg takes a step toward XUN [SE], the toes pointing toward XUN [SE], making a bow stance (right leg bending, left leg pressing), as your left palm goes from above [below] and raises toward QIAN [NW] to be level with your left hip, the center of the palm facing toward LI [S], your right palm stopping in front of your chest with the center of the palm facing toward your solar plexus [the hand arcing to headtop level according to the photo]. Your gaze is toward your left palm. (Then your left leg lifts, your right palm reaches out toward QIAN [NW], and you return to the walking posture [clockwise].)

用法
Application:
設敵用左手擊我後心 應將左腿向左方一步 用右掌猛撩敵陰
If the opponent uses his left [right] hand to strike to my heart from behind, I respond by sending my left [right] leg a step to the left [right] while using my right [left] palm to fiercely raise to his groin.

要點
Important points:
撩掌者 勁在掌尖 須賴膀力之助
Raising expresses power at the fingers. It relies of the strength of the arm to assist it.

第五式第一動冲掌
TECHNIQUE 5, MOVEMENT 1: THRUSTING

練法
Practice method:
右腿停於巽方 足尖向坤方微扣 左腿向乾方邁一大步 左掌在左腿向乾方邁步時 由右肘下向冲上出 掌與頭平 掌心向艮方 右掌停於左肘下 兩腿成弓登式(左腿弓右腿登) 目注左掌
[From walking in a clockwise circle, your right hand extended,] your right leg stops at XUN [SE], the toes slightly hooking to point toward KUN [SW], and your left leg takes a large step toward QIAN [NW] as your left palm goes from below your right elbow and thrusts out upward at head level, the center of the palm facing toward GEN [NE], your right palm stopping below your left elbow, your legs making a bow stance (left leg bending, right leg pressing). Your gaze is toward your left palm.

用法
Application:
設敵用左手擊我頭部 我應用右掌 冲敵手腕 隨時進步 點敵太陽穴
If an opponent uses his left [right] hand to strike to my head, I respond by using my right [left] palm to thrust to his wrist, then step forward and do a point strike to his temple.

要點
Important points:
冲掌者 須掌尖下沈 用手腕內面上冲 用時須沈腰挺胸
Thrusting requires the fingers to sink down and that the inner side of the wrist be used to thrust upward. When applying it, you have to sink your waist and reach with your chest.

第五式第二動切掌
TECHNIQUE 5, MOVEMENT 2: SLICING

練法
Practice method:
左腿向乾方邁進半步 右腿膝蓋隨時靠與左腿灣 兩足尖向乾方 左掌在左腿邁進時 用滾掌由上下沈 停於左膝前 掌心向乾方 指尖向下 右掌隨時上切 掌心向上 掌與鼻齊 目注右掌
Your left leg advances a half step toward QIAN [NW], your right knee following closely to your left knee, the toes of both feet pointing toward QIAN [NW], as your left palm rolls over and sinks downward from above, stopping in front of your left knee, the center of the palm facing toward QIAN [NW], fingers pointing downward, your right palm at the same time slicing upward, the center of the palm facing upward, until at nose [headtop] level. Your gaze is toward your right palm.

用法
Application:
設敵用右手擊胸 我將右腿後撤半步 用左掌按敵手腕 向下猛沈 隨時左腿向敵後方進步 用右掌猛切敵𩓐
If the opponent uses his right hand to strike to my chest, I withdraw my right leg a half step while using my left palm to fiercely sink down on his left wrist, then I advance my left leg behind him while using my right palm to fiercely slice to his neck.

要點
Important points:
切掌者 勁在掌側 用時掌須斜橫 如劍之摸𩓐然
Slicing expresses power at the edge of the palm. When applying it, the palm has to be slanted sideways, like a sword doing a swiping cut to the neck.

