THE TAIJI MANUAL OF LONG ZIXIANG

太極拳學
A STUDY OF TAIJI BOXING
龍子祥
by Long Zixiang
[published Jan, 1952]

[translation by Paul Brennan, March, 2018]

龍子祥先生著
by Long Zixiang:
太極拳學
A Study of Taiji Boxing
謝伯昌題
– calligraphy by Xie Bochang

龍子祥先生大作太極拳學付梓奉題
in honor of the publication of Long Zixiang’s great work A Study of Taiji Boxing:
健身寶鑑
“Health is a treasure.”
九龍總商會理事長謝伯昌
– [calligraphy by] Xie Bochang, chairman of Kowloon Chamber of Commerce

拳術津梁
“Boxing arts a bridge.”
龍子祥先生邃於武術近以其經騐心得著為太極拳學後學者按圖索驥知㪽问津焉
Long Zixiang has a profound understanding of martial arts.
He has recently drawn from his experience to make his Study of Taiji Boxing
so that students may have a map to work from and know which way to go.
余達之題
– calligraphy by Yu Dazhi

龍子祥太極拳學創刋纪念:
to commemorate the publication of Long Zixiang’s Study of Taiji Boxing:
積健為雄
“From the buildup of vigor comes the heroic.” [from Sikong Tu’s The Twenty-Four Kinds of Poetry, poem 1]
石鑑輝
– [calligraphy by] Shi Jianhui

龍子祥太極拳學創刋纪念
to commemorate the publication of Long Zixiang’s Study of Taiji Boxing:
國術精華
“This is the essence of martial arts.”
祁潤華敬題
– sincerely inscribed by Qi Runhua

龍子祥先生著太極拳学
for Long Zixiang’s Study of Taiji Boxing:
健身第一
“Fitness comes first.”
王漢青题
– calligraphy by Wang Hanqing

子祥先生太極拳学出版
in honor of the publication of Long Zixiang’s Study of Taiji Boxing:
武當神髓
“This is the essence of Wudang.”
楊大名题
– calligraphy by Yang Daming

剛柔变化運用神奇
健身之寶強國之基
The transformations of hardness and softness are wielded in magical ways.
Physical fitness is a treasure, and is the basis of strengthening the nation.
雷少明題
– calligraphy by Lei Shaoming

龍子祥太極拳學創刋紀念
to commemorate the publication of Long Zixiang’s Study of Taiji Boxing:
武術功深
“Martial arts are a profound achievement.”
陳昌詮敬題
– sincerely inscribed by Chen Changquan

纪念太極拳學創刋
to commemorate this publication of A Study of Taiji Boxing:
技術之基
“This is the foundation of skill.”
陳偉䏻
– [calligraphy by] Chen Weineng

發揚國術
“Promote martial arts!”
謝家寶 時年七十有四 辛卯殘夏
– [calligraphy by] Xie Jiabao, age 74, late summer, 1951

健彊之階
“This is the process of strengthening.”
辛卯春日彥和 集漢金文
– [calligraphy by] Li Yanhe, spring, 1951, based on my collection of bronze inscriptions

健身之本
“This is the basis of fitness.”
百花生
– [calligraphy by] Bai Huasheng

龍子祥先生著太極拳学出版纪念
to commemorate the publication of Long Zixiang’s Study of Taiji Boxing:
拳術精華
“This is the essence of boxing arts.”
九龍鷄鴨欄同業商會之師 陳兆雄题
– calligraphy by Chen Zhaoxiong, instructor at the poultry department of the Kowloon Chamber of Commerce

子祥大師之太極拳学創刊纪念
to commemorate the publication of Master Long Zixiang’s Study of Taiji Boxing:
太極拳和平柔軟
習之旣久神理綿綿
愈益遒勁𨿽孱弱之
軀不期健而自健矣
Taiji Boxing is mild and soft.
Practice it for a long time and you will achieve the magical principle of flow.
You will become increasingly filled will vigor, no matter how frail you might be.
You might not expect your body to become stronger, but you will become stronger indeed.
何子明敬題
– sincerely inscribed by He Ziming

太極一道变化無窮
龍子祥先生苦心精練垂卄餘年深得武當真傳現收太極心得筆之於書以惠後學謹誌數言用表景仰
Taiji is a method of limitless transformation.
Long Zixiang has trained hard for more than twenty years,
deeply absorbing the authentic teachings of Wudang.
He has now gathered his Taiji experience into a book
for the benefit of future generations of students.
I sincerely record these few words in order to show my admiration.
九龍總商會 體育部主任霍惠民
– [calligraphy by] Huo Huimin, director of the Kowloon Chamber of Commerce athletic department

學長功深
“The more you learn, the deeper your skill.”
辛卯六月 何筱寬
– [calligraphy by] He Xiaokuan, 6th month, 1951

太極拳學總目
CONTENTS

李序
Preface by Li Shufan
梁序
Preface by Liang Shouhua
樊序
Preface by Fan Yaosen
吳序
Preface by Wu Ruiming
李序
Preface by Li Zefu
黃序
Preface by Huang Chuying
自序
Author’s Preface
凡例
General Remarks on the Use of This Book
顧汝章先生玉照
Portrait of Gu Ruzhang
龍師子祥近照
Portrait of Long Zixiang
九龍總商會太極拳班同人合影
Group Portrait of the Taiji Boxing Club of the Kowloon Chamber of Commerce
中國健身會太極拳班同人合影
Group Portrait of the Taiji Boxing Club of the Chinese Fitness Society
上編 基本之部
Part One: Fundamentals
 第一章 著論(上)
 Chapter One: Various Writings – Part 1
  張三峯太極拳論附譯意
  [I] Zhang Sanfeng’s Taiji Boxing Treatise (with commentary)
  王宗岳先生太極拳經附譯意
  [II] Wang Zongyue’s Taiji Boxing Classic (with commentary)
  王宗岳先生太極拳行功心解附譯意
  [III] Wang Zongyue’s Essay of Understanding How to Practice Taiji Boxing (with commentary)
  孫祿堂先生太極拳學論
  [IV] Essay [Author’s Preface] from Sun Lutang’s Study of Taiji Boxing
  孫祿堂先生之太極拳名稱解釋
  [IV cont.] Sun’s Explanation for the Name “Taiji Boxing”
  顧汝章先生練太極拳之經騐
  [V] Gu Ruzhang’s Experiences of Practicing Taiji Boxing
  胡樸安先生太極拳在體育上之價值
  [VI] Hu Pu’an’s “The Value of Taiji Boxing in Physical Education”
   附錄:張祖師三峯傳
   Additional texts: [1] A Bio of Founder Zhang Sanfeng
   王宗岳先生畧傳
   [2] A Brief Bio of Wang Zongyue
   龍子祥小史
   [3] A Brief History of Long Zixiang
   太極拳世系表之一
   [4] Taiji Boxing Lineage Chart – Part 1
   太極拳世系表之二
   [5] Taiji Boxing Lineage Chart – Part 2
 〔第二章 論著(下)〕
 [Chapter Two: Various Writings – Part 2]
  太極拳之各家架式異同説
  [I] Discussing the Similarities & Differences Between Various Versions of the Taiji Boxing Solo Set
  太極拳練法要義
  [II] Essentials of Practicing Taiji Boxing
  太極拳五要訣
  [III] Taiji Boxing’s Five-Word Formula
  太極拳十三勢歌訣二則
  [IV] Songs of Taiji Boxing’s Thirteen Dynamics Set (in two parts)
  太極拳擎放密訣
  [V] The Trick to Raising & Releasing
  太極拳主宰賓輔説明
  [VI] Taiji Boxing’s Process of Command & Obey
  太極拳十六關要説明
  [VII] Taiji Boxing’s Sixteen Key Points
   附八門五步用功法
   Additional texts: [1] The Eight Gates & Five Steps, and How to Train Them
   太極拳架式名稱及用法表
   [2 & 3]: Names & Functions of the Taiji Boxing Postures
   太極步法位置圖例
   [4] On the Taiji Footwork Diagrams
   步法畧圖
   Footwork Map
 動作示範圖共二百零五幀步法位置圖共四十五幀
 [Chapter Three: Demonstration of the Movements with Two Hundred and Five Photographs & Forty-Five Footwork Diagrams
下篇 運用之部
Part Two: Application
 〔第一章 論著〕
 [Chapter One: Various Writings]
  太極拳打手論
  [I] Discussing Playing Hands
  顧汝章先太極拳推手講義
  [II] Gu Ruzhang’s “Taiji Boxing’s Pushing Hands Curriculum”
  〔太極拳打手歌〕
  [III. Taiji Boxing’s Playing Hangs Songs]
  〔走架打手行功要言〕
  [IV. Essentials in Practicing the Solo Set & Playing Hands]
 第二章 架式
 Chapter Two: Postures
  太極拳之掤捋擠按採挒肘靠八打法
  Taiji Boxing’s Eight Techniques of Warding Off, Rolling Back, Pressing, Pushing, Plucking, Rending, Elbowing, and Bumping

