TAIJI BOXING ACCORDING TO CHEN ZIMING

陳氏世傳太極拳術
THE INHERITED CHEN FAMILY TAIJI BOXING ART
著作者 溫縣陳子明
by Chen Ziming
審定者 中央國術館 河南省國術館
authorized by the Central Martial Arts Institute and the Henan Martial Arts Institute
校閱者 沁陽劉丕顯 定興朱國福
proofread by Liu Pixian of Qinyang and Zhu Guofu of Dingxing
發行處 中國武術學會
published by the Chinese Martial Arts Society [in Shanghai]
[Dec 31, 1932]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Aug, 2017]

陳氏世傳太極拳術
The Inherited Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art
張之江題
– calligraphy by Zhang Zhijiang

太極正宗
Authentic Taiji
之江
– [calligraphy by] Zhang Zhijiang

例言
GENERAL COMMENTS

一本書名為陳氏世傳太極拳術者蓋示不忘先人之意惟子明不過粗諳門徑略得皮毛內容簡陋知所不免讀者諒之
1. The title of this book, The Inherited Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art, is intended to express that we will not forget the ideas of our forefathers. However, I have only a rough understanding, hardly even a superficial attainment, and so the content is rather crude and inevitably there are places that will require the reader’s forgiveness.

二陳氏太極世知其名然廬山面自猶未一現子明著書介紹非欲自炫門戶祇為交換智識而已
2. Everyone has heard of Chen Family Taiji, except it seems those living south of Mt. Lu [in Jiangxi]. So I have written this book to introduce the art to those people, not with a desire to show off our family’s heritage, simply to share knowledge.

三本書專為初學入門而作故說明力求通俗
3. This book is aimed at beginners, and therefore I have strived to present the explanations in ordinary language.

四本書說明動作分為初步連貫兩項初步動作係將前後兩姿勢間相承之動作依其先後逐一說明務使讀者一目了然又恐因此失去太極練法貴乎連綿之意故附以連貫動作籍資補充學者依此久練自能有成
4. This book’s movement explanations are divided into two versions: basic movement and continuous movement. Basic movement has to do with the movements occurring in the moment between the preceding posture and the following posture, a description of the parts of movement in succession to make sure that it is very clear to you. But I fear that because of this you may lose sight of Taiji’s precious concept of moving continuously. Therefore I have included descriptions of continuous movement as a supplementary text. By practicing according to these descriptions over a long period, you will naturally be able to succeed.

五關於姿勢上應注意之點亦加以說明庶學者不致陷於錯誤而知正確之所在
5. With each posture is included points for attention about the posture itself – additional explanations to keep you from falling into errors by knowing the correct method.

六習太極拳之程序宜由淺入深自能熟極生巧最忌求速趨岐求速則反躐等致一著無成趨岐則神離至多得其形貌敎者學者均須愼之
6. The proper sequence of training in Taiji Boxing is to go from the easy to the difficult, and then you will naturally be able to achieve great skill. The most important thing to avoid is the desire for quick success, which will cause you to skip steps, resulting in learning techniques without mastering them. Looking for quick success, your spirit will not be involved in the process, and you will at most achieve merely the look of the art. Both teachers and students have to be mindful of this.

七拳名太極卽取象於易練成時方能領悟其妙隨身所動不逾規矩若初學卽著著沾煞牽强附會必致泥滯反阻進步但能循規蹈矩久久練去自入神化故本書所列架式只從姿勢與動作上指點工夫絕不强牽玄理非舍太極而言拳術乃以拳術逐漸練合太極也
7. The boxing art called Taiji seeks an appearance of ease. Once you have practiced it to familiarity, you will be able to understand its subtleties and your body’s actions will never depart from the principles. If in the beginning you overanalyze each technique, you will come up with strained interpretations of them and will only get yourself stuck in your ideas, and this will instead hinder your progress. However, if you are able to abide by the principles, then after practicing for a long time you will naturally enter into a transformation of spirit. Therefore the solo set in this book is presented only as postures and movements, giving guidance in skills without lapsing into contrived profundities. As long as you do not forget that this boxing art is called “Taiji”, then through gradual practice the art will come to conform to the taiji concept.

八學習太極拳無論初學久練總不外乎動靜開合起落旋轉諸法初學必須分別淸楚久練至於成熟則隨時可以變化至周身渾圓一氣乃為深造佳境
8. Learning Taiji Boxing, regardless of beginner or advanced practitioner, never goes beyond the methods of movement and stillness, opening and closing, rising and lowering, turning side to side. As a beginner, you have to clearly distinguish between these opposites. Then after a prolonged period of training you will achieve such skill that at any time you will be able to alternate between them with your whole body all at once, which is the most delightful aspect of the advanced level.

九本書所列拳式不過示以初步規矩其中進步變化須隨時察看學者之程度加以口授指點
9. For the postures in this book, there is only instruction given for beginners, but within this material are hints for those who have become more advanced. We must at all times consider a student’s level when giving pointers.

陳氏世傳太極拳術目錄
CONTENTS

題序
Inscriptions & Prefaces
例言
General Comments
陳氏太極拳家列傳
Bios of Chen Family Taiji Boxing Masters
 陳王廷傳(附遺像)
 [1] Chen Wangting (including a Portrait)
 陳敬柏傳
 [2] Chen Jingbo
 陳繼夏傳
 [3] Chen Jixia
 陳耀兆傳
 [4] Chen Yaozhao
 陳秉壬秉旺秉奇合傳
 [5–7] Chen Bingren, Chen Bingwang, Chen Bingqi
 陳有恆有本合傳
 [8 & 9] Chen Youheng & Chen Youben
 陳仲甡傳
 [10] Chen Zhongshen
 陳季甡傳
 [11] Chen Jishen
 陳長興傳
 [12] Chen Changxing
 陳淸萍傳
 [13] Chen Qingping
 陳耕雲傳
 [14] Chen Gengyun
 陳三德傳
 [15] Chen Sande
 陳衡山傳
 [16] Chen Hengshan
 陳鵬傳
 [17] Chen Peng
 陳華梅傳
 [18] Chen Huamei
 陳廷棟陳奉章傳
 [19 & 20] Chen Tingdong & Chen Fengzhang
 陳有綸傳
 [21] Chen Youlun
 陳垚傳
 [22] Chen Yao
 陳淼傳
 [23] Chen Miao
 陳森傳
 [24] Chen Sen
 陳鑫傳
 [25] Chen Xin
 陳璽傳
 [26] Chen Xi
 陳同陳丰聚傳
 [27 & 28] Chen Tong & Chen Fengju
 陳中立傳
 [29] Chen Zhongli
太極拳要義一
Taiji Boxing Essentials – Part 1
 身
 [1] Body
 心
 [2] Mind
 理
 [3] Organization
 氣
 [4] Energy
 意
 [5] Intention
 志
 [6] Willpower
 情
 [7] Feeling
 景
 [8] Expressiveness
 神
 [9] Spirit
 化
 [10] Changing
 著
 [11] Technique
 學
 [12] Learning
 思
 [13] Thought
 恆
 [14] Perseverance
 夬
 [15] Decisiveness
太極拳要義二
Taiji Boxing Essentials – Part 2
 開合與陰陽
 [1] Opening & Closing in Relation to Passive & Active
 運化轉關
 [2] Joint-Rotational Neutralization
 虛實
 [3] Emptiness & Fullness
 變化
 [4] Transformation
 步驟
 [5] Stages
 腰襠之開合
 [6] Opening & Closing of the Waist & Crotch
 命名與取象
 [7] Terminology & Representation
太極拳要義三
Taiji Boxing Essentials – Part 3
 太極拳之圈
 [1] Taiji Boxing’s Circles
 太極拳之用
 [2] Taiji Boxing in Application
太極拳之要點
Key Points for Taiji Boxing
 性質
 [1] The Nature of the Art
 方法
 [2] Methods
 程序
 [3] Sequence of Training
 姿勢
 [4] Postures
 動作
 [5] Movement
 呼吸
 [6] Breathing
 精神
 [7] Spirit
 變著轉勢
 [8] Whole-Body Coordination
 周身相隨
 [9] Switching Techniques & Transitional Movements
 身作心維
 [10] The Body Performs & the Mind Ponders
 無貪無妄
 [11] Do Not Be Greedy or Rash
十三勢術名及其演練法
Names of the Techniques in the Thirteen Sections Set & Their Practice Method
 前段一二三節
 First Part (Sections 1–3):
  太極起勢
  [1] BEGINNING POSTURE
  金剛搗碓
  [2] ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR
  懶扎衣
  [3] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
  單鞭
  [4] SINGLE WHIP
  金剛搗碓
  [5] ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR
  白鵝晾翅
  [6] WHITE GOOSE DRIES ITS WINGS
  摟膝拗步
  [7] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
  斜行拗步
  [8] WALK DIAGONALLY, CROSSED STANCE
  演手紅捶
  [9] COVERING HAND, REDDENING PUNCH
  金剛搗碓
  [10] ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR
 中段四五六七八節
 Middle Part (Sections 4–8):
  披身捶
  [11] DRAPING-BODY PUNCH
  靑龍出水
  [12] BLUE DRAGON LEAVES THE WATER
  肘底看拳
  [13] GUARDING FIST UNDER THE ELBOW
  倒捻紅
  [14] RETREAT WITH TWISTING REDNESS
  白鵝晾翅
  [15] WHITE GOOSE DRIES ITS WINGS
  摟膝拗步
  [16] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
  閃通背
  [17] SURGE THROUGH THE BACK
  演手紅捶
  [18] COVERING HAND, REDDENING PUNCH
  懶扎衣
  [19] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
  單鞭
  [20] SINGLE WHIP
  雲手
  [21] CLOUDING HANDS
  高探馬
  [22] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
  右左插脚
  [23] RIGHT & LEFT INSERTING KICKS
  左蹬一脚
  [24] LEFT PRESSING KICK
  靑龍戲水
  [25] BLUE DRAGON PLAYS IN THE WATER
  踢二起
  [26] DOUBLE-LIFT KICK
  懷中抱月
  [27] EMBRACE THE MOON
  左踢一脚
  [28] LEFT POINTING KICK
  右蹬一脚
  [29] RIGHT PRESSING KICK
  演手紅捶
  [30] COVERING HAND, REDDENING PUNCH
  小擒拿
  [31] SMALL CAPTURING
  抱頭推山
  [32] COVER THE HEAD AND PUSH THE MOUNTAIN
  單鞭
  [33] SINGLE WHIP
 後段九十十一十二十三節
 Final Part (Sections 9–13):
  前招後招
  [34] INVITING IN FRONT & BEHIND
  野馬分鬃
  [35] WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE
  玉女穿梭
  [36] MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH
  懶扎衣
  [37] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
  單鞭
  [38] SINGLE WHIP
  雲手
  [39] CLOUDING HANDS
  擺脚跌岔
  [40] SWINGING KICK, DROP & EXTEND
  金鷄獨立
  [41] GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
  倒捻紅
  [42] RETREAT WITH TWISTING REDNESS
  白鵝晾翅
  [43] WHITE GOOSE DRIES ITS WINGS
  摟膝拗步
  [44] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
  閃通背
  [45] SURGE THROUGH THE BACK
  懶扎衣
  [46] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
  單鞭
  [47] SINGLE WHIP
  雲手
  [48] CLOUDING HANDS
  高探馬
  [49] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
  十字脚
  [50] CROSSED-BODY KICK
  指襠捶
  [51] PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
  黃龍絞水
  [52] YELLOW DRAGON STIRS THE WATER
  單鞭
  [53] SINGLE WHIP
  雀地龍
  [54] SPARROW EATS AN EARTHWORM
  上步七星
  [55] STEP FORWARD, BIG DIPPER POSTURE
  下步跨虎
  [56] RETREAT, SITTING TIGER POSTURE
  轉身擺脚
  [57] TURN AROUND, SWINGING KICK
  當頭砲
  [58] CANNON AIMED STRAIGHT AHEAD
擖手
Scraping Hands
跋〔太極拳源流攷〕
Postscript [Examining into the Origins of Taiji Boxing]

張序
PREFACE BY ZHANG ZHIJIANG

余提倡國術有年矣士之抱其所學以來歸者余敬禮其人未敢稍衰獨於門戶宗派之說辭而闢之不遺餘力蓋國術之幽樓於深山窮谷而不得早與世人相見者皆此門戶宗派之一念以自蹙其生故余整理國術以打破門戶宗派為始基惟其淵源所從出則不能不搜索探討與古人揖讓於千數百年以前而後始能識其變遷蛻仕之迹從而融會貫通之亦非難事矣今之太極拳派別岐出大河以北尤盛稱楊氏而不知楊氏之拳實淵源於中州溫縣陳氏特變換其姿勢耳今陳氏後裔子明同志以其所藏陳氏世傳太極拳術一書相眎余從事瀏覽乃歎一藝之成使世人欣賞而寶用之者僅其藝之形迹與輪廓耳若其精意之所存神明之所寄非深造而有得者不能知也學太極拳者能得其動靜開合起落旋轉諸法已為人所難能而陳氏書中獨於理氣意志諸學說長言之不足又申言之豈不以一藝之微苟離乎道不能立也陳氏又懼世人震驚其學說為不可幾及或將踟躕顧慮以自廢於半途乃又詔之曰學而能思思而能恆則終必有成嗚呼此其所言又豈今之自私自祕者所能與語哉夫孔子之所以成為聖其得力卽在學而不厭思卽致知格物之理而天地之所以無所不包無所不載亦恆而已矣能明乎此雖謂為已聞聖賢之道亦豈不可與今之自矜門戶宗派者蓋不可同日語矣余於陳氏之書旣識其淵源所出而又重其言之合於大道故樂為之序以歸之中華民國二十一年五月日鹽山張之江
I have been promoting martial arts for years now. I extend great respect to those gentlemen who cherish these arts and I would not dare to demean them. I only criticize the factionalizing of styles and I am doing my utmost to bring an end to such behavior. Because martial arts have been hidden away in remote mountains and poor villages, ordinary people were not able to witness them very long ago, naturally giving rise to a sectarian attitude. Therefore I have been arranging martial arts in such a way that we can start to break down barriers of style. As for the origins of these arts, we have to search through what ancient people have left us over the millennia, and then we can begin to recognize clues as to how the arts evolved. Working from more comprehensive knowledge, our task will then not be as difficult.
  The present school of Taiji Boxing emerged north of the Yellow River, with particular praise going to Yang Style. But people are not aware that the Yang family’s art actually originated from the Chen family of Wen County, Henan, and that significant adjustments were made to the postures. Recently, my colleague Ziming, a Chen family descendant, showed me his manuscript for The Inherited Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art. I browsed through it and sighed in admiration at the accomplishment. People will love it and love making use of it, but perhaps only as a basic outline of the art. If the book’s more refined concepts are not delved into deeply, you will not be able to realize them in your training. Students of Taiji Boxing are able to grasp methods of movement and stillness, opening and closing, rising and lowering, turning side to side, things which are already difficult for people. But within Ziming’s book are unique theories of organization, energy, intention, willpower, and so on, for which lengthy explanations are not really adequate to describe them, and even analogies are not greatly helpful for revealing subtleties, for once an idea is veered away from, it is hard to come back to it.
  Ziming fears that people may too surprised by these theories and find them to be unachievable, or that they may cause such doubts as to make people give up halfway through the training. For such situations he gives this advice: “Learn and be able to think. Think and be able to persevere. You are then sure to be successful in the end.” Such sentiments are not likely to be heard from the more selfish and secretive people of today. Confucius gained his status as a sacred figure due in part to his mentality of “learn insatiably” [Lun Yu, 7.2], expressed in the principle of “broadening your understanding lies in deeply studying things” [from the “Da Xue”]. The reason the universe itself is all-encompassing and omnipresent is simply because it perseveres. Once we can understand this, then even when we hear claims of “I have learned the method of a sage”, that person is likely just bragging about his style and consequently renders his style less worthy of being talked about.
  From reading Ziming’s book, I have learned the origins of his art and how much its ideas conform to the Way, hence I am delighted to produce this preface as a way to give something back.
  - written by Zhang Zhijiang of Yanshan [in Hebei], May, 1932

曾序
PREFACE BY ZENG YUMIN

吾國武術流行於社會者太極拳尤為世所稱道近年來國人皆知孱弱不振之恥於是競以肄習技擊為風尚顧眞傳旣不易得有之而知者復鮮同人等留心此道不憚研尋考太極拳所由來始於河南懷慶府溫縣陳溝村陳氏親授諸門人流傳漸遠斯拳為陳奏庭先生所發明代有聞人如陳敬柏陳繼夏陳丹書陳仲甡陳季甡陳淸萍陳耕雲陳淼陳復元陳垚陳鑫陳延熙諸先生皆著稱於世為人所共知可謂盛矣奏庭先生旣以太極傳世後人祖述至今無替其裔孫子明先生尤長此道向在河南懷慶等處成立國術團體熱心提倡從學者日多近為江君子誠黃君金榮發起組織太極拳學社專聘陳君為敎授同人過從旣稔知子明先生抱負絕學而不倦於敎誨今陳先生復不私其家傳之祕特將太極拳大要架勢名義詳加解釋編印成册俾未習者可以窺見門徑已習者更可循序精進凡有志於斯者不可不及時請益子明先生樂育為心有問必答無不詳加指導聞者豁然誠今日難遇之機會故不辭覼縷敍其源流以告我同志陳君家藏奏庭先生自贊遺像一幀圖中坐者卽奏庭先生為陳子明先生之九世祖又一人執刀旁立者則蔣發焉中華民國十九年四月十二日曾虞民
Our nation’s martial arts have been popularized by many schools, Taiji Boxing in particular receiving common praise. In recent years, our countrymen have all known the shame of being weak and dispirited, and are therefore now in a race to turn the practice of martial arts into the prevailing fashion. However, the true transmission of any of these arts is not easy to obtain and experts are rare. Many of my colleagues are mindful that these arts should not be protected from scrutiny.
  As for the origin of Taiji Boxing, it started in Huaiqing Prefecture [now called Qinyang], Henan, in the Chen Village of Wen County, where it was taught personally within the Chen family, from which all disciples of the art have gradually spread it far. This boxing art was invented by Chen Zouting [Wangting]. There have been many noteworthy exponents of it through the generations, such as Chen Jingbo, Chen Jixia, Chen Danshu, Chen Zhongshen, Chen Jishen, Chen Qingping, Chen Gengyun, Chen Miao, Chen Fuyuan, Chen Yao, Chen Xin, and Chen Yanxi, who have all become renowned, making it clear to everyone that this art can be considered to be flourishing. Wangting passed down Taiji to future generations, and it has been handed down to this day instead of being lost to posterity.
  His descendant Ziming in particular has been spreading these teachings beyond Huaiqing. He has established the Chinese Martial Arts Organization, enthusiastically promoting the art. Students increase in number by the day. Recently, Jiang Zicheng and Huang Jinrong have started the Taiji Boxing Society, and they have specially engaged Chen Ziming as an instructor. His colleagues and associates know well of his ambitions for this rare knowledge, and that he never tires of teaching. Not keeping any of his family’s knowledge to himself, he presents Taiji Boxing’s essentials, postures, and terminology by way of his thorough explanations, which he has now compiled into a book. He has done this in order for those who have not yet practiced the art to have a glimpse of what it is like, and also to better improve the progress of those who are already learning it. All those who have ambitions in this art should promptly consult this material.
  Ziming has a mentality of taking joy in education. He answers all questions and gives thorough guidance in every aspect of the art. Such generosity is indeed hard to find these days. He does not shy away from explaining in detail the history and development of the art in order to inform our comrades. He also shares in this book a portrait of Chen Wangting that is cherished by the Chen family. Within the painting, the man sitting is Wangting, Ziming’s ancestor from the ninth generation of the family, and the man standing next to him holding a halberd is Jiang Fa.
  - written by Zeng Yumin, Apr 12, 1930

黃序
PREFACE BY HUANG YUANXIU

太極拳風行南北盛極一時其方法在沾連黏隨其要旨在以圓圈攻人亦以圓圈避人攻淺者圈大而力緩功深者圈小而力速寥寥數語易學而難精非竭數十年之精力不能窺見堂奧也其源流據名師揚君澄甫云乃祖露禪先生學自河南溫縣陳家溝今閱此書知在陳氏家傳已久想當年傳之楊氏者殆卽陳氏先祖歟陳君子明秉家學淵源近受海上黃江諸君之聘設帳滬瀆好學諸子日夕請益並請將拳譜刋行於世學此拳者必以先覩為快他日紙貴洛陽定可預卜今將付梓聊附數語以誌涯略中華民國二十年春三月七日虎林黃元秀
Taiji Boxing is in fashion all over the nation at the moment. Its method lies in sticking, connecting, adhering, and following. Its main idea lies in using circles to defeat opponents and circles to evade opponents. For a superficial attack, the circle is large and the power is leisurely. For a penetrating attack, the circle is small and the power is quick. In a nutshell, its theory is that of the Book of Changes, and thus it is difficult to master. Unless you put several decades of hard work into it, you will be unable to glimpse its deeper subtleties.
  As for its origin, Yang Chengfu says that his grandfather Yang Luchan learned it from the Chen Family Village in Wen County, Henan. Now that I have read this book, I know that the Chen family tradition was already old by the time Yang learned it, and that what he received was the Chen family heritage. Chen Ziming, who presides over the tradition passed down in his family, has recently accepted the invitation to teach in Shanghai, among the many other teachers who have crossed the Yellow River and Yangzte River, setting up a school in Hudu [Hudu being another name for the Wusong River, now called the Huangpu River, which simply indicates Shanghai’s central district] for all those who would enjoy learning. Day and night he is asked for instruction, and has also been asked to publish a boxing manual for the world to study.
  I am indeed delighted to be among the first to read a book about this boxing art, and I can certainly predict that it will be a popular publication. It is soon being sent to the printers, and so I include these few words to commemorate the occasion.
  - written by Huang Yuanxiu of Hulin, Mar 7th, 1931

李序
PREFACE BY LI JIQING

靑幼聞長者云咸豐三年洪楊犯懷途經溫邑陳溝有號大頭王者率衆與陳氏昆仲戰旋卽潰敗王遂為陳氏所殺遂解懷慶之難靑每聞此談輒欽羡陳氏昆季之豪民十六有張文潤者肄業培元中校介紹國術敎員陳氏後裔子明先生至舍談甚洽其惡國術界門戶之見派別之分神祕而不肯公開也殆與靑同十七年乃邀同志組織中州粹武會陳君循循善誘生衆獲益非淺十八年冬駐軍佔會址陳君乃至滬行敎特編陳氏太極拳術一書並將太極拳之創始者奏庭先生遺像刋印書端又邀唐范生先生親抵陳溝查閱族譜碑記遺蹟更繪明初學入門手眼身法俾有志斯學者由淺入深得覓眞實途徑不致有所貽誤靑喜其肯以國術公於世也爰為之序中華民國二十一年二月李霽靑敍于覃懷中州粹武會
When I was young, I heard my elders say that in the third year of the reign of Emperor Xianfeng [1852], the Taiping Rebellion found its way through Wen County to Chen Village, one of it generals being a man called “King Headstrong”. Chen Zhongshen led a group against him, and they fought and defeated the Taiping forces. After Headtstrong’s troops had been killed by the Chen family, this dealt with the threat to Huaiqing Prefecture. (But I am often curious about mentions of the heroism of the Chen Jishen [Zhongshen’s twin brother].)
  In 1927, there was a Zhang Wenrun studying at the Pei Yuan [“Strengthening the Fundamentals”] School who recommended a descendant of the Chens, Ziming, to be the martial arts instructor there. In conversation, they were greatly in agreement that the main evil in martial arts was sectarian bias and factional division leading to a pretentious kind of secrecy and an unwillingness to share knowledge publicly. Arriving there with me in 1928, we were then invited to help found the Central Plains Pure Martial Arts Society. Chen is a patient and systematic instructor, benefitting everyone in no small way. In the winter of 1929, a garrison temporarily took over our space, so Chen went to teach in Shanghai.
  He has specially produced the book The Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art, including a portrait of Taiji Boxing founder Chen Wangting. To prepare this publication, he also invited Tan Fansheng [Tang Hao] to accompany him to Chen Village to investigate the family genealogy, records, and other historical clues. He was also intent on further clarifying the fundamentals of the methods of hand, eye, and body, in order for aspiring students to be able to build up from the simple to the complex in an authentic process and not end up misled down a wrong path. Because I am delighted by his willingness to share this martial art pubicly, I have made this preface.
  - written by Li Jiqing at the Central Plains Pure Martial Arts Society in Tanhuai [in Qinyang], Feb, 1932

劉序
PREFACE BY LIU PIXIAN

余曩與李霽靑及子明創中州粹武學會於懷慶倡導武術獨開風氣之先然以環境關係辦理煞費精神而子明始終不懈尤足多焉民十九滬上江君子誠聘子明至滬行敎江君尊人嘗官懷慶府太守知時行之太極拳已失陳溝面目不遠千里而為其子弟擇師蓋亦抱取法乎上之意耳子明居滬兩載推行斯術不遺餘力可謂不負家學今春忽偕吳人唐范生先生同至陳溝考研其先人所創太極拳源流道經汴梁相與來訪舊知新雨歡然道慕子明出眎所著陳氏世傳太極拳術初稿素余一言兼述返鄕之意余喟然曰今人朝脫一稿夕成一編儼然自許為名山事業子乃不憚煩如斯可謂契於道者矣取其稿讀之覺其立言不流于誇誕求之今日不可謂非傳世之作也因書數言以歸之中華民國二十一年一月二十日劉丕顯序於河南省國術館
The Central Plains Pure Martial Arts Society in Huaiqing was founded by Li Jiqing, Chen Ziming, and myself, with the sole purpose of making martial arts a more common practice. Such an endeavor has required great expense of spirit, but Ziming in particular always seems to have more than enough energy.
  In 1930, Jiang Zicheng invited Chen Ziming to come teach in Shanghai. Jiang is an elderly gentleman who was a head government official for Huaiqing Prefecture. He had become aware that popular Taiji Boxing had lost its Chen Village look, and since distance was no barrier, he had his sons go there to choose a teacher and absorb the art. Due to his idea, Chen Ziming has now been living in Shanghai for two years, where he has been doing his utmost to promote this art, and so it can certainly be said that he has in no way failed the family knowledge.
  In this last spring, he went to Chen Village, accompanied by Tang Hao of Wu County [in Jiangsu], to investigate the founding and history of Taiji Boxing. Their route took them through Kaifeng, where they visited friends old and new, who expressed admiration for Ziming’s rough draft of The Inherited Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art. Indeed, when I think of the outcome of his trip, I say with sighs of awe: “People nowadays seem to throw away a draft in the morning but then have a completed book by nightfall.” I solemnly proclaim it to be a work that will stand the test of time. He has spared no effort in this project, and thus can be said to have fulfilled the art. Take up this work and you will discover that this glorious book of his is not a mere boast of mine. You will find that it cannot be said that it is not a great work of our time. Therefore I contribute these few words.
  - written by Liu Pixian at the Henan Martial Arts Institute, Jan 20, 1932

朱序
PREFACE BY ZHU GUOFU

國福嘗謂派別之分乃形態上的傾向門戶之見乃思想上的退化故技術之分派不足為害門戶之私見庶足阻武術之進步也國福雖專於形意然於各家之長每虛心融會以求補吾所短今春遇陳君於滬見其太極拳術有異乎時尚詢其出處方知陳溝世傳因與探討比研獲益良多歸語於子薑館長延致來京使館中同人又可多一新知以為攻錯之助最近陳君將以其著述問世丏序於國福國福不文迺書所感以應之中華民國二十一年四月五日朱國福序於首部中央國術館敎務處
I once said that the distinctions between styles are an over-emphasis on how they look, and that having a strong bias toward one style over others will only deteriorate the concepts within it. Therefore it is not distinctions between martial arts systems that causes harm, but is instead sectarian prejudice that obstructs the progress of martial arts. Although I specialize in Xingyi, I nevertheless see the strong points of other systems, always staying open-minded to them in case they can show me how to fix my weak points.
  I met Chen Ziming this spring in Shanghai and noticed that his Taiji Boxing art looks quite different from the more common versions. I asked him where it came from and was then made aware of the Chen Village tradition. In order to better study its many benefits, director Zijiang [Zhang Zhijiang] invited him to the capital to expand the knowledge of his colleagues in the institute and help to further improve the curriculum. Chen is about to publish his writings and has begged a preface of me. I am not highly literate, therefore I have only written what I feel.
  - written by Zhu Guofu at the dean’s office of the Central Martial Arts Institute, Apr 5, 1932