第五式第三動推掌
TECHNIQUE 5, MOVEMENT 3: PUSHING

練法
Practice method:
左掌向上托起 高過頭頂 掌心向乾方 左腿隨時向乾方半步 右足與左足靠攏并齊 兩足尖向乾方 兩膝蓋微屈 右掌在左掌托起時 同時扯回向乾方猛推 掌與心口齊 臂須伸直 掌心向乾方 指尖向坎方 目注右掌 兩掌由頭上轉向巽方 歸走掌原式
Your left palm goes upward to prop up higher than your headtop, the center of the palm facing toward QIAN [NW], as your left leg goes a half step toward QIAN [NW] and your right foot goes next to your left foot, the toes of both feet pointing toward QIAN [NW], knees slightly bent. As your left hand props up, your right palm pulls back and then fiercely pushes out toward QIAN [NW], the palm at solar plexus level, arm straight, the center of the palm facing toward QIAN [NW], fingers pointing toward KAN [N]. Your gaze is toward your right palm. (Then your palms both arc from above your head toward XUN [SE] and you return to the walking posture [counterclockwise].)

用法
Application:
設敵用左手扼我咽喉 我應用左掌向上托起 隨時左腿向敵前方半步 用右掌推敵左肋
If the opponent uses his left hand to grab my throat, I respond by using my left palm to prop it upward, my left leg going a half step forward toward him as I use my right palm to push to his ribs.

要點
Important points:
推掌者 勁在全掌 臂須伸直 併應蹲身弓腿 方能增加推力
Pushing expresses power with the entire palm. The arm has to straighten, but you should also squat your body down and bend your legs, which will enable you to increase the force of the push.

第六式第一動截掌
TECHNIQUE 6, MOVEMENT 1: CHECKING

練法
Practice method:
左腿停於巽方 右腿向巽方橫邁一步 左足與右足靠攏并齊 兩腿下灣 大腿取平 左掌在兩腿下灣時 向下猛截 掌心向左膝蓋 指尖向艮方 右掌亦隨時由下上 高過頭頂 掌心向震方 目注左掌
[From walking in a counterclockwise circle, your left hand extended,] your left leg stops at XUN [SE], your right leg takes a sideways step toward XUN [SE], and your left foot goes to stand next to it [this action not shown in the photo], both legs bending downward so your thighs are level, as your left palm fiercely goes downward with a checking action, the center of the palm facing toward your left knee, fingers pointing toward GEN [NE], and your right hand goes upward from below to be higher than your headtop, the center of the palm facing toward ZHEN [E]. Your gaze is toward your left palm.

用法
Application:
設敵用左足踢我左腿 我應向右方扯一大步 角左掌截敵足面
If an opponent uses his left foot to kick to my left leg, I respond by pulling back to the right with a large step and use my left palm to check to the top of his foot.

要點
Important points:
截掌者 勁在掌側 須賴肘力為助
Checking expresses power at the edge of the palm. You have to rely on strength from the elbow to assist.

第六式第二動削掌
TECHNIQUE 6, MOVEMENT 2: SLASHING

練法
Practice method:
左腿向乾方半步 右足與左足靠攏并齊 兩腿下灣 大腿取平 兩足尖向乾方 左掌在右足與左足靠攏時 由下上 高過頭頂 右掌隨時向坤方斜削 肘與左膝蓋上下對齊 掌心向乾方 目注右掌
Your left leg goes a half step toward QIAN [NW] and your right foot goes next to it, both legs bending downward so your thighs are level, the toes of both feet pointing toward QIAN [NW], as your left palm goes upward from below to be higher than your headtop and your right palm slashes diagonally toward KUN [SW], the elbow and your left knee aligned above and below, the center of the palm facing toward QIAN [NW]. Your gaze is toward your right palm.

用法
Application:
設敵用右足踢我左胯 我將左腿向敵前方半步 右足隨時靠攏 用右掌削敵腿腕
If the opponent uses his right foot to kick to my left hip, I send out my left leg in front of him a half step, my right foot then going next to it, while I use my right palm to slash to his ankle.

要點
Important points:
削掌者 須含胸蹲腿 如持刀削竹之狀
Slashing requires hollowing your chest and squatting your legs. It is like slashing through bamboo with a saber.