李序
PREFACE BY LI SHUFAN

吾友龍子祥,致力少林武當各派武術,凡二十餘年,曾未中輟,晨昏研勵,尋幽搜秘,領悟獨多,因此各技成就,均臻巧妙,身手靈活,矯若猶龍,為時下不可多得之武術導師。
十餘年前,名武師顧汝章南來廣州。長兩廣國術館,附設太極拳研究班,推廣太極拳術,造就不鮮人材,廣州青年,從學者甚衆,龍君原為南派名武師譚三先生高足,武藝有根底,仍不自滿自足,慕顧汝章先生之名震武壇,投身其門,執弟子禮,苦心力練,盡得所傳,舉凡太極門拳劍刀等無不精諳,成績冠同儕,獲委任該館武術教官,其平生名動武壇,亦由此奠定基礎。
龍君現任香港中國健身會國術部主任,九龍總商會太極拳班主任,教授少林,武當各派武術,循循善誘,誨人不倦,並將歷年研究太極拳所得撰述成帙,特囑門人黃楚英李若凡諸子編為太極拳學,闡述太極拳之沿革及功用,演繹十三勢,備極精細,文字説明,圖表解析,務使婦孺能解,內容豐富,由乃師顧汝章先生審定付刋。
太極拳學之出版,龍君非藉此沽名釣利,實期人人能知太極拳之奧妙,與普通武術有別,按圖研究學習,長此不倦,無師自通,人人亦將能轉弱為強,同登健康之域,東亞病夫之耻可雪,強國強種亦大可期。
太極拳學一書編竣,龍君囑吾為序,吾不深文學,對武術尤為門外漢,但念龍君為人沉雄而爽朗,武士饒文人氣態,彬彬有禮,肅然令人起敬,遂不揣冒昧為之序,因此舉不足以彰龍君之能,闡其書之宏旨,但使聞吾一言而讀其書,更就研於龍君,則福世利人,亦佳事也,是為序
李樹繁
My colleague Long Zixiang has devoted himself to both the Shaolin and Wudang branches of martial arts for altogether more than twenty years of uninterrupted daily study, searching deeply into their secrets, comprehending each and many. Because of this, he has achieved every kind of skill, and at an equally high level of excellence. With nimble body and hands, and as powerful as a dragon, he is now a martial arts teacher of rare quality.
  Some decades ago, the famous martial arts teacher Gu Ruzhang came south to Guangzhou to head the Guangdong-Guangxi Martial Arts Institute. There he established the Taiji Boxing Study Club to spread the Taiji boxing art and help train those of ordinary talent, as well as Guangzhou’s youth, and his students were very numerous. Long was originally a student of the famous southern style martial arts teacher Tan San. He got from him a foundation in martial skills, but did not become complacent about it. He admired Gu Ruzhang, whose fame was shaking the martial arts community, and bowed down at his door to become his student. After a great deal of mental and physical work, he received the full Taiji curriculum – the boxing set, sword set, saber set, and so on – and excelled in all of it, achieving the position of top disciple for his generation, and then he was himself appointed as an instructor in the institute. From then on his name has caused a stir in martial arts circles, his reputation established.
  Long presently holds the positions of director of the martial arts section of the Hong Kong Chinese Fitness Association and head teacher of the Kowloon General Chamber of Commerce’s Taiji Boxing Club. Giving instruction in both the Shaolin and Wudang styles, he is a patient and systematic guide, instructing people tirelessly, and now he brings his years of experience of studying Taiji Boxing into producing a book. He has specifically assigned his students Huang Chuying and Li Ruofan to compile material for it in order to elaborate upon Taiji Boxing’s development and function, and to reveal the thirteen dynamics fully and meticulously. The writing style and diagrams are designed to ensure that even women and children can understand. The content is rich and has been authorized for publication by his teacher Gu Ruzhang.
  With his Study of Taiji Boxing, Long is not trying to purchase fame or seek profit for himself. He truly hopes for everyone to be able to know Taiji Boxing’s secrets and the differences between it and ordinary martial arts. In order for us to study and learn it, he tirelessly extends this material to us all, so that we may learn even without a teacher, and be able to go from being weak to becoming strong, ascending together to a state of health, and the humiliation of being the “sick men of Asia” can be wiped out. With a strong nation and a strong people, greatness can be expected.
  Now that this book is completed, Long has urged me to make a preface. I am not highly literate, and when it comes to martial arts in particular I am only a layman, but thinking of Long makes a person bold and forthright. He is both martial and scholarly, an urbane gentleman, with a respectfulness that causes others to respect him right back, and so I dare to ignore my limited ability and forge ahead. As a result, these words of mine are totally inadequate to the task of displaying Long’s abilities or expounding on his book’s main themes, but if you are affected by even just one thing I have said here and it gets you to read the rest of his book, much more will come from studying what he has to say. It will bring good fortune to the world, benefiting the people in it, and wonderful things will happen. That is why I write this preface.
  - [written by] Li Shufan

梁序
PREFACE BY LIANG SHOUHUA

我國拳術,源流至遠,藴篆最深。獨惜繼往開來,惑守珍秘,苟非嫡系,難盡所傳,輾轉相承,遂失原璞,因而彌縫補缺,加減其形,揆理推由,移換其勢,沿習旣久,系別遂多,然溯本尋源,不外乎少林與武當兩派而巳,少林拳勇,力形於外,武當拳柔,勁潛於內,今之拳術界所謂內外二家者,卽言武當與少林兩派也,攷武當派始自張三峯祖師,以太極拳馳譽於當世,後之紹其統緒者,不可勝述,太極拳之性能!實有其適合時代之體育條件,故能延續至今,仍不以時移見替,推究所由,貴在動作凝神歛氣,體鬆勁柔,操之能使血脈流通,身心舒暢,絕無激烈之害,此養體也,運氣沉而不浮,歛而不露,凝而不滯,延而不斷,無囂燥之弊,此養性也,斯二者,太極拳得而兼之,而自成一美善無缺之拳術,較之現世之柔軟操法,雖具養體之美,猶未得其養性之善者,烏可以同日語耶,由是觀之,則世人從事體育運動,又安可止於健全體魄之端而巳哉
梁守華序於一九五一年三月廿八日
Our nation’s boxing arts have ancient beginnings and profound principles. Only those who cared about the future of these arts preserved and protected them. Were it not for personal instruction, it is unlikely they would have been passed down. But after being handed down through many generations, the original versions had been lost. Consequently, in order to fill in gaps and fix discrepancies, postures were added or subtracted, and then to guess at reasonings and try to make sense of it all, postures were rearranged. After a long period of this, the arts branched off into a multitude of styles. Now when we look back and seek out sources, we find that they do not go beyond the two branches of Shaolin and Wudang.
  Shaolin Boxing is heroic, its strength manifesting outwardly. Wudang Boxing is gentle, its power hidden inside. What the boxing arts community nowadays refer to as the two schools of “internal” and “external” are simply the two traditions of Wudang and Shaolin. Examining the Wudang branch specifically, it begins with its founder Zhang Sanfeng, whose Taiji Boxing has been famous up to the present day. Later generations have carried on the art’s theories, unable to stop talking about them. Such is the capacity of Taiji Boxing.
  This art suits the needs of physical education for any era, and that is why it has been able to endure all the way to modern times, still unreplaced by anything better. As for why this is the case, it is because the art values movement in which spirit is concentrated, energy is gathered, the body is relaxed, and the power is soft. Performing in this way leads to smoother blood circulation, causing body and mind to be at ease. It entirely lacks the harms of intense activity, and thus is good for nurturing the body. Its movement of energy involves sinking rather than floating, gathering in rather than outwardly revealing, concentrating it but not becoming sluggish, and moving continuously and without interruption. It lacks the fraud of shouting until your throat is dry, and thus is good for nurturing the temperament.
  Because Taiji Boxing develops both body and temperament at the same time, it is naturally a superb and complete boxing art. Compared to today’s other soft exercises, although they are also good for nurturing the body, they are still not as good for nurturing the temperament, and thus they are hardly worth speaking of in the same breath. By the same token, the kinds of physical exercise that most people engage in may go so far as to strengthen the physique, but that is all.
  - written by Liang Shouhua, Mar 28, 1951