岑序
PREFACE BY CEN DEZHANG

今之習太極拳者莫不遠宗河南陳氏雖楊吳兩家變化不同然其意可通也陳君子明來自陳家溝秉承家學卓然有以自立乃追求世德撰為是編說理詳明圖解淸晰蓋所以紹前修而興絕學者其有功於國術不其偉歟中華民國二十一年一月一日西林岑德彰序
Modern practitioners of Taiji Boxing are never really far removed from the Chen Style of Henan. Although the Yang and Wu styles have both transformed into something different from it, they nevertheless have the same ideas in common. Chen Ziming comes from the Chen Family Village and is a key figure in carrying on his family’s heritage. To preserve their tradition, he has written a book presenting its principles in detailed and clear explanations. Therefore he has continued the work of previous generations by now recording and promoting this rare knowledge, a contribution to martial arts which is nothing less than grand.
  - written by Cen Dezhang of Xilin [in Guangxi], Jan 1, 1932

姜序
PREFACE BY JIANG RONGQIAO

竊以强國之道端賴强民强民之方還資武術處今日科學競勝時代世界文明日新月異格致萬物變化神奇采海岳之菁華洩天地之玄祕絕跡飛行瞬息千里我國人士夔夔焉欣欣焉及時思興罔不競尚技巧欲有所為焉雖然苟無聰穎之智能勇邁之體魄欲求國强民盛則戞戞乎其難矣此國術之所以急待提倡者也嘗考吾國拳技亘數千年綿綿不斷歷代文人墨客理學名儒動輒佩劍自隨古之學校有行鄕射之禮蓋將射以觀德且所以崇武備習體育也故尼父六藝列入射御禮於未成童者誦詩舞勺成童舞象繼後舞劍文武兼資所從來久矣邇者世風頽微禮敎衰落民族日益柔弱道德日益淪喪全民族幾呈奄奄不振之勢以貽病夫之羞今當列强虎視於外帝國主義者侵略於內(指淞滬東三省之役)天災人禍遍地萑苻我民族再不矍然憬悟臥薪嘗胆力自振作勢必受天演淘汰更何大同平等之可言此更普及國術刻不容緩者也普及全民之法不外創設專館搜求人材然欲使之通國普遍則非宣傳之力不為功宣傳則國術書籍尚矣顧國術書籍豈易言哉雖近年來坊間國術著作如雨後春筍應運而生然求一理法兼備者則又鳳毛麟角有之則為今日習一技明日著之於書或拳師攝影文士撰說方柄圓鑿如風馬牛各不相及則其書之價値有若於無可勝嘆哉吾友陳君子明係出河南祖籍陳家溝精太極拳術耗數年之心血著有河南陳氏世傳太極拳術一書於月前匄余校對並索序焉余以二星期之時間細讀一過不禁拍案驚奇緣太極拳術實通乎道非尋常拳技可比苟不得箇中三昧烏能道其要竅按斯術近世所傳約分三派一河南陳氏太極是為嫡系二郝為眞傳與孫祿堂者名為開合太極郝氏得之武禹讓武亦陳氏所授三楊露禪所治之太極亦為陳氏名長興者所傳露禪傳其子班侯健侯等迄今盛行於南北是三者實出於陳氏一源惟進化改善各有不同耳相傳斯術創始於宋之丹士張三丰號為武當又名內家學者不察人云亦云皆崇三丰為祖師今閱陳氏家譜曁其遠祖之列傳似覺三丰之說未盡善妥蓋陳氏自朱明萬曆間迄民國止代有傳人觀其家譜中凡知技者皆有拳手最高拳術神手之註解家傳中丱角髫齡白髮耄耋者亦各有搏虎呑狼之評語其始創拳術者名陳王廷字奏庭生於明末歿於康熙其傳記有威震山東掃蕩羣寇拳手刀槍創始之人也之字樣又讀王廷自詠律詩二首亦有暇時造拳之句由斯判斷陳氏之太極確為陳氏之遠祖名王廷者所發明殆無疑義惟是否陳王廷之上還有知技者或王廷初始得自他人傳授神化而改進之則無從稽考矣余旣有此懷疑乃決心從事於研討數月以來稍窺途徑見陳君敎人之法亦分四段步驟四層功夫與形意拳四層道理中之練穀化精練精化氣練氣化神練神還虛則又相互吻合再讀斯書之全文如祕訣要義身心理氣意志情景化著學思恆夬十五字訣開合陰陽運化轉關虛實變化掤攄擠按其理與法詮釋詳盡動作不背拳理姿式合乎力學體天地之陰陽養浩然之元氣具科學之萬有得哲理之奧妙其大無外其小無內其他攝影插圖凡關於太極拳術者無不搜羅殆遍使讀者一目瞭然余知斯書一出不獨為經世者所必學卽超世派亦當藉為梯航也是為序中華民國二十一年六月八日滄州姜容樵序於白下
In my opinion, the way to strengthen a nation depends entirely upon strengthening the people, and the way to strengthen the people is by investing in martial arts. We now live in an era of scientific competition, a global civilization producing new things with each day, deeply studying Nature, creating transformative miracles, and exploring the depths of the ocean and the tops of the mountains to reveal the mysteries of the universe. The smoke trails of planes in the sky as they cover large distances so quickly makes the people of our nation just as frightened of progress as they are excited by it. The time has come to focus on prosperity. There are none that do not compete, value skills, and want to have some sense of achievement. However, without intellectual ability or physical stamina, the quest to strengthen the nation and invigorate the people will be very difficult. This is the reason why martial arts urgently need to be promoted.
  Examining our nation’s martial skills, we find they have had a continuous presence for thousands of years. Throughout our history, scholarly gentlemen wore a sword at their waist everywhere they went. In ancient education, there was the archery ritual, designed to show the virtue of the archer just as much as to train his body for military function. That is why archery and charioteering are listed among the “six arts” [rituals, music, calligraphy, mathematics, archery, charioteering]. While very young, boys would be taught to recite poetry and dance with ladles. After the child had been taught dance patterns, he would move on to dancing with a sword. Thus the tradition of equally training literary and martial skills is very old.
  Recently, public morality has declined, Confucian ethics are dropping away, the people are becoming weaker by the day, virtue fading further and further. Everyone is dispirited and we suffer the humiliation of being the “sick men”. The great foreign powers are currently looking at us like hungry tigers and imperialism encroaches upon us from within. (Just look at the battles that have already occurred for Shanghai and the provinces in the northeast.) Disasters both natural and man-made have been as numerous as blades of grass. Our people are looking around fearfully but will awaken, becoming more stoic for the ordeals ahead, and their strength will be stimulated. We are sure to develop because of these pressures, so much so that we will be able to say we have achieved equal standing among other nations. But this means even more that we should popularize martial arts without a moment’s delay. The method of spreading these arts to the people as a whole is really nothing more than establishing special schools and seeking out talented teachers.
  However, if we wish to spread these arts throughout the nation, it will not be effective unless we also put effort into publicizing them, meaning we have to emphasize the publishing of martial arts books. Though perhaps this is too easily said. In recent years, writings about martial arts have been springing up in bookshops like bamboo shoots after a rainfall, emerging because it is the right time for them, but if we seek both theory and method represented in the same book, this is very rare. An author may train in a skill today, and then tomorrow write a book about it. Or a master may have photographs taken and then some writer composes explanations to go with them, either producing what amounts to a square handle with a rounded chisel tip or just things that are totally unrelated to each other. Thus the value of such books is called into question and we seem to be put into a situation that is difficult to fix, alas.
  My colleague Chen Ziming is a native of the Chen Family Village in Henan and an expert of the Taiji boxing art. After many years of painstaking effort, he has written The Inherited Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art. A month ago, he begged me to proofread it and also to produce a preface. I read it carefully over the course of two weeks and could not help but slap the table in amazement. The Taiji boxing art is truly a means of connecting to the Way, which cannot be said about most other boxing arts. But unless you achieve a high level, you will not be capable of discussing its essentials.
  This art as it is taught in modern times can be divided into about three styles: [1 – Chen] Chen Style Taiji is in a direct line of descent from the Chen family in Henan. [2 – Hao] Hao Weizhen taught Sun Lutang what is called “Open & Close Taiji”, but Hao Style was obtained from Wu Yuxiang, who had learned Chen Style. [3 – Yang] The Taiji that Yang Luchan studied was likewise taught to him by a member of the Chen family, Chen Changxing, and then Luchan taught it to his own sons, Banhou and Jianhou, and to this day his version is in fashion everywhere. All three of these versions actually originated from Chen Style. They have each evolved and been improved, and so they each have their differences.
  Tradition has it that this art began with the elixirist Zhang Sanfeng of the Song Dynasty, and that it was called the Wudang art or the “internal school”. Students who do not scrutinize and simply parrot other people all venerate Zhang as the founder. But after recent study of the Chen Family Genealogy and its list of ancestors, it now seems like the Zhang Sanfeng claim is not quite good enough. The Chen family’s art goes from the Ming Dynasty to our present Republic, passed down through every generation. Within the Genealogy, those who knew skills were all “boxing experts”, the best of them annotated as “divine”, and within their family tradition, they are described from childhood to old age, even with comments about their favorite tactics, such as “rouse the tiger to devour the wolf” [a famous Three Kingdoms strategy somewhat akin to using your opponent’s strength against himself]. Their boxing art founder is Chen Wangting, called Zouting, who lived during the end of the Ming Dynasty and died during the reign of Emperor Kangxi [1661–1722]. It is recorded that he produced awe while in Shandong, vanquished hordes of bandits, and was the creator of the family’s boxing and weapons sets. We can also read from Wangting himself, for he produced some poetry in his spare time away from creating boxing sets. From these things, we can judge that the Chen family’s Taiji was almost certainly created by their ancestor Wangting. However, as to whether Chen Wangting learned these skills on his own or was taught by someone else and then developed them, there is no way to verify.
  As I have my doubts about these things, I decided to engage in further study. A few months ago, I caught a glimpse of a way into the art, noticing that Ziming’s method of teaching people can be divided into the same four phases of training, or four stages of skill, as Xingyi Boxing’s principle of four stages – [1] training to convert food into essence, [2] convert essence into energy, [3] convert energy into spirit, [4] and return spirit to the void. Then I read the material in this book more thoroughly, such as its key essentials, the fifteen terms of: body, mind, organization, energy, intention, willpower, feeling, expressiveness, [spirit,] changing, technique, learning, thought, perseverance, and decisiveness, as well as opening and closing in relation to passive and active, joint-rotational neutralization, emptiness and fullness, transformation, etc. The principles and methods of ward-off, rollback, press, and push are explained in detail. The movements do not contradict the boxing theory. The postures conform to the principles of mechanics. The art embodies Nature’s passive and active aspects, cultivates a vast vitality, possesses scientific universals, and grasps philosophical profundities like [from Zhuangzi, chapter 33]: “so big it has no outside… so small it has no inside…” The rest of the book is photographs, rendering the art fully accessible, enabling the reader to have the postures be clear at a glance.
  I know that when this book comes out, it will not only be essential reading for this generation, but will be helpful in the ordeals of generations to come. Thus I write this preface.
  - written by Jiang Rongqiao of Cangzhou, in Baixia [Nanjing], Jun 8, 1932

著者小影
Portrait of the author

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

自吾九世祖奏庭公創太極拳術下逮子明已及八世其間名手輩出遺緒勿墜不特陳氏一族世守其術卽他姓問技以去者亦俱能發揚光大使斯技見重於社會子明秉承父師指授對於太極粗窺門徑十餘年來每欲貢獻於社會徒以奔走四方風塵栗六卒鮮暇晷完成斯願今者小憩滬上除敎學而外明窗淨几之間頗便捉筆搆思爰自忘其固陋草成陳氏世傳太極拳術一書書名陳氏且標世傳者非欲自炫亦猶程冲斗之少林棍法闡宗必明所自出子明之得此實食惠於先人而已按陳溝太極有新老架之分新架係由老架神明變化而來法均以柔為主斯作卽係紹述新架將來倘有餘暇當更取考架編成一册俾世之學者知新舊遞嬗之跡曁其異同之點而後曉然於太極衍變之所由則子明不但可以略慰先人用心之苦亦可稍盡提倡太極拳之責矣是為序中華民國二十一年三月三日陳子明
My ancestor Wangting, who lived during the ninth generation of our family, created the Taiji boxing art, and it has come down to me through many generations of noteworthy masters. We have not let the work of our forefathers fall away. It is not only those of us who are named Chen that have preserved it, but other families as well [Yang, Wu, etc.], who are all able to carry it forward and show society the importance of this art.
  I first received instruction from my father, who gave me a basic glimpse of the art. For more than ten years, I have wanted to make a contribution of it to society, and so I have rushed around everywhere, so busy that I have had no leisure time, in order to fulfill this wish. Now I am taking a short rest in Shanghai. The free time outside of teaching has made it easier to write down my thoughts, and I have ignored my ignorance in order to complete The Inherited Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art. Although the book has in its name “Chen family” and “inherited”, I am not attempting to show off, or to seem like I am trying to make something as definitive as Cheng Zongyou’s Shaolin Staff Methods, just to point out the ancestry, the source from which I received the art. I have really only learned anything due to the generosity of previous generations.
  Chen Village Taiji divides into “old frame” and “new frame”. The new frame comes from inspired adjustments to the old frame, but both methods above all emphasize softness. This book presents the new frame. In the future, if I find any spare time, I ought to make another book about the old frame in order for students to understand what parts are old or new, and their points of similarity and difference. Then they will know how Taiji evolved.
  I hope to not only be able to bring some comfort to previous generations for all their hard work, but also do something to help carry out the work of promoting Taiji Boxing, and thus I write this preface.
  - written by Chen Ziming, Mar 3, 1932

陳氏太極拳家列傳
BIOS OF CHEN FAMILY TAIJI BOXING MASTERS

陳王廷傳
[1] CHEN WANGTING

坐者陳王廷像立者蔣發像
Portrait of Chen Wangting (sitting) and Jiang Fa (standing)

陳王廷字奏庭崇禎康熙間人明末天災人禍相繼而起地方官又罔卹民困苛征暴歛無所不至登封民無力納粮官逼之遂揭竿起事以武舉李際遇為首公與際遇善往止之力勸不聽但約不犯溫境滿淸定鼎際遇事敗族誅有蔣姓者僕於公一日公命備馬出獵於黃河灘有一兎起奔蔣追未及百步獲之公憶及際遇有一部將能健步如飛馬不能及詢蔣果卽其人公所遺畫像執大刀侍立其側者卽是或云卽是蔣發公文事武備皆卓越於時創太極拳遺長短句一首可略窺公之生平其詞云歎當年披堅執銳掃蕩羣氛幾次顚險蒙恩賜枉徒然到而今年老殘喘只落得黃庭一卷隨身伴悶來時造拳忙來時耕田趁余閒敎下些弟子兒孫成龍成虎任方便欠官糧早完要私債卽還驕諂勿用忍讓為先人人道我憨人人道我顚常洗耳不彈冠笑殺那萬戶諸侯競競業業不如俺心中常舒泰名利總不貪參透機關識破邯鄲陶情於口口〔魚水〕盤桓乎口口〔山川〕〔興也無干廢也無干若得個世境安康恬淡如常不忮不求那管他世態炎涼〕成也無干敗也無干誰是神仙我是神仙
Chen Wangting, called Zouting, lived during the reigns of Emperor Chongzhen [1627–1644] and Emperor Kangxi [1662–1722]. By the end of the Ming Dynasty [1644], both natural and man-made disasters were occurring, and local government officials had ceased to care about the hardships of the people, who were being taxed severely and for every little thing. In Dengfeng County, the people had no ability to pay for grain. Feeling oppressed by the government, they thus rose up in rebellion, appointing Li Jiyu, a successful candidate in the provincial military examinations, as the head of their cause. Chen, who was Li’s friend, was sent to stop him. He did his best to persuade him, but Li would not listen, however he did promise not to violate the borders of Wen County. Later at the Manchu capital [Beijing], Li was defeated and his whole family was executed with him.
  There was a man named Jiang who became a servant to Chen. One day, Chen ordered his horse saddled so he could go hunting beside the Yellow River. A rabbit suddenly appeared and bolted away. Jiang then chased it and caught it before he had even gone a hundred paces. Chen remembered that Li had an officer under his command who was able to walk so quick that he seemed to be flying, who even horses could not catch up with. He asked Jiang if he was indeed that man. Chen left behind a portrait of himself with a man standing next to him holding a halberd. It has been said that this man is Jiang Fa.
  Brilliant in both literary and military affairs, Chen thus created Taiji Boxing. He has left us a free-verse poem, through which we can catch a glimpse of his life:

I sigh for years past, oh those days of battle [“donning armor and brandishing a weapon”], vanquishing hordes of bandits, so many moments of risk and danger. I was bestowed with imperial favor – meaningless. Now I am old and weary, and I have ended up with only a copy of the Daoist Yellow Courtyard Classic as my companion.
  When boredom sets in, I create boxing sets. When busy, I plow the fields. In my free time, I teach some students and grandkids, then I leave it to them to become dragons and tigers in their own time.
  I spent all my pension long ago, and still I have debts to pay. To be either arrogant or flattering won’t work. To be stoic and humble is the key.
  Everyone says I’m naïve. Everyone says I’m backward. I often hear these things, but I make no effort to clean up my act.
  I laugh at every household of nobility. All their finicky concerns do not compare to my heart that hasn’t a care. I seek neither fame nor wealth. I see through their little intrigues and know all about their compulsion to imitate the fashion [“Handan’s Learning-to-Walk Bridge”].
  I am content [fishing on the waters]. I feel at home [among the mountains and rivers]. [To be prosperous is of no importance. To be destitute is of no importance.
  Imagine a world at peace, where indifference for getting more stuff was the norm, no envy, no greed. What’s the point of worrying about the ways of this world and its snobbery for arbitrary appearances? Success is of no importance. Failure is of no importance.
  Is this not what is means to be an “immortal”? If not, then is anyone?

陳敬柏傳
[2] CHEN JINGBO

陳敬柏字長靑乾隆間人從巡撫某於魯山東名手皆藝不及公因號公為蓋山東言其藝之高也晚年歸隱鄕里一日赴東關泰山廟有賣解者鬻技廣場恃其藝高出言不遜公誚之賣解者欺其老遽起與鬬公俟其近奮威一擊嘔血踣地而死時公適病後一擊之後亦不能支坐場旁石上力脫而死
Chen Jingbo, called Changqing, lived during the reign of Emperor Qianlong [1736–1795]. He worked in the service of a certain provincial governor of Shandong. The martial artists there were all inferior to Jingbo, who called him the “top of Shandong”, referring to the height of his skill. In his later years, he lived quietly at home. One day he went to the Mt. Tai Temple at the eastern gate. There was a street performer selling displays of his skills in the public square. While bragging about his high level of skill, he spoke insultingly of other martial arts. Jingbo chastised him for this, but the man then mocked his age and suddenly attacked him. Waiting for the man to get close enough, Jingbo then gave him a powerful strike. The man vomited blood, slipped down to the ground, and died. But Jingbo at the time had been ill. After striking the man, he was himself unable to stand, so he sat down on a rock to the side of the square, where his strength left him, and he died too.

陳繼夏傳
[3] CHEN JIXIA

陳繼夏字炳南乾隆末人精太極拳每磨始以兩手推之以次遞減減至一指則奔而推之卽一磨亦不間功公善丹靑趙堡鎭關帝廟等處壁畫悉出公手俱能傳神入妙一日在村西繪古聖寺佛像有人自後按公兩肩公閃跌其人於前問其姓名乃河南萇某萇乃藝中著名者聞陳溝拳著稱於時因來訪覩公畫像戲試之不圖公固長於太極者也遂歎服而去公善用肘與陳敬柏之靠齊名
Chen Jixia, called Bingnan, was from the end of the reign of Emperor Qianlong [1736–1795]. He was an expert at Taiji Boxing. Whenever he worked the millstone, he began by pushing with both hands and gradually reduced to the point that he was using only one finger. Thus he developed a push that was so sudden, there was so little to feel that there was no technique to use against it. He was also a master painter. At places such as the Guan Yu shrine in Zhaobao Village, exquisite murals came out of his hand, and he was always able to make them magically lifelike. One day when he was painting at an ancient Buddhist temple to the west of the village, a man pushed on his shoulders from behind, but Jixia suddenly dodged, and the man fell down in front of him. Jixia asked his name and found he was a Mr. Chang of Henan. Chang was famous within artistic circles. He had come to take a look at Jixia’s work, but because he had heard about the renown of the Chen Village boxers, he suddenly decided to give Jixia a test. Discovering that Jixia was indeed skilled at Taiji, he sighed with admiration and then went on his way. Jixia was an expert at using his elbows, and was almost as famous as Jingbo.

陳耀兆傳
[4] CHEN YAOZHAO

陳耀兆字有光姓癖太極拳當時武士皆沐其敎然精妙未有出其右者生於乾隆卒於道光壽八十
Chen Yaozhao, called Youguang, was addicted to Taiji Boxing. In those days, warriors all taught what they knew, but kept their best skills to themselves. He was born during the reign of Emperor Qianlong [1736–1795] and died during the reign of Emperor Daoguang [1821–1850] at the age of eighty.

陳秉壬秉旺秉奇合傳
[5–7] CHEN BINGREN, CHEN BINGWANG, CHEN BINGQI

三人均好太極拳互相琢磨皆藝精入神人稱三雄
These three men were all experts in Taiji Boxing. They worked to improve each other so that their skills were magical. People called them the “three heroes”.

陳有恆有本合傳
[8 & 9] CHEN YOUHENG & CHEN YOUBEN

陳有恆字德基道光初入庠於太極拳極有揣摩壯歲溺於洞庭湖弟有本字道生三十六入庠造太極拳得驪珠子侄之藝皆其所就其謙冲丰度常如有所不及當時精太極拳者皆出其門
Chen Youheng, called Deji, passed the county-level civil service examinations in the first year of the reign of Emperor Daoguang [1821]. He was obsessed with Taiji Boxing, but drowned in Dongting Lake in the prime of his life.
  His younger brother, Youben, called Daosheng, passed the county-level civil service examinations at the age of thirty-six. He reached the deepest level of the Taiji boxing art for his generation. He had an unassuming demeanor, always acting inferior to the other person. At that time, all the best Taiji Boxing exponents had learned from him.

陳仲甡傳
[10] CHEN ZHONGSHEN

陳仲甡字宜篪號石厂有恆公次子與弟季甡同乳而生而貌酷似鄰里不能辨稍長猿背虎項魁偉異於常兒甫三歲卽令習武十餘齡時從祖母往趙堡趕會有担水者水濺公衣理論不服公一擊倒之旁觀者皆為歡異及長與弟季甡同入武庠咸豐三年洪楊軍延及豫省林鳳翔李開方李文元等率衆由鞏縣站得舟渡河直犯溫境所過殘殺公率族衆抗之洪楊驍將楊奉淸號大頭王掩襲名都大城所向無敵嘗腋挾銅砲縱過武昌女牆轟守者破其城軍中素目為飛將軍時為先鋒公與戰於村中老君堂左以鐵鎗挑於馬下村人乘勢取其首級洪楊軍皆驚潰比及李棠階援師來助洪楊軍已竄柳林矣林鳳翔李開方知公勇欲收之一日五鼓突發大兵入陳溝圍公宅衆以殺其驍將皆恐懼不敢入室公故作從容徐步而出雄威遠射旁若無人所向退避蓋林李皆未來又震於公威咸不敢加害迨林李至公已飄然遠舉矣公處重圍逍遙脫險卽在當時亦不知何由而然也嗣鳳翔移圍覃懷五旬不下潛從太行山後遁自後於村中授徒履常滿戶咸豐六年捻黨圍亳州之役七年菜園之役八年張羅行犯汜水之役九年克復蒙城之役十一年長槍會李占標犯武陟木欒店之役同治六年小閻王張總愚由絳犯懷之役公皆建殊功同治十年以疾卒河朔書院山長劉毓楠私謚之為英義
Chen Zhongshen, called Yichi, as well as Shichang, was the second son of Chen Youheng, the twin brother of Jishen. Their appearance was identical and their neighbors could not tell them apart. He grew to be big and tall, with the back of ape and the neck of a tiger, different from ordinary boys. At the age of three he was made to begin martial training. When he was ten years old, he went with his grandmother to a temple fair in Zhaobao Village. Competing at water carrying, the buckets hanging from his shoulder pole splashed his clothes, and yet he did not get wet. He then hit the pole away to put the buckets down. The onlookers all saw something unique in him. When he reached adulthood, he and Jishen took the county-level military examinations together.
  In the third year of the reign of Emperor Xianfeng [1852], the armies of Hong Xiuquan and Yang Xiuqing [i.e. the Taiping Rebellion] were on the move. The forces of Lin Fengxiang, Li Kaifang, and Ji Wenyuan, ferried over the Yellow River from Gong County, pouring straight into Wen County, where they proceeded to slaughter everyone they came across. Zhongshen led his clan to resist them. The intrepid Taiping general Yang Fuqing, called the “Headstrong King”, launched surprise attacks. He had a reputation in every city for being invincible. He once carried a bronze cannon under his arm and fired at the parapets of Wuchang, thereby smashing through their defensive position. Within the army, his piercing eyes made him the bravest general, and he was always in the vanguard. Zhongshen made his stand against him by the village’s Laozi Hall, having his soldiers use iron spears to stab up at horses from below, and then having villagers take advantage of the moment by chopping off the heads of the riders once they had fallen. The Taiping army was surprised and collapsed. Then when Li Tangjie [the Qing minister of defense at the time] sent a force to help, the remaining Taiping soldiers fled away into the willow forest.
  Now that Lin Fengxiang and Li Kaifang knew of Zhongshen’s bravery, they wanted to capture him. One day during the fifth night watch [around 4am], foot soldiers suddenly entered Chen Village and surrounded Zhongshen’s house, intending to kill him, but they were all too afraid to go in. Zhongshen therefore put on a leisurely air and walked out slowly and majestically, as if there was no one around, and the troops withdrew. Lin and Li had not yet arrived, but were already struck by the power Zhongshen exuded in that no one had dared to attack him. Then once Lin and Li got there, Zhongshen had already floated away, escaping with ease through the layers of surrounding troops and out of danger, and they never knew how he did it. Lin Fengxiang then moved his forces [north] to instead surround Tanhuai, which he spent fifty days trying to capture and then stealthily retreated behind the Taihang Mountains. Henceforth in the village, there were prospective students filling Zhongshen’s doorway.
  In the sixth year of Xianfeng’s reign [1855], Zhongshen was enlisted by local militia to battle at Bozhou. In the seventh year [1856], he fought in the Battle of the Vegetable Gardens. In the eighth year [1857], he battled against Zhang Lexing when he attacked at the Si River. In the ninth year [1858], he was in the battle to retake Mengcheng County. In the eleventh year [1860], when Li Zhanbiao attacked with his long-spear army, he battled against him at Muluan Village in Wuzhi County. In the sixth year of the reign of Emperor Tongzhi [1867], the minor tyrant Zhang Zongyu attacked Huaiqing and Zhongshen again performed distinguished service in battle. In the tenth year [1871], he died of illness while north of the Yellow River at the classical learning academy run by the scholar Liu Yunan. Zhongshen’s family gave him the posthumous name of Yingyi [“heroic and righteous”].

陳季甡傳
[11] CHEN JISHEN

陳季甡字倣隨號霞村與兄同乳而生面貌酷似鄰里不能辨父有恆中年溺於洞庭湖因從其叔有本習藝技臻神化與其兄仲甡稱二傑焉咸豐八年應欽差督辦三省剿匪事務太僕寺正堂袁甲三之徵於克復六安州一役搴旗斬將建立殊功保舉為守備生於嘉慶十四年卒於同治四年
Chen Jishen, called Fangsui, or Xiacun, was born alongside his brother, identical twins that their neighbors could not tell apart. Though their father was a persevering man, he drowned in Dongting Lake when he was middle-aged. Consequently Jishen learned the art from his uncle Youben, and he attained a magical level of skill. He and his brother Zhongshen were called “the two heroes”. In the eighth year of the reign of Xianfeng [1858], he accepted the task of protecting an imperial envoy. Through three provinces, he suppressed bandits in the service of the Taipu Temple. He was then sought out by secretary Yuan Jiasan to retake Lu’an Prefecture, a battle in which he [from Wuzi, chapter 2:] “snatched flags and beheaded generals”, distinguishing himself so well he was made a garrison commander. He was born in the 14th year of the reign of Emperor Jiaqiang [1809] and died in the 4th year of the reign of Emperor Tongzhi [1865].