第六式第三動砸掌
TECHNIQUE 6, MOVEMENT 3: SMASHING

練法
Practice method:
左腿向乾方一步 右腿亦隨時向乾方邁一大步 約過左腿半步距離 兩足尖向乾方 左掌同時向下一拍 虎口與左胯對齊 右掌從左脅下 向上反砸 高與眉齊 掌心向上 目注右掌 兩腿成弓登式 (右腿弓左腿登)
Your left leg takes a step toward QIAN [NW], then your right leg also takes a large step toward QIAN [NW] to go about a half step past your left leg, the toes of both feet pointing toward QIAN [NW], as your left palm slaps downward so the tiger’s mouth is level with your left [right] hip and your right palm goes from below your left ribs to smash upward at eyebrow level, the center of the palm facing upward. Your gaze is toward your right palm. Your legs are making a bow stance (right leg bending, left leg straightening).

用法
Application:
設敵用左手推我右肘 我將左掌拍敵左手 隨時用右掌反砸敵面
If the opponent uses his left hand to push on my right elbow, I use my left palm to slap away his left hand while I use my right palm to smash to his face.

要點
Important points:
砸掌者 勁在掌面 用時須進步伸腰
Smashing expresses power at the back of the hand. When applying it, you have to step forward and stretch your waist.

第六式第四動摔掌
TECHNIQUE 6, MOVEMENT 4: THROWING

練法
Practice method:
兩足尖擰向巽方 兩腿成弓登式 (左腿弓右腿登)右掌由胸前向乾方摔去 掌心向坎方 指尖向下 掌與右胯對齊 左掌由右脅下上弸 高過頭頂 掌心向下 目注右掌
The toes of both feet are twisted toward XUN [SE], your legs making a bow stance (left leg bending, right leg pressing), as your right palm goes from in front of your chest and throws out toward QIAN [NW], the center of the palm facing toward KAN [N], fingers pointing downward, the palm level with your right hip, and your left palm goes from below your right ribs to ward away upward higher than your headtop, the center of the palm facing downward. Your gaze is toward your right palm.

用法
Application:
設敵用右手握我右手腕 我應乘勢向敵腿摺窩摔去 隨時右腿向敵前方急進半步
If the opponent uses his right hand to grab my right wrist, I take advantage of the opportunity by folding in and then throwing out toward his thigh while my right leg quickly advances a half step in front of him.

要點
Important points:
摔掌者 勁在手腕 純係滾轉之力
Throwing expresses power at the wrist. It is purely a matter of the force of rolling it over.

第六式第五動批掌
TECHNIQUE 6, MOVEMENT 5: CHOPPING

練法
Practice method:
左腿先邁 向巽方急進兩步 走須直線 兩目隨時平視 右掌由下轉上向乾方翻身批去 掌與眉齊 臂須伸直 目注右掌 兩足在右掌批去時 向兌方猛擰 兩腿成弓登式(右腿弓左腿登) 左掌隨時向巽方滾出 掌心向震方
With your left leg stepping first, quickly advance two steps toward XUN [SE] walking in a straight line with your gaze level, as your right palm arcs upward from below and chops out toward QIAN [NW], your body turning, the palm at eyebrow level, arm straight. Your gaze is toward your right palm. As your right palm chops, your feet fiercely twist toward DUI [W], your legs making a bow stance (right leg bending, left leg pressing), your left palm rolling over toward XUN [SE], the center of the palm facing toward ZHEN [E].

用法
Application:
設敵用右手擊我左肩 我用左掌握敵右手腕 向敵後滾出 左腿隨時向敵前方半步 用右掌迎面批敵
If the opponent uses his right hand to strike to my left shoulder, I use my left palm to grab his right wrist and roll it away behind him while my left leg goes in front of him a half step and I use my right palm to chop to his face.