樊序
PREFACE BY FAN YAOSEN

龍師子祥,幼負笈於名拳師譚三之門,及嘗從顧汝章師遊有年,以所學勤而性穎悟,深得譚顧諸師輩所賞識,由是而得傳兩師之技,集南北諸拳術於一身,融滙貫通,以發揚光大我國國術為己任。故挹春風而稱桃李者比比是。而得功成藝就者,又豈泛人哉
予不敏,得列諸門墻者五年矣,於芸芸拳技中,予獨取太極拳焉。以其柔中有勁,可以健身體,亦能用諸自衛,於習拳時得呼吸自然之益,而無氣促浮喘之弊。蓋予體質素弱,孩提時常患疾病,及長仍弱不禁風,每為二豎所侵,後由友人之介紹,參加中國健身會為會員,欲由是以求其健體之方,自審尩瘠之身,苟習諸器械舉重之劇烈運動,雖可於短期內,增長肌肉而使其堅實,恐賤軀不禁辛勞,則強於外而傷於內矣,故欲先求其體內機構之健全,再從事肌肉之鍛鍊,太極拳斯習焉
憶予初習斯拳時,手足剛實,露肘寒肩,動作忽疾,若斷若續,呆滯,歪斜,用力,挺胸諸錯謬姿勢,一應俱全,後蒙龍師一一親加指正,曉以太極拳經之輕靈,貫串諸要義,舉手拔背涵胸沉肩墜肘,垂臀鬆腰等正確姿勢,尤諄諄善導而不厭其詳,使受學者迪訓啓蒙,收事半功倍之效,而於每一式之功用及效能,更詳加解釋,使不致學而不知其用,予習之有年,雖謂不敢成壯碩之夫,然予宿所患胃病,頭痛諸疾,自習拳後。諸病恍然若失,要非太極拳之功,曷克臻此耶!
龍師子祥,為使其學之得傳而廣也,特編印太極拳一書,以其所學,筆之於紙上,並躬親作照,對每一式之功用及其變式之動作等,均闡述無遺,對太極拳之真意,加以科學化之分析,無玄妙難通之理,誠初學之速路南針,索驥按圖,可達自修之路矣,行見太極拳前途,昌盛不絕,發揚光大有以賴於是書,當不獨供同門之參攷而止也,是為序
受業樊耀森
Long Zixiang in his youth left home to learn from the famous boxing arts master Tan San, and also learned from Gu Ruzhang for many years. Being a diligent and intelligent student, he deeply recognized the value of the teachings of Tan [Choy Li Fut] and Gu [Northern Shaolin and Taiji], and thus is able to pass down the skills of both men. With both northern and southern styles combined in one person, they merge to give him a more thorough knowledge, equipping him for the task of carrying forward our nation’s martial arts. This is why he supplies such excellent education, why his students are always succeeding in achieving skill, and why there are so many of them.
  I am not bright. It took me five years of learning from various teachers to notice that from among the numerous boxing arts it was Taiji Boxing that best suited me. Within its softness, there is power. It can strengthen the body and can also be used for self-defense. When practicing the set, you get the benefits of natural breathing rather than the harms of gasping and panting.
  I have a rather weak constitution. When I was a child, I often fell ill, but when I grew up, I was still fragile [“too weak to withstand the wind”]. Whenever I so much as stood next to someone, I felt I would topple. Later, due to the recommendation of a friend, I became a member of the Chinese Fitness Society. I hoped through this to find a method of building up a strong body from my very weak body. If I had been engaging in the more intense exercise of training with weight-lifting apparatus, although I could within a short time enlarge my muscles and become more solid, I fear my poor body could not endure the strain, and it would have strengthened me outwardly only to injure me within. Therefore I sought to first strengthen my internal organs as a basis to then develop the muscles. Taiji Boxing is this kind of training.
  I remember that when I began practicing this boxing art, my hands and feet were stubborn, my elbows sticking out, my shoulders raised, my movements jerky and discontinuous. I was stiff, crooked, exerting myself, sticking out my chest, and so on, everything about my posture incorrect. Then I received corrections from Long, one after another, and at last understood the “nimbleness” that is mentioned in the Taiji Boxing classics. He took me through key points, such as raising the hands, plucking up the back, containing the chest, sinking the shoulders, dropping the elbows, tucking in the buttocks, and loosening the waist, all elements of proper posture.
  Long is a sincere and excellent guide, explaining in such tireless detail that the student absorbs instruction with the result of getting twice the result for half the work. He also explains the function and effects of each posture so that the student does not learn a posture without knowing what it is for. I have been practicing this art for some years now. Although I would not yet presume to call myself a sturdy fellow, I had long suffered from digestive disorders, headaches, and other ailments, and then after training with this boxing set, all my illnesses suddenly went away. If not the effect of Taiji Boxing, how could I come by such a result as this?
  In order to spread his knowledge to the rest of us, Long Zixiang has made this special volume on Taiji Boxing, writing down what he has learned and performing the postures himself for the photographs. The usage of each posture, as well as the transitional movements between them, are all explained comprehensively. He approaches the authentic Taiji Boxing concepts with a sense of scientific analysis, making them free of obscure and impenetrable theories. This is truly an efficient guide for beginners, helping them easily find their answers, making it an accessible means of self-cultivation. It is clear that the future of Taiji Boxing will prosper without end, the art carried forward thanks to this book. It is more than a mere reference work for enthusiasts, and that is why I write this preface.
  - your student, Fan Yaosen