陳長興傳
[12] CHEN CHANGXING

陳長興陳氏十四世孫據家譜所載其技出自其父秉旺所傳世謂蔣發傳長興者實誤蓋蔣為九世祖奏庭公同時人也得長興薪傳者子耕雲而外以陳懷遠陳華梅楊福魁為最
Chen Changxing is of the fourteenth generation of the Chen family. According to the Genealogy, his skills came from his father, Bingwang. Everyone says that Jiang Fa taught Changxing, but this is actually a mistake. Jiang lived was a contemporary of Wangting, who was from the ninth generation of the family [whereas Changxing was fourteenth generation]. As for Changxing’s students, beyond Chen Gengyun, the best were Chen Huaiyuan, Chen Huamei, and Yang Fukui [Luchan].

陳淸萍傳
[13] CHEN QINGPING

陳淸萍為陳有本張炎門徒得太極拳理趙堡鎭一系皆其所傳廣平武禹讓初學於楊福魁然精微所在秘不以傳因往趙堡請益於淸萍其名之盛如是弟子中以李景延為最
Chen Qingping was Chen Youben’s most talented student. He obtained the Taiji Boxing theory and was taught the whole of the Zhaobao Village system. Wu Yuxiang of Guangping started learning from Yang Luchan, but was not taught the deeper secrets. Because of this, he therefore went to Zhaobao and sought instruction from Chen Qingping, who had a strong reputation. Qingping’s best student seems to have been Li Jingyan.

陳耕雲傳
[14] CHEN GENGYUN

耕雲陳長興子家傳太極與陳仲甡陳季甡等同擊洪楊惜其戰績今已無人能道矣子延年延熙能繼其業
Gengyun, son of Changxing, learned Taiji as the family tradition. He fought against the Taiping forces alongside Zhongshen and Jishen, but unfortunately his own military successes are all but forgotten. He has been remembered for his longevity and youthfulness.

陳三德傳
[15] CHEN SANDE

陳三德有本門人也習太極拳有得槍刀亦熟練子馨蘭箕裘弗墜
Chen Sande was a student of Chen Youben. Having trained in Taiji Boxing, he then also became skillful with the spear and saber. His son Xinlan has followed in his father’s footsteps without slacking.

陳衡山傳
[16] CHEN HENGSHAN

陳衡山字鎭南精太極拳咸豐三年與陳仲甡等擊洪楊每戰輙身居前敵極勇武後以敎徒終
Chen Hengshan, called Zhennan, was superb at Taiji Boxing. In the third year of the reign of Emperor Xianfeng [1852], he fought against the Taiping forces with Zhongshen. In every battle, he valiantly threw his body into the fray. He later taught students for the rest his life.

陳鵬傳
[17] CHEN PENG

陳鵬字萬里嘉慶初名醫也家貧介以自持天懷坦白於太極拳通神入妙人皆莫測其端倪
Chen Peng, called Wanli, was a famous physician during the beginning of the reign of Emperor Jiaqing [1796–1820]. As his household was poor, he had to learn self-restraint. By nature, he was very candid. He had an almost supernatural ability in Taiji Boxing and no one was able to comprehend his tricks.

陳華梅傳
[18] CHEN HUAMEI

陳華梅字鶴齋從學於長興功夫頗純其技亦能縱橫一時子五典五常能繼其業
Chen Huamei, called Hezhai, learned from Chen Changxing. His skill was pure and his abilities were effortless. He has been remembered for his embodying of the five classical virtues [benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, trustworthiness].

陳廷棟陳奉章傳
[19 & 20] CHEN TINGDONG & CHEN FENGZHANG

皆陳有本門弟子廷棟於拳外善春秋刀
Both are students of Chen Youben. Beyond the boxing set, Tingdong was also an expert at Spring & Autumn Saber.

陳有綸傳
[21] CHEN YOULUN

陳有本弟子後從學於陳仲甡咸豐三年洪楊軍侵陳溝從仲甡擊之李景延張大紅皆及其門
After being a student of Chen Youben, he then learned from Zhongshen. In the third year of the reign of Emperor Xianfeng [1852], the Taiping forces invaded Chen Village. He followed Zhongshen to fight them, alongside Li Jingyan and Zhang Dahong, all protecting their homes.

陳垚傳
[22] CHEN YAO

陳垚仲甡長子十九入武庠每年一萬遍拳二十年不懈志故其功夫之純一時無兩軀幹短小不知者皆不信其能武嘗與縣衙護勇鬥連擊六七人踣地餘皆畏却遁去從父與洪楊軍戰未嘗敗北
Chen Yao, the eldest son of Zhongshen, passed the county-level military examinations at the age of nineteen. He practiced the boxing set ten thousand times in a year, and thus after twenty years of ceaseless determination, his skill was pure and he was unrivaled in his day. His body was short and small, and so all of those who did not know him did not believe he had any martial prowess. Once he valiantly fought to defend a county government office, sending a flurry of strikes against a half dozen assailants, knocking them to the ground, the rest of them running away. He went with his father into the army to battle against the Taiping forces and was never defeated.

陳淼傳
[23] CHEN MIAO

陳淼季甡長子精太極拳同治六年張總愚率衆由絳犯懷公出迎擊十二月十四日晨交戰奮殺至午斬滅不盡身被重創猶奮勇殺敵因馬蹶中銅砲陣亡
Chen Miao, eldest son of Jishen, was an expert at Taiji Boxing. In the sixth year of the reign of Emperor Tongzhi [1867], Zhang Zongyu led his forces to attack those of Duke Huai. On the morning of the 14th of December, they met in battle, engaging in ceaseless slaughter until noon. Although severely wounded, Miao roused his courage to fight the enemy, losing his horse to cannon fire.

陳森傳
[24] CHEN SEN

陳森字槐三季甡次子家傅太極子春元孫女淑貞能世其業
Chen Sen, called Huaisan, is the second son of Chen Jishen. He learned Taiji from Chen Zichun’s great-granddaughter, Shuzhen, who is talented at teaching the art.

陳鑫傳
[25] CHEN XIN

陳鑫字品三前淸歲貢生研究太極拳精妙入微著有陳氏家乘若干卷安愚軒詩文集若干卷太極拳圖畫講義四卷太極拳引蒙入路一卷均未梓行
Chen Xin, called Pinsan, was recommended to be a scholar by his local government during the Qing Dynasty. He studied Taiji Boxing in extreme detail. He wrote several volumes about the Chen family’s history, as well as several volumes on An Yuxuan’s poetry and essays, four volumes of Illustrated Handbook of Taiji Boxing, and one volume of Taiji Boxing for Beginners, but none of these works have yet been published.

陳璽傳
[26] CHEN XI

陳璽初學太極拳於陳華梅之門每得一法輒與華梅子五典角技五典不敵屢受創痛因不為其師所歡後改從季甡習拳
Chen Xi first began learning Taiji Boxing as a student of Chen Huamei. When he got the hang of it, he then wrestled with Huamei’s son, Wudian. But since Wudian was peerless, he repeatedly received painful injuries from him. Because his teacher had no love for him, he later switched to learning from Chen Jishen.

陳同陳丰聚傳
[27 & 28] CHEN TONG & CHEN FENGJU

皆陳仲甡門人同務農善掃腿丰聚頗通太極拳理能以言傳
Both were students of Zhongshen. They were farmers, experts at sweeping-leg techniques, and had a considerable understanding of and ability to explain Taiji Boxing principles.

陳中立傳
[29] CHEN ZHONGLI

陳中立三德侄孫長於弓箭入武庠學拳於三德槍刀眉齊棍皆精
Chen Zhongli was the grandnephew of Chen Sande. He was excellent at archery, so he took the county-level military examinations. He learned the boxing art from Sande, and was also skilled at the spear, saber, and eyebrow-height staff.

太極拳要義一
TAIJI BOXING ESSENTIALS – PART 1

吾師陳品三先生致力於太極拳者計七十餘年著太極拳圖畫講義四卷洋洋十餘萬言立論精詳世罕其儔余往日錄其要義以備研探今先生之書流落他處未見梓行問世余取舊篋所藏載諸拙著以彰先生立言之一斑幷使後學者有所遵循焉
My teacher Chen Xin devoted himself to Taiji Boxing for more than seventy years. He wrote the four-volume Illustrated Handbook of Taiji Boxing, a vast tome of over a hundred thousand words, presenting his views in exquisite detail, the kind of work the world rarely sees the like of. I daily took notes from it of key ideas in order to study them further. Because his book currently resides in the wilderness, still unpublished, I have taken the notes that I stored away and recorded them into my own book to make known a sample of his ideas, and so that new students can have some material to work from.


[1] BODY

拳之一藝雖是小道然未始不可卽小以見大故肄業之時不可視為兒戲而身體必以端正為本身一端正則作為無不端正矣大體正則小體皆正况此藝全是以心運手以手領肘以肘領肩以肩領身以全體論則身領乎手以運用論則手領乎身身雖有時倚斜而倚斜之中自寓中正不可徒以表面觀之而失其大中至正之法能循規蹈矩不妄生枝節自然合拍
A boxing art may be a lesser way, but it is not unreasonable to use a lesser way as a means to finding the greater Way. Therefore when you start the training, you must not look upon the art as if it is a mere toy. The basic principle is that your body has to be upright. With your body upright, everything you do will be done properly. If that main thing is right, all the small things will be right too. Moreover, this art is entirely a matter of using your mind to move your hand, using your hand to guide your elbow, using your elbow to guide your shoulder, and using your shoulder to guide your body. In the case of practicing the solo set: the body leads the hand. In the case of partner practice: the hand leads the body. Even if your body sometimes seems crooked, within the crookedness there lies an inherent straightness. You must not become overly concerned with how you look and lose the uprightness within. If you can follow this principle without getting obsessive over trifling details, you will naturally function harmoniously.


[2] MIND

心為一身之主心一動則官骸聽命官骸不循規矩非官骸之不檢實檢官骸者之不檢焉孟子曰出入無時莫知其鄕者惟心之謂與又曰一人雖聽之一心以為有鴻鵠將至可見人之有心但視其操與不操耳能操則心神內歛故足容重手容恭頭容直目容肅種種官骸皆在個中心在故焉不操則心恆馳外故視不見聽不聞食亦不知其味一切行為皆出個外心不在故焉打拳一道口授居多著述甚少故當耳提面命尤得留心聽記蓋文事武備不留心者往往視為兩橛而不知實本於一源其外面動靜之形迹與裏面靜躁之神明皆由其心之甯靜與否心苟甯靜凡四體之開合擒縱莫不有自然之機致至當恰好無可加損者存乎其中苟細心體會何難升堂入室只要如行遠自邇登高自卑不躐等而進不中道而止以我之心思智力窮行(打拳之理)之高遠精微壹志凝神精進不巳層累曲折無不致極卽身所難到之境皆可以心達之無他有心而能用之也故凡學拳者皆當操心世人皆以拳為末藝其學習時往往嘻戲從事或畏難懈惰皆難學成故未上場時先須打掃其心使其心淸凈一物無所著然後上場一心恭敬如齊明盛服以承祭祀不敢褻慢平心靜氣上體自然靈動下體自然穩重任天機之往來運吾身之闔闢儼然一太極元氣周流無間學習一遍平其氣息必使四支運動之迹仍渾然歸於無形方為學拳準的
The mind is the ruler of the body. When the mind moves, the whole body hears the command. If the body does not follow the rules, it is not the fault of the body, but of the mind. It says in Mengzi [chapter 6a]: “It comes and goes without schedule, and no one knows where it comes from. This describes the mind.” Also: “[While one student focuses fully on the instruction,] the other is merely listening while thinking about a nearby swan [and daydreaming about shooting it].”
  You can see when someone is thinking, but watch what he does with his thoughts. To be able to actually do something, mind and spirit have to be gathered together within. When the feet stand heavily, the hands move reverently, the head is upright, and the eyes are solemn, these indicate that everywhere in the body, the mind is involved. Inability to function means the mind is getting distracted by external things. Whenever we look but do not see, listen but do not hear, eat but do not notice the taste, our mind is on other things outside of us. In the case of learning boxing arts, most of it comes from personal instruction and only a little from written material. Therefore whenever you are given advice, thoughtfully remember it.
  Those who are not paying attention usually think that literary and military affairs are two completely different things, and do not understand that they actually come from the same source. Externally there are the physical shapes made by movement and stillness, while internally there are the mental states of quietude and restlessness. It all depends on whether your mind is at peace or not. If your mind is at peace, then while your body performs opening and closing, catching and releasing, there will be in every part such naturalness, everything exactly right, that nothing needs to be added or subtracted, full of mind within.
  If you are paying careful attention and learning through experience, how difficult could it be to achieve mastery? It will be the same process as walking from near to far, or climbing from low to high. Progress without skipping steps, and do not give up halfway. I use my intelligence to take the final steps (to get to the boxing theory), however high, far, or subtle it may be, through willpower and concentration. I have to be endlessly determined to make it through the many twists and turns all the way to the end. The goal may be difficult for my body to reach, but my mind will be able to get me there. Even if I am equipped with nothing else, as long as I have mind I can do it.
  Learning a boxing art is always mental work. Ordinary people tend to think of boxing arts as a lesser skill, and while they are practicing they often giggle at the activity, or they are lazy and fear it will be too much work. Indeed it is something that is difficult to learn. Before entering your practice space, you first have to sweep your mind clean, making your mind tranquil enough that nothing can distract you, and then you may enter the space. Have an attitude of reverence, somewhat like this [quoting from the “Zhong Yong” – Book of Rites, chapter 31]: “They fast to purify themselves, put on rich garments, and only then perform sacrificial offerings to the ancestors.” Do not dare to be disrespectful. Calm your mind and quiet your energy, then your upper body will be naturally nimble and your lower body will be naturally stable. As I go back and forth with naturalness, moving my body by way of opening and closing, I solemnly focus on a taiji of primordial energy [i.e. a yin/yang circle, a cycling of energy], circulating unceasingly. By practicing this constantly, it calms my breath, and this will cause the patterns of my moving limbs to return to a state of formlessness. Let this be the standard for learning the art.


[3] ORGANIZATION

打拳多不講理不講理但論血氣無惑乎手之多失於硬也所以打拳貴先講理順其性之自然行其勢之當然合乎人心之同然而深究其勢之所以然勿使心有茫然一開一合始則勉然一動一靜久而自然積久而始而惺然繼而恍然終而豁然以至於盎然粹然而歸於渾然其實我之於拳用功並無拂然一皆率其性之本然而然
Boxing arts often do not address organization. Instead they talk about having vigor. Unsurprisingly, they often lose due to using too much hardness. Therefore boxing arts should first of all value discussing a sense of being organized. Follow along with what feels natural, doing whatever the situation requires. You are thereby acting in accordance with human feeling as well as deeply studying the mechanics of the postures. Do not allow your mind to be ignorant about what you are doing, otherwise your opening and closing would then involve effort. In movement and stillness, long-term practice will lead to naturalness. Over the course of time, you will start by being awakened, continue and have epiphanies, until finally it will all become clear to you, so clear that you will feel an abundance of clarity, of purity, a return to a sense of wholeness. In fact the training in our boxing art has no element of resistance at all, thereby entirely restoring you to a primordial state.


[4] ENERGY

打拳者運動吾身不滯不息不乖不拂不偏不倚無過不及是為中氣拳家苟能順其天機之自然抑揚頓挫動合天然圓轉自如毫無窒礙他日遇敵自然綽有餘地不然渾身一片硬氣猝遇好手只覺束手無策進不能進退不能退一任他人發落而巳鈍何如也人亦何樂用硬氣而不用中氣哉
When practicing the art, moving your body, be neither stagnant nor stuck, neither resisting nor opposing, neither leaning nor inclining, neither overdoing nor underdoing. Then you will have a balanced energy. If you can accord with the naturalness of Nature, finding its rhythms so that you are moving with roundness and smoothness, without the slightest obstruction, then whenever you encounter an opponent, you will have more than enough room to move. Otherwise your whole body will become stiff, and then when you encounter an opponent, you will feel as if there is nothing you can do. You will want to advance but be unable to advance, or you will want to retreat but be unable to retreat. To simply pay attention to what the opponent is doing is really all that is needed. What fun is there anyway in using an energy of stiffness rather than using a balanced energy?


[5] INTENTION

心之所發謂之意人之打拳其意初發如作文寫字下筆帶意之意意於何見於手見之意發於心手卽喩之而形諸五官百骸極有斤兩極有神韻心正則意之所發者皆正而四支之運行亦正心邪則意之所發者皆邪而四支之運行亦邪此打拳之先貴誠其意也曷言乎爾如人心平氣和則發於言者皆和順可聽此意之由和而發者也如人意氣過盛其發於言者皆帶激烈之氣此意之由於怒而發者也打拳觀其舉手活順卽知其意念活順周中規折中矩實理貫注於其間絕無冗雜觀者亦覺淸爽皆意所發之乾淨為之也着着俱有實理着着俱有眞意非徒以硬手硬脚全憑霸氣形之於外毫無蘊籍之意藏之於中此意之所以貴誠也學拳者審之
Intention is the idea that issues from the mind. When practicing boxing arts, intention comes out in the same way as writing calligraphy – lower the brush and guide it with intention. How does intention manifest? In the hand. Intention that issues from the mind correspondingly manifests at the hand, taking shape throughout the organs and bones. There is great weight and aura to it. When your mind is correct, the intention you issue will be correct and the movements of your limbs will also be correct. When your mind is incorrect, the intention you issue will be incorrect and the movements of your limbs will also be incorrect.
  The first thing of importance in practicing a boxing art is sincerity of intention. Why is this? For example, if your mind is calm and your energy balanced, then any words you utter will be amiable and worth hearing, for they are spoken from a state of harmony. But if your temperament is in a state of excess, your speech will be too intense, issued from an energy of aggression. When practicing the boxing art, if you see your opponent raise his hands gently, you can know his intentions are gentle. There are patterns within all twists and turns, so if you can truly focus on being organized within, you will be in no disorder. Even onlookers will sense how alert your mind is, your intention issuing so cleanly. When all of your techniques are truly organized and have genuine intention, you will not have the stiff hands and feet that come from a bullying energy taking shape externally, for none of your intention will be held back and stored away within. Such intention comes from sincerity. Look for it in your training.


[6] WILLPOWER

志者心之所之也意念一發而志卽隨其意之所往而亦往人惟能專心者乃能致志致志先由立志人不立志則無所樹立人不致志則半途而廢始雖有志如無志也有始無終故也此打拳所以貴立志貴壹志尤貴致志苟能致志加以果毅功夫則有志者竟成他日不可限量皆志為之也此打拳之貴乎有志
What is in the mind is called the “will”. When a thought emerges, the will follows that thought wherever it goes. A person who can concentrate can then focus that concentration, but focus is based in willpower. If you have no willpower, you will not be able to get anything done, and if you had no focus, you could only get halfway anyway, in which case even if you have willpower, it would be the same as having none, for you will not finish what you started. This is why boxing arts practitioners value willpower, determination, and especially ability to focus. If you can focus, then simply add determined hard work. “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.” From that point on, there are no limitations, all due to willpower. Willpower is thus an essential part of practicing a boxing art.


[7] FEELING

理之存於中者為性發於外者為情如樂有淸濁高下之致謂之聲情舞有進退旋轉謂之神情人有交接往來謂之人情物價之多寡不同人心之好惡各異謂之物情曾是太極拳之抑揚反覆獨無情致乎拳無情致如死瑁地泥槊木偶全無景致有何意趣照自己說有何可嘉照外人說苟能如作文之先伏後應機致流通其一段生龍活虎變化捉摸不住氣象在已旣可興發人之志氣在人又可令觀者拍案驚奇眼中願覩口中樂道心中願學甚矣此情之所發打拳者不可不留心也如文有聲情鏗鏘可聽頓宕可玩藝至於此大有可觀
That sense of organization dwelling within you is your nature, but what is expressed outwardly is feeling. For example, music will be interpreted as good or bad, superior or inferior, and this is called “feeling for sounds”. In the movement of dance, forward and back, side to side, there is “spiritual feeling”. The back and forth in relationships between people make “social feeling”. Things each have a different value to us, and we each have different likes and dislikes, and this is “material feeling”.
  But what if in your practice of the Taiji Boxing set, throughout every raising up and pressing down, you were doing it over and over again with no feeling? Without any feeling in your practice, you would be like a dead body on the ground, or a clay sculpture, or a marionette nothing worth looking at, generating no interest. Never mind the comments of others, you would not even be able to say to yourself that it is worthwhile. If you can be like a master leaning over to write calligraphy flowing with vitality, you can change to revealing a constant presence in your performance which can inspire and cause people to be amazed, make their eyes want to see it, their mouths talk about it with delight, and their minds crave to learn it. Such expression of feeling has to be given attention when practicing the boxing art. It is the same as with that “feeling for sounds” when producing a clanging that is pleasant to listen to, a rhythm that is fun to play. When an art reaches this point, it is worth noticing.


[8] EXPRESSIVENESS

層巒疊嶂者山之景波流瀠迴者水之景千紅萬紫者花之景春暖花開者時之景人之打拳亦如是也其開合擒縱屈伸往來一片神行曲折如畫是之謂景景之不離乎情猶情之不離乎理相連故也心無妙趣打拳決打不出好景致問何以打出好景致始則遵乎規矩繼則化乎規矩終則神乎規矩在我打得天花亂墜在人莫不喝采稱奇直如天朗氣淸惠風和暢陽春烟景大塊文章處處則柳軃花嬌層層則山靈水秀游人則觸目興懷詩家則振筆寫妙雖三百里之嘉陵山水不足盡也嘻拳能至此其技過半矣豈不美哉
Higher and higher peaks – the expressiveness of mountain. Waves swirling in and then receding – the expressiveness of water. Countless hues of red and purple – the expressiveness of flowers. The warmth of spring turning buds into blossoms – the expressiveness of the seasons. Training in a boxing art is like this too, with its opening and closing, grabbing and releasing, bending and extending, coming and going. Movement driven by spirit, twisting and turning as in a painting, is expressive. Expressiveness does not depart from emotion, in the same way that emotion does not depart from organization. They are linked together.
  If your mind has no delight for what you are doing, your boxing practice will not exhibit anything worth watching. But how to go about performing with expressiveness? In the beginning of the training, conform to patterns. At an intermediate level, you may change patterns. Then finally, patterns are driven by spirit. When I perform with great expressiveness, everyone comments that it is marvelous. It is just like a freshly clear sky, a pleasant gentle breeze, a luscious spring fog, a beautifully composed essay. Every movement is like willows swaying and flowers displaying. Every technique is like mountains showing and water flowing. When onlookers see this, it gladdens their hearts. When poets see it, they are inspired to write. Even after hundreds of miles, fine scenery remains interesting. Indeed, boxing arts can be like this too. Provided one’s skill is better than average, it is sure to be beautiful.


[9] SPIRIT

人之精神雖存乎官骸之中充足卽溢乎官骸之外其外見而先見者心手眼居多凡事心手眼俱到則有神無神則形皆死煞少生動之意不足動人神之在人不止於眼而要於眼則易考驗故打拳時眼不可邪視必隨左右手以往還如打懶札衣眼隨右手中指行懶札衣畢眼卽注於右手中指打單鞭眼隨左手運行單鞭畢眼卽注於左手中指打披身錘眼看住後脚打肘底看拳眼注於左肘下打小擒拿眼注於右拳與右掌打摟膝拗步眼注於右手中指打初收眼注右手指肚打抱頭推山兩手並推者眼看敵人胸右手在前左手稍後者眼注右手中指打跌岔眼先看左手待身起來右手向上眼看右手打指襠眼注右拳打鋪地錦看左手打跨虎眼看右手中指打當頭砲眼注於左拳以上四支孰為直符眼卽注於直符之支而全身精神皆聚於此任在熱鬧場中目無旁視如此方覺有神亦有四支直符在此而神反注於彼者是變格也不可據以為常要之打拳則上下四旁眼都得照顧到果能壹志凝神心手眼一齊俱到自覺詡詡欲活奕奕有神矣學拳者當細驗之
Although a person’s spirit dwells within his body, when abundant it overflows outward. Before it is noticeable on the outside, it lies mostly in the mind, hands, and eyes. Generally, when the mind, hands, and eyes are functioning in unison, there is spirit. Without spirit, the postures will all look dead, barely a hint of anyone alive in there, and will leave onlookers completely unmoved. A person’s spirit does not only show in his eyes, but will be easiest to see there. Therefore when practicing the set, your gaze must not be distracted, and so it has to instead follow the movements of your hands as they go back and forth. Examples:
  When performing LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE: your gaze follows the movement of your right hand, and once the posture is completed, your gaze is toward the middle finger of your right hand.
  SINGLE WHIP: your gaze follows the movement of your left hand, and once the posture is completed, your gaze is toward the middle finger of your left hand.
  DRAPING-BODY PUNCH: your gaze is toward your rear foot.
  GUARDING PUNCH UNDER ELBOW: your gaze goes below your left elbow.
  SMALL CAPTURING: your gaze is toward your right fist and right [left] palm.
  BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE: your gaze is toward the middle finger of your right hand.
  FIRST WITHDRAWING [WITHDRAWING THE RIGHT SIDE]: your gaze is toward the fingers of your right [left] hand.
  COVER YOUR HEAD AND PUSH THE MOUNTAIN: your hands push together, your gaze to the opponent’s chest, your right hand forward, your left hand slightly behind, your gaze toward the middle finger of your right hand.
  DROP & EXTEND: your gaze goes first toward your left hand, then once your body has risen and your right hand is going upward, your gaze goes toward your right hand.
  PUNCH TO THE CROTCH: your gaze is toward your right fist.
  BROCADE SPREAD ON THE GROUND [or PAVING THE GROUND WITH GOLD]: look toward your left hand.
  SITTING TIGER POSTURE: your gaze is toward the middle finger of your left hand.
  CANNON AIMED STRAIGHT AHEAD: your gaze is toward your left fist.
  In the above examples, what is it that coordinates the limbs? With your gaze focused toward a particular limb, your whole body’s spirit will gather there. No matter what the distraction, keep your gaze from wandering off. In this way, you will feel a presence of spirit, and your limbs will thereby be coordinated. But if spirit is instead focused at some other area, the feeling will become one of obstruction. You cannot rely on ordinary experience. In a nutshell, when practicing boxing arts, your gaze sees everywhere – up, down, all around – so if you can focus your spirit with a consistent willpower, your mind, hands, and eyes will function in unison, and you will naturally feel a liveliness and an invigoration of spirit. Students of boxing arts should be meticulously looking for this.


[10] CHANGING

化也者泯規矩之成迹而自合規矩是妙乎規矩而神乎規矩者也化有大化造化變化消化神化諸名此以造詣境地言專以神化為主是妙萬物而言莫名其妙名之曰化必熟而又熟以至無形迹可擬如神龍變化捉摸不住隨意舉動自成法度莫可端倪說有卽有說無卽無技至此眞神品矣而大化造化消化變化太極體用和盤托出雖小道至道存焉所謂卽小以見大者蓋此拳豈易言哉
To change is to move beyond all trace of predictable pattern. The process is to conform to a pattern, then achieve subtlety from the pattern, and then achieve spirituality from the pattern. Changing is expressed as great change, deliberate change, change through variation, change through learning, or spiritual change. These things are in the realm of attainment, but the key to spiritual change lies more in subtlety. Everyone speaks of it, but no one understands that such subtlety is a matter of changing.
  You need to get better and better in your practice in order to reach the point that you will make no patterns that can be understood, like the transformations of a divine dragon, unfathomable. You will take action as you please, according to your own standards, and no one will be able to comprehend what you are doing. When you say there is something there, there will indeed be something there, but when you say there is nothing there, there will be nothing there at all. Once your skill has reached this level, you truly have something magical.
  Whether by way of great change, deliberate change, change through learning, change through variation, Taiji in both theory and application reveals everything [“holding up a tray showing everything” (like a waiter)]. Although a lesser way, it will reach to the Way itself, because “a lesser way can be a means to finding the greater Way”, and that being the case, why should this boxing art not be such a means?