要點
Important points:
批掌者 勁在掌側與手腕外面 用時須翻身轉頭摔弓腿 以作批力之助
Chopping expresses power at the edge of the palm and outer side of the wrist. When applying it, you have to turn your body, turn your head, and throw yourself into a bow stance in order to assist the force of the chop.

第六式第六動抱掌
TECHNIQUE 6, MOVEMENT 6: EMBRACING

練法
Practice method:
左足尖向巽方微撇 右足與左足靠齊 右足根提起 右掌隨時抱於面前 右肘對齊心口 掌心向面 左掌下沈 掌心附於左胯 兩掌由巽方轉向乾方 歸走掌原式
Your left toes slightly swing toward XUN [SE] and your right foot goes next to your left foot, heel lifted, as your right palm embraces in front of your face, the elbow at solar plexus level, the center of the palm facing toward your face, and your left palm sinks down, the center of the palm facing toward your left hip. (Then your palms arc from XUN [SE] to QIAN [NW], and you return to the walking posture [clockwise].)

用法
Application:
設敵用餓虎掏心 雙拳擊胸 我將左腿後撤半步 右掌隨時懷中抱月 敵拳自然落空
If the opponent uses the technique of HUNGRY TIGER RIPS OUT THE HEART, both of his fists striking to my chest, I withdraw my left leg a half step while my right palm performs EMBRACING THE MOON, and his fists will naturally miss.

要點
Important points:
抱掌者 勁在掌面 尤須裹肘之力為助 用時應擰腰縱肩 掌肘上下 務取直線
Embracing expresses power at the back of the hand. It is necessary to bind strength at the elbow to assist. When applying it, you should twist your waist and loosen your shoulder, and your palm and elbow should seek to make a vertical line.

第七式第一動閉掌
TECHNIQUE 7, MOVEMENT 1: CLOSING

練法
Practice method:
右腿停於巽方 左腿向巽方橫邁一步 兩足再向巽方齊橫半步 兩足尖向坤方 右掌在兩足向巽方齊橫時 向下墜肘閉掌 掌心向面 目注右掌 肘對右肋中間 左掌仍在原位 兩腿微屈
[From walking in a clockwise circle, your right hand extended,] your right leg stops at XUN [SE], your left leg takes a sideways step toward XUN [SE], then both feet in unison make sideways half steps toward XUN [SE] the toes of both feet pointing toward KUN [SW], as your right palm goes downward with a closing action, the elbow dropping, the center of the palm facing toward your face. Your gaze is toward your right palm. The elbow is at the level of your right ribs, your left palm remaining in its original position, and both legs are slightly bent.

用法
Application:
設敵用右足踢陰 左拳擊胸 我用左腿後撤半步 右掌隨時閉敵右肘 其足自然踢空
If an opponent uses his right foot to kick to my groin and his left fist to strike to my chest, I withdraw a half step with my left leg, my right palm at the same time closing off his right elbow, easily causing his foot to miss.

要點
Important points:
閉掌者 勁在掌側與肘腕外面 用時須墜肘吸腰 隨時坐步
Closing expresses power at the side of the palm, along with the outer side of the forearm. When applying it, you have to drop your elbow, draw back your waist, and sit down into your stance.

第七式第二動探掌
TECHNIQUE 7, MOVEMENT 2: SEEKING

練法
Practice method:
右腿向乾方半步 左足與右足靠攏 兩足尖向兌方 兩腿稍屈 左掌在左足與右足靠攏時 由右肘下向乾方探出 掌心向下 掌與肩平 右掌隨時下按 掌與腰齊 掌尖向坤方 掌心向下 目注左掌
Your right leg goes a half step toward QIAN [NW] and your left foot goes next to right foot, the toes of both feet pointing toward DUI [W], both legs slightly bent, as your left palm goes from below your right elbow and seeks out toward QIAN [NW], the center of the palm facing downward at shoulder level, your right palm at the same time pushing down to waist level, fingers pointing toward KUN [SW], the center of the palm facing downward. Your gaze is toward your left palm.