吳序
PREFACE BY WU RUIMING

健康為人生之寶,精神乃立業之基,余以一介商人,終日逐什一之利,於身心之珍攝調息,迄無餘晷,尋而質羸氣弱,行年不惑,儼若皓首蒼顏,自維素無疾苦,何來命宮魔蝎!語云:『神聚則昌,神散則亡』苟余仍不慕生生之説,日惟形役,有動乎中,必搖其精,今雖未至斯境,而癥結似漸成,幾何不至於神散之域?於余心有惕惕焉!退而潛思,阿堵身外物耳!儻來實易易,又何必靡神耗體以殉黃白?於以老莊介説,得盤縈心腦,天君獲片刻泰然。
時適九龍總商會聘龍師子祥為太極拳教師,使尪羸者得攝生之道,余聞而喜,敢拜師門,潛心屛慮以赴,未週稔,漸覺五經通鬯,脾胃漸寬,膚理充盈,精神暢旺,固非心理使然,要亦事實俱在也
窃太極拳學源溯於有唐,大成於元代,張三豐殆為有系統之鼻祖,王宗岳得承其衣砵,拳經心解,歷有明證,其功在攝元調真,其勁則潛藏不露,主宰於腰,形於手指,由頂至踵,無不輕靈活動,故常習之,足以舒筋活絡,足以延益年壽,魔魘不侵,煩憂都滌,弱者以壯,病者以癒,其功之偉,誠妙不可言也。
然初學者,尤須耐性研討,非旦夕能收宏効,倘以架式學完為意志,一暴而十寒,閒散不作,則人旣無績命之湯,又安有攝生之術哉!是故太極拳,又名為綿拳長拳,其意架式旣綿長,習之亦須稽延時日,旣决心以赴,則須有恒,利用空閒時間,日習一二次,日日如是,年年如是,日積月累,則能懂勁,而階及神明,又何止臻於化境哉!
茲以龍師編纂太極拳學一書之便,順書數言,不惴愚魯,以附驥尾。是為序。
門人吳銳明序於海棠旹辛卯新秋
Health is the most valuable treasure in life, and spirit is the foundation of every endeavor. I once met a businessman who all day long chased after even the meagerest profit, and went from taking care of his mental and physical health to having no time to do so, and thus ended up with a weakened body and diminished energy. At just the age of forty, he already looked like a white-haired senile old gent. He had gone from a state of simplicity and of being without suffering to one of ill-fated misery. There is a saying: “When the spirit gathers, there is flourishing. When the spirit scatters, there is death.”
  I did not envy that man’s life, laboring so hard every day in activity that was greatly disturbing his vital essence. Although I had not yet reached such a point myself, the crucial issue became gradually clear to me: what does one have to do to keep the spirit from scattering? My mind filled with worry, so I retreated into contemplation about the quest for money. When it is coming to us easily enough, then why do we waste our spirit and consume our bodies, sacrificing ourselves for still more? The Daoists would say that we get tangled up in our obsessions, whereas wise men easily obtain a state of calm.
  When the Kowloon General Chamber of Commerce engaged Long Zixiang as Taiji Boxing instructor, it brought a way of keeping fit to the lame and weak. I was delighted once I heard about it and decided to become a student, focusing my mind and ignoring my doubts in order to give it a proper try. Before I had even become fully familiar with the exercises, I had gradually begun to feel my circulation getting smoother, my organs felt more comfortable, my skin was shining, and my spirit flourished. This was not just a state of mind, it was really happening.
  Taiji Boxing began in the Tang Dynasty and was refined in the Yuan Dynasty. Zhang Sanfeng seems to have been the first to systematize it. Wang Zongyue inherited the legacy, which is clear from his own writings – the “Taiji Boxing Classic” and “Understanding How to Practice”. The art’s skill lies in absorbing the initial attack and adjusting it into something else. Its power is hidden and not revealed. It is controlled from the waist and manifests in the fingers. From head to heel, everywhere there is a nimble liveliness. Constant practice will relax the sinews and liven the vessels, and will increase one’s life span, fending off illness and clearing away worries. The weak will become strong. The ill will become cured. Its effects are grand, truly wondrous beyond words.
  However, in the beginning of the training, there is a particular need for patient study. There is no shortcut to being able to obtain great skill. If you are determined to learn the complete solo set, but you give only one out of ten postures your full attention and attend to the rest half-heartedly, or neglect to practice at all, then you will neither obtain a life tonic nor even have a meaningful method of keeping fit. Taiji Boxing is also known as “silk thread” boxing or “long river” boxing, the idea being that the solo set is to be performed with that kind of drawn-out continuousness. Your practice itself has to have a sense of delayed gratification, for if you are indeed dedicated to succeeding at it, you will need perseverance. Make use of your spare time to practice every day, going through the set at least once or twice. In this way, day after day and year after year, over time “you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous”. Keep going and achieve perfection!
  Before you lies Long’s Study of Taiji Boxing. I have supplied this preface to accompany his book without worrying about how uneducated my words may sound, for I am riding the coattails of a great man.
  - written by your student Wu Ruiming during the early autumn when the begonias are in bloom, 1951

李序
PREFACE BY LI ZEFU

拳術門類,殊為繁行,家法紛紜,宗派各別,務盡奇變,以臻妙用,究其旨歸,要以健身為上,禦強制勝,猶餘事也,若其太極一科,尤見精湛,蓋能融滙衆妙,會合諸長,以形會意,以意傳神,以神濟氣,以氣壯勢,循環貫注,形勢悉備,心鬯意達,臻於化境,是以廣舒筋絡,宏濟血脈,內運腑臟,外達膚肌,可以治痼疾,可以健身心,非過言巳,閡其俯仰進退,寓意圓融,變化靜躁之機,滙通勞逸之理,諸拳之妙,偏重筋骨,唯太極兼益精氣神而有之,誠自強之善法,養生之要術,然揅習所積,或有得失,會心不遠,存乎其人,睹奧升堂,繫乎聰敏,若解其旨,累以歲月,玩華登實其功寧曰蕞爾哉,龍師子祥,天資特達,少嗜武技,廣求家法,每涉演習,莫不心手相得,旋採衆技之精華,更悟太極之玄奧,氣質儒雅,目烱然如巖下電,斯蓋卅載鍛鍊之功,修養有得,所謂充諸內形於外也,誨人以技,臨川不惓,廣揚太極,針度弗諼,榘矱法度,闡述無遺,神意勢態,示導詳明,是故桃李佈天下,英譽滿寰宇,澤幼羸弱,遇事不勝勞積,嗣遇龍師傳以太極,晨宵運之,頗覺振發,竊云嘗窺此法之端倪矣,惟人事紛拏,衣食馳騁,益以倭禍,避地西陲,旅居顛沛,時習時輟,退食之暇,偶抱極蹬足,則亦未嘗不一振頽萎,時不我與,轉景十年,顧所學者,形神不全,心手兩拙,俯仰今昔,於功何有,俄而國土重光,故舊無恙,香爐峯下,復叩門墻,時師之造詣固巳彌深,而恢恢大度,靄靄光儀,尤卓鑠於疇昔,同門等以為師之技藝,炳然煥宇內,不有傳燈之述,曷足顯揚宏旨以度後學,力請纂輯圖説,俾所歸依,乃膺俞允,累月而稿成,蒐錄前後論著,附以巳説,助以圖解,條貫有序,網舉目張,手此一卷,可啓愚矇,按圖索驥,自有餘師,澤疏懶曠廢,未敢昌言斯道,撫卷覃思,實慚教督,是編茲付剞劂,謹綴蕪穢,用申委曲,以告來者,並冀自勉,至鴻詞偉論,仍俟豪賢。
一九五一年春月及門李澤甫拜序
There are so many boxing arts, such a diversity of methods, differences of style, each trying its hardest to be unique and achieve something magical. But surely the main priority is strengthening the body, and defeating opponents is of secondary importance. In the case of Taiji, it is exquisite, able to combine all types of ingenuity, the best of everything. It fills its postures with intention, uses intention to guide spirit, uses spirit to carry energy, and uses energy to empower technique. With energy coursing through, every situation is prepared for. With intention arriving wherever you wish, your skill will achieve perfection. Because it relaxes sinews and vessels, boosts blood circulation, internally works the organs, and externally develops the muscles and skin, it can eliminate chronic illnesses, and can strengthen body and mind. These are not exaggerations.
  In going up or down, forward or back, there is always a sense of mildness. It is a mechanism for transforming restlessness into quietude, a means of converting labor into leisure. The skills of other martial arts rely only on physical strength, but Taiji also benefits essence, energy, and spirit. It is an excellent way of strengthening the self, an essential method of nourishing health. Examine its contents to see if there are flaws. Understanding is not far away, for it lies within the body. Ascend to a state of enlightenment, for it is a matter of mind. Once you have grasped the art’s meaning and worked hard at it for many years, delighting in its flowers and harvesting its fruit, your achievement cannot be considered small.
  Long Zixiang is exceptionally talented. Addicted to martial arts since his youth, he sought widely for the methods of different schools. Every time he practiced, his mind and body were united. He collected the essence of many styles, but he especially gained a deep understanding of the secrets of Taiji. He is of a scholarly disposition, eyes bright as lightning. After thirty years of training, his accomplishment can be described as “so much abundance within that it manifests without”. He teaches people tirelessly, spreading Taiji without neglecting any detail, explaining principles meticulously and demonstrating postures clearly. That is why he has students everywhere and is everywhere praised.
  In my own youth, I was very frail, suffering from unbearable digestive issues, but then I met Long and he taught me Taiji. After practicing every morning and evening, I felt I had been roused to health, and so I would say that I have glimpsed something of the effectiveness of this art. However, the struggle to make a living, plus the Japanese invasion and our westward retreat, made me so impoverished that my practice was too often interrupted, my time spent on looking for food. Occasionally I would practice postures such as HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE or PRESSING KICK, but it always just depressed me how my time had been wasted. After ten years like that, I looked back at what I had learned and how incomplete it was, how clumsy I was in mind and body, how the passage of time had left me with no skill.
  But now our lands are glorious again and our loved ones are safe once more. I burned some incense and knocked again on the school door. I then found that Long’s attainment had deepened, broadened, and become so enriched that he was even better than before. My classmates considered his skill to be a shining light for all to see, but as there was no record of his teachings for future generations, they entreated him to make a book in order to pass down the art. He consented, toiled for months, and a manuscript was completed. He sought out various theory texts and has included his own commentary for them as a supplement to his explanations of the postures. All is presented in an orderly fashion, everything in its place.
  Grab this book, for it can awaken us from ignorance. Its guidance will reveal treasures, and so it is like having an extra teacher. As I have been a lazy wastrel, I would not presume to try to explain this art, and as I browse through this book, I am too embarrassed to expound upon its contents. The book is now on its way to the printers. Its rich contents have been carefully composed to explain difficult concepts so as to better inform students, and also with the hope that you will exert yourself to live up to its grand words and theories. I look forward to seeing the talent it produces.
  - reverently written by your student Li Zefu, second month of spring, 1951