[11] TECHNIQUE

拳乃武備中一端其運用手足或正或偏或上或下或左或右或前或後因其理以立法因其法以呈形名之曰勢卽俗名所謂着當下功夫之時必思此勢由何發起中間如何運行結尾如何收束表是何形裏是何勁從心坎中細細揣摩此勢之下與下勢之上其夾縫中如何承上如何啟下必使血脈貫通不令有一絲隔閡判成兩橛始而一勢自成一勢終而百勢連成一勢如懶札衣右手從左腋前起端手背朝上手指朝下先轉一小圈從下斜而上行過上星神庭前越右耳外徐徐運行肐膊展到八九分不可滿足滿則應用時必致招損手與肩平此是順轉圈用纏絲勁由腋自內往外斜纏到指不可往後擘(音百)擘則無力不可大彎彎亦無力必得不偏不倚之勁方佳左手是倒轉用纏絲勁由手外掌過手背纏到肩後外腋止兩手合住勁右手如新月半彎形勁似停實不停停則氣斷矣待內勁行到十分則下勢卽接往從此起矣右足也如是畫半個圈展開先落僕參穴過湧泉至大敦隱白止其止也實而虛右腿用順纏勁由大敦起過脚面至足外腓從湧泉斜纏至內踝骨一直由內而外逆行斜纏大腿纏至腰左足趾向北用倒纏勁由外向裏纏纏到大腿根歸丹田中極右手與右足一齊起一齊落說合上下官骸一齊合住四支更不待言右手內勁充於肌膚頂勁提起腰勁下去𦡁勁開圓又要合住膝合住𦡁自然合住合也者全體皆合無令一處不合此是一勢規矩自為一着其中繁頤猶有言不盡意古人立法如是用其深心猶恐不能制勝而况多數之着其用心良非易矣大凡手動為陽手靜為陰手背為陽手腕為陰前則為陽後則為陰亦有陰中之陽陽中之陰某手當令某手為陽某手不當令某手為陰亦有一勢先陽後陰外陽內陽一陰一陽要必不偏不倚無過不及此學之者不可不留心也一勢之微千言萬語筆之數行難盡其妙當場一比心卽了然於此見拳之貴乎口傳也一落紙筆皆成糟粕棄糟粕而取精華則可與共學可與適道矣
One aspect of the practice of this boxing art is the movement of your hands and feet. It is sometimes direct, sometimes at an angle, sometimes up, down, left or right, forward or back. The movements are organized into a particular pattern, the pattern assuming particular shapes. These shapes are called “postures” and are more commonly called “techniques”. When you practice the solo set, you have to think about the postures. How does such-and-such a posture start, progress, and finish? What is its external shape? What is the energy within it? Deeply and carefully ponder. There is barely any gap between the posture that follows and the posture that proceeds. How are you to continue one posture into initiating the next? You have to connect them like a bloodflow and do not allow the slightest barrier between or a moment to truly distinguish between the two. Beginning one posture comes from completing another, and all of the postures are so linked that in the end there seems to be only one.
  Let us have a closer look at LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE. Your right hand starts from in front of your left armpit, the back of the hand facing upward, fingers pointing downward. It first arcs in a small circle, moving diagonally upward from below, passing in front of the acupoints of Shangxing and Shenting [i.e. where the forehead meets the hairline], passing beyond your right ear, and moving slowly until the arm is about ninety percent extended. It must not be extended all the way, for if it is, then the functionality when applying the technique would be decreased. The hand is at shoulder level. This is a “going along” arc of “coiling silk” energy. It goes outward from the armpit and coils around to the fingers, which must neither overly straighten nor overly bend, for this would in either case diminish the strength of the posture. It is best to have an energy that does not go too far toward any extreme.
  Your left hand uses a reverse path of coiling-silk energy, going from the edge of the palm through the back of the hand, and coiling to the back of the shoulder until at the outside of the armpit. The energy of both hands functions in unison.
  Your right hand is bent into a crescent-moon shape. The power seems to stop, but actually does not, for that would interrupt the flow of energy. Wait for the internal power to reach a hundred percent, and then continue into the following posture.
  The same situation happens at your right foot, drawing a half circle, energy spreading out first to the Pucan acupoint [near the heel], then to the Yongquan acupoint [near the center of the foot], and finally to the acupoints of Dadun and Yinbai [on the big toe]. When it finishes, fullness switches to emptiness. Your right leg has used a “going along” process of coiling energy, but then starting from the Dadun acupoint, passing along the top of the foot, and reaching the outer part of the calf, as well as going from the Yongquan acupoint, coiling around to the inner part of the ankle, energy travels outward in a “going against” process of energy, which takes it along the thigh and to the waist.
  Your left foot has its toes pointing toward the north, using a reverse path of coiling energy, coiling inward along the thigh, to the hip, and back to the elixir field.
  Your right hand and right foot rise and lower in unison. The upper body and lower need to function together, and so it is for the limbs. Your right hand’s internal power fills all the way to the skin. Your headtop has an energy of lifting while your waist has an energy of going downward. Your crotch has an energy of being open and rounded, but will also be naturally unified with the knees. Through such unifications, the whole body functions in unison, no part moving on its own. This is an example of the patterning of one posture, one technique. As for the complexities within it, still more and more can be said. Ancient people made patterns in this way, deeply thinking about them. But they still worried these patterns would not be adequate, and so they made many more techniques, their diligence for perfection never changing.
  Generally speaking: the hand in motion is active and the hand in stillness is passive; the back of the hand is active and the wrist is passive; the forward hand is active and the rear hand is passive, but it is also the case that there is active within passive and passive within active. The hand that leads is active and the hand that is led is passive. In any posture: the start of it is active and the finish of it is passive; what is outside is active and what is inside is passive; it is half passive and half active, and so there must not be an emphasis on either half, neither overdoing [too active] nor underdoing [too passive]. You must pay attention to this point.
  The subtleties of any posture are too difficult to express with any amount of words. You will only understand it through experiencing it. With this point can be seen the value of personal instruction in the art. Putting words on a page always makes a mess. Once you become more concerned with seeking the essence rather than untangling the mess, you will then be able to partake of this knowledge and you will be on the right path.


[12] LEARNING

以上所言皆言拳也不學無以知不學無以能惟於拳之不知者學以求其知拳之不能者學以求其能果能敏而好學再能學而時習之則向之不知不能者今則無不知無不能矣斯拳不外陰陽開合之理抑揚頓挫之勢苟能百倍其功雖愚必明雖柔必强孔子曰我學不厭人之於拳亦惟學而不厭而已矣
The concepts described above are all principles of the art. If you do not learn them, you will not know anything, nor be able to do anything. Whenever you lack knowledge, learn in order to gain that knowledge. Whenever you lack ability, learn in order to gain that ability. One who can “be smart and also eager to learn” [Lun Yu, 5.14] and can “learn and then constantly practice what you have learned” [LY, 1.1] will change from being ignorant and incapable into being one who is full of knowledge and full of ability. This boxing art is nothing more than the principles of passive and active, opening and closing, and the techniques of following and then frustrating the opponent. If you can apply yourself to the work over and over again, you will become smart, no matter how dumb you are, and you will become strong, no matter how weak you are. Confucius said [Mengzi, chapter 2a]: “I learn insatiably.” To train in this art likewise requires that quality of insatiable learning.


[13] THOUGHT

思者思其所學也學而不思則罔故必用其心力於所學之中講習研究凡拳中之層累曲折自起落以至於精微奥妙不使有一毫疑惑者則思之為功居多故先由淺入深由近及遠思其當然並思其所以然不能明晰或問之於師或訪之於友則所思者不患其不能明此是格物工夫曾子作大學乃曰致知在格物思固不廢乎學學亦不能廢乎思也此學思不可以偏廢淺言之凡學拳者當用心學之不可忽略
Thought means thinking about what you are learning. Learning without thinking, you will be lost, therefore you must put mental effort into what you are learning. Boxing arts typically contain layers of complexity, ups and downs you go through to reach the deeper subtleties. Do not allow yourself the slightest doubt, for thought is the majority of the training. Start by going from the simple to the complex, from what is near to what is far. Think about what is the right way to perform the art and why it is that way. If you cannot see it clearly, ask the teacher or a fellow student, rather than worrying that what you are pondering might never make sense to you. This is the skill of “deeply studying things”. Zengzi wrote in the “Daxue” [chapter 42 of the Book of Rites]: “Broadening your understanding lies in deeply studying things.” Thinking is never a waste of time when learning, and learning is never a waste of time when thinking. Learning and thinking are not to be decided between. Simply put, learning a boxing art always requires using your mind, and so you must not leave it out.


[14] PERSEVERANCE

天地之道惟有一恆字可以成事恆久也雖一藝之微苟能久於其道未有苗而不秀秀而不實者也孔子曰人而無恆不可以作巫醫此學之貴乎有恆也志為作事之始恆為作事有常二字乃學拳要訣吾師又作五言詩勗學者守恆貴誠其詩云理境原無盡學拳意貴誠三年不窺園壹志並神凝始則從良師繼則訪高朋誘掖合獎勸一線啓靈明一層深一層層層意無窮一開連一合開合遞相承有時引入勝才欲罷不能時習勤黽勉日進自蒸蒸一旦眞積久豁然皆貫通
It is the way of the world that with perseverance you can succeed. The idea of “perseverance” is: to do something for a long time. Although the art is subtle, if you are able to keep working at it over a long enough period, you will master it. Confucius said [Lun Yu, 9.22]: “Some plants sprout but produce no flowers, while others flower but bear no fruit.” And also [LY, 13.22]: “A man without perseverance will never become a shaman.” The most valuable thing in learning this art is perseverance. Willpower gets you started. Perseverance keeps you going. These two words provide the secret to learning the boxing art. My teacher wrote a poem in five-character lines to encourage students to maintain perseverance. Truly precious, it reads thus:

Since the theory is limitless in scope,
the most important thing in learning the art is sincerity.
After several years it may still not make sense to you,
but stay intent upon it and keep your spirit concentrated.
Begin by learning from a good teacher,
then continue by seeking out colleagues who excel.
  With both guidance and encouragement,
you will continuously come to understand.
After peeling away one layer, delve deeper and find another,
layer upon layer, on and on forever.
One level starts up where another left off,
beginning and finishing trading places with each other.
  It will repeatedly draw you in and captivate you so much
that even if you wanted to quit, you would not be able to.
With constant practice and hard work,
you will daily progress until your skill is flourishing.
One day the truth will have accumulated over the course of time
and suddenly all will become clear.


[15] DECISIVENESS

夬決也心貴決斷人惟猶疑不決多敗乃事學思恆三字雖好苟不決斷則所學無論何事皆辦不成惟拿定主意一直長往心不回惑夫而後所學所思加以恆久工夫則凡事皆可有成何况拳之一藝乎此學拳尤貴於夬也
This means the resolution to act. The mind values the ability to make decisions. An indecisive person will typically fail at everything. Even if you are good at learning, thinking, and perseverance, without decisiveness then no matter what you learn you will never accomplish anything. Once you have made a decision and commit to a course of action, the mind does not return to a state of doubt about it. After thinking about what you have learned, the addition of perseverance, of long-term hard work, anything can be achieved. This is especially true in boxing arts and why decisiveness is so valuable in learning them.

太極拳要義二
TAIJI BOXING ESSENTIALS – PART 2

先嚴諱復元字旭初初學於耕雲公功成後復從仲甡公習新架故發手能柔如綿堅如剛往來口外數十年未遇敵手子明少小侍側習聞拳理茲就記憶所及者筆述一二以成本篇固陋如余未能道其萬一也
My father’s name was Fuyuan, called Xuchu. He started learning from Gengyun, then later learned the new frame from Zhongshen. Thus when he sent out his hands, he was able to be soft as silk or hard as steel. He repeatedly went outside of the village for decades, but he never encountered a worthy rival. When I was young, I waited upon him. I often heard him discussing boxing principles. Recorded below are a few, as well as I can remember them anyway. As ignorant as I am, they are barely one ten-thousandth of what he knew.

開合與陰陽
[1] OPENING & CLOSING IN RELATION TO PASSIVE & ACTIVE

動為陽靜為陰一動一靜卽為開合陰變陽為開陽變陰為合此就太極拳之全體而言也以運化而言左手領左半身向左方運化者開為太陽合為太陰右手隨之而開者為少陽合為少陰右方亦然剛柔卽包於其中故太極生兩儀兩儀生四象兩儀者陰陽也亦卽開合也四象者太陽太陰少陽少陰是也陰陽合開互相化生得其極致則渾元一氣循環無端變動莫測是以不明陰陽開合者卽不明剛柔動靜之互相為用偏剛偏柔不能相濟則去太極拳之根本遠矣又吾師品三先生謂練拳之道開合二字盡之一陰一陽之謂拳其妙處在互為其根而已又作七言詩二首其一云動則生陽靜生陰一動一靜互為根果能悟得環中趣一動一靜卽天眞其二云陰陽無始亦無終往來屈伸寓化工此中消息眞參透太極祇在一環中
Movement is active. Stillness is passive. In every moment of movement and stillness, there is opening and closing. Passive changing to active is opening. Active changing to passive is closing. This is the essence of Taiji Boxing in a nutshell. To neutralize [on the left side], your left hand leads the left half of your body, neutralizing to the left. Such opening corresponds to greater active and such closing corresponds to greater passive. Your right hand then follows through. Such opening corresponds to lesser active and such closing corresponds to lesser passive. It is the same on the right side [your right hand leading your body to the right and your left hand following through]. Hardness and softness are contained within it, hence “the grand polarity generates the dual aspects, and the dual aspects generate the four manifestations”. (The dual aspects are passive and active, or can also be expressed as opening and closing. The four manifestations are: greater active, greater passive, lesser active, lesser passive.)
  Passive and active, or opening and closing, transform into each other. When one aspect finishes, then they merge together as a singleness of energy. They cycle their alternations without limit, changing unpredictably. If you are not clear about passive and active, opening and closing, then you will not understand how to apply the alternations of hardness and softness, movement and stillness. You will instead incline toward hardness or softness, unable to make them work together, and thereby cast the essence of Taiji Boxing far away. My teacher Chen Xin also said: “The method of practicing this boxing art is nothing more than opening and closing, passive and active. The subtlety of the art is based entirely upon their alternations.” And he expresses this through a couple of poems:

With movement, the active aspect is generated, and with stillness, the passive aspect is generated.
The basis of it all is the alternation of movement and stillness.
When you understand how to [from Zhuangzi, chapter 2:] “obtain the center of the circle”,
then in movement and stillness you will find true naturalness.

The passive and active aspects have neither start nor finish.
In going back and forth, bending and extending, there is merely transformation.
When the fluctuations within the activity are thoroughly understood,
you will find that the taiji concept simply lies in being at the center of the circle.

運化轉關
[2] JOINT-ROTATIONAL NEUTRALIZATION

運化為轉關之先機關卽人之周身六節故轉關亦曰轉節凡初學之人多尚拙力而無靈勁故以運化去其滯氣使轉關達於虛靈蓋虛則有以聚靈則有以應虛者集靈者感集者靜感者動起落旋轉開合變化不能離乎運化轉關所謂運化轉關者卽由柔筋活節而至接骨鬬榫(音筍)苟不如此卽不足與言動靜之虛靈者也
Neutralization is the prime operation of joint rotation. The joints are the six sections of the body, thus “rotating the joints” may also be called “rotating the sections”. Generally beginners will often use an awkward effort rather than skillful power. Neutralization dispels stagnant energy, causing joint rotation to have an effortless naturalness. Through effortlessness comes coordination. Through naturalness comes responsiveness. With effortlessness, there is concentration. With naturalness, there is sensitivity. In concentration, there is stillness. In sensitivity, there is action. Lifting and lowering, turning side to side, opening and closing, changing and adapting, all cannot be separated from joint-rotational neutralization. Joint-rotational neutralization starts with supple tendons and lively joints, and finishes with positioning your bones to give you a structure as solid as one made by the linkings of mortise and tenon. If you cannot practice in this way, you will not be equipped to discuss effortless naturalness in the activity.

虛實
[3] EMPTINESS & FULLNESS

太極拳動靜瞬息之間無不有虛實故其練法中之前進後退左旋右轉以舉足為虛落足為實向左則左實向右則右實前進則後虛後退則前虛倘虛實不分必犯抽脚拔腿之弊精而求之則一處自有一處虛實練時如是對待敵人時亦復如是彼虛則我實彼實則我虛虛則實之實則虛之臨敵乘機切勿拘泥定法斯為得其要諦
In Taiji Boxing, within any moment between movement and stillness, there is always emptiness and fullness. While practicing, there is advancing and retreating, and turning to the left and right. Raising a foot is empty. Lowering a foot is full. Going to the left, you are then full on the left. Going to the right, you are then full on the right. Advancing, you are then empty behind. Retreating, you are then empty in front. If emptiness and fullness are not distinguished, you will make the error of withdrawing your foot by yanking bank your leg. But if you look for them carefully, then in every part there will be a part that is empty and a part that is full. It is like this during solo practice and also when dealing with an opponent. When he is empty, I am full. When he is full, I am empty. As he empties, I fill. As he fills, I empty. When facing an opponent, take advantage of the situation. Be sure not to get stuck in fixed methods. By such means you will obtain the true meaning of the art.

變化
[4] TRANSFORMATION

變化者有一手之變化有一著之變化有一勢之變化然無論一手一著一勢其變而能化皆由簡單漸至於詳密以開合為一手之變化以轉關為一著之變化此卽上傳下接之義惟身法步法旋轉緊湊方向之變皆屬一勢之變化也由開展至於緊湊切莫逾乎範圍亂其順序自能積手為著著合為勢勢聯成套始練似覺有界久練功夫嫻熟自能豁然貫通運轉自如千變萬化隨心所欲矣
There is transformation within a hand movement, within a technique, within a posture. Regardless of movement, technique, or posture, there can be changes within changes, everything building up gradually from gross movements to minute details. Use opening and closing to make the transformation within a hand movement. Use joint rotation to make the transformation within a technique. This is the principle of “transmitting upward to connect downward”.
  The actions of body and step are compact rotations for changing direction. They are the features of transformation within a posture. Go from spreading open to shrinking in tight (though never going to extremes in either case, which would send you into disorder). You will then be able to combine movements to make a technique, consolidate the technique to make a posture, and the postures are then to be connected into a complete set.
  In the beginning of the training, you will feel that you have limitations, but after a long period of working at it, you will become skillful. Then you will be able to suddenly understand, to function with naturalness, to transform endlessly, and to do as you please.

步驟
[5] STAGES

先哲有言物有本末事有終始知所先後則近道矣如無深淺之別先後之序卽是失却根本無論敎者本領若何高强學者定不能藝超於衆故練太極拳術之步驟有三層功夫第一步學時宜慢慢不宜痴呆第二步習而後快快不可錯亂第三步快後復緩是為柔柔久剛自在其中是為剛柔相濟敎者必由是而敎學者亦必由是而學則庶乎無差忒矣
練太極拳術者固愈慢愈柔者為佳不宜用力帶氣又必須知至何時可以換勁及慢至何時可以速柔至何時可以剛此於敎授之責攸關宜從事解釋其發端而至於究竟繼則實施於法俾易知用途之次序為入門之階梯如能預定進度因人施發使學者精神煥發興趣環生自必易得門徑進步迅速
An ancient wise man said [quoting from the “Da Xue”]: “All things have a beginning and an end, all tasks a start and a finish. When you know what comes before and follows after, you are on the right path.” If you do not make distinction between what is superficial and what is deep, or prioritize what is first over what is last, you will lose touch with what is fundamental. And then no matter how excellent the teacher may be, you would not be able to rise above mediocrity. Therefore there are three stages to training the Taiji boxing art:
  1. While learning it, you should move slowly, though not stiffly.
  2. Once you have reached full familiarity with the exercise, you may then move more briskly, though not so quick as to be in disorder.
  3. Briskness then returns to slowness. This will generate softness. After a long time, softness will naturally contain hardness, and then hardness and softness will complement each other.
  Teachers have to teach according to these stages. Students have to learn according to these stages. Then there will be less likelihood of error. When practicing the Taiji boxing art, the slower the better. You should not use undue exertion or have any stagnant energy. You also have to know when you can alternate states, for instance when slowness can switch to quickness, or when softness can switch to hardness. This also has to do with the proper way to give instruction. A teacher has to do the work of analyzing the beginning in order to get students to the end. Continually applying this method makes it easy to understand that the purpose of the sequence is to be a stairway into the art. The teacher can set goals of progress based on the student’s personal efforts, which will cause him to have a heightened enthusiasm and increased interest. It will then be easy for him to head down the right path and advance rapidly.

腰襠之開合
[6] OPENING & CLOSING OF THE WAIST & CROTCH

練太極拳者對於腰襠兩部之要點不可不知一開一合一動一靜腰襠各有專注且貴互用故宜分析明白腰之要點曰擰腰活腰塌腰襠之要點曰鬆襠合襠扣襠擰腰時襠須扣不扣則散活腰時襠須鬆不鬆則滯塌腰時襠須合不合則浮凡塌腰活襠者為蓄勁活腰鬆襠者為柔勁惟出勁時須扣襠擰腰茲以各勢各著說明之如拳式中之掩手錘披身錘靑龍出水肘底看拳閃通背靑龍戲水二起式踢一脚蹬一跟小擒拿抱頭推山前招後招野馬分鬃玉女穿梭擺脚跌岔十字脚指襠錘黃龍攪水擺脚當頭砲等均屬扣襠擰腰金剛搗碓懶扎衣單鞭白鵝晾翅摟膝拗步及收式合式等均屬鬆襠活腰凡姿勢成時襠宜合腰宜塌其義主靜卽本著已停下著未作虛靈勁預蓄其中動則必變必發故其功效無量其時間及所趨方向不可預定遇左則左應遇右則右應上下前後剛柔緩急輕重悉如之
For practitioners of Taiji Boxing, the essentials of these two areas, the waist and the crotch, have to be understood. In every opening or closing, every moment of movement or stillness, the waist and crotch have to be focused on, and they have to be functioning in unison, thus they should be analyzed and understood. The essentials for the waist are: twisting, livening, sinking. The essentials for the crotch are: loosening, closing, covering. When twisting the waist, the crotch has to cover, otherwise there will be disorder. When livening the waist, the crotch has to loosen, otherwise there will be stagnancy. When sinking the waist, the crotch has to close, otherwise there will be floating. Generally, a sinking waist with a closing crotch makes a stored energy, a lively waist with a loosened crotch makes a soft energy, and then when power is released, there has to be a covering crotch with a twisting waist.
  To use examples of the postures as an explanation, the postures of COVERED-HAND PUNCH, DRAPING-BODY PUNCH, BLUE DRAGON LEAVES THE WATER, GUARDING FIST UNDER THE ELBOW, SURGE THROUGH THE BACK, BLUE DRAGON PLAYS IN THE WATER, DOUBLE-LIFT KICK, LEFT POINTING KICK, RIGHT PRESSING KICK, SMALL CAPTURING, COVER THE HEAD AND PUSH THE MOUNTAIN, INVITING IN FRONT & BEHIND, WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE, MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH, SWINGING-KICK DROP & EXTEND, CROSSED-BODY KICK, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH, YELLOW DRAGON STIRS THE WATER, TURN-AROUND SWINGING KICK, and CANNON AIMED STRAIGHT AHEAD, all involve a covering crotch with a twisting waist, whereas ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR, LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE, SINGLE WHIP, WHITE GOOSE DRIES ITS WINGS, BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE, WITHDRAWING POSTURE, and CLOSING POSTURE all involve a loosened crotch with a lively waist.
  Once you have settled into a posture, your crotch should be closed and your waist should be sunk. There is a moment of stillness, when the technique has finished and the following technique has not yet begun, and effortless natural power is preparing, storing within. Then when you act, there will be a change to the opposite state, a releasing. The effect will be immeasurable, for in that moment, whatever direction you are rushing toward cannot prepare itself in time. When you encounter something to your left, respond with your left side, and when you encounter something to your right, respond with your right side. The same goes for above and below, forward and back, hardness and softness, slowness and quickness, lightness and heaviness.

命名與取象
[7] TERMINOLOGY & REPRESENTATION

研究太極拳者須分命名與取象為兩點其所云太極兩儀四象者乃拳法中形而上之命名也然必知其取象原則方能明乎實際太極拳之取象卽肢體練法是也肢體之大要不外手眼身步法其運用之大要則不外乎前進後退上起下落左旋右轉故研究此等動作須在科學上追求始能澈底如開步轉勢及前後互換之距離當以直中線判其遠近手足身法上起下落之間隔當以平中線分其高低餘如拗步姿勢之旋轉為斜線及弧線之牽引收放伸屈為來復線之縱縮故太極拳之圈的內包尚有直線平線斜線來復線弧線等與力學數學之理有密切關係雖其取象出於形而上之命名而在科學方面實有相當之價値
Students of Taiji Boxing have to distinguish between mere terminology and what it is that the terms represent. Although things such as “grand polarity”, “dual aspects”, and “four manifestations” are highly abstract terms within the boxing art, you nevertheless have to understand the principles they represent. Then you will be able to see how they fit with the practical reality of the training. What they represent in Taiji Boxing are the methods of physical training, the essentials of which are nothing more than the use of the hands, eyes, body, steps, and techniques. And the essentials of applying these things are nothing more than advancing and retreating, rising and lowering, and turning left and right. Therefore to study these exercises, you have to pursue them in a scientific way, and then you will be able to get a thorough understanding of the art.
  For instance, as you step and turn, keeping away from the opponent by alternating advance and retreat, use a vertical center line to judge his distance. And during the interval between rising and lowering with your hands, feet, and body, use a horizontal center line to determine the height [of his targets]. Moreover, if you are rotating into a crossed stance posture, you are making a diagonal line and drawing the opponent in along a curved line. Or when you are withdrawing and releasing, bending and extending, you are shrinking and expanding along spiraling lines. Therefore within the circles in Taiji Boxing, there are vertical lines, horizontal lines, diagonal lines, and spiraling lines, and curved lines, and thereby it is intimately related to the principles of mechanics and mathematics. Although these representations emerge from abstract terminology, they indeed align with a scientific quality in a meaningful way.

太極拳要義三
TAIJI BOXING ESSENTIALS – PART 3

太極拳之圈
[1] TAIJI BOXING’S CIRCLES

聞諸先嚴太極功夫以沒圈為登峯造極非一蹴可幾必須循序漸進由大圈收至小圈小圈收至沒圈復以內勁為其統馭聯貫變化運用神妙技至於斯形式上無從捉摸之矣
吾師品三先生之言曰太極拳纏法也進纏退纏左纏右纏上纏下纏裏纏外纏大纏小纏順纏逆纏而要莫非以中氣行乎其間卽引卽進皆陰陽互為其根之理世人不識皆目為軟手手軟豈能擊人是但以外面視之皆迹象也若以神韻論之自己用功與外人交手皆以中氣運行使之適得其中非久於其道者不能澈其底蘊兩肩軃下兩肘沉下秀若處女威若猛虎手中權衡稱物而知其輕重打拳之道吾心中自有權衡以稱他人之上下左右進退緩急無不悉以神明之度量使之皆中其節而令敵之從所從而來者抑負所負而去是無形之權衡也以無形之權衡權有形之迹象甚矣其孰能欺之若第以軟手視太極拳不惟不知拳且並不知太極之為太極太極者陰陽開合而已矣必陰陽相停而後名為太極拳夫豈偏陰無陽之謂哉
I have heard that my late father’s Taiji skill was at the peak of perfection due to his “vanishing circles”. This is not something that is easy to come by. You must proceed step by step, shrinking from a large circle to a small circle, then shrinking from a small circle to a vanishing circle. You will then be using internal power to control an opponent, transforming constantly, wielding with ingenuity. When skill is at this level, one’s postures are totally unreadable. My teacher Chen Xin said:
  “Taiji Boxing is just methods of coiling… There is an advancing coiling, a retreating coiling, leftward coiling, rightward coiling, upward, downward, inward, outward, coiling large, coiling small, smooth coiling, coarse coiling. It should be produced entirely from the movement of balanced energy within, coiling to draw the opponent in and coiling to advance upon him, always using the principle of the passive and active aspects generating each other. Most people do not understand and see this as a ‘soft hand’ art, saying: ‘How can soft hands be used to strike anyone?’ But this is a matter of only considering the outward appearance, the mere look of it. If you instead use its subtle principles in both your solo practice and when sparring with others, you will always be functioning by way of balanced energy, enabling you to do what is needed to get to the target. But those who have not practiced the art for a long time cannot penetrate to its deeper layers. With your shoulders hanging and your elbows sinking, be as elegant as a quiet maiden, then as imposing as a fierce tiger. In your hand is a scale, determining the weight of everything that comes to you. It is the way of the art for there to already be a scale in my mind, measuring his moving upward and downward, left and right, his advancing and retreating, his slowing down and speeding up. I know everything he does because I monitor with my spirit, which finds its way into the opponent’s every joint and causes him to reveal where his actions will come from or go to, and so it is an invisible scale. Using the invisible to measure the visible, how could he ever deceive me?”
  Those who see Taiji Boxing as a “soft hand” art not only do not understand boxing arts, but also do not understand the meaning of taiji [“grand polarity”]. Taiji is nothing more than passive and active, opening and closing. Passive and active must be in balance with each other for it to be called Taiji Boxing. If it was passive without the active, it would have to be called something else.