用法
Application:
設敵用左拳貫耳 我應急速迎身 用右掌下按敵拳 隨時用左掌上探敵目
If the opponent uses his left [right] fist to swing at my [right] ear, I respond by quickly closing in with my body, using my right palm to push down his fist while sending my left palm upward to seek his eyes.

要點
Important points:
探掌者 勁在掌尖 用時須沈腰進步
Seeking expresses power at the fingers. When applying it, you have to sink your waist and step forward.

第七式第三動靠掌
TECHNIQUE 7, MOVEMENT 3: BUMPING

練法
Practice method:
右腿向乾方一步 兩足尖向兌方 右掌由腰間向乾方上靠 掌心向上 頭隨時枕於右肩 左掌向巽方撩出 臂須伸直 掌心向震方 兩腿成弓登式(右腿弓左腿登) 同時左足與右足靠齊 兩掌轉向巽方 歸走掌原式
Your right leg goes a step toward QIAN [NW], the toes of both feet pointing toward DUI [W], your right palm going from your waist to bump upward toward QIAN [NW], the center of the palm facing upward, your head lowering to your right shoulder, your left palm raising out toward XUN [SE], arm straight, the center of the palm facing toward ZHEN [E], your legs making a bow stance (right leg bending, left leg pressing). (Then your left foot goes next to your right foot, your palms arc toward XUN [SE], and you return to the walking posture [counterclockwise].)

用法
Application:
設敵用左手取陰 我將左腿後撤半步 用右掌向敵左肘下按 隨時右腿向敵前方進一大步 右掌順敵臂上靠耳根
If the opponent uses his left hand to seek my groin, I withdraw my left leg a half step while using my right palm to push down his left elbow, then my right leg takes a large step forward as my right palm goes upward along his arm to bump his earlobe.

要點
Important points:
靠掌者 勁在手腕內面 須用膀力之助 用時須伸腰枕頭
Bumping expresses power at the inner side of the wrist and requires using the strength of the arm to assist. When applying it, you have to stretch your waist and lower your head.

第八式第一動擠掌
TECHNIQUE 8, MOVEMENT 1: PRESSING

練法
Practice method:
右腿停於巽方 左足尖向乾方撇出 左足根約距右足五十生的 左掌向上微舉 高過頭頂 掌心向艮方 臂須伸直 右掌向乾方猛擠 掌心向坤方 掌與肩平 目注乾方
[From walking in a counterclockwise circle, your left hand extended,] your right leg stops at XUN [SE] and your left toes swing out toward QIAN [NW], the heel about fifty centimeters from your right foot, as your left palm slightly lifts up to be higher than your headtop, the center of the palm facing toward GEN [NE], arm straight, and your right palm fiercely presses toward QIAN [NW], the center of the palm facing toward KUN [SW], the palm at shoulder level. Your gaze is toward QIAN [NW].

用法
Application:
設敵用右手擊我太陽穴 用左拳擊我胸 我用左掌弸敵右掌 用右掌擠敵左臂
If an opponent uses his right hand to strike to my temple and uses his left fist to strike to my chest, I use my left palm to ward away his right palm and use my right palm to press on his left arm.

要點
Important points:
擠掌者 勁在全掌 掌須貼住敵人 用力猛擠 用時須弝背擠步 方有效力 此應一往直前 愈快愈妙
When pressing, the power is in the entire palm. The palm has to be touching the opponent and then you have to use force to fiercely press. When applying it, you have to round your back and crowd with your step for it to be effective. In this technique, you should go straight forward, the faster the better.