黃序
PREFACE BY HUANG CHUYING

輓近太極拳學,蓬勃如雨後春笋,揆厥所由,殆基於三大因素:(一)不需廣場與器械,乃適於經濟條件。(二)人人皆可學,無階級之分,乃適於普遍條件。(三)不限於年齡性別,老少咸宜,乃適於永恒條件。似此三者兼備,則環境,經濟,時間,遂互利於無形。而從事演習者,能於倥偬之餘,得攝生妙術,得化敵技巧,較諸其他運動,需廣塲,重設備,尚壯力,限年齡者,其便利當較何如耶?故邇來從事健體運動,又為上述三條件所囿者,多此之圖。以視曩昔之目太極拳為高深莫測,非一般人所可引領者,固不可同日而語也。
然而,行之匪艱,知之惟艱,一套架式,兩月可成,設以此而沾沾自足,則誠大謬!蓋太極拳之成就,在神不在形,尚氣不尚力,非日積月累,不易言輕靈,非揣摩研討,不易言懂勁,是故外表工夫,須以慢,柔,匀,為基礎,中心動作,須以鬆,固,凝,為目標,先嫻於外,乃成諸內,迨覺精沛,氣充,神旺之時,方寸間漸覺臻於化境,倘能心手相應,則階及神明之功不遠矣!太極拳於此時可稱上乘,不特可以延年益壽,抑亦能禦敵,然焦燥者,徒以風簷寸晷,僅較一日之短長,又安足與言悟,懂,神明之功哉!
龍師子祥,隨祖師顧汝章先生遊有年,除嫻於少林派外,而於武當派之太極拳,尤擷精採華,裘葛不間,數稔盡傳其秘,十年淬勵,巳至爐火純青。攷顧氏為李景林先生及孫祿堂先生之高足,李氏為楊露蟬先生之第三哲嗣建侯所傳。孫氏乃郝為楨先生之高足,而郝氏又為懷慶府趙保鎮陳清平先生所傳。輾轉相承,至顧氏乃始集李,孫二氏之大成,融滙一體。龍師承其衣砵,不自珍秘而廣植桃李,以故當時碩彥及士商等輩,瞻望門牆,寔繁有徒。然龍師天稟恬淡,訓誨而外,不好釣譽於世,故其生平所學,從未以文致遠。門人等胥以師學不可無傳燈之繼,僉以行文付梓,非所以沽名,實所以廣學也,龍師乃以為然,毅然以編纂是書為己任。蓋致遠傳後,為藝術界之天職,矧國粹不可湮沒乎!顧龍師時日大忙,時輯時輟,自初稿草竣後,而對於整帙次序,迄無遑晷以竟其事,後乃責之於李若凡學兄及楚英等,使從事整理助編,奈譾陋自慚,編纂一事,尤屬門外,稽古攷證,搜索難無舛謬,卒歷時三月,幸底於成,良堪告慰!至技巧之劣拙,修辭之鄙陋,不計也!
書中架式照片由名醫李子飛君玉助拍攝,推手架圖式八幀,由光光攝影室拍贈,又蒙諸君子題詞作序,承師命附誌於此,用矢弗諼,並申謝忱!是為序。
門人黃楚英序於九龍時辛卯元春
In recent years, the learning of Taiji Boxing has been flourishing like bamboo shoots in the spring. There are three major reasons for this:
  1. It does not require special facilities or equipment, and so it is suitable for any financial condition.
  2. Everyone can learn it, regardless of social status, and so it is suitable for common use.
  3. It is not limited by age or sex. Being appropriate for old and young alike, it is suitable as a lifelong activity.
  These three factors – social situation, financial condition, time of life – seem to automatically reinforce each other. [i.e. Youth can work harder, make more money, and thereby have greater social standing, whereas the elderly can no longer work, are thus at risk of becoming destitute, and will then end up being ignored and forgotten.] But poverty is not a barrier for those who want to train in this art. They will get a wondrous method of keeping fit, as well as a skill for dealing with attackers. Compared to all the other kinds of exercise, which require facilities, put great importance upon equipment, value strength and vigor, and are limited to people of a certain age [i.e. the young], is it not far more accessible? For those who are interested in exercising but are limited by these three factors, this is often the case.
  Taiji Boxing used to be seen as something that was incomprehensible, and since it thus did not attract ordinary people, it was not thought to be worth mentioning. The problem was not that the movements are difficult to do, but that the art is hard to understand. The entire set of postures can be completed in just a couple of months. But if you think such an acquaintance with it is enough to know it, then you are completely mistaken.
  Achievement in Taiji Boxing is a matter of spirit rather than appearance, of energy rather than strength. Without putting a great deal of time into it, it will not be easy to discuss nimbleness. Without contemplation and study, it will not be easy to discuss the identifying of energies. Therefore the outward training has to be based in slowness, softness, and evenness, and the internal movement has to be aimed at relaxation, stability, and concentration. First refine from outside, then complete everything inside. When you feel your essence is abundant, your energy is full, and your spirit is flourishing, then you will gradually feel you are reaching a level of perfection. Once mind and hand are truly working in concert, then ascending toward miraculous skill is not far off.
  Taiji Boxing at such a time can be deemed a “great vehicle”. Not only can it be used to promote longevity, but also to repel opponents. Although you may get impatient, you must relish every moment, focusing only on a single day’s corrections at a time, and then you will be equipped to speak of awakening, understanding, and of developing a miraculous skill.
  Master Long Zixiang learned from Grandmaster Gu Ruzhang for many years. Beyond becoming adept in the Shaolin branch, he also became especially refined in the Wudang branch’s Taiji Boxing. So steeped in it that it permeates even his clothes, he knows the Taiji classics by heart, and after decades of toil he has attained a high degree of skill.
  Examining the lineage, Gu was a student of Li Jinglin and Sun Lutang. Li was taught by Yang Luchan’s third son, Jianhou. Sun Lutang was a student of Hao Weizhen, who had learned from [Li Yiyu, who had learned Wu Yuxiang, who had learned from] Chen Qingping of Zhaobao Village, Huaiqing Prefecture. The art was thus passed down through many hands until reaching Gu, who absorbed the achievements of Li and Sun, and merged them into a single essence. [This indicates only that his understanding of Taiji theory comes from Li and Sun, not that his Taiji is a fusion art of Yang Style and Sun Style. As there are no Sun Style postures in Gu’s performance, this Taiji set would thus be classified as Yang Style.]
  Long carries on their legacy, not by keeping the art to himself but by spreading it to his others. As a result of this, everyone from scholars to businessmen are seeking out his school, a great many people wanting to learn. However, Long has a natural talent but an indifference to gaining anything by it. He is concerned only with giving instruction and has no interest in seeking fame, and therefore what he has spent his whole life studying is never used for showing off.
  Students cannot learn unless teachers pass down their knowledge, writing and publishing all they know, not for buying fame but for spreading knowledge. Seeing that this is the case, Long has resolved himself to the task of making a book. Then once knowledge of this art has been spread far, it will be up to the practitioners of it to keep this essential piece of our cultural from disappearing.
  Considering how busy Long is, the work was constantly being interrupted. Although he finished a first draft and arranged the sections of the book into their sequence, he had no free time to complete the project, and so he enlisted the help of my senior classmate Li Ruofan and myself in organizing and editing the text. How ignorant and bashful we felt, for the task of putting the book together involved seeking beyond the teachings in our school to investigate older texts, and we are bound to have made some errors. The work took three months, involved a lot of luck, and we had a strong sense of relief when it was finished. Where our efforts look clumsy and our wordings seem shallow, I hope you will not hold it against us.
  The photos for the set were taken by the well-known physician Li Zifei, and the eight photos of pushing hands postures were done for free by the Guangguang Photo Studio. I want to give a few words of acknowledgement to them in this preface on behalf of my teacher: we “vow to never forget” [Book of Poems, poem 56] and express our sincere gratitude.
  - written by your student Huang Chuying in Kowloon, during the New Year, 1951