太極拳之用
[2] TAIJI BOXING IN APPLICATION

吾師品三先生之言曰中氣貫足精神百倍臨時交戰切勿先進如不獲已淺嘗帶引靜以待動堅持壁壘堂堂之陣整整之旗有備無患常守其眞一引一進奇正相生佯輸詐敗反守為攻一引卽進轉(轉者方引而忽轉之)進為風進至七分卽速停頓兵行詭計嚴防後侵前後左右俱要留心進步莫遲不直不遂足隨手運圓轉如神忽上(手足向上)忽下(手足向下)或順(順者用順纏法)或逆(逆者用倒纏法)日光普照不落邊際我之進取須令不防人若能防必非妙方大將臨敵無處不愼四面旋繞一齊並進斬將搴旗絕妙如神太極至理一言難盡陰陽變化存乎其人稍涉虛偽妙理難尋
My teacher Chen Xin said:
  When balanced energy courses through fully, spirit increases a hundredfold. When in a fight, never be the first to move.
  If you cannot win, try drawing him in, awaiting his movement with stillness, manning the ramparts [i.e. maintaining a defensive readiness].
  With troops arrayed, banners hoisted, preparation averts danger, constantly defending your true position.
  One moment luring him in, the next moment advancing upon him, direct and indirect techniques generate each other. Pretend defeat, then turn the tables and attack.
  Draw him in, then rotate (meaning that once you have drawn him in, suddenly turn him) and advance like the wind. Advance with seventy percent commitment, then suddenly stop yourself from going any further.
  Armies move sneakily, so be careful not to get attacked from behind. Forward, back, left, right, stay mindful of each direction.
  When you advance, do not be late, but also do not overcommit. The feet follow the movement of the hands, which make circles that seem magical.
  Suddenly go upward (hand and foot going upward), suddenly go downward (hand and foot going downward), sometimes go along with (meaning energy is coiling along with the movement), sometimes go against (meaning energy is coiling in the reverse direction of the movement). Sunlight illuminates all and does not fall on only some.
  When I advance, I must catch him unawares, but if he is able to defend, my technique is certainly not clever.
  The general observes the enemy, careful at every point. He allows the enemy army to swirl in every direction, then advances his own as one.
  The enemy general is beheaded, his flag uprooted, using methods so subtle as to seem miraculous. Taiji theory can hardly be explained in a few words.
  The passive and active aspects transform into each other within the body. If you wade at all into false interpretations, it makes the ingenuity of the art harder to find.

太極拳之要點
KEY POINTS FOR TAIJI BOXING

余綴父師之言成太極拳要義三篇又恐初學者不能得其要領不嫌煩複謹舉其要點以為初步研究者參考
The three sections of essentials above are based on the writings of my teacher. However, I fear that beginners will not be able to comprehend them. To spare you the trouble of digesting such complicated material right away, I sincerely offer key points as described below for you to refer to in the beginning of the training.

性質
[1] THE NATURE OF THE ART

太極拳之性質吾師品三雖言剛中寓柔柔中寓剛剛柔相濟運化無方此言成手時之功夫也初學宜以自然柔活為主柔宜鬆活宜領柔而不鬆活而不領卽不自然安能致堅剛於將來哉
According to my teacher Chen Xin, the nature of Taiji Boxing is thus: “There is softness within hardness, hardness within softness. With hardness and softness complementing each other, you can transform without limit.” But this describes your condition once you have achieved skill. In the beginning, you should give priority to being naturally soft and lively. To be soft, be loose. To be lively, be nimble. To be soft without being loose, or to be lively without being nimble, there will be no naturalness, and you will not be able to achieve a solid firmness in the future.

方法
[2] METHODS

太極拳之方法其最主要者為虛實開合起落旋轉八字初學宜辨別淸楚
The most important methods in Taiji Boxing are the eight qualities of emptiness and fullness, opening and closing, rising and lowering, turning and rotating, which should be clearly distinguished by beginners.

程序
[3] SEQUENCE OF TRAINING

習太極拳之程序須先慢後快快後復緩先柔後剛然後剛柔始能相濟
Taiji Boxing training has a proper process. You must first practice slowly, then briskly, then slowly again. First practice with softness, then with hardness, and then hardness and softness will be able to complement each other.

姿勢
[4] POSTURES

動作停止時之架式曰姿勢太極拳姿勢之要點不外乎手領眼隨身端步穩肩平身合尤須注意頂襠兩部之動作〔勁〕無使有失否則必致上重下輕周身歪斜站立不穩之病百出矣
When a movement in the set finishes, it is called a “posture”. The main points of Taiji Boxing postures are nothing more than: hands lead, gaze follows; body balanced, steps stable; shoulders level, body unified. You particularly need to pay attention to movement [energy] at the two areas of headtop and crotch so that you do not lose your balance. Otherwise the result will be heavy above, light below, throwing your whole body askew, and the errors of standing unstably will manifest in countless ways.

動作
[5] MOVEMENT

太極拳之動靜作勢純任自然運化靈活循環無端要知其虛實開合起落旋轉俱從圓形中來凡初步入門以大圈為法始則柔筋活節進則接骨鬥榫學者誠明乎此身作心維朝斯夕斯精而求之進步自速
Taiji Boxing’s movements are to be performed with a pure naturalness, changing nimbly, circling without limit. You have to know each movement’s emptiness and fullness, opening and closing, its rising and lowering, turning side to side. Every movement comes from a posture of roundness. Generally in the beginning, you should use large circles as a standard. You will thus start by softening your sinews and livening your joints, then you will progress to positioning your bones and solidifying your structure. Truly understand these things. Perform with your body and ponder with your mind, practicing these things from dawn to dusk, refining and striving, and you will naturally have rapid progress.

呼吸
[6] BREATHING

呼吸調氣足以發達肺部若於早晨呼吸後練習拳術或在練拳時有相當之呼吸隨其動靜出納以調氣則筋肉與肺部必同時發育自無肺弱之患
Breathing regulates energy and is all you need to develop your lungs. Practice the boxing art after breathing the early morning air. Sometimes when practicing the boxing set, there is coordinated breathing, inhaling and exhaling in accordance with the movement. The muscles will thus be developed at the same time as the lungs, and you will naturally be without the worry of weak lungs.

精神
[7] SPIRIT

太極拳之精神以虛靈為極致初習者固不能達此境界然能守所舉要點契而不舍久久自能水到渠成
Taiji Boxing’s spirit has naturalness as the highest goal. In the beginning of the training, you will not yet be able to reach this state, but if you can adhere to these key points perseveringly, then after a long time you are sure to be successful.

周身相隨
[8] WHOLE-BODY COORDINATION

四肢百骸協同動作此之謂周身相隨故太極拳一動無有不動一靜無有不靜
Your four limbs and hundreds of bones are to be moving cooperatively. This is called “whole-body coordination”. Hence in Taiji Boxing: “When one part moves, every part moves, and when one part is still, every part is still.”

變著轉勢
[9] SWITCHING TECHNIQUES & TRANSITIONAL MOVEMENTS

太極拳之變著與轉勢原屬兩解一前著已停下著未作其中間之動作成一勢曰變著如懶扎衣下練之右合式又如摟膝拗步下練之右收式野馬分鬃玉女穿梭前之兩個左收式均為變著二此著一停要作下著中間之一動作名曰轉勢如單鞭以下之左轉又如掩手錘以下之右轉等動作均屬轉勢均須辨別明白
Taiji Boxing’s transitioning falls into basically two categories:
  1. The previous technique finishes and the following technique has not yet started, so in between them there is a posture. This is called “switching techniques”. For some examples, LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE is followed by RIGHT CLOSING, BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE is followed by WITHDRAWING THE RIGHT SIDE, and both WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE and MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH are preceded by WITHDRAWING THE LEFT SIDE.
  2. The current technique finishes but the following technique should already be underway, so in between them there is a movement. This is called “transitional movement”. For some examples, SINGLE WHIP is followed by rotating to the left, and HIDDEN-HAND PUNCH is followed by rotating to the right.
  Both of these ideas have to be clearly distinguished.

身作心維
[10] THE BODY PERFORMS & THE MIND PONDERS

語曰口誦心維讀書且如此況習武乎故身而作心而維實最易使人進步之一法太極拳之身作心維至要者曰身宜作其圓活心宜維其虛靈
There is a saying: “The mouth recites and the mind ponders.” This concept is true for studying books, but is it not even more so for practicing martial arts? To have the body to perform and the mind to ponder upon the performance is surely the easiest way to enable people to progress. Taiji Boxing’s principle of “the body performs and the mind ponders” has been best stated as: “The body should perform with nimbleness. The mind should ponder with naturalness.”

無貪無妄
[11] DO NOT BE GREEDY OR RASH

習太極拳最忌貪多尤戒妄動凡運用與姿勢均須求其正確庶練成後不致犯病而精進自易若貪若妄者成就終鮮此弊初學什九難免切宜注意
When practicing Taiji Boxing, the most important thing to avoid is greed for more, and you must particularly avoid rash action. With every movement and posture, seek to perform it correctly, and then practice repeatedly so that you do not make errors. The more you progress, the more you will naturally want variety, but if you are greedy or rash, success will ultimately be hard to come by. This is a fault in beginners. It is very hard to avoid having, and so you have to be mindful of it.

十三勢術名及其演練法
NAMES OF THE TECHNIQUES IN THE THIRTEEN SECTIONS SET & THEIR PRACTICE METHOD

太極起勢
[1] TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩臂兩手自然下垂十指平直
Hands: Your arms and hands hang down naturally, fingers straight.
眼 兩眼向前平視
Eyes: Your gaze is forward and level.
身 束肋塌腰身須端正而包合背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs and sink your waist. Your body must be upright and unified. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 雙膝微屈兩脚相距寬度與兩肩相等使上下相照站立宜穩
Stance: Your knees are slightly bent, feet shoulder width apart. Your upper body and lower should be aligned with each other. You should be standing stably.
法 下頦內收頂勁上提襠勁下鬆而合氣使下沉重點落於兩脚上如第一圖
Standards: Your chin withdraws, your headtop lifting up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Get your energy to sink down. The weight is on both feet. See photo 1:

金剛搗碓
[2] ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上勢在原地將身徐徐下落重點置於右脚左掌向前起與肩平同時左脚前上一步踏實重點移於左脚右手握拳上起由左手外轉至掌內轉時脚膝隨同平起轉畢脚平落於地
Continuing from the previous posture, slowly shift the weight to your right foot. Your left palm goes forward, lifting until at shoulder level. Your left foot at the same time steps forward. The weight shifts onto it. Your right hand grasps into a fist and lifts to the outside of your left hand, then circles around to the inside of the palm. While circling, your [right] foot lifts so the thigh is level. As the circle finishes, the foot lowers to be next to the other.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左掌右拳須與心對兩肘沉下兩肩鬆下
Hands: Your left palm and right fist must be in front of your solar plexus. Your elbows sink and your shoulders loosen downward.
眼 兩眼向前平視
Eyes: Your gaze is forward and level.
身 束肋塌腰周身包合背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs and sink your waist. Your whole body is united.
Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 兩脚相距寬度與兩肩相等使上下相照雙膝微屈
Stance: Your feet are shoulder width apart. Your upper body and lower should be aligned with each other. Your knees are slightly bent.
法 頂頸〔勁〕須使上提故下頦必須內收襠勁下鬆而合重點落於兩脚之上務求站穩如第二圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up, therefore your chin has to withdraw. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto both feet. You should stand stably. See photo 2:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
左手領左足向前上步右拳帶右足自下而上屈膝平起拳由左手外旋歸掌內足卽落地左掌右拳各領半身起落旋轉全部動作務求相隨切勿妄動腰宜活氣宜沉眼隨手轉
Your left hand guides your left foot into stepping forward, your right fist leads your right foot to lift upward, knee bending, until the thigh is level, and then as the fist circles from the outside of your left hand to the inside of the palm, the foot comes down. Your left palm and right fist each guide its half of your body. In rising, lowering, and turning, the whole movement must be coordinated, no part moving on its own. Your waist should have a lively energy and should sink. Your gaze follows the arcing of the hands.

懶扎衣(今名攬擦衣)
[3] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (nowadays known as WIPING THE SHIRT)

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上勢右拳變掌落至左肋處由面前往右邊旋轉指尖遙與眉齊同時右脚向右方邁一步脚跟先着地落實後屈膝左手落於腰間左脚就原地向右轉順
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist becomes a palm and lowers to the area of your left ribs. It then arcs away from in front of your face over to the right side, fingertips at eyebrow level. At the same time, your right foot steps to the right, heel touching down first, and after coming down fully, the knee bends. Your left hand lowers to be beside your waist. Your left foot stays where it is, but goes along with the movement by turning to the right.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右手遙與眉齊左手虛作叉腰狀
Hands: Your right hand is at eyebrow level. Your left hand seems to adopt a hand-on-waist posture.
眼 眼神略注右手中指
Eyes: Your gaze is slightly focused on the middle finger of your right hand.
身 束肋拔脊沉肘平肩塌腰周身包合不可右探
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Pluck up your back. Sink your elbows. Keep your shoulders level. Sink your waist. Your whole body is united. You must not lean to the right.
步 右腿露膝左腿勿屈
Stance: Your right leg sticks its knee out. Your left leg should not.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於兩脚之上如第三圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto both feet. See photo 3:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手徐徐下落全身下矮右手自左肋處起由面前往右邊旋轉右足隨手往右方邁步露膝鬆襠左手落於腰間左足在原地隨右足向右方轉順眼神略注右手中指全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動眼隨手轉腰宜活氣宜沉
Your hands slowly lower, your whole body lowering, your right hand lifts from your left rib area and arcs from in front of your face to the right side, and your right foot goes along with the hand by stepping out to the right side, the knee then bending and your crotch loosening, your left hand lowering to be beside your waist, your left foot staying where it is but going along with your right foot by turning to the right. Your gaze slightly focuses on the middle finger of your right hand. The entire movement should have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own. Your gaze follows the arc of your [right] hand. Your waist should have a lively energy and should sink.

右合式
[4.1] RIGHT CLOSING POSTURE

此為懶扎衣至單鞭中間之一變著若無此著則兩姿勢間缺一合勁而不能相連矣
This is the transition between LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE and SINGLE WHIP. Without it, there would be a gap between the two postures and they would not be able to link together.

動作
Movement:
右手領動全身徐徐下矮兩手相合於右右脚向前轉實左脚收虛足尖點地
With your right hand guiding the movement, your whole body slowly lowers as your hands close toward each other to the right, your right foot turning toward the front and becoming full, your left foot gathering in and becoming empty, toes touching down.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩掌距離之寬度與膝之距離同
Hands: The distance between your hands is the same as their distance from your [front] knee.
眼 眼看兩手
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your hands.
身 肋宜束腰宜塌周身包合背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your ribs should pull down. Your waist should sink. Your whole body is united. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 雙膝微屈右脚實左脚虛距離約一橫脚遠近
Stance: Both knees are slightly bent. Your right foot is full, left foot empty. The sideways distance between them is about one foot.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於右脚之上氣宜下沉如第四圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto your right foot. The energy should sink down. See photo 4:

單鞭
[4.2] SINGLE WHIP

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式全身徐徐下落左手自右肋處起由面前向左邊旋轉指尖遙與眉齊同時左脚向左邁一步脚跟先着地俟落實後屈膝右手撮五指左旋一小圈而向右展右脚就原地向左方轉順
Continuing from the previous posture, your whole body slowly lowers. Your left hand lifts from your right rib area and arcs to the left, passing in front of your face, fingertips at eyebrow level. At the same time, your left foot steps to the left, heel touching down first, then once the foot comes down fully, the knee bends. Your right hand pinches with its five fingers and makes a small leftward circle, then extends to the right. Your right foot stays where it is, but goes along with the movement by turning to the left.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左手遙與眉齊右手撮住五指沉肘平肩
Hands: Your left hand is at eyebrow level. Your right hand pinches with its five fingers. Sink your elbows and keep your shoulders level.
眼 眼神注左中指
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your left middle finger.
身 束肋拔脊塌腰周身包合不可左探
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Pluck up your back. Sink your waist. Your whole body is united. You must not lean to the left.
步 左腿露膝右腿勿屈
Stance: Your left leg sticks its knee out. Your right leg should not.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於兩脚之上如第五圖
Method: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto both feet. See photo 5:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩掌徐徐下落全身下矮左手自右肋處起由面前向左邊旋轉指尖遙與眉齊左足隨手往左方邁步露膝鬆襠右手撮五指旋一小圈向右展右脚在原地隨左脚向左方轉順全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動眼隨手轉腰宜活氣宜沉
Both palms slowly lower as your body lowers, then your left hand lifts from your right rib area and arcs to the left, passing in front of your face, fingertips at eyebrow level, your left foot going along with the hand by stepping out to the left side, the knee then bending, your crotch loosening, your right hand meanwhile pinching with its five fingers, making small circle and extending to the right, your right foot staying where it is but going along with your left foot by turning to the left. The entire movement should have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own. Your gaze follows your [left] hand as it arcs. Your waist should be lively and your energy should sink.

金剛搗碓
[5] ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR

此重著也其練法要點雖與第一著相同然因轉勢關係故其開始動作略異
This is a repeated movement. Although the practice method and important points of it are the same as in the first time, there is a turning of direction, and thus it is slightly different from the beginning movement.

動作
Movement:
兩手領肩臂下落束肋活腰就原地徐徐左轉同時左脚向前轉實重點落此眼隨左手前視餘與第一著金剛搗碓動作相同
With your hands leading your shoulders into lowering, pull down your ribs and liven your waist. Staying where you are, slowly turn to the left. At the same time, your left foot turns forward and the weight lowers onto it. Your gaze follows your left hand to look forward. The rest is the same as in the first ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR.

白鵝晾翅
[6] WHITE GOOSE DRIES ITS WINGS

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩掌隨身下矮徐徐落至雙膝前先將重點落於左脚右脚向右橫邁一小步重點卽換於此同時兩手由左而右經面前上旋眼隨手轉左足收成虛脚足尖點地
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms go along with the lowering of your body, slowly lowering until in front of your knees. First put the weight on your left foot and step your right foot a small step across to the right, then switch the weight onto your right foot. At the same time, your hands arc upward from left to right, passing in front of your face. Your gaze follows your hands as they arc. Your left foot withdraws and becomes the empty foot, toes touching down.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩掌作八字形高與眉齊兩肘下沉
Hands: Your palms make a ninety-degree angle to each other at eyebrow height, but your elbows are sinking down.
眼 兩眼平視
Eyes: Your gaze is level.
身 肋宜束腰宜塌背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your ribs should pull down and your waist should sink. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 雙膝屈右脚實左脚虛相距約一橫足遠近
Stance: Your knees are bent, right foot full, left foot empty, the feet about a foot apart from each other.
法 頂頸須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於右脚之上如第六圖
Method: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto your right foot. See photo 6:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手引動全身徐徐下矮落至雙膝前旋起由面前轉至右邊高與眉齊兩足隨手向右邊並步腰宜活右足實左足虛兩肘虛懸下沉如晾翅狀氣宜下沉全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動
Your hands guide the movement as your whole body slowly lowers, and once your hands are in front of your knees, they arc upward, passing in front of your face, until on the right side at eyebrow height, your feet going along with your hands by stepping together to the right. Your waist should be lively. Your right is full, left foot empty. Your elbows have an intention of sinking downward. The posture is like a goose drying its wings. Your energy should sink down. The entire movement should have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

摟膝拗步
[7] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

初步動作
Basic Movement:
承上式全身徐徐下矮兩掌自胸下相交落至雙膝下分摟右手自右膝外上轉至鼻準前左手自左膝外上轉撮五指落於左腰間同時左脚向左方邁一步脚跟先着地俟落實後屈膝右脚就原地向左方轉順
Continuing from the previous posture, your whole body slowly lowers. Your palms cross below your chest, then spread apart once below your knees. Your right hand brushes away to the outside of your right knee and arcs upward until in front of your nose. Your left hand brushes away to the outside of your left knee and arcs upward to be at the left side of your waist, its five fingers pinching together. At the same time, your left foot steps to the left, heel first touching down, then once the foot comes down fully, the knee bends. Your right foot stays where it is, but turns to the left.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右肘下沉成圓形掌與鼻準相照左手於左腰間撮住五指虎口向內
Hands: Your right elbow sinks down to give your arm a curved shape. The palm is aligned with your nose. Your left hand is at the left side of your waist, fingers pinched together, tiger’s mouth facing inward.
眼 眼視右掌中指
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your right middle finger.
身 束肋塌腰周身包合背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs and sink your waist. Your whole body is united. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左膝露右腿勿屈兩脚距離一步
Stance: Your left knee sticks out. Your right leg should not bend. The distance between your feet is a single stride.
法 頂頸須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於兩脚之上如第七圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto both feet. See photo 7:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領動全身下矮由雙膝下左右分摟往上旋轉右掌落於鼻準前左手撮五指落於腰間左足向左邁一步鬆襠露膝右足向右方轉順眼視右手食指全部動作務求周身相隨腰宜活氣宜沉
With your hands guiding the movement, your whole body lowers, your hands spread apart from below your knees, brush away to the sides, and arc upward, your right hand then lowering to be in front of your nose, your left hand going beside your waist, fingers pinched together, as your left foot steps to the left, your crotch loosens, and the knee sticks out, your right foot going along with the movement by turning to the right. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. The entire movement should have whole-body coordination. Your waist should be lively. Your energy should sink.

右收勢一
[8.1] WITHDRAWING THE RIGHT SIDE – 1st time

此為摟膝拗步至斜行摟膝拗步中間之一變著
This is the transition between BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE and WALK DIAGONALLY, CROSSED STANCE.

初步動作
Basic movement:
兩手引動全身右足往右後方斜收一步踏實左脚隨收虛點於地重點落於右脚上左掌在前肘微屈右臂成勾股形肘平掌與胸齊頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合周身相隨目注前手
Your hands lead the movement of your whole body. Your right foot withdraws a step diagonally to the right rear and becomes full. Your left foot follows it, withdrawing and emptily touching down, the weight on your right foot. Your left palm is forward, elbow slightly bent. Your right arm makes a right triangle, the elbow and palm at chest level. Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The movement is to be performed with whole-body coordination. Your gaze is toward your front hand.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左掌在前肘微屈右臂成勾股形肘平掌與胸齊
Hands: Your left palm is forward, elbow slightly bent. Your right arm makes a right triangle, the elbow and palm at chest level.
眼 眼視左手
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your left hand.
身 束肘塌腰周身包合背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs and sink your waist. Your whole body is united. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 雙膝微屈右脚實左脚虛相距約一橫脚
Stance: Your knees are slightly bent. Your right foot is full, left foot empty. There is a foot’s distance between your feet.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點置於右脚上氣宜下沉如第八圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto your right foot. Energy should be sinking down. See photo 8:

斜行拗步
[8.2] WALK DIAGONALLY, CROSSED STANCE

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式全身徐徐下矮兩手自然下落左手用開勁向左旋轉一圈領左脚向左半面斜邁一步右手用合勁旋轉一圈領右脚跟一步左脚再邁一大步先要脚跟着地俟落實後屈膝同時兩掌自胸下相交落至雙膝下分摟右手自右膝外上轉至鼻準前左手自左膝外上轉撮五指落於左腰間
Continuing from the previous posture, your whole body slowly lowers, your hands naturally lowering. Your left hand makes an arc to the left with an energy of opening, leading your left foot to step diagonally a half step to the left. Your right hand makes an arc with an energy of closing, leading your right foot into a following step. Your left foot again steps, taking a large stride, and should touch down first with the heel. Once the foot comes down fully, the knee bends. At the same time, your palms cross below your chest, then lower spread apart once below your knees. Your right hand brushes away to the outside of your right knee and arcs upward until in front of your nose. Your left hand brushes away to the outside of your left knee and arcs upward to be at the left side of your waist, its five fingers pinching together.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右肘沉下成圓形掌與鼻準相照左手撮五指置於左腰間虎口向內
Hands: Your right elbow sinks down to give your arm a curved shape. The palm is aligned with your nose. Your left hand is at the left side of your waist, fingers pinching together, tiger’s mouth facing inward.
眼 眼視右掌中指
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your right middle finger.
身 束肋塌腰周身包合背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs and sink your waist. Your whole body is united. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左膝露右腿勿屈兩脚距離一步
Stance: Your left knee sticks out. Your right leg should not bend. The distance between your feet is a single stride.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於兩脚之上如第九圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto both feet. See photo 9:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領動全身下矮先後旋圈兩脚隨同次第斜上三步全部動作務求周身相隨餘與摟膝拗步同
Your hands guide the movement, your whole body lowering, and your hands circle, one after the other, your feet correspondingly taking three diagonal forward steps in succession. The entire movement should have whole-body coordination. The rest is the same as in BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE.

右收勢二
[9.1] WITHDRAWING THE RIGHT SIDE – 2nd time

此為斜行摟膝拗步至掩手錘中間之一變著其動作與第一右收勢相同惟此係右足往右後方正收一步成為正面式
This is the transition between WALK DIAGONALLY, CROSSED STANCE and HIDDEN-HAND PUNCH. The movement is the same as the WITHDRAWING THE RIGHT SIDE, except this time when your right foot withdraws a step to the right rear,
it points all the way to the initial forward direction.

演手紅捶(今名掩手捶)
[9.2] COVERING HAND, REDDENING PUNCH (modern name: HIDDEN-HAND PUNCH)

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式全身徐徐下矮兩手自然下落左手用開勁向左旋轉一圈領左脚正行向左邁一步右手用合勁旋轉一圈領右脚跟一步左脚再邁一大步先要脚跟着地俟落實後屈膝同時左手合旋一小圈掩在左肋前右手變拳旋一大圈由胸前經過照左掌自然鬆出
Continuing from the previous posture, your whole body slowly lowers, your hands naturally lowering. Your left hand makes an arc to the left with an energy of opening, leading your left foot to step straight to the left. Your right hand makes an arc [to the left] with an energy of closing, leading your right foot into a following step. Your left foot again steps, taking a large stride, and should touch down first with the heel. Once the foot comes down fully, the knee bends. At the same time, your left hand makes a small circle to cover in front of your left ribs. Your right hand becomes a fist and makes a large circle, then goes from in front of your chest, passing alongside your left palm, and releasing with a naturalness.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左掌右拳合在左肋前與膝相照
Hands: Your left palm and right fist join in front of your left ribs and over your [left] knee.
眼 眼看兩手
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your hands.
身 束肋塌腰周身包合
Torso: Pull down your ribs and sink your waist. Your whole body is united.
步 左膝露右腿勿屈相距一步
Stance: Your left knee sticks out. Your right leg should not bend. The distance between your feet is a single stride.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於左足上如第十圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto your left foot. See photo 10:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領動下〔全〕身下矮先後旋圈兩足隨同次第向左上三步左手掩在左肋前眼隨右拳由胸前照左手鬆出平肩束肋擰腰扣襠氣宜下沉全部動作務須周身相隨切勿妄動
With your hands guiding the movement, your whole body lowers and your hands circle, one after the other, as your feet correspondingly taking three successive steps forward to the left, your left hand covering in front of your left ribs, your gaze following your right fist as it goes forward from in front of your chest, parallel with your left hand, releasing at shoulder level. Pull down your ribs. Twist your waist and close your crotch. Energy should be sinking down. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

金剛搗碓
[10] ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR

此重著也其練法要點雖與第一第二金剛搗碓相同然因轉勢關係其開始動作略異
This is a repeated movement. Although the practice method and important points of it are the same as in the first and second time, there is a turning of direction [to be facing the same direction as the first time], and thus it is slightly different from the beginning movement.

動作
Movement:
兩手領全身向右囘左脚就原地向前轉面向正方右拳落於大股之右餘與第一第二兩着相同
Your hands lead your body into withdrawing to the right, your left foot staying where it is but turning to points its toes forward so that you are facing squarely forward, and your right fist lowers to the right of your [right] thigh. Then the rest is the same as in the first two instances of ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR.