第八式第二動撞掌
TECHNIQUE 8, MOVEMENT 2: CRASHING

練法
Practice method:
作擠步向乾方三步 兩掌下沈 靠於右腿 掌心相對 再向乾方走一擠步 兩掌向乾方撞出 兩肘相對 約距離十五生的 掌與肚齊 掌心向乾方 左掌尖向兌方 右掌尖向坎方 兩腿微屈 兩目平視 同時右足與左足靠攏 兩掌轉向巽方 歸走掌原式
Take three crowding steps toward QIAN [NW], your palms sinking down near your right leg, the palms facing each other, then take another crowding step toward QIAN [NW], your palms crashing out toward QIAN [NW], your elbows aligned with each other about fifteen centimeters apart, the palms at navel level [the photo showing them at shoulder level], the center of the palms facing toward QIAN [NW], your left fingers pointing toward DUI [W], your right fingers pointing toward KAN [N], both legs slightly bent. Your gaze is level. (Then your right foot moves next to your left foot, your palms arc toward XUN [SE], and you return to the walking posture [clockwise].)

用法
Application:
設敵用兩手攔腰對斬 我應含胸吸腰 急用兩掌下插 將敵兩手分開 乘勢進步 雙掌撞敵之丹田
If the opponent uses both hands to slash across my waist, I respond by hollowing my chest and drawing back my waist, quickly using my hands to insert downward, causing his hands to spread apart, then I take advantage of the opportunity by advancing a step and using both of my palms to crash toward his elixir field.

要點
Important points:
撞掌者 勁在掌心 用時必挺胸擠步 撞力則倍
When crashing, the power is in the center of the palms. When applying it, you must reach with your chest and crowd with your step, thereby doubling your power.

結論
CONCLUSION

兵書云:『兵不在多而在精。』拳家云:『拳不在多而在熟。』又云:『不怕千着會,最怕一着熟。』此言固有精義在焉。蓋學者見異思遷,喜新厭故,若一技未了,又務他技,其技必泛而不精,多而不善,是以拳家舉上所述,以勉學者,蓋遏制其貪多務廣之心,鼓勵其專攻一技之志,亦云是矣。但編者之意有不盡然者,練技有同學書,歐柳顏趙蘇黃米蔡,八家之書,各有不同,而獨寫一家,不過知一家之筆法,如山谷之字,長撇大捺,君模之書,電轉星流,若非俱為臨寫,何由知其專長,技擊亦然,無論少林,武當,趙家,岳氏各拳,既為先哲所創設,均含有無窮之奧義,制勝之奇妙,要必努力鍛鍊,精誠研究,久則可得整個原理,如能擷其精英,集為大成,當必有勝於一人之知識多多矣。韓信用兵,多多益善,國術一道,應抱百尺竿頭,更進一步,放大眼光,其技當無止境,集思廣益,自不坐井觀天,切不必拘泥於一藝精百藝精之說也。固然多聞,多見,多練,多知善矣,但無論練習任何拳術,務須詳求精盡,不可只求皮毛,苟成為件件中樣樣鬆之流者,則又不如一着熟之為有用也,書此附言,藉以結論。
It says in military literature [quote from Popular History of the Five Dynasties, Zhou – part 2]: “Expertise is more important than the numbers you deploy.” Boxing masters likewise say: “Skillfulness is more important than the number of techniques you know.” They also say: “Do not be afraid of a thousand techniques coming at you, just beware of one technique performed skillfully.” These words express very strongly the significance of skill.
     Students are fickle, enamored with new things and bored with old things. If a technique has not yet been mastered and the student moves on to working on another one anyway, his skills will end up as a case of quantity over quality, equipped with many techniques but good at none of them. Therefore teachers make use of the sayings above in order to encourage students to restrain their greed for the whole curriculum, urging them to focus on one skill at a time.
     However, the author of this book is not entirely of the same opinion. He feels that practicing the art is the same as learning calligraphy. The eight major masters of calligraphy – Ouyang Xun, Liu Gongquan, Yan Zhenqing, Zhao Mengfu, Su Dongpo, Huang Tingjian, Mi Fu, Cai Xiang – are each distinct, and if you only practice the style of one of them, then you will only be familiar with one style of calligraphy. For instance, in the character for a mountain valley 谷, there is a long left-curving stroke and a large right-curving stroke [to draw 人 between 八 above and 口 below], which when imitating a certain master, may be drawn more like the veering of lightning and the streaking of a meteor. Unless you spend time imitating all of their styles, how would you know the strengths of each?
     The same rings true in martial arts. Regardless of whether the boxing art is from Shaolin, Wudang, Zhao School, or Yue School, what the founders of the art created is always imbued with limitless profundities and powerful subtleties. It is necessary to put in hard training and sincere study, and then after a long time you will be able to grasp the full theory of the art. And if you are able to notice that it was refined by way of a cumulative process building up to a great achievement, then you are sure to realize that the knowledge of many people is better than just one.
     When General Han Xin used his army, his attitude was: the more the better. The way of martial arts ought to be a matter of reaching farther [“hundred-foot fishing rod”], progressing further, expanding one’s perspective. There should no limit to developing skills, instead an ever-expanding pooling of insights, thus keeping us from getting tunnel vision [“sitting at the bottom of a well staring at the sky”]. And so we really do not need to fret over whether we should master one technique at a time or work on many, for it is surely better to hear many things, see many things, practice many things, and know many things.
     However, no matter what boxing art you practice, you do have to go through it in detail and master each part. You cannot merely seek to have a superficial understanding. If in your training you end up just wandering casually from one technique to another, you would be better off training for “one technique performed skillfully” after all. Let these additional words serve as a conclusion to this book.