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

太極拳為全身運動,其動作除軀幹而外,並運及五臟諸經,激衝榮衛,以增元氣,以充精力,故可却病延年。太極練法,重點在心,何以言之?蓋身手動作,皆心主之,所以曰柔,曰慢,曰連緜不斷,曰一氣呵成,莫不由心所使。心有情緒,有情感,有觀念,有槪念。無觀念,槪念,誠不明太極價值,興趣薄弱,強而練之,終如依樣畫葫蘆,無情感,是對太極乏熱誠,或情緻不存,動作便有粗獷之失,換言之,猶演式無太極意義是也,至于情緒亂什,輒演輒亂,錯誤百出,暴燥橫生,未竟全拳而止。是以心專,心誠,心靜方得動作主宰,此卽所謂意到,意到可使手到,足到,氣到,神到,每一出手,便與太極原意無悖,常能行之,其柔勁生於無形,於此時也,大道巳成,忽然以四両撥千斤,驟然自驚神妙不可思議,固非誑言巳。余習太極廿餘年,不敢謂盡得其妙,屢聆師訓,與夫諸武技前輩影响所及,潛思其意,輒騐身心精氣諸事,實與專修硬拳逈異。苟人人習之,是我民族健強之基本。故累年窃存提倡之心,以求同好,以觀功效,惟太極之道,端從消極中求積極,非從積極中求積極,從軟中求柔勁,非從硬中求剛勁,此於急功近利輩,每多不能終其學,或比擬舞蹈,是為太極發展之大碍。余傳授太極,迄今十餘年,教學相長,薄存心印,頗欲形諸筆墨,用資參證,而衣食奔走,抗戰離亂,非率爾可成。一九五零年,受九龍總商會聘,任太極研究班教席,屢承雷少明,李子飛曁諸同人敦促輯太極拳學以為課餘之助,幾經思維,幷得黃楚英李若凡兩棣之助,毅然着手編輯。余以提倡為主,故重紹述先賢理論,以管見附之,怱怱纂成是册。不敢謂有所發明,但於倡導之意,固可一快曩年積耿,而償風願。至於謬誤闕遺處,自所不免,惟盼海內高明,不吝是正,則不獨余之幸,抑亦國術前途之幸也!是為序。
一九五一年八月龍子祥序於中國健身會
Taiji Boxing is an exercise for the whole body. Its movements go beyond just working the torso and go all the way into the organs and channels, surging through to fuel both your nourishing energy and defensive energy, increasing vitality and amplifying vigor, and thus it can prevent illness and prolong life.
  The key to practicing Taiji is the mind. What does this mean? The movements of the body and hands are all directed by the mind, and the qualities of “softness”, “slowness”, “continuousness”, and “flow” are all made by the mind. The mind has moods and feelings, ideas and notions. Without ideas and notions, you will not really see the value of Taiji. And then if your interest is weak and you have to force yourself to practice, you will only be copying movements mechanically. Without having any feeling for it, you will lack an earnestness toward Taiji, or simply not have your mind in it, and the movements will then easily degrade. In other words, it will be as though you are performing the postures without any sense of it being Taiji. The result will be a mood of distraction, and hence a performance of the movements that is a mess, full of mistakes. Frustration will grow and you will quit before you have gotten through the whole set.
  When your mind is focused, sincere, and calm, it will then be in charge of your movements. This is described as “the intention arriving”. When your intention arrives, it will make your hands, feet, energy, and spirit arrive, and then with each technique you will not be corrupting the true meaning of Taiji. If you can constantly practice in this way, a soft power will be developing without your even noticing it, until finally the grand method has been achieved and suddenly you are using “four ounces to move a thousand pounds”, surprised to discover that you have skill far beyond your expectations. This is no exaggeration.
  I have been practicing Taiji for more than twenty years, but I would not dare to say that I have reached the limit of its subtleties. I was frequently given instructions by my teacher, and I have been influenced by the teachings of previous generations. I have deeply contemplated all of their ideas and tested them in terms of body and mind, essence and energy. This art is truly very different from styles that emphasize hardness. If everyone practices it, then our nation will have a basis for health and strength. Therefore for years I have been intent upon promoting it so that those who are interested may see its effectiveness. Only the method of Taiji seeks the active within the passive rather than the active within the active, and seeks the soft power within supple movement rather than hard power within stiff movement.
  In this generation eager for quick results and immediate gratification, most cannot complete their studies, or they treat it is a mere dance, and this is a great hindrance to the growth of Taiji. I have taught Taiji for more than ten years now, and have learned further through the teaching of it. Whatever I learn, I write down notes about it, then take the trouble to test it, and no amount of struggling for daily necessities, rushing about with busy tasks, or even the war against Japan, has been enough to curtail me from doing so.
  In 1950, I was hired by the Kowloon General Chamber of Commerce to be the instructor for their Taiji Study Club. I was repeatedly urged by Lei Shaoming, Li Zifei, and many other colleagues to make this book in order to serve as a reference aid outside of the classes. After much consideration, and after obtaining the assistance of two of my students, Huang Chuying and Li Ruofan, I threw myself into the work. Because I am focused upon making the art more accessible, immediately following each of the theory texts made by previous masters [“Taiji Treatise”, “Taiji Classic”, and “Understanding How to Practice”] is the addition of my own humble commentary, hurriedly added as a final touch to complete this volume.
  I would not dare to claim that I have invented anything with this book. My only purpose is to get things moving. The practice of this art can indeed cleanse us of the accumulated humiliation of former years, thus fulfilling our common dream. Inevitably there are some errors or things left out, and I hope that experts throughout the nation will not hold back in offering correction. Then not only would I be fortunate, but also it would be a benefit to the future of Chinese martial arts. And so I write these words.
  - written by Long Zixiang at the Chinese Fitness Society, Aug, 1951

凡例
GENERAL REMARKS ON THE USE OF THIS BOOK

一、本書分上下兩編,上編專述太極架式,為基本之學,下編專述推手,為技術之運用,兩編均將理論與架式並列。
– This book is divided into two parts. Part One focuses on describing the Taiji solo set, being the fundamental study. Part Two focuses on describing the pushing hands exercises, being the application of the skills. The two parts present both principles and postures.

一、陰陽五行之説,玄妙實甚,以証拳理,殊難得當,太極之分用八卦,意在申明方位五門八步之勢,是以本書仍蒐是項理論者,亦欲使學者明其來歷與用意,非故用玄妙之談。
– Explanations of the passive/active aspects and the five elements are rather obscure, and so it is very difficult to use these concepts appropriately when employing them to elucidate boxing arts principles. Taiji’s own use of the eight trigrams is simply meant to clarify the five techniques and eight steps [eight techniques and five steps], and therefore this book delves into each of them [the eight techniques being described in detail in the final section of the book]. In order to more easily enable you to have a sense of the background and purpose of the principles of the art, there is hardly any use of abstract language.