披身錘(今名庇身捶)
[11] DRAPING-BODY PUNCH (modern name: SHIELDING-BODY PUNCH)

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式重點落於左脚右拳收至左肋下左手收至右肩前與兩臂抱合右手領右脚往左脚邊虛收全身下矮重點在左脚上同時右脚向右鬆襠邁一步先要脚跟着地俟落實後屈膝右肩低至右膝下旋起束肋擰腰兩手各往左右大圈旋轉右拳旋至太陰穴左拳轉至左胯上左足就原地向裏轉順重點在右脚上
Continuing from the previous posture, the weight shifts to your left foot. Your right fist withdraws to be below your left ribs and your left hand withdraws to be front of your right shoulder, your arms as though embracing something. Your right hand leads your right foot to withdraw toward your left foot and become empty. Your whole body lowers, the weight on your left foot. Then your right foot steps to the right, your crotch loosening, and must first touch down with the heel. Once the foot comes down fully, the knee bends. Your right shoulder lowers until below your right knee and arcs upward. Pull down your ribs and twist your waist. Your hands make large circles on each side, your right fist circling until at your [right] temple, your left fist circling until on top of your left hip. Your left foot stays where it is, but turns along with the movement, the weight on your right foot.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右拳在太陰穴手心向下左拳在左胯上手心向外肘肩朝前
Hands: Your right fist is at your right temple, the center of the fist facing downward. Your left fist is on your left hip, the center of the fist facing outward, the elbow and shoulder pointing forward.
眼 眼注左脚趾
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your left toes.
身 周身包合背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your whole body is united. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 右脚〔腿〕露膝左脚〔腿〕勿屈相距一步
Stance: Your right knee sticks out. Your left leg should not bend. The distance between your feet is a single stride.
法 兩肩下鬆重點落於右脚上頦下收擰腰束肋合襠氣宜下沉如第十一圖
Standards: Your shoulders loosen downward. The weight goes onto your right foot. Your chin withdraws. Twist your waist. Pull down your ribs. Close your crotch. Energy should sink downward. See photo 11:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領兩臂抱合右拳向左鬆出全身下矮鬆襠邁右步兩手由雙膝下分左右往上旋轉右肩由膝下過右拳旋至太陰穴左拳轉至左胯上左足就原地向裏轉順右拳與左肘左足趾取一斜線全部動作務須周身相隨
Your hands lead your arms to embrace, your right fist releasing toward the left, as your whole body lowers, your crotch loosening, and your right foot steps out. Both hands go from below both knees, spread to the sides, and circle upward, your right shoulder going from below your [right] knee, your right fist circling until at your [right] temple, your left fist circling until on top of your left hip, your left foot staying where it is, but turning along with the movement. There is a diagonal line from your right fist to your left elbow to your left toes. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

靑龍出水
[12] BLUE DRAGON LEAVES THE WATER

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩手落下自左邊大圈旋起束肋擰腰由胸次往右鬆出右臂平肘與膝相照左肘屈眼隨手轉兩膝隨身手活動先左後右重點隨勁更換兩脚仍在原處不動
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands lower and will make a large circle rising from the left side. Pull down your ribs and twist your waist. Then going from your chest, your hands release to the right, your right arm straightening, the elbow above the knee, your left elbow bent. Your gaze follows the circling of your hands. Your knees go along with the movement of your body and hands, first to the left, then to the right, the weight correspondingly shifting, your feet staying where they are.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右手在前肘與膝照左手在右乳前肘平兩手手背均向外
Hands: Your right hand is forward, elbow over the knee. Your left hand is in front of the right side of your chest, with the forearm level. The backs of both hands are facing outward.
眼 眼看右手
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your right hand.
身 身法宜低背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your body should be lowered. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 披身錘步法原地不動
Stance: Your stance does not leave its location from the previous posture.
法 頂勁上提氣宜下沉平肩束肋塌腰合襠重點在兩脚上如第十二圖
Standards: Your headtop lifts up. Energy should sink down. Your shoulders are level. Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Close your crotch. The weight is on both feet. See photo 12:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手自然落下自左而右大圈旋起經由胸前向右鬆出須使周身相隨初練宜用兩掌鬆出嗣練用兩拳鬆出均用柔勁圖中左掌右拳者所以明拳掌俱可演習
Your hands naturally lower and making a large circle, rising from left to right, passing in front of your chest and releasing to the right. There must be whole-body coordination. In the beginning of the training, you should perform this technique releasing with palms. In more advanced training, release with fists. In either case, use soft power. In the photo, it is shown with left palm and right fist to show that it can be performed with both fist and palm. [As the photo does not show this, the text in this case may have been made before the photos.]

肘底看拳
[13] GUARDING FIST UNDER THE ELBOW

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式右手領右脚向左後方轉面向前重點卽落於右脚上右手向外大圈旋轉握拳至左肘下左掌側豎左脚尖虛點於地
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand leads your right foot to the left rear, turning you around to face forward. The weight goes onto your right foot. Your right hand goes outward in a large circle, grasping into a fist, until below your left elbow. Your left palm is sideways and vertical. Your left toes emptily touch the ground.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左手側豎右拳在左肘下與左膝相照
Hands: Your left hand is sideways and vertical. Your right fist is below your left elbow and above your left knee.
眼 眼向前視
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 束肋塌腰上體正直下體低屈背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your upper body is upright and your lower is crouched. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 右脚實左脚虛相距一橫脚
Stance: Your right foot is full, left foot empty. The sideways distance between them is one foot.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合周身包合氣宜下沉如第十三圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Your whole body is united. Energy should sink down. See photo 13:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領動全身左轉右脚向左後方轉順右拳由面前旋歸左肘下左掌側豎右膝屈足尖虛點於地全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動眼隨手轉氣宜下沉
Your hands guide the movement of your whole body as you turn around to the left, your right foot correspondingly turning to the left rear, your right fist going from in front of your face, arcing and withdrawing to be below your left elbow, your left palm sideways and vertical, your right [left] knee bending, the toes touching down emptily. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own. Your gaze follows the arcing of your hands. Energy should sink down.

倒捻紅(今名倒捲肱)
[14] RETREAT WITH TWISTING REDNESS (modern name: RETREAT WITH ROLLING ARMS)

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩手下落兩膝外右手帶右脚平起重點落於左脚上右手由後旋至右肩前落下同時右脚向後方倒步脚尖先着地俟落實後重點移此左部動作亦然各轉數次最後兩掌隨身下矮徐徐落至雙膝前準備演下着白鵝晾翅
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands lower to the outside of your knees. Your right hand leads your right foot to lift so the thigh is level, the weight going onto your left leg. Then your right hand circles from behind until in front of your right shoulder and lowers. Your right foot at the same time stepping to the rear, toes touching down first. Once the foot comes down fully, the weight shifts toward it. This is the version of the movement on the left side. It is the same on the other side. Repeat several times. On the last time, your palms go along with the lowering of your body by lowering until in front of your knees, preparing you to perform the following technique – WHITE GOOSE SHOWS ITS WINGS.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右手在右肩前左手在左膝外此為右倒捲肱左倒捲肱反是
Hands: When your right hand is in front of your right shoulder and your left hand is to the outside of your left knee, this is RETREAT WITH ROLLING ARMS on the right side. The version on the left side is the reverse.
眼 眼向前視
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 身法宜低
Torso: Your body should go low.
步 右脚高與左膝平左倒捲肱反是
Step: Your right foot goes as high as your left knee. To perform RETREAT WITH ROLLING ARMS on the left side, it is the reverse.
法 上身宜直下身低屈頂提肋束腰塌襠合此着祗列右式如第十四圖
Standards: Your upper body should be upright. Your lower body crouches down. Your headtop lifts. Your ribs pull down. Your waist sinks. Your crotch closes. For this technique, only the version of the posture on the right [left] side is demonstrated. See photo 14:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手下落各領各半身次第旋轉由後旋起至肩前落下兩脚隨手向後倒步足膝平起落手肘肩捲肱旋轉各三次旋轉畢兩手落雙膝前全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動成倒捲肱式
Your hands lower and guide their respective halves of your body as they circle several times, lifting from behind until in front of the shoulder and then lowering, your feet go along with your hands by stepping to the rear, the foot first lifted to knee level, then coming down. Your arms – the hand, elbow, and shoulder – circle three times, and after the last one, your hands lower to be in front of your knees. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

白鵝晾翅
[15] WHITE GOOSE DRIES ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[16] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
皆重著也其動作姿勢均與前述之白鵝晾翅摟膝拗步相同圖不列
These are repeated techniques. The movements and postures for these techniques have already been described and are to be performed the same as before.

閃通背
[17] SURGE THROUGH THE BACK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式右脚先向左內收半步落實左脚向右內收半步虛點於地兩脚相距一橫脚同時右掌領肘肩隨右半身側矮掌落兩脚之間重點置右脚上左手撮五指向後高起與右手上下相照眼隨右手下視本節動作先扣襠後合襠
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot first withdraws a half step inward to the left, coming down full. Your left step then withdraws a half step inward to the right, coming down empty. The sideways distance between your feet is about a foot. Your right palm at the same time leads the elbow and shoulder so that the right half of your body turns sideways, and lowers so the palm is between your feet. The weight is on your right foot. Your left hand pinches its five fingers behind you and raises high, your hands corresponding to each other upward and downward. Your gaze follows your right hand to look downward. For this section of movement, first cover your crotch, then close your crotch.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右掌大指朝前在兩脚之間左手撮五指向後高起手心向上
Hands: Your right thumb points forward and is between your feet. Your left hand pinches its fingers together behind you and raises high, the center of the hand facing upward.
眼 兩眼下視
Eyes: Your gaze is downward.
身 身法矮背側左勿弓
Torso: Your body lowers. Your back turns sideways to the left, but must not arch.
步 兩脚左虛右實兩膝屈
Stance: Your left foot is empty, right foot full, both knees bent.
法 頂勁須使上提擰腰合襠如第十五圖此動作須與後圖連合演習
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Twist your waist. Close your crotch. This movement must flow into the next. See photo 15:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
右手領右半身活潑轉動側身落掌至兩足間左手撮五指向後高起同時兩脚次第內收相距一橫脚閃通背至此為止轉身動作右掌隨卽領左脚起身上步裏轉右脚下步與左脚相齊右手落於右股外接演掩手捶全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動成閃通背式
Your right hand leads the right half of your body into nimbly turning sideways, the palm lowering until between your feet, your left hand pinching its five fingers behind you and raising high, your feet at the same time withdrawing inward one after another until they are a foot across from each other. Once your body has finished its turning movement, completing this posture, your right palm then leads your left foot into stepping forward, your body lifting and turning inward, then your right foot comes down next to your left foot, your right hand lowering to the outside of your right thigh and flowing into the HIDDEN-HAND PUNCH. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

演手紅捶
[18] COVERING HAND, REDDENING PUNCH
懶扎衣
[19] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
單鞭
[20] SINGLE WHIP
皆為重著練法見前
These are repeated techniques. Their practice methods are the same as before.

雲手(今名運手)
[21] CLOUDING HANDS (modern name: WAVING HANDS)

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式左掌領右手變掌下落自膝上大圈旋起經面前運向右方同時左掌下落自左膝上大圈旋起經面前運向左方眼隨手轉左右交互上下運轉各三次同時兩脚隨手換步向左橫進束肋活腰鬆襠屈膝然後左脚向左邁步落實右脚向裏轉順兩手隨勁向左鬆出身向左半面轉勢
Continuing from the previous posture, your left palm leads your right hand, which lowers as a palm, then lifts from above your [right] knee in a large circle, passing in front of your face, and goes to the right side. Your left palm in that moment lowers, and it then lifts from above your left knee in a large circle, passing in front of your face, and goes to the left side. Your gaze goes along with the circling of your hands, these circles overlapping as your hands revolve to the left and right, upward and downward, for a total of three times each. At the same time, your feet advance sideways to the left in alternating steps. Pull down your ribs, liven your waist, loosen your crotch, bend your knees. Finally your left foot steps to the left and comes down full, your right foot turns inward, and your hands go along with the energy by releasing to the left, your torso turning halfway to the left…

姿勢
Posture:
手 右式右掌在右左掌在腹前左式反之手背均向外
Hands: On the right side, your right palm is to the right while your left palm is in front of your abdomen. On the left side, it is the reverse [your left palm to the left, right palm in front of your abdomen]. The backs of the hands are facing outward [inward].
眼 兩眼隨兩手流注
Eyes: Your gaze follows the movement of your hands.
身 背勿弓胸勿現束肋塌腰周身包合
Torso: Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out. Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your whole body is united.
步 兩脚向前鬆襠屈膝
Stance: Both feet point forward. Loosen your crotch. Bend your knees.
法 此式有左右兩式左式與懶扎衣相類右式與單鞭相類惟係小步原是一著故僅列右式如第十六圖
Standards: This posture is performed to the left and right. On the left [right] side, it is like LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE, and on the right [left] side, it is like SINGLE WHIP, except with smaller steps. But it is really the same technique on either side, and so it is only shown on the right side. See photo 16:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領動各半身次第上下運轉各三次同時兩脚向左換步橫進迨手足運轉畢兩手隨勁向左自然鬆出身向左半面轉全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動成運手式
Your hands lead the movement of their respective sides of the body, moving in successive circles, upward and downward, three times, your feet advancing at the same to the left with alternating steps. Once your hands and feet have completed a full circle, your hands go along with the energy by releasing to the left with a naturalness, your torso turning to the left. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

高探馬
[22] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩掌同時下落自左而右旋轉上起經面前仍向左方自然鬆出同時左脚收囘脚尖點地兩脚相距一橫足束肋活腰鬆襠屈膝重點落於右脚上
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms lower in unison, then circle from left to right and upward. They pass in front of your face and go again to the left, releasing outward with a naturalness. At the same time, your left foot withdraws, toes touching down. The distance between your feet is one foot. Pull down your ribs. Liven your waist. Loosen your crotch. Bend your knees. The weight goes onto your right foot.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左手在前仰手右掌在胸前合手
Hands: Your left hand is forward, palm facing upward. Your right palm covers in front of your chest.
眼 眼向前視
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 背勿弓胸勿現束肋塌腰
Torso: Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out. Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist.
步 右脚實膝微屈左脚虛膝宜露相距一橫脚
Stance: Your right foot is full, the knee slightly bent. Your left foot is empty and the knee should stick out. The distance between your feet is one foot.
法 頦下收頂上提左肘與左脚上下相照合襠穩勢作高探狀氣宜下沉如第十七圖
Standards: Your chin withdraws, your headtop lifting. Your left elbow and left foot are aligned with each other above and below. Close your crotch and settle your posture to make the shape of rising up and reaching out. Energy should sink down. See photo 17:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手下落自左膝處起轉由右後方上旋經面前仍向左方自然鬆出右手合肘屈平落胸前左手引肘向左仰手舒放眼前視同時左脚虛收於右脚前全部動作務求周身相隨成高探馬式
Your hands lower, rise in a circle from your near your left knee, then from the right rear, passing in front of your face to again release to the left with a naturalness, your right hand covering, elbow bent, forearm level, lowering to be in front of your chest, your left hand extending to the left, elbow drawn in, palm facing upward, your left foot at the same time emptying and withdrawing in front of your right foot. Your gaze is forward. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

右插脚
[23.1] RIGHT INSERTING KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式左脚落實兩手領全身上右步向左轉同時兩手落下合勁大圈旋起以平為度重點落於左脚上兩手開勁旋分左右以平為度同時右脚照右手踢起足面與掌心接觸為右插脚落右脚卽演左插脚
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down fully. Your hands lead your whole body into turning to the left while you step forward with your right foot. Your hands lower with a closing energy and make a large circle to lift up until level in front of you. The weight goes onto your left foot. Your hands spread in arcs with an opening energy until horizontal to the left and right. At the same time, your right foot kicks toward your right hand, the top of the foot touching the palm, making a right “inserting” kick. When your right foot comes down, immediately perform LEFT INSERTING KICK.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩掌合手平展右掌心與右脚面接觸
Hands: Your palms come together and then spread apart horizontally, your right palm touching the top of your right foot.
眼 眼看右手
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your right hand.
身 身法宜直胸勿現背勿弓
Torso: Your torso should be upright. Your chest should not stick out and your back should not arch.
步 左脚獨立宜穩膝勿屈右脚宜平與右掌接觸
Stance: Your left foot stands one-legged, should be stable, and the knee should not bend. Your right foot should be level and touch your right palm.
法 肩平頂勁上提襠勁鬆開如第十八圖
Standards: Your shoulders are level. Your headtop lifts. Your crotch has an energy of loosening open. See photo 18:

左插脚
[23.2] LEFT INSERTING KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式右脚落實兩手領全身上左步向右轉同時兩手落下合勁旋起以平為度重點落於右脚上兩手開勁分左右旋平同時左脚照左手踢起足面與掌心接觸是為左插脚踢畢仍落於地
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down fully. Your hands lead your whole body into turning to the right while you step forward with your left foot. Your hands lower with a closing energy and circle to lift up until level in front of you. The weight goes onto your right foot. Your hands spread in arcs with an opening energy until horizontal to the left and right. At the same time, your left foot kicks toward your left hand, the top of the foot touching the palm, making a left “inserting” kick. Once the kick is finished, the foot again comes down to the ground.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩掌合兩臂平展左手與左脚面接觸
Hands: Your palms come together and then spread apart horizontally, your left hand touching the top of your left foot.
眼 眼看左手
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your left hand.
身 身法宜直背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso should be upright. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 右脚獨立宜穩膝勿屈左脚面宜平與左掌接觸
Stance: Your right foot stands one-legged, should be stable, and the knee should not bend. The top of your left foot should be level and touch your left palm.
法 頂勁上提肩平襠開如第十九圖
Standards: Your headtop lifts. Your shoulders are level. Your crotch has an energy of opening. See photo 19:

左右插脚連貫動作
Continuous movement for both left and right kicks:
兩掌落下左脚落實向外轉兩手領全身上右步向左轉相距半步兩臂左右平展身宜活潑重點落於左脚上束肋鬆襠眼看右手右足上插足面接觸右掌成右插脚卽落原處向外轉兩掌復落下兩手領全身上左步向右轉相距半步兩臂左右平展身宜活潑重點落於右脚上束肋鬆襠眼看左手左脚上插足面接觸左掌成左插脚
Your palms lowering, your left foot comes down fully and turns outward, then your hands lead your whole body into turning to the left while bringing your right foot forward a half step, and your arms spread apart horizontally to the left and right. Your body should be lively. With the weight on your left foot, pull down your ribs and loosen your crotch. Your gaze is toward your right hand as your right foot inserts upward, the top of the foot touching your right palm, making a right “inserting” kick. Your foot promptly comes back down to where it was, turned outward, your palms lowering, then your hands lead your whole body into turning to the right while bringing your left foot forward a half step, and your arms spread apart horizontally to the left and right. Your body should be lively. With the weight on your right foot, pull down your ribs and loosen your crotch. Your gaze is toward your left hand as your left foot inserts upward, the top of the foot touching your left palm, making a left “inserting” kick.

轉勢動作
The turning movement [in preparation for the following kick]:
身體左向後轉左脚隨同虛點於地兩脚相距一橫足兩掌變拳相抱兩臂平屈身法宜低眼向左視重點落於右脚上成左插脚式
Your body turns around to the left rear, your left foot touching down emptily. The sideways distance between your feet is a foot. Your palms become fists and embrace toward each other, the arms level and bent. Your body should be lowered. Your gaze is to the left. The weight is on your right foot.

回身蹬一脚
[24] TURN, PRESSING KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式束肋鬆襠左腿屈起隨手向左橫足蹬出同時兩拳隨脚向左右下旋出勁展臂落左脚卽演靑龍戲水
Continuing from the previous posture, pull down your ribs, loosen your crotch. Bend in and lift your left leg, going along with your hands. Then do a sideways kick pressing out to the left. Your fists go along with your foot by spreading apart to the left and right, twisting [so the tiger’s mouths] face downward. Express power with the spreading of your arms. Then lower your left foot to immediately go into BLUE DRAGON PLAYS IN THE WATER.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩拳兩臂合勁平展
Hands: Your fists and arms have a closing energy, then spread apart to be horizontal.
眼 眼向左看
Eyes: Your gaze is to the left.
身 身法宜低背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso should lower. Your back should arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 右脚獨立宜穩膝微屈左足橫踹宜平
Stance: Your right foot stands one-legged, should be stable, and the knee is slightly bent. Your left foot does a sideways pressing kick and should be level.
法 肩平頂勁上提襠須鬆開如第二十圖
Standards: Your shoulders are level. Your headtop lifts. Your crotch must loosen and open. See photo 20:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
左脚跟向左蹬出兩拳領臂同時鬆出左分右展右腿獨立膝微屈勢宜穩全部動作務求周身相隨成蹬一脚式
Your left heel presses out to the left, your fists leading your arms as they release, spreading apart to the left and right. Your right leg stands one-legged, the knee slightly bent. The posture should stable. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination. This completes the PRESSING KICK posture.

上步靑龍戲水
[25] STEP FORWARD, BLUE DRAGON PLAYS IN THE WATER

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式左脚落地右拳大圈合勁旋轉領右脚跟一步左脾再邁一大步先要脚跟着地左膝露脚落實同時左拳合旋一小圈轉至左腰上右拳大圈旋轉向左脚面下指束肋擰腰扣襠身向左下重點落於左脚上
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down. Your right fist makes a large circle with a closing energy, leading your right foot into following a step forward. Your left foot steps again, taking a large step forward, which should first touch down with the heel, then the knee sticks out and the foot becomes full. At the same time, your left fist makes a small circle until above the left side of your waist and your right fist makes a large circle to point toward the top of your left foot. Pull down your ribs, twist your waist, and close your crotch. Your torso inclines downward to the left. The weight goes onto your left foot.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右拳下指左脚面手背向前左拳在左腰上手背向下
Hands: Your right fist points at the top of your left foot, the back of the hand facing forward. Your left fist is above the left side of your waist, the back of the hand facing downward.
眼 眼視左脚尖
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your left toes.
身 身法宜低背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your body should be lowered. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左膝露右膝勿屈
Stance: Your left knee sticks out. Your right knee should not be bent.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合成拗步如第二十一圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. You are making a crossed stance. See photo 21:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
左脚落地跟右脚開前步兩拳隨步旋轉露膝鬆襠身向左下右拳下指左脚面左拳轉至左腰上全部動作務求活潑相隨成靑龍戲水式
Your left foot comes down, your right foot follows, stepping out forward, and your fists circle along with the steps. As your [left] knee sticks out, your crotch loosens, and your torso inclines downward to the left, your right fist points downward toward the top of your left foot and your left fist arcs until above the left side of your waist. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination. This completes the posture of BLUE DRAGON PLAYS IN THE WATER.

囘頭踢二起
[26] TURN AROUND, DOUBLE-LIFT KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩脚在原地向右後轉重點落於右脚上右臂旋起向前平展身法宜低左脚屈膝平起同時左右手變掌互相旋轉左手仍落於後乘左脚落地時右脚踢起與右手掌接觸落右足卽演懷中抱月
Continuing from the previous posture, turn around to the right rear, your feet staying where they are, the weight going onto your right foot. Your right arm lifts in an arc and extends to be level in front. Your body should be lowered. Your left foot lifts until the thigh is level, knee bent. At the same time, your fists become palms and circle around each other, your left hand again lowering to the rear. While your left foot is coming down, your right foot lifts into a kick, touching your right palm. Once your right foot comes down, go right into EMBRACE THE MOON.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右手合左手仰右掌與右脚面接觸
Hands: Your right hand covers. Your left hand faces upward. Your right palm touches the top of your right foot.
眼 眼往前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 身法宜活潑
Torso: Your body should be lively.
步 右脚面宜平與右掌接觸左脚膝平屈虛懸空中如二十二圖
Stance: The top of your right foot should be flattened out when it touches your right palm. Your left foot hangs emptily, knee bent. See photo 22:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩拳領動全身回頭兩脚次第向右後轉兩臂先後旋轉重點落於右脚上矮身左脚屈膝平起俟脚踢起與右掌按〔接〕觸時始落於地擰腰鬆襠全部動作務求活潑相隨成二起式
With your fists leading the movement, your whole body turns around, your feet turning to the right rear in succession [left foot pivoting, then right], and your arms circle one after the other [left then right], the weight going onto your right foot, your body lowering. Your left foot lifts until it is level, knee bent, then once your [right] foot kicks, touching your right palm, it comes back down to the ground. Twist your waist and loosen your crotch. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination. This completes the DOUBLE-LIFT KICK posture.

懷中抱月
[27] EMBRACE THE MOON

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式右脚落地兩掌領全身下落變拳上左步右轉重點置於右脚上左脚尖虛點於地兩拳旋起抱合胸前
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down. Your palms lead your whole body into lowering, the palms becoming fists. Your left foot steps forward as you turn to the right. The weight is on your right foot, your left toes touching down emptily. Your fists circle to be lifted and embracing in front of your chest.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩拳相抱右合手在上左仰手在下平肩沉肘
Arms: Your fists embrace toward each other, your right hand covering above, left hand facing upward below. Keep your shoulders level and sink your elbows.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 上體直下體矮背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your upper body is upright. Your lower body squats down. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左脚虛膝宜露右脚實膝微屈兩脚相距一橫足
Stance: Your left foot touches down emptily. The knee should stick out. Your right foot is full, knee slightly bent. The sideways distance between your feet is a foot.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於右脚上束肋塌腰氣宜下沉如第二十三圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight is on your right foot. Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Energy should sink down. See photo 23:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
右脚落實兩掌下落變拳旋起抱合胸前同時上左步虛點於地全部動作務求活潑相隨氣宜下沉成懷中抱月式
Your right comes down fully, your palms lowering and becoming fists, then circling to be lifted and embracing in front of your chest, your left foot at the same time stepping forward to be touching down emptily. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination. Energy should sink down. This completes the posture of EMBRACING THE MOON.

左踢一脚
[28] LEFT POINTING KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式重點仍在右脚上眼向左看兩手向左右旋轉領虛足向左上踢一脚隨卽右向後轉左脚落實同時兩手隨身旋轉落下束肋擰腰扣襠矮身兩拳相扣至兩鬢角重點落於左脚上右脚趾虛點於地
Continuing from the previous posture, the weight remains on your right foot. With your gaze going to the left, your fists arc away to the left and right, leading your empty foot upward into a pointing kick to the left. Then immediately turn around to the right rear, your left foot coming down fully, your hands at the same time going along with the spin of your body by lowering. Pull down your ribs, twist your waist, cover your crotch, and lower your body. Your fists close toward each other until beside your temples. The weight is on your left foot, your right toes touching down emptily.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩拳左右平展
Hands: Your fists spread level to the left and right.
眼 眼向左看
Eyes: Your gaze is to the left.
身 身宜直背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your body should be upright. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 右脚獨立宜穩左脚向左上踢
Stance: Your right foot stands one-legged and should be stable. Your left foot kicks upward to the left.
法 頂勁〔須〕使上提襠勁鬆開如第二十四圖
Standards: Your headtop should be lifted up. Your crotch should have an energy of loosening open. See photo 24:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手左右鬆展左足向左上踢一脚隨卽右後轉落實左脚虛點兩拳相扣至兩鬢角名雙峯貫耳全部動作須求活潑相隨
Your fists release, spreading away to the left and right, as your left foot kicks upward to the left, then immediately turn around to the right rear and bring the foot down fully, your left [right] foot touching down emptily, and your fists close toward each other until beside your temples, which is called DOUBLE PEAKS THROUGH THE EARS. The entire movement must be lively and coordinated.

右蹬一跟
[29] RIGHT PRESSING KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式束肋鬆襠右腿屈起向右橫足蹬出同時兩拳隨脚向左右下旋出勁展臂轉身落左脚卽演掩手錘
Continuing from the previous posture, pull down your ribs and loosen your crotch. Your right leg bends and lifts, and presses out with a sideways kick to the right. At the same time, your fists go along with your foot by spreading apart to the left and right, twisting [so the tiger’s mouths] face downward. Express power with the spreading of your arms. Then turn your body [to the right], lower your left [right] foot, and perform COVERED-HAND PUNCH.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩拳兩臂合勁平展
Hands: Your fists and arms have a closing energy, then spread to be level.
眼 眼向右看
Eyes: Your gaze is to the right.
身 身法宜低背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso should be lowered. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左脚獨立宜穩膝微屈右脚橫踹宜平
Stance: Your left foot stands one-legged and should be stable, the knee slightly bent. Your right foot does a sideways kick and should be level.
法 頂勁上提襠勁鬆開重點在左脚上如第二十五圖
Standards: Your headtop lifts up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening open. The weight is on your left foot. See photo 25:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
右脚跟向右蹬出兩拳領兩臂同時猛鬆左右分展左腿獨立膝微屈勢宜穩全部動作務須周身相隨成右蹬一跟式
As your right heel presses out to the right, your fists lead your arms, spreading apart to the left and right with a sudden loosening. Your left leg stands one-legged, knee slightly bent, and should be stable. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination. This completes the RIGHT PRESSING KICK posture.