POSTSCRIPT

右八卦拳簡編一卷。尹君佩瑤玉章著。尹君蓋世傳董海川先生之學者。故是書恪守家法。簡當不支。足為後學楷則。殆近年國術出版物之冠與。謹按董氏之術。源出內家。其立體也。以自固為主。故以簡勝繁。以靜御動。以柔制剛。以逸待勞。其根本所基。則純乎以自然之氣。由丹田而達於四支。無微不至。其運動也。如龍如虯。宛轉變化。使人莫測其端倪。其用氣也。至大至剛。行之使人莫能禦。其發勁也。如雷如電。迅猝使人不及知。其應敵也。則又乘人之勢。藉人之力。而不自恃其勇。斯內家之法不過數言。而用工十年。未易造此精詣。今承館長副館長曁同館諸君。彰明絕學。欲以是書。先行刊印。公諸同好。行見家有其書。人習其技。則董學之傳。日益光大矣。其源流理法。具詳本書。略述大義。綴為跋語。
鮑瑞沅謹跋。
This volume, A Concise Book of Bagua Boxing, was written by Yin Peiyao, called Yuzhang. It is knowledge passed down from Dong Haichuan, reverently preserved by the Yin family. Though a concise book is not a complete book, it will serve as an adequate model for new students. In recent years, martial arts publications have been giving sincere attention to Dong’s art, which comes from the internal school.
     Its essential principle is to give firm priority to naturalness. Therefore it uses simplicity to defeat complexity, stillness to defeat motion, softness to overcome hardness, leisure to overcome labor. Its most basic fundamental lies entirely in utilizing one’s natural energy, getting it to travel from the elixir field to the limbs, reaching even the smallest part. Its movements are like a dragon, a serpent, turning and changing, causing the opponent to be unable to anticipate. Its wielding of energy is so vast and solid that it causes the opponent to be unable to withstand it. Its issuing of power is like thunder or lighting, so sudden that it keeps the opponent from knowing about it in time to do anything. Its method of dealing with an opponent is furthermore to ride along with his momentum and take advantage of his force rather than relying on sheer boldness. Here are mentioned but a few words on this internal art, and yet even after ten years of hard work, it will not be easy to achieve these refined skills.
     The director, vice-director, and all the staff of this institute, in the interests of revealing rare knowledge, have now chosen this book as a first publication, to share with all those who are interested. It is hoped that teachers will own this book so that people can practice the art, and thus the transmitting on Dong’s learning will gloriously increase. The art’s origins and theory are detailed within this book. Here is but a brief outline of general ideas supplied as a postscript.
     – sincerely written by Bao Ruiyuan

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