上步演手紅捶
[30] COVERING HAND, REDDENING PUNCH

此重著也承上式身體右向後轉右脚跥地此名恨脚重點落於其上其餘動作與前相同
This is a repeated technique. Continuing from the previous posture, your body turns toward the right rear, your right foot stomps the ground, an action which is called the “hating foot”, and the weight settles onto it. The rest of the movement is as before.

小擒拿
[31] SMALL CAPTURING

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式並右足左足向左邁一步左手上撩束肋擰腰扣襠矮身右手上提旋回向左肱下側手推出
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot steps to be next to your left foot. Then your left foot steps out to the left, your left hand raising up. Pull down your ribs, twist your waist, close your crotch, and lower your body. Your right hand lifts, arcing inward, and pushes out under your left forearm.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左掌心在內肘與膝照右掌心向外肘平
Hands: Your left palm faces inward, the elbow and knee aligned with each other. Your right palm faces outward, the elbow level.
眼 眼向左看
Eyes: Your gaze is to the left.
身 身法宜低背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your body should be lowered. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左膝露右膝勿屈脚踏平
Stance: Your left knee sticks out, but your right leg should not bend. Your feet are placed on a line.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合重點落於兩脚如第二十六圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. The weight goes onto both feet. See photo 26:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
並右足邁左足用運手式左手上撩右手由面前旋回向左肱下側手推出全部動作務求活潑相隨氣宜下沉成小擒拿式
Your right foot goes to your left foot, then your left foot steps out, and using the CLOUDING HANDS posture, your left hand raises up and your right hand arcs inward from in front of your face to then push out below your left forearm. The entire movement must be lively and coordinated. Energy should sink down. This completes the SMALL CAPTURING posture.

摟膝抱頭推山
[32] BRUSHING THE KNEES, COVER THE HEAD AND PUSH THE MOUNTAIN

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式左脚向裏順矮身擰腰往右轉重點落於左脚上右脚屈膝收起隨卽兩手分摟旋往兩耳處抱頭豎掌推出同時右脚向前邁步落地膝露襠鬆
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot twists inward as your body lowers. Your waist twists around to the right. With the weight on your left foot, your right foot withdraws, the knee bent. Then immediately your hands spread apart, brushing to the sides, and circle around until beside your ears. They cover your head as upright palms, then push out. At the same time, your right foot steps forward, the knee bending after it comes down, your crotch loosening.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩掌豎起兩虎口相照
Hands: Your palms are upright, the tiger’s mouths facing toward each other.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 束肋塌腰背勿弓胸勿現身法宜低
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your back should arch and your chest should not stick out. Your body should be lowered.
步 右脚在前膝宜露左脚在後膝勿屈
Stance: Your right is forward and the knee should be bent. Your left foot is behind and the knee should not be bent.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合氣宜下沉如二十七圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Energy should sink down. See photo 27:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
全身下矮擰腰身向右轉右脚屈膝收起兩手分摟上旋抱頭豎掌推出右脚前邁一步落地動作務求周身相隨成抱頭推山式
Your whole body lowers and your waist twists your body around to the right, your right foot withdrawing, knee bending, as your hands spread, brushing to the sides, and circle upward to cover your head as upright palms, which then push out, your right foot stepping forward. The movement should have whole-body coordination. This completes the posture of COVER THE HEAD AND PUSH THE MOUNTAIN.

單鞭
[33] SINGLE WHIP

此重著也須由右合勢練起其動作見前
This is a repeated technique. When practicing, you must begin the movement from the RIGHT CLOSING POSTURE. The rest of the movement is the same as before.

前招後招
[34] INVITING IN FRONT & BEHIND

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩脚在原地先以左手領左半身旋轉一週眼看左手重點落左脚上為前招次以右手領右半身旋轉一週眼看右手重點落右脚上為後招
Continuing from the previous posture, your feet stay where they are. First your left hand makes a complete circle [as if beckoning someone toward you], guiding the left side of your body. Your gaze goes toward your left hand and the weight goes onto your left foot. This makes the posture of INVITING IN FRONT. Then your right hand makes a complete circle, guiding the right side of your body. Your gaze goes toward your right hand and the weight goes onto your right foot. This makes the posture of INVITING BEHIND.

姿勢
Posture:
手 前招左手在前後招反之
Hands: While inviting in front, your left hand is in front. While inviting behind, you use your other hand.
眼 前招眼看左掌後招反之
Eyes: While inviting in front, your gaze is toward your left palm. While inviting behind, you gaze toward your other hand.
身 身法端正背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso is upright. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 前招左膝露後招兩脚不動
Stance: While inviting in front, your left knee bends. While inviting behind, your feet do not leave their position.
法 束肋塌腰頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合如第二十八圖
Standards: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has en energy of loosening downward and closing. See photo 28:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
左手領左半身旋轉而右半身隨勁相應右手領右半身旋轉而左半身亦隨勁相應全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動
The movement of your left hand makes the left side of your body turn, and the right side correspondingly moves along with it. The movement of your right hand makes the right side of your body turn, and the left side also correspondingly moves along with it. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

左收式一
[35.1] WITHDRAWING THE LEFT SIDE – 1st time

此為後招至野馬分鬃中間之一變着
This is the transition from INVITING BEHIND to WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE.

動作
Movement:
承上式左脚在原處裏轉屈膝右足收回虛點於地重點落於左脚上同時領活兩手右轉
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot turns inward, staying where it is, the knee bending, and your right foot withdraws, touching down emptily, the weight going onto your left foot. At the same time, the movement leads your hands as you turn to the right.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右掌在前肘微屈左臂成勾股形肘平掌與胸齊
Hands: Your right palm is forward, elbow slightly bent. Your left arm is making a right triangle, the elbow level, the palm in front of your chest.
眼 眼看右手
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your right hand.
身 束肋塌腰周身包合背勿弓
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your whole body is united. Your back should not arch.
步 雙膝微屈左脚實右脚虛相距一橫脚
Stance: Both knees are slightly bent. Your left foot is full, right foot empty. The distance between your feet is a foot.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合氣宜下沉如二十九圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Energy should sink down. See photo 29:

野馬分鬃
[35.2] WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式右手領右半身上下旋轉左手領左半身上下旋轉同時右脚隨右手進步左脚隨左手進步左右各三步然後右手領全身前跳一步跟左脚演左收勢(此處有兩練法於前跳一步後先練單鞭後練左收勢俟熟練後不練單鞭亦可)
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand leads the right half of your body, upper and lower, into rotating, then your left hand does the same to the left half. At the same time, your right foot advances, following your right hand, and then your left foot advances, following your left hand. There are three steps [right, left, right], then your right hand leads your whole body into a forward jump, your left foot following, and then perform WITHDRAWING THE LEFT SIDE. (This technique has two practice methods: [1] After the forward jump, first perform SINGLE WHIP, then WITHDRAWING THE LEFT SIDE. [2] Once you have become skillful, you no longer need to perform that particular SINGLE WHIP.)

姿勢
Posture:
手 右式右掌在右鬢前左掌在左膝外左式反之
Hands: For the posture on the right side, your right palm is in front of your right temple, your left palm to the outside of your left knee. On the left side, it is the reverse.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 身法宜低右式胸向右左式反之
Torso: Your torso should lower. For the posture on the right side, your chest turns to the right. On the left side, it is the reverse.
步 右式右脚實膝微屈左脚虛膝宜露左式反之
Stance: For the posture on the right side, your right foot is full, knee slightly bent, and your left foot is empty, the knee [not] bending. On the left side, it is the reverse.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合束肋塌腰氣宜下沉如三十圖左式不列
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Energy should sink down. See photo 30 (showing only the posture on the right side):

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領各半身先後上下旋轉同時兩脚隨手次第向前上步束肋活腰各演三次然後右手領全身前跳一步跟左脚演右合式全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動
Each hand leading its respective side of your body, they alternate forward and back, above and below, your feet stepping successively forward along with the action of your hands. Pull down your ribs and liven your waist. Perform the posture three times [right side, left, right], then your right hand leads your whole body into a forward jump, your left foot following [basically lunging into a version of LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE], and then perform RIGHT CLOSING [to transition into SINGLE WHIP]. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

單鞭
[35.3] SINGLE WHIP

動作姿勢 與前相同(繼演左收式二)
The movement and posture are the same as before. (Then continue into [36.1] WITHDRAWING THE LEFT SIDE – 2nd time.)

玉女穿梭〔懶扎衣〕
[36.2 (& 37)] MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH [and LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE]

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式右手直領周身旋活右脚落實左手自右臂上部向前推出同時左脚前跳一步身體卽向右後轉右手落至左肋處左手落至左股外眼隨手轉(右脚向右邁步時同右手向右邊旋轉終式形如懶扎衣)
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand moves in a straight line [withdrawing], leading your torso into a lively twist, your right foot coming down fully. Your left hand pushes out forward over your right arm, your left foot at the same time jumping forward. [The photo depicts the movement during this moment.] Your body then turns around to the right rear, your right hand lowering to the area of your left ribs, your left hand lowering to the outside of your left thigh. Your gaze then follows the arcing of your [right] hand. (Your right foot steps to the right, your right hand at the same time arcing to the right, and you finish in a posture similar to LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE.)

姿勢
Posture:
手 左手與左臂平右手在胸前肘平屈
Hands: Your left hand and arm are level. Your right hand is in front of your chest, the elbow bent and level.
眼 眼向左看
Eyes: Your gaze is to the left.
身 身宜直背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso should be upright. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左脚在前膝宜露右脚在後腿勿屈
Stance: Your left foot is forward. The knee should be bent. Your right foot is behind. The knee should not be bent.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合氣宜下沉如三十一圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Energy should sink down. See photo 31:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
右手直領周身旋活兩脚送〔跌〕頓左手領周身前穿身隨手轉右脚落在前右手落至左肋處左手落至左股外略如懶扎衣式全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動
Your right hand moves in a straight line [withdrawing], leading your torso into a lively twist, and your feet stomp, then your left hand guides your whole body by threading forward. Your body follows your hand by turning around, your right foot comes down in front, your right hand lowers to the area of your left ribs, your left hand lowers to the outside of your left thigh, and you perform what is basically like the posture of LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

單鞭
[38] SINGLE WHIP
雲手
[39] CLOUDING HANDS
動作姿勢均與前同
In movement and posture, they are the same as before.

擺脚跌岔
[40] SWINGING KICK, DROP & EXTEND

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式周身左轉下矮右足左起擺打兩手屈膝平足收囘與左脚跌換落地束肋擰腰同時左腿展出右腿屈竪左掌照左脚面前推右手至右肩前
Continuing from the previous posture [third time on the right side], your whole body turns to the left, lowering. Your right foot lifts to the left and swings across to hit your hands. The knee bending, the thigh level, the foot withdraws and drops down beside your left foot. Pull down your ribs and twist your waist. Then your left leg reaches out as your right leg squats down. Your left palm pushes out toward your left foot and your right hand is placed in front of your right shoulder.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左掌竪對左脚面右掌平在右肩前
Hands: Your left palm is upright, facing the top of your left foot. Your right palm is horizontal in front of your right shoulder.
眼 眼看左脚
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your left foot.
身 束肋塌腰背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your back should not arch and your chest should stick out.
步 左腿直右腿屈均依於地
Stance: Your left leg is straight, right leg bent, both legs almost on the ground.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁左右分展如三十二圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of spreading open to the left and right. See photo 32:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手引周身活潑右足擺打兩手屈膝平足收囘與右脚跌換落地束肋擰腰左掌在前照左脚面分襠跌岔右手至右肩前均領着前推合襠卽起矮身蓄勢兩手至胸前右脚上步虛點於地相距一橫脚眼向前看
With your hands leading the movement of your whole body, your right foot nimbly swings across to hit your hands, the knee bending, the thigh level, then the foot withdraws and drops down beside your right [left] foot, pulling down your ribs and twisting your waist as your left palm goes forward, facing the top of your left foot, opening your crotch as you drop and extend, your right hand moving to be in front of your right shoulder. Then you will follow through with a forward push by closing your crotch and lifting your crouched body into a posture of storing, your hands in front of your chest, your right foot stepping forward, touching down emptily. The sideways distance between your feet will be a foot. Your gaze is forward.

金雞獨立(一名朝天鐙)
[41] GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (also called LAMP FACING THE SKY)

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式先以右手領右半身徐起自耳前上托至頭頂右足膝平起左脚獨立左手平往下落五指朝前成左獨立式右手卽自耳後與右脚同時向右下落左脚虛點於地左手領左半身徐起自耳前上托至頭頂左足膝平起右脚獨立右手平往下落五指朝前成右獨立式
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right hand leads the right side of your body into slowly rising, propping up from in front of your ear until above your head. Your right knee lifts until level so you are standing one-legged on your left leg. Your left hand lowers and flattens, fingers pointing forward. This makes the posture of STANDING ON ONE LEG on the left side [i.e. left leg]. Then your right foot comes down on the right side, your right hand at the same time lowering from behind your ear. Your left foot is now only touching down emptily. Your left hand leads the left side of your body into slowly rising, propping up from in front of your ear until above your head. Your left knee lifting until level so you are standing one-legged on your right leg. Your right hand lowers and flattens, fingers pointing forward. This makes the posture of STANDING ON ONE LEG on the right side.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右手在頭頂上五指朝後左手在左股外五指朝前右式反之
Hands: Your right is above your head, fingers are pointing behind. Your left hand is to the outside of your thigh, fingers pointing forward. When standing on the right leg, the posture is reversed.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 身宜端正背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso should be upright. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左脚獨立右脚靠左脚右式反之
Stance: When standing one-legged on your left foot, your right foot is close to your left leg. On the right leg, it is the reverse.
法 頂勁須上提襠勁須扣合束肋塌腰站立宜穩如三十三圖
Standards: Your headtop must lift up. Your crotch has to have an energy of closing. Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. You should stand stably. See photo 33:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
右手領動右半身自耳前托至頭上足膝平起左手平往下落左腿獨立成左獨立式右手卽自耳後與右脚同時落下左脚虛點於地左手領左半身自耳前托至頭上足膝平起右手平往下落右腿獨立成右獨立式全部動作務求周身相隨切勿妄動
Your right hand leads the movement of the right side of your body, propping up from in front of your ear until above your head, as your [right] knee lifts until level, your left hand lowering and flattening. Standing one-legged on the left leg makes the posture of STANDING ON ONE LEG on the left side. Then your right foot comes down, your right hand at the same time lowering from behind your ear, and your left foot is now only touching down emptily, then your left hand leads the movement of the left side of your body, propping up from in front of your ear until above your head, your [left] knee lifting until level, your right hand lowering and flattening. Standing one-legged on the right leg makes the posture of STANDING ON ONE LEG on the right side. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination, no part moving on its own.

倒捻紅
[42] RETREAT WITH TWISTING REDNESS

此重著也承上式左手左脚落下卽演本勢其動作見前
This is a repeated movement. Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand and left foot lower, and the rest of the movement is performed as before.

白鵝晾翅
[43] WHITE GOOSE DRIES ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[44] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
閃通背
[45] SURGE THROUGH THE BACK
懶扎衣
[46] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
單鞭
[47] SINGLE WHIP
雲手
[48] CLOUDING HANDS
高探馬
[49] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
均重著其動作見前
These are all repeated movements, performed as before.

十字脚
[50] CROSSED-BODY KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式左手變為合掌領左脚向左橫邁一步重點落左脚上右手領〔右〕脚上起擺打左掌後懸靠左腿
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand changes to a covering palm and leads your left foot to take a sideways step to the left. The weight goes onto your left foot. Your right hand leads your [right] foot to lift up and swing across. After striking your left palm, the foot hangs down beside your left leg.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右手合於左肋處左掌平直在左脚前
Hands: Your right hand covers the area of your left ribs. Your left palm is level and upright in front of your left foot.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 身宜直背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso should be upright. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 兩脚向前左膝宜露右腿勿屈
Stance: Your feet point forward. Your left knee should be bent and your right leg should not be bent.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合如三十四圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. See photo 34:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
左手領左脚向左橫邁一步兩手相交左手在上右手在下起右足擺左手卽將足收回懸靠左腿全部動作務求周身相隨
Your left hand leads your left foot to take a sideways to the left and your hands cross, left hand on top, right hand underneath, then lift your right foot and swing it across to your left hand, and then withdraw the foot to hang down beside your left leg. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

指襠捶
[51] PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式右手隨右脚轉身下落轉時肋宜束腰宜擰重點落右脚上左脚向左邁一步兩手變拳由雙膝下往左右分左拳小圈旋至左腰間右拳大圈轉至前方合手下指與兩脚取三角形
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand goes along with your foot as it comes down and your body turns. While turning, your ribs should pull down and your waist should twist. The weight goes onto your right foot and your left foot takes a step to the left. Your hands become fists as they spread apart to the sides from below your knees. Your left fist makes a small circle that brings it to the left side of your waist. Your right fist makes a large circle that brings it forward, covering downward, and into a triangle shape with your feet.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左拳在左腰間手背朝前右拳下指前方與兩脚取三角形
Hands: Your left fist is at the left side of your waist, the back of the fist facing forward. Your right fist points downward and forward, making a triangle shape with your feet.
眼 眼看右拳
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your right fist.
身 身宜直背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your torso should be upright. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 左膝宜露右腿勿屈
Stance: Your left knee should be bent and your right leg should not bend.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合氣宜下沉如三十五圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Energy should sink down. See photo 35:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
右半身右向後轉右脚與左獨立脚相跌成恨脚換步重點在右脚上左脚向左邁步兩手變拳由膝下左右分摟左拳旋至腰間右拳轉至前方合手下指全部動作務求周身相隨
The right half of your body turns around toward the right rear, your right foot stomps down, switching places with your left foot that has been standing one-legged, and with the weight now on your right foot, your left foot steps to the left, while your hands becomes fists, spreading apart to brush aside to the left and right from below your knees, then your left fist makes a circle that brings it beside your waist and your right fist makes a circle that brings it forward and covering downward. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

黃龍攪水
[52] YELLOW DRAGON STIRS THE WATER

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩拳領周身徐徐下矮右脚收經左脚邊束肋擰腰同時右臂旋轉一圈鬆出右脚前跳一步左脚跟上一齊落實
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists lead your body into slowly lowering. Your right foot gathers in to pass beside your left foot. Pull down your ribs and twist your waist. Then your right arm makes a circle and releases. Your right foot jumps forward a step. Your left foot follows and comes down fully.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右拳在前左拳平屈腹前虎口均向上
Hands: Your right fist is forward. Your left fist, arm level and bent, is in front of your belly, tiger’s mouth facing upward.
眼 眼向右看
Eyes: Your gaze is to the right.
身 身法宜低背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Your body should be lowered. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 兩膝微屈相距一橫脚
Stance: Your knees are slightly bent. The distance between your feet is a foot.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合如三十六圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. See photo 36:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩拳領全身下矮束肋擰腰向右方前跳一步右拳隨勁鬆出兩脚落實全部動作務求周身相隨
With your fists lead your body into lowering, pull down your ribs and twist your waist, then jump a step to the right, your right fist going along with the energy by releasing, your right foot coming down fully. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

單鞭
[53] SINGLE WHIP

此重著也由黃龍攪水演右合式後演本勢其動作見前
This is a repeated movement. From YELLOW DRAGON STIRS THE WATER, perform RIGHT CLOSING, then perform this posture, its movement the same as before.

雀地龍(一名鋪地金)
[54] SPARROW EATS AN EARTHWORM (also called PAVING THE GROUND WITH GOLD)

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩手領兩肩膀下鬆周身隨同下矮右膝屈左腿鋪地足尖竪起與左手相照右手撮五指領於後方
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands lead your shoulders to loosen downward. Your whole body also lowers, your right knee bending. Your left leg spreads out along the ground. The toes are upright so that your left hand and left toes are pointing toward each other. Your right hand, still pinching with its fingers together, leads away to the rear.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左掌與左脚相照右手撮五指在後
Hands: Your left palm and left foot are pointing toward each other. Your right hand is still pinching its finger together behind you.
眼 眼向左看
Eyes: Your gaze is to the left.
身 束肋塌腰背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your back should arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 右膝屈右脚實左腿鋪地左足尖竪起
Stance: Your right knee is bent and the foot is full. Your left leg is spread out along the ground, toes upright.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁左右分展如三十七圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of spreading open to the left and right. See photo 37:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領兩肩膀束脅擰腰矮下右膝屈左腿鋪地足尖豎起與左掌相照右手撮五指在後方周身虛領勿使傾側以期動作易於前起
With your hands leading your shoulders, pull down your ribs, twist your waist, and lower your body, your right knee bending, your left leg spreading out along the ground, toes upright, your left palm and left toes pointing toward each other, your right hand still pinching its fingers together behind you. Your whole body goes effortlessly along with the movement and should not lean until the movement changes to going forward and rising up.

上步七星
[55] STEP FORWARD, BIG DIPPER POSTURE

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式後手隨前手領周身與右足前起重點落於左脚右手上起由左手外內轉兩手相交轉時右脚膝隨同平起轉畢脚虛落於地
Continuing from the previous posture, your rear hand follows your front hand, leading your whole body and right foot to go forward and rise up. The weight goes onto your left foot. Your right hand lifts up from the outside of your left hand and circles around to the inside. As your hands cross from this circling, your right knee lifts until level and then the foot comes down emptily by the time the circle is finished.

姿勢
Posture:
手 左手在外右手在內兩手相交高至天庭
Hands: Your left hand is on the outside, right hand on the inside, hands crossed at forehead height.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 束脅塌腰背勿弓胸勿現周身虛領
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out. Your whole body should effortlessly follow the movement.
步 左脚實膝微屈右脚虛膝宜露
Stance: Your left foot is full, knee slightly bent. Your right foot is empty and the knee should stick out.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合氣宜下沉如三十八圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Energy should sink down. See photo 38:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領全身與右脚前起重點落於左脚右手上起由左手外內轉至天庭前相交同時右脚膝平起轉畢虛落於地全部動作務求周身相隨
Your hands lead your whole body and right foot to go forward and rise up, the weight going onto your left foot, your right hand lifting up from the outside of your left hand and circling around to the inside, the hands crossing in front of your forehead, your right knee at the same time lifting until level and then the foot coming down emptily by the time the circle is finished. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

下步跨虎
[56] RETREAT, SITTING TIGER POSTURE

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式周身向右後方下矮右足向右下退一步落實重點落於右脚左脚收囘虛點於地兩手分摟雙膝右手自右膝外上轉至天庭前左手自左膝外上轉撮五指落於左胯外
Continuing from the previous posture, your whole body goes to the right rear and lowers, your right foot stepping back to the right rear and coming down fully. With the weight going onto your right foot, your left foot withdraws, coming down emptily. Your hands spread apart, brushing past both knees. Your right hand arcs upward from the outside of your right knee to be in front of your forehead. Your left hand arcs upward from the outside of your left knee, pinches with its five fingers, and comes down to the outside of your left hip.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右掌在天庭前左手撮五指在左胯外
Hands: Your right palm is in front of your forehead. Your left hand is to the outside of your left hip with its fingers pinched.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 束脅塌腰上體正直下體低屈背勿弓胸勿現
Torso: Pull down your ribs. Sink your waist. Your upper body is upright while your lower body crouches. Your back should not arch and your chest should not stick out.
步 右脚實左脚虛相距一橫足
Stance: Your right foot is full, left foot empty. The sideways distance between your feet is one foot.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合氣宜下沉如三十九圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. Energy should sink down. See photo 39:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
周身向右後方下矮束脅活腰右足下步落實左脚虛收兩手自雙膝外分摟右手轉至天庭左手撮五指轉落左胯外全部動作務求周身相隨
As your whole body goes to the right rear and lowers, pull down your ribs and liven your waist, your right foot stepping back and coming down fully, your left foot emptily withdrawing, while your hands brush to the outside of both knees, and your right hand arcs until in front of your forehead as your left hand arcs around to come down to the outside of your left hip, fingers pinching together. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

轉身擺脚
[57] TURN AROUND, SWINGING KICK

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩手領左脚上前邁一步連落足帶右後轉身右脚向右橫邁一步周身下矮重點落於左脚上兩手相合十指朝前右脚左起擺打兩手屈膝平足收回靠於左膝內
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands lead your left foot upward and forward. The foot then steps down in such a way that it guides your body into spinning around to the right rear. Your right foot takes a step across to the right as your whole body lowers, the weight on your left foot. Your hands come together, all ten fingers pointing forward. Your right foot lifts to the left, swings across to hit both hands. The knee bends, the thigh is level, and the foot withdraws to be close to the inside of your left knee.

姿勢
Posture:
手 兩手相合於左膝前
Hands: Your hands come together in front of your left knee.
眼 眼向前看
Eyes: Your gaze is forward.
身 身法端正
Torso: Your torso is upright.
步 左脚獨立宜穩右脚懸靠左膝內
Stance: Your left foot stands one-legged and should be stable. Your right foot hangs close to the inside of your left knee.
法 頂勁須使上提周身虛領如四十圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your whole acts effortlessly. See photo 40:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩手領左脚前邁一步連脚落帶轉身右脚右邁一步周身下矮束脅擰腰右脚左起擺打兩手屈膝平足收回靠左膝內全部動作務求周身相隨
Your hands lead your left foot forward, then its steps down in such as way that it guides your body into spinning around, and your right takes a step to the right, your whole body lowering as you pull down your ribs and twist your waist. Your right foot lifts to the left, swings across to hit both hands, the knee bends, the thigh is level, and the foot withdraws to be close to the inside of your left knee. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

當頭砲
[58] CANNON AIMED STRAIGHT AHEAD

初步動作
Basic movement:
承上式兩手變拳領周身束脅擰腰向右後方矮身下步重點卽落右脚上兩拳由右膝下旋起右拳轉至太陰穴左拳與右拳係一順勁旋停左眉前右肘平屈眼看左拳
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands become fists and lead your whole body. Pull down your ribs and twist your waist. Step down to the right rear, lowering your body. The weight goes onto your right foot. Your fists arc and lift from below your right knee. Your right fist arrives beside your right temple, as your left fist goes out in front of your left eyebrow, your fists rotating into place with a single smooth energy. Your right arm is bent and horizontal. Your gaze is toward your left fist.

姿勢
Posture:
手 右拳在右鬢角左拳在左眉前
Hands: Your right fist is beside your right temple. Your left fist is in front of your left eyebrow.
眼 眼看左拳
Eyes: Your gaze is toward your left fist.
身 周身包合
Torso: Your whole body is united.
步 右膝露左腿勿屈兩脚相距一步
Stance: Your right leg is bent and your left leg should not be. There is a stride’s distance between your feet.
法 頂勁須使上提襠勁下鬆而合如四十一圖
Standards: Your headtop must be lifted up. Your crotch has an energy of loosening downward and closing. See photo 41:

連貫動作
Continuous movement:
兩掌變拳右脚向右脚後方矮身下步並拳往右膝下旋轉右拳轉至太陰穴左拳旋停左眉前全部動作務求周身相隨
Your palms becoming fists, your right foot comes down to the right rear, your body lowering as you step back, then both fists arc from below your right knee, your right fist arriving beside your right temple, your left fist rotating into place in front of your left eyebrow. The entire movement must have whole-body coordination.

(註)如循環演習第二套者將此著之左拳變掌落於胸前右拳下落右股外周身變轉須使活潑再由金剛搗碓式演起仍至當頭砲為止
Note: If in your practice you continue directly into a repetition of the set, you will go from this posture by changing your left fist into a palm and lowering it in front of your chest, your right fist lowering to the outside of your right thigh, as your whole body turns [to be facing forward], and must do so in a lively manner. Then from ARHAT POUNDS THE MORTAR, practice until again performing CANNON AIMED STRAIGHT AHEAD to finish.

太極拳之擖手
TAIJI BOXING’S SCRAPING HANDS

擖手一謂擠手卽楊家所稱之推手是也吾師謂掤縷擠捺四字是兩人相交手運用周身之妙法也又曰天地之道剛柔而已擖手亦然彼以剛來我以柔應柔中寓剛人所難防
Scraping hands, or “pressing hands”, is what the Yang family calls “pushing hands”. My teacher said: “The four techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push are an exercise of two people joining hands and a marvelous method of working the whole body.” He also said: “It is the way of the universe, nothing more than hardness and softness. Thus when scraping hands, if he attacks using hardness, I respond using softness. There is hardness within my softness, and thus it is difficult for him to defend against me.”

何謂掤如敵人以兩手捺吾之肐膊我以右肐膊從右肋卸下(必右脚與右手一齊卸下)是謂之掤掤之下勢卽為縷掤者以吾一隻右肱捧他人兩手也我先屈我之右肱小肐膊自下往上捧之
What is meant by “ward-off”? If the opponent uses both hands to push on my forearm, I send my right forearm from my right ribs (and I must extend it to the same distance as my right foot). This is what is meant by “ward-off”. The posture that follows from ward-off is rollback. When warding off, I use a single arm to prop up both of his hands. I start by bending my right arm, the forearm propping up from below.

何謂縷當右手右足正往下(下卽往後撤也)卸之時右肐膊掤敵人之兩手卽以左手搭住敵人之大肐膊我之左右手一齊往我之右面引之(引卽往後卸也)使進是之謂縷(蓋我不露空彼必不往前進是我以縷者明露其空彼視為得機得勢必前進來擊不然彼不肯輕進)
What is meant by “rollback”? First my right hand and right foot come straight downward. (By “downward” is meant withdrawing.) While withdrawing, my right forearm is warding off both of his hands, then I use my left hand to touch his [right] upper arm, and my hands draw in together toward my right side (By “draw in” is meant leading to the rear.), thereby inducing him to advance. This is what is meant by “rollback”. (Because I do not reveal an opening, he will not go forward, therefore I use rollback to reveal an opening. He then thinks he has the ideal opportunity and position, and so he feels he has to go forward with an attack, otherwise he would not be willing to take the risk.)

何謂擠如我以兩手縷人之右肱人卽以右肱前進擊我是之謂擠
What is meant by “press”? If I use both hands to do a rollback his right arm and he then sends his right arm forward to attack me, this is what is meant by “press”.

何謂捺捺如兩人將交手時敵人先以兩手欲推倒吾我以一右肱掤人之兩手彼旣不得勢隨以兩手捺吾之右肱是之謂捺(大率掤與縷皆屬應敵之方擠與捺皆屬擊人之用)
What is meant by “push”? If when I am crossing hands with an opponent, he uses both hands in an attempt to push me over, (and I use my right arm to ward off his hands so that he is not able to be in the right position and ends up merely pushing on my arm), this is what is meant by “push”. (Generally, ward-off and rollback have to do with responding to an opponent’s attack, while press and push have to do with attacking him.)

以上所言是右方面左方面亦然彼捺我我掤之我縷彼彼擠之我捺彼彼掤之彼摟我我擠之只此四字循環無窮學者必先學打拳迨工夫旣久裏面稍有中氣貫乎肐膊之中兩人手對(技藝亦一樣)皆知用引進法不用橫氣(血氣之氣謂之橫氣)此時一來一往天機稍覺活動千變萬化盈虛消息略有可觀勝者知其所以勝負者知其所以負然後始覺耍手之妙全在平居耍拳拳之中無理不具是中氣之全體也耍手乃中氣之大用也用心打拳拳到成時自然會耍手(耍手卽擖手)昔吾嘗曰初學用功斷斷不可先學耍手先學耍手敗壞之門終身無以入德矣學者不先學打拳而但欲先學擖手如孩提未能立而先學走未有不仆者也舍本求末是不先難而先獲也不知先後烏能近道是打拳第一要功世之先學耍手皆是性躁欲速不先打拳皆是畏難苟安不能循序進而欲躍等以求是猶不以規矩而欲成方圓如是者皆為大匠所弗尚
The techniques above are performed on the right side. When performed on the left side, they would be done in the same way: he pushes, I ward off, then I roll back, and he presses; I push, he wards off, then he rolls back, and I press. It is only these four techniques recycling indefinitely. You must first learn the boxing set and become skillful at it, then after a long time you will internally have some measure of balanced energy, which will course through within your forearms.
  You and a partner touch hands (same way as in sparring), both of you knowing that you are to use methods of drawing in the other person, and not to use unbalanced energy (i.e. an energy of animal vigor). You now go back and forth with a naturalness and some degree of awareness for the exercise’s transformations and fluctuations. You will slightly be able to see ways of winning, and come to understand why one of you is winning and the other is losing. Knowing why you just lost, you will then begin to sense that the subtleties of the “playing hands” exercise come entirely from the ordinary practice of the boxing set. All of the principles within the boxing set manifest from a balanced energy. Playing hands is the application of that balanced energy.
  Diligently practice the boxing set. Once you are accomplished at it, you will naturally be able to move on to playing hands. (“Playing hands” is another way of saying scraping hands.) I once said: “In the beginning, work hard and unceasingly. But you must not learn playing hands first, because if you start with playing hands, it will undermine everything you are working toward, and for your whole life you will never be able to reach the heart of the art.” If you do not first learn the boxing set, and you instead want to start with the scraping hands exercise, you will be like an infant who learns to walk before learning to stand – i.e. always falling over. To abandon the beginning in search of the end is to start with the goal and neglect the work that will get you to it. If you do not know what comes before and follows after, how can you be on right path? It is the boxing set that is to be practiced first. People who first learn playing hands are all impatient for quick results, and they do not start with the boxing set because they are all afraid of the hard work it entails and want only comfort. Unable to face up to the proper sequence of training, they just want to jump ahead. It is like wanting to draw lines and circles without the use of compass and square. In this way, they all produce something that a true craftsman would deem worthless.

擖手十六目
SIXTEEN FEATURES OF SCRAPING HANDS

較(較是較量高低)
[1] Comparing – competing to determine level of skill.

接(接是兩人手相接也)
[2] Contacting – when both people contact hands.

沾(沾是手與手相沾如沾衣欲濕杏花雨之沾)
[3] Sticking – my hands are sticking to his, as in [quoting from an untitled quatrain by Zhi Nan:] “Sticking to my robe as a thin film, there is a rain sweetened by apricot flowers.”

粘(粘如膠漆之粘是人旣沾我手不能離去)
[4] Adhering – affixed as though with glue, he is stuck to my hands, unable to disconnect.

因(因是因人之來)
[5] Responding – acting in accordance with his attack.

依(依是我靠住人身)
[6] Crowding – leaning against the opponent’s body.

連(連是手與手相接連)
[7] Connecting – when my hands are moving in unison with his.

隨(隨是隨人之勢以為進退)
[8] Following – going along with his energy [of retreating] to advance or [of advancing] to retreat.

引(引是牽引使近於我)
[9] Luring – drawing him in to cause him to move closer to me.

進(進是令人前進不使逃去)
[10] Approaching – inducing him to come forward so that he cannot get away.

落(落如落成之落簷水下滴于地又如葉落于地)
[11] Falling – to “have fallen” as in to be “finished”, it is like rainwater dripping from gutter eaves to the ground, or like leaves falling to the ground.

空(空宜讀去聲人來欲擊吾身而落空虛之地)
[12] Emptying – to make empty, as when he tries to attack me but instead falls into a condition of void.

得(得是我得機得勢)
[13] Obtaining – when I obtain the right opportunity and am at the better position.

打(打是機勢可打乘勢打之)
[14] Attacking – taking advantage of the opportunity and position to attack.

疾(疾是速而又速稍涉延遲卽不能打機貴神速)
[15] Accelerating – speeding up, for with any hesitation you will be unable to attack, as the opportunity will be gone in an instant.

斷(斷是决斷一涉游疑便失機會過此不能打矣)
[16] Committing – as there is a moment to act and a moment to wait to act, it is easy to miss the opportunity and be unable to attack.

掤摟擠捺四字是擖手交戰之大綱四字原是一字一講一字一句因各字各有各取意也故不能聯作一句聯作一句不能講矣(無情無理講不下去)十六目是大綱中十六條目也也是一字一講各有取意不必强為牽合聯絡成句一强牽合卽沒講矣惟引進落空四字略可聯成一句餘則不可强聯只該一字一句
The four techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push compose the scraping hands exercise, a basic outline for fighting. These four terms were originally a case of one word being one idea, with each word used individually because each term has its own meaning. Therefore they cannot be joined together to make a meaningful sentence [only listed as a group of four terms] (unless we unreasonably torture the words into meaning more than they do). Likewise, these sixteen qualities work fine on their own and do not need to be forcefully linked to make phrases, for it would just produce nonsense. Only 引進落空 “Draw him in to fall into emptiness” works as a phrase, the rest of these terms functioning solely as individual terms.

擖手三十六病
THIRTY-SIX ERRORS IN SCRAPING HANDS

抽(抽是知己將敗欲抽回身)
[1] Withdrawing – knowing I will lose, I decide to shrink back my body.

拔(拔是拔去)
[2] Pulling – as in pulling away.

遮(遮是以手遮人)
[3] Covering – using your hands to merely cover over him.

架(架是以肐膊架起人之手)
[4] Propping – using my forearm to prop up his hand.

搕打(搕打如以物搕物而打之)
[5] Striking – attacking as though I am using an object to hit another object.

猛撞(去聲猛撞者突然撞去冒然而來不出于自然而欲冒然取勝)
[6] Crashing – suddenly dashing out to find a quick way in, departing from naturalness due to a desire to immediately win.

躱閃(躱閃者以身躱過人手欲以閃賺跌人也)
[7] Dodging – dodging my body away from his hand to try and trick him into stumbling.

侵凌(侵凌者欲入人之界裏而凌壓之也)
[8] Humiliating – a desire to crowd deep into his personal space and make him uncomfortable.

斬(如以刀斫物)
[9] Slashing – like a saber chopping at something.

摟(摟者以手摟人之身)
[10] Dragging – using a hand to drag his body.

𢯾(𢯾者將手𢯾下去)
[11] Refusing – sending your hands to push his downward and away.

搓(搓者如兩手相搓之搓以手肘搓敵人也)
[12] Rubbing – like the friction of rubbing both hands together, using a forearm to rub against the opponent.

欺壓(欺是哄人壓是以我手壓住人之手)
[13] Bullying & oppressing – bullying is to taunt him, oppressing is to use my hand to press down on his.

挂(挂是以手掌挂人)
[14] Hanging – using a palm to hang onto him.

離(離是去人之身恐人擊我)
[15] Disconnecting – going away from his body for fear that he might hit me.

閃賺(閃賺者是誆愚人而打之)
[16] Sudden tricking – using a feinting technique that would work against an unskilled opponent in order to try to get in a cheap shot.

撥(撥是以我手硬撥人)
[17] Deflecting – using my hand to stiffly deflect him away.

推(推是以手推過一旁)
[18] Pushing – using a hand to push away one side of his body.

艱澁(艱澁是手不熟成)
[19] Being impenetrable – your hands are lacking in sensitivity.

生硬(生硬者仗氣打人帶生以求勝)
[20] Stiffening – attacking him by relying on mere aggression and then hoping to win.

排(排是排過一邊)
[21] Smashing – forcefully throwing off one side of his body [instead of skillfully throwing out his whole body].

擋(擋是不能引以手硬擋)
[22] Blocking – using a hand to stiffly block him away in order to compensate for being unable to draw him in.

挺(挺者硬也)
[23] Reaching [as in sticking out your chest] – which leads to stiffness.

霸(霸者以力後霸也如霸者以力服心〔人〕)
[24] Tyrannize – using strength in order to dominate, like a tyrant forcing people to submit to his will.

騰(如以右手接人而復以左手架住人之手騰開右手以擊敵人)
[25] Clearing – using my right hand to connect to him, then my left hand to prop up his arm, then switching back to my right hand to attack him [or likewise using my left hand, then right hand, then left hand].

拏(拏如背人之節以拏人)
[26] Grabbing – using resistance against his joints in order to grab them.

直(直是太直率無綿纏曲折之意)
[27] Straightening – getting too straight there is no flowing or curving.

實(實是質朴太老實則被人欺)
[28] Revealing – with movement that is too simple or too obvious, I will get tricked by him.

鈎(鈎是以脚鈎取)
[29] Hooking – using a foot to hook [around his foot or leg] and capture [or hold onto] him [to keep yourself from being pushed away].

〔挑(挑者從下往上挑之)〕
[(30) Carrying – to follow downward in order to carry upward.]

掤(以硬氣架起人之手〔非〕以中氣接人之手)
[31] Pressuring – using a stubborn energy to prop away his hand rather than using a balanced energy to connect to his hand.

抵(抵是硬以力氣抵抗人)
[32] Resisting – stubbornly using strength to resist him.

㨰(㨰如圓物㨰走)
[33] Rolling – moving like a round object rolling away.

根頭棍子(根頭棍是我捺小頭彼以大頭打我)
[34] Flipping (“Flipping stick”) – as though I push down the thin end of a stick and he uses the thick end to hit me.

偷打(偷打者不明以打人于人不防處偷打之)
[35] Stealing – instead of using a clear attack, attacking him somewhere he is unprepared [i.e. being ungentlemanly].

心攤(心攤者藝不能打人心如貪物探取打人必定失敗)
[36] Wanting – my skill not being adequate to attack him, I nevertheless crave some kind of gain, so I attack anyway and end up losing.

凡此諸病不可或犯有一於此受困何難病能去淨自得性天
以上三十六病或有全犯之者或有犯其四五或有犯其一二者有犯干處皆非成手手到成時無論何病一切不犯蓋以太和元氣本無乖戾故也
These are all errors you must not commit. Someone who has even one of them will receive a great deal of difficulty. If these errors can be gotten rid of, you will obtain naturalne
ss. There are some who have all of these thirty-six errors, some who have four or five, some who have only one or two. But having any of them will keep your skill from being complete. Once your skill is complete, it means you are not committing any of these errors, using a harmonious energy, and all bad tendencies are gone.

太極拳源流攷 唐范生
EXAMINING INTO THE ORIGINS OF TAIJI BOXING – by Tang Fansheng [Tang Hao]

今歲春余偕陳溝太極拳家子明陳先生赴其鄕調查搜集得太極拳史料甚富南歸整理成太極拳史的研究約五萬言而子明亦本其所學著陳氏世傳太極拳術一書先余付剞劂遠道以稿見眎囑為言余以近人習太極者對於是拳源流類皆傅會妖妄爰為之攷以附書末
陳溝太極拳世家陳槐三藏有家譜一册於其九世祖陳王廷名諱旁註云
『王廷(家譜廷作庭茲據族譜及王廷墓碑攷正)又名奏庭明末武庠生淸初文庠生在山東名手掃蕩羣匪千餘人陳氏拳手刀鎗創始之人也天生豪傑有戰大刀可考』(見家譜十二頁又十六頁註有「至此以上乾隆十九年譜序以下道光二年接修」十九字)
又王廷遺有長短句一首其前半云
『嘆當年披堅執銳掃蕩羣氛幾次顚險蒙恩賜枉徒然到而今年老殘喘只落得黃庭一卷隨身伴悶來時造拳忙來時耕田趁余間敎下些弟子兒孫成龍成虎任方便……』
家譜所云陳氏拳手長短句所云悶來時造拳之語可證其卽為太極拳者有二家譜三十六頁十四世長興旁註『拳師』二字十五世耕雲旁註『拳手』二字陳長興陳耕雲父子皆世所知名之太極拳家一也陳溝村人至今不習外來拳法二也惟所謂陳氏拳手也者不僅指太極之長拳十三勢尚有一套勢法出於同一系統之砲捶故王廷所創者實有長拳十三勢砲捶三套
考陳溝長拳十三勢砲捶歌譜其中色名與戚繼光三十二勢相同者計有懶扎衣單鞭金雞獨立探馬勢七星勢倒騎龍連珠砲懸脚二換滿天星邱劉勢下插勢埋伏勢拋架子拈肘勢一霎步擒拏勢四平勢伏虎勢雀地龍朝陽手鴈翅勢穿庄腿跨虎勢拗鸞肘硬開弓當頭砲順鸞肘等二十七勢余又取現存之十三勢砲捶練法與拳經圖勢對比之亦同且長拳歌訣採用戚氏拳經中語句者如七星拳手足相顧跨虎勢挪移發脚朝陽手遍身防腿邱劉勢左搬右掌拏鷹捉兎硬開弓等皆可證太極拳之前身實係拳經
世稱太極拳係梁之韓拱月唐之許宣平李道子殷利亭(太極拳勢圖解言殷利亭與許宣平之弟子宋遠橋為友據此則殷亦生於唐代)宋之張三丰(亦有稱張為元末明初〔間〕人者)等所傳陳溝則稱係明初陳氏始祖卜所創按太極拳若為韓許李殷張等發明則梁隨唐宋元明六朝何以未見於著錄陳卜墓碑係康熙五十年辛卯裔孫追立其十世孫庚所撰墓誌未言太極拳為卜所創查言韓許李殷之發明太極拳者始於民國十年出版之太極拳勢圖解言張之發明太極拳者始於乾嘉間人王宗岳(王之時代余詳考於拙著太極拳史的研究一書中)言陳之發明太極拳者始於道光以後人陳品三(見陳所著引蒙入路自序)姑無論其說之有無價値但就長拳十三勢砲捶與戚氏拳經圖勢色名歌訣相同諸點觀之卽足證明太極拳脫始於拳經無疑況戚氏創編拳經時參攷於古拳家者為宋太祖三十二勢長拳六步拳猴拳囮拳參攷於當時拳家者為温家七十二行拳三十六合瑣二十四棄探馬八閃番十二短呂紅八下綿張短打李半天之腿鷹爪王之拏千跌張之跌張伯敬之打巴子拳等可見彼時名家拳法中尚未有所謂太極拳此尤足為上說進一步之證明
明代自嘉靖以後內憂外患相迫而來故士大夫講武之風盛極一時戚氏武功彪炳於世其練兵實效諸法影響於當時究心兵政者必甚深巨王廷生當明淸之會其身世我人今雖不能詳知然讀其遺詩自述初為戰將晚年隱居消極思想上受道家影響採取戚氏成法參以已意創為拳套作子孫磨礱之具至為明顯余當謂明代遺民中王介祺之創太極刀法陳王廷之創太極拳法一南一北可無獨有偶
王廷所創十三勢卽陳溝所稱老架傳至十四世陳有本而創新架楊露禪得陳長興老架之傳而創楊派十五世陳淸萍得有本新架之傳而創趙堡派武禹讓得楊露禪陳淸萍之傳而創武派孫祿堂得武派之傳而創孫派此外尚有宋書銘一派太極拳派演變至今已岐〔歧〕而為七若幷各家支派計之則又不止此數矣
考陳氏老墳墓碑王廷為崇禎康熙間人又陳氏家譜王廷以下子孫輩之習拳成手者始註明拳師拳手等字樣某君謂陳氏自朱明萬暦間迄民國止代有傳人是蓋未嘗親見王廷墓碑及詳攷陳氏家譜所訛余為附揭於此以見考古之學字字有實據句句有考證初非學不足以辨譌識不足以存眞標榜矜名之徒所足與語者也
In the spring of this year, I accompanied Chen Village Taiji Boxing master Chen Ziming to his hometown, where we made investigations and collected a wealth of historical materials on Taiji Boxing. When we returned south [back to Shanghai], I subsequently put together Research into Taiji Boxing History, which added up to about fifty thousand words, and on the basis of our studies, Chen also wrote The Inherited Chen Family Taiji Boxing Art. Before I sent my book to the press for publication, Chen showed me his manuscript and urged me to add a few words to it. I have noticed that when modern practitioners of Taiji try to explain the art’s origins, they all give strained interpretations of absurd tales, and so I have written this section about examining into the origins as a postscript for this book.
  Chen Village Taiji Boxing master Chen Huaisan [Chen Sen] kept a volume of Chen Family Genealogy. Beside the name of ninth-generation family member Chen Wangting, is written: “Wangting, also called Zouting, passed the county-level military examinations during the Ming Dynasty and then passed the county-level civil service examinations during the Qing Dynasty. He was a famous name in Shandong because he vanquished hordes of bandits, well over a thousand men. He was the creator of the Chen family’s boxing and weapons sets. He was a born hero, as can be known from his battle saber.” (This quote is from the twelfth page of the Genealogy. On the sixteenth page it also mentions that this entry was written in the nineteenth year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong [1754] and then added to in the second year of the reign of Emperor Daoguang [1822].) Wangting also left us a free-verse poem, which begins thus: “I sigh for years past, oh those days of battle vanquishing hordes of bandits, so many moments of risk and danger. I was bestowed with imperial favor – meaningless. Now I am old and weary, and I have ended up with only a copy of the Daoist Yellow Courtyard Classic as my companion. When boredom sets in, I create boxing sets. When busy, I plow the fields. In my free time, I teach some students and grandkids, then I leave it to them to become dragons and tigers in their own time…”
  The Genealogy mentions “Chen family boxing sets”, and it says in the poem: “When boredom sets in, I create boxing sets.” These two sources are evidence of Taiji Boxing. On the thirty-sixth page of the Genealogy, next to the fourteenth generation family member Changxing is written “boxing teacher”, and next to the fifteenth generation family member Gengyun is written “boxing expert”. Chen Changxing and Chen Gengyun, father and son, are both known by everyone in Chen Village as having been Taiji Boxing masters specifically, and to this day the people there do not practice any outside boxing arts. The mention of “Chen family boxing sets” not only points to Taiji’s Thirteen Sections Long Boxing set, but also that their Cannon Boxing system came from the same source. Therefore what Wangting created was surely Thirteen Sections Long Boxing and the three sets of Cannon Boxing.
  Comparing the Chen Village’s Long Boxing set and Cannon Boxing set with Qi Jiguang’s thirty-two postures, there are a full twenty-seven posture names that are similar: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE, SINGLE WHIP, GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG, REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, BIG DIPPER PUNCH, TURN TO MOUNT THE DRAGON, CONTINUOUS CANNON FIRE, HANGING-FOOT DOUBLE KICK, SKY FULL OF STARS, QIU LIU’S TECHNIQUE, DOWNWARD THRUST, AMBUSH POSTURE, THROWING POSTURE, SQUEEZED-ELBOW POSTURE, SUDDEN STEP, GRAPPLING POSTURE, FOUR-LEVEL PUNCH, CROUCHING TIGER POSTURE, SPARROW EATS AN EARTHWORM, SUN-FACING HAND GOOSE-WING POSTURE, THROUGH-THE-POST KICK, SITTING TIGER POSTURE, PHOENIX ELBOW IN A CROSSED STANCE, DRAWING A STIFF BOW, CANNON AIMED STRAIGHT AHEAD, and PHOENIX ELBOW IN A STRAIGHT STANCE. I have compared my own practice of the Thirteen Sections set with the descriptions in the Boxing Classic and again found there to be similarities to its Long Boxing verse instructions, such as: “In the BIG DIPPER PUNCH, my hands and feet coordinate with each other…” “To perform SITTING TIGER POSTURE, I shift position by expressing with my feet…” “With SUN-FACING HAND, I turn my body sideways to guard against his kick…” “QIU LIU’S TECHNIQUE involves a left parry and a right palm strike…” “[PHOENIX ELBOW IN A CROSSED STANCE] is like an eagle catching a rabbit, or a shot from a fully drawn bow…” and so on, all of which can demonstrate that the predecessor to Taiji Boxing is connected to the Boxing Classic.
  Most people say that Taiji Boxing was passed down from the Liang Dynasty’s Han Gongyue, the Tang Dynasty’s Xu Xuanping, Li Daozi, and Yin Liheng (According to Taiji Boxing Postures Explained [by Xu Yusheng], the students of Yin Liheng and Xu Xuanping were friends of Song Yuanqiao, which means Yin would have lived during the Tang Dynasty.) or the Song Dynasty’s Zhang Sanfeng (who is also said to have lived during the dynasties of Yuan and Ming). In the Chen Village, it is said that it was created by the Chen family’s earliest ancestor Chen Bu [fourteenth century founder of Chen Village]. (Note: If Taiji Boxing was invented by Xu, Li, Yin, or Zhang, then why do we not see any mention of it in the records of the six dynasties of Liang, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, or Ming?)
  The gravestone of Chen Bu was erected by his descendants in the fiftieth year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi (1711). Those descendants that followed ten generations after him did not write on his memorial tablet that he created Taiji Boxing. Checking the claims that Taiji Boxing was invented by Han, Xu, Li, or Yin, they were first published in 1921 in Taiji Boxing Postures Explained. The claim the Taiji Boxing was invented by Zhang started with Wang Zongyue, who lived during the reigns of Emperor Qianlong [1735–1796] and Emperor Jiaqing [1796–1820]. (As for the era in which Wang lived, I examined this in detail in Research into Taiji Boxing History.) The claim that a Chen invented Taiji Boxing began during the reign of Emperor Daoguang [1820–1850] from Chen Xin (in his preface to Taiji Boxing for Beginners). Never mind for the moment whether his words are of any worth. More important is that the Long Boxing Thirteen Sections set and the Cannon Boxing set have great similarities with the names and descriptions of the postures in Qi’s Boxing Classic, which sufficiently indicates that Taiji Boxing certainly must have been derived from the Boxing Classic.
  Moreover, when Qi wrote the Boxing Classic, he referred to still older styles of boxing arts, such as: First Song Emperor Thirty-Two Posture Long Boxing, Six-Steps Boxing, Monkey Boxing, and Decoy Boxing. He also mentioned contemporary styles, such as: Wen Family’s Seventy-Two Walking Punches, Thirty-Six Locks, Twenty-Four Horse-Mounting Strikes, Eight Sudden Turnings, Twelve Short-Range Techniques, Lü Hong’s Eight Throws, “Silken” Zhang’s Short Fighting, the kicks of Li Bantian, the grabbing methods of “Eagle Claw” Wang, the throwing methods of “Thousand-Throws” Zhang, the striking methods of Zhang Bojing, Raking Fists, and so on. We can see from this that among famous styles of boxing arts at that time, there was not yet anything called Taiji Boxing, further bearing out my point above.
  Since the reign of Emperor Jiajing (beginning in 1522 [1521]), the nation was inundated with both domestic troubles and foreign invaders, therefore it was very much in vogue at the time for the literati to engage in military training. Qi’s martial accomplishments shined throughout the land. His various practical troop-training methods were highly influential at the time and were of enormous significance to those studying military affairs.
  Chen Wangting lived during the transition from the Ming Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty. Although we cannot know about his life in detail, we can read the poem he left us, in which he talks about his experience, beginning with his time as a warrior and then going into his later years of living in retirement. With his thinking influenced by Daoism, he adopted Qi’s tested methods, using already established ideas to create boxing sets. It is clear that his descendants have carried on his work. I suggest that among methods that came from people of the Ming Dynasty, the Taiji Saber method created by Wang Jieqi [Wang Wugong] and the Taiji Boxing method created by Chen Wangting, one art in the south and the other in the north, could be related.
  [1] Chen Wangting created the Thirteen Sections set, which in the Chen Village is called “old frame”. [2] It was passed down to the fourteenth generation family member Chen Youben, who then created the “new frame”. [3] Yang Luchan was taught the old frame through instruction from Chen Changxing and then created Yang Style. [4] The fifteenth generation family member Chen Qingping obtained the new frame through instruction from Chen Youben and then created Zhaobao Style. [5] Wu Yuxiang obtained instruction from Yang Luchan and Chen Qingping, and then created Wu Yuxiang Style. [6] Sun Lutang obtained instruction in Wu Yuxiang Style and then created Sun Style. [7] Beyond these, there is also a Song Shuming Style. Taiji Boxing styles have evolved to this day, now already branched off into these seven styles, but each style may branch further, and so the count need not be limited to just these.
  According to the Chen family gravestones, Wangting lived during the reigns of Emperor Chongzhen [1627–1644] and Emperor Kangxi [1662–1722]. And according to the Chen Family Genealogy, descendants of Wangting practiced a boxing art and become regarded as masters. Remember the mentions of the “boxing teacher” and “boxing expert”. A certain gentleman has said that Chen family history begins in the Ming Dynasty and that their art has been carried on into our Republican era. Because I had not yet seen Wangting’s gravestone or examined the Genealogy for errors, I simply accepted this story. But having now examined these records, every word is evidence, every phrase verification. Prior to this research, there was not enough to distinguish between falsehoods and truths, but I hereby declare that we now enough to make a case.

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