一、前賢學術水準,均比現代為優,故論著之精湛,不易領悟,所以凡屈拮難讀或義理全涉讖異者,槪不採入,其不得不引用者,以語體譯意,附原著之後,以供參攷。
– Earlier masters learned the art at a higher level of sophistication than in modern times. As a result, their writings are profound and difficult to understand. Wherever a text becomes impenetrable or its ideas seem downright bizarre, you will generally not get much from it that you can make use of. Therefore included are interpretations in a more colloquial style, which are placed after the original text [of each of the three major classics], in order for you to have a more accessible version to consult.

一、太極理論,各家所述大旨相同,惟心得各具精義,為使學者對太極有充分之認識起見,雖間有雷同時,亦不厭重複蒐入,俾可縱觀諸家見解所在,至非專論之作,凡對太極有所貢獻者,亦節錄入之。
– Taiji theory is mostly the same from master to master, but there are different essentials to be learned from each. The purpose is for you to gain an abundant knowledge of the art. Although the content of such texts can sometimes seem repetitive, you should tirelessly delve into them over and over, and in this way you will be able to examine the views of many masters rather than focus on only one. All those who have contributed to Taiji are to be referenced.

一、本書所蒐作品,或删削,節錄,或增註,譯意,或編表,繪圖,務求有詳明之系統,其不合編次者,作附錄置之。
– Of the extra texts sought out for inclusion in this book, some were left out or merely quoted from, some have been given added commentary for easier interpretation, and some were helpful for making the lineage chart and the [eight trigrams] charts. Effort has been made to appropriately fit them within the structure of the book, and so those that seem oddly placed are included as “additional texts”.

一、架式部分,由龍師子祥親演動作,攝照二百零五幀。推手部份,並與恊編者共演,攝照八幀,各附説明,另於若干式後,附『步法位置圖』共四十四幀,以示進退方位,使學者知其身法,手法步法。
– In the section on the solo set, Long Zixiang himself performs the movements in two hundred and five photos. In the pushing hands section, he and the editors [Huang and Li] share in the performance, and there are eight photos, each accompanied by explanations. In addition to the photos [of the solo set], after every few postures there are also footwork diagrams, a total of forty-four [forty-five], showing the direction of advances and retreats, helping you to more fully understand the actions of body, hand, and step.

一、『步法位置圖』,另有圖例,讀者應先讀明其例,庶可知圖之所指,方無誤解。
– The footwork diagrams are preceded by a set of special explanations [immediately following the list of postures] which you should first familiarize yourself with in order to avoid confusion over what the diagrams are indicating.

一、『太極步法路線略圖』,係全拳經過路線,而擇其較著之方式,以足印示之,非全拳步法均在此中,至步幅之大小,當視個人而定。是圖約以一華方尺作假定標準繪成,並無比例計算。
– The Taiji Footwork Map shows the path of the set as a whole. Footprints are placed only at major landmarks rather than showing every single step for the whole set. The size of the stride depends on the individuals. The map was made with roughly a “Chinese foot” as the basis for measurements [just over 13 inches, unless a “Hong Kong inch” is intended, considering where the book was made, in which case it would be over 14 inches], but its proportions were not designed to any specific calculations.

一、『太極架式名稱用法總表』,內用法一欄,僅屬摘要,其中有關係於鍛鍊身體者,有關係於抵敵者,有關係于架式之連繫者,不一而足。同名稱,用法不同,如表中第十三式與第三十二式均為『上步搬捶攔』,而用法欄:一註運臂鍊腿之法,一注進步化敵之法,此實多方提示之意,非故為異註,綜觀各家所列亦然,今從之。
– In the list of Names & Functions of the Taiji Boxing Postures, the function descriptions provide only a general idea of how a posture exercises the body, is used for defending against opponents, or the way it links with surrounding postures. Often postures with the same name will have different functions mentioned. For instance, Postures 13 and 32 are both STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH, but the function description in the case of the former says “this is a method of wielding the arm in connection with the leg” and in the case of the latter says “this is a method of advancing to neutralize the opponent”. This shows that there are different ways to look at a posture, not really that different instances have different functions. Notice that different masters have different views, and follow their example.

顧汝章先生玉照
Portrait of Gu Ruzhang

龍師子祥近照
Portrait of Long Zixiang

九龍總商會主辦太極拳賀生留影一九五一年一月九日
Anniversary portrait of the Taiji Boxing Club of the Kowloon Chamber of Commerce, Jan 9, 1951

中國健身會太極拳班同人攝影㽞念一九五一年八月廿五光光攝
Portrait of the members of the Taiji Boxing Club of the Chinese Fitness Society, photo by Guangguang Photography, Aug 25, 1951

上編 基本之部
PART ONE: FUNDAMENTALS

第一章 論著(上)
CHAPTER ONE: VARIOUS WRITINGS

(一)張祖師三峯太極拳論
I. ZHANG SANFENG’S TAIJI BOXING TREATISE

一舉動,週身要輕靈,尤須貫串,氣如鼓盪,神宜內歛,無使有缺陷處,無使有凹凸處,無使有斷續處,其根在脚,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指,由脚而腿,而腰,總須完整一氣,向前退後,乃能得機得勢,有不得機得勢處,身使散亂,其病必於腰腿求之,上下前後左右皆然,凡此皆是意,不在外面,有上卽有下,有前卽有後,有左卽有右,如意向上,卽寓下意,若將物掀起,而加以挫之之意,斯其根自斷,乃壞之速而無疑,虛實宜分清楚,一處有一處虛實,處處總此一虛實,週身節節貫串,無令絲毫間斷耳。
[1] Once there is any movement, your entire body should be nimble and alert.
[2] There especially needs to be connection from movement to movement.
[3] Energy should be roused and spirit should be collected within.
[4] Do not allow there to be cracks or gaps anywhere, pits or protrusions anywhere, breaks in the flow anywhere.
[5] Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a fully continuous process, and whether advancing or retreating, you will then catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand.
[6] If you miss and your body easily falls into disorder, the problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there. This is always so, regardless of the direction of the movement, be it up, down, forward, back, left, right. And in all of these cases, the problem is a matter of your intent and does not lie outside of you. With an upward comes a downward, with a forward comes a backward, and with a left comes a right.
[7] If your intention wants to go upward, then harbor a downward intention, like when you reach down to lift up an object. You thereby add a setback to the opponent’s own intention, thus he cuts his own root and is defeated quickly and certainly.
[8] Empty and full must be distinguished clearly. In each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full. Everywhere it is always like this, an emptiness and a fullness.
[9] Throughout your body, as the movement goes from one section to another there is connection. Do not allow the slightest break in the connection.

上文譯意
Interpretation of the text:

我們在練拳時,一舉一動都要手足輕靈,不生拙力。雖然拳式過於冗長,也要一氣呵成,連綿不斷,才能貫串。至於氣的方面,應該要鼓盪,因為氣是我們的呼吸,一息也不能間斷,而神的方面,則應該內歛,因為凝神歛志,才能心意專一,更須要心平氣和,無論動作與心意,都不可有凹凸之處,尤不可有斷續的表現。我們要知道,心與意,意與氣,氣與力,其根基是由脚貫於腿,由腿而傳於腰,由腰而升於頸,而達於顱頂,至於手指臂腕,總要如一氣之完整,如遇敵時,無論前進後退,無不得心應手,這都是以足為根的緣故。若果上下不相隨,手動而脚不動,便是不得機不得勢,因而身法散亂,這種毛病,一定是由於腰腿產生出來,因為上下左右前後的動作,都是先動於腰腿的,以上所論,乃言心與意,而非皮與骨。盖心意能專一,上下前後左右乃得隨機應變之妙,否則意志不專,則易入旁門,比方想擊敵人之上部,却有襲下之意,使敵不易於捉摸,猶之植物而先拔其根,則其本巳損壞,其標又豈能生存?所以我們先要分別何處虛,何處實,敵實時則我虛,敵變虛則我忽實,雖是一處有一處虛實,然苟明白此一虛實,彼重我輕,不丢不頂,則無有不勝的。又在演式時,一面動作,却一面呼吸,運用自然,節節貫通,四肢百骸,處處有若空虛,然雖像空虛,却又能貫串,正如常山蛇,擊首則尾應,擊尾時則首應,擊其腰則首尾相應,這樣才能算得靈活,亦决無間斷之弊,練太極拳時也是這樣意思呢!
[1] When we practice the boxing set, with every movement there should always be nimbleness in the hands and feet, not producing any awkward effort.
[2] Although the boxing set is very drawn out, it should nevertheless be a single flow from beginning to end, continuous without interruption, and then you will be able to have connection from movement to movement.
[3] As for energy, it should be roused. Our energy is our breath, and that should not be discontinuous. As for spirit, it should be gathered within. By concentrating spirit and amassing willpower, you will then be able to focus your intention, but you also have to make your mind calm and your energy harmonious.
[4] Regardless of the movement or intention, there must never be any parts that are caving in or bulging out, and there especially must not be any display of breaks in the flow.
[5] We have to understand that mind unites with intention, intention unites with energy, and energy unites with power. Starting from the foot, it courses through the leg; from the leg, it transmits to the waist; from the waist, it ascends to the neck, arriving at the headtop; then it reaches to the forearm, wrist, fingers. It should be like a single flow remaining intact throughout. Then when encountering an opponent, whether you are advancing or retreating, you will always be performing with your hands exactly what is it your mind. This is the reason why the foot is the root of this process.
[6] If your upper body and lower are not coordinating, movement in your hands but not in your feet, you will not be in the right place at the right time, causing your body to fall into disorder. This kind of problem is surely produced by your waist and legs. This is because whether you are moving upward or downward, left or right, forward or back, movement is always initiated from the area of your waist and legs. What is being described has to do with mind and intention rather than skin and bone. If you are able to focus your mind, then you will move upward or downward, forward or back, left for right, with the subtlety of acting according to the situation. If instead your mind is not focused, you will easily end up going the wrong way.
[7] For an analogy, if you want to strike an opponent above, have an intention of attacking him below. This will make it difficult for him to know what is happening and the result will be like pulling out a plant by its roots. With his structure damaged, how would be able to maintain his position?
[8] Therefore we should first distinguish what area is empty and what area is full. When the opponent fills, I empty, and then when he switches to emptying, I suddenly fill. Although “in each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full”, as long as I clearly sense which is which, then when he is heavy, I will be light, neither coming away nor crashing in, and thus I will win every time.
[9] When practicing the set, in terms of both movement and breath, there should be naturalness, section-by-section connection, through all of the limbs and every part of the body. In every part there may seem to be nothing there, but still there will be connection between the parts. It would be just like the “Mt. Chang Snake” battle formation [Art of War, chapter 11]: “Strike its head, its tail responds. Strike its tail, its head responds. Strike its middle, its head and tail respond together.” This ability can be considered nimbleness, for it is entirely without the error of discontinuity. This is the kind of idea to keep in mind when you are practicing Taiji Boxing.

(二)王宗岳先生太極拳經
II. WANG ZONGYUE’S TAIJI BOXING CLASSIC

太極者,無極而生,動靜之機,陰陽之母也。動之則分,靜之則合。無過不及,隨曲就伸。人剛我柔謂之走,我順人逆謂之黏,動急則急應謂之連,動緩則緩應謂之隨。雖變化萬端,而理為一貫,由着熟而漸懂勁。由懂勁而階及神明。然非用力之久,不能豁然貫通焉。
虛領頂勁。氣沉丹田。不徧不倚,忽隱忽現。左重則左虛。右重則右虛。仰之則彌高,俯之則彌深。進之則愈長,退之則愈促。一羽不能加,蠅蟲不能落。人不知我,我獨知人,英雄所向無敵,蓋皆由此而及也。
斯技旁門甚多。雖勢有區別,槪不外乎壯欺弱,慢讓快矣。有力打無力,手慢讓手快。是皆先天自然之能,非關學力而有為也。
察四両撥千斤之句,顯非力勝,觀耄耋能禦衆之形,快何能為!惟立如平準,活似車輪。徧沉則隨,雙重則滯。每見數年純功,不能運化者,率皆自人制,雙重之病未悟耳
欲避此病,須知陰陽,黏卽是走,走卽是黏,陰不離陽,陽不離陰,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁。懂勁後,愈練愈精。默識揣摩,漸至從心所欲。本是捨己從人,多悞舍近求遠。所謂『差之毫釐,謬之千里』。學者不可不詳辨焉。是為論。
[1] Taiji is born of wuji. It is the manifestation of movement and stillness, and the mother of yin and yang.
[2] When there is movement, the passive and active aspects become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable.
[3] Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend.
[4] He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking.
[5] If he moves fast, I quickly respond – this is connecting. If his movement is slow, I leisurely follow – this is following. Although there is an endless variety of possible scenarios, there is only this single principle [of yielding and sticking] throughout.
[6] Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.
[7] Forcelessly press up your headtop. Energy sinks to your elixir field. Neither lean nor slant. Suddenly hide and suddenly appear.
[8] When there is pressure on the left, the left empties. When there is pressure on the right, the right disappears. [Due to the different contexts of “empty” and “disappear”, this section is referring to facing an opponent with your right side forward, left foot behind.]
[9] When looking up, it is still higher. When looking down, it is still lower. When advancing, it is even farther. When retreating, it is even nearer.
[10] A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land. The opponent does not understand me, only I understand him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.
[11] There are many other schools of boxing arts besides this one. Although the postures are different between them, they generally do not go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast. The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability and bear no relation to skill that is learned.
[12] Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.
[13] Stand like a scale. Move like a wheel.
[14] If you drop one side, you can move. If you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck.
[15] We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is generally under the opponent’s control, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood. If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active. In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies.
[16] Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.
[17] The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent. We often neglectfully ignore what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances.
[18] For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” You must understand all this clearly. That is why it has been written down for you.

上文譯意
Interpretation of the text [often drawing from Chen Weiming’s 1925 commentary]:

陰陽二氣是生之於太極,而太極是基之於無極的。現在我們所練的拳術,因為動作上處處都分開了虛實陰陽,所以就叫做太極拳。當我們身體不動的時候,便是一個太極體,如果肢體稍微動了,便分出陰陽來。太極拳的宗旨是主化勁的,所以與人相黏相接的時候,要看對方的動作而動作,對方屈則我伸,對方伸則我屈,要和他密合,不丢開又不積極,務使不有過分和不及的毛病。對方如用剛力進攻,而我又以剛力抵抗,這是不對的,祗有人剛我柔,才不致防碍,不防碍,對方之力便走化,旣走化,則其剛力失去重心,故未有不敗。我的形勢旣有利,則必順,旣以順粘逆,則對方雖有剛力亦不得其用了。我的快慣,是要沒有一定,祗須看卦方而定,更不可自為主動,那便自然能粘連不斷,然而非两臂鬆淨,不使有絲毫的拙力,則不能相隨之如是巧合,如果自恃两臂有拙力,又常喜自作主張,便不能做到捨己從人的功夫。所以變化雖萬端不同,而粘隨的道理是不變的。
我們習拳純熟了,時常要練習推手,用力旣久,自然而至懂勁,由懂勁而至神而明之了,無論練架子、或推手也好,都要有虛實頂勁和氣沉丹田的意思,腿都要不偏不倚,立身要中正,動作又要忽隱忽現,虛實不定,使對方不能測其變化,對方如側重左邊進攻,則我左邊和他相粘之處,馬上變虛,右邊也是一樣,旣與對方相粘,務隨其意而化之,切不可稍作抵抗,則其力自然處處落空,當對方仰攻的時候,須使他覺我的地位好像很高,覺得如捫天之難,如彼欲俯擊,須使他覺我之陣勢深奧,好像臨深淵而恐陷,如他前進,我則先退後,使他覺我長距離而不可及,如他退避,我則先彼上前,使他覺我逼近而不可逃,這都是運用粘隨不丢之法,使對方不得其力。雖一羽之輕,一蠅之細,也不使牠落於己身之上,這是形容不丢不頂之意,技藝精的,才能如此,因為感覺靈敏便稍觸卽知,工夫至此,自然人不如我,無怪英雄所向無敵了。然而拳術的派別很多,不外是以力快勝人,這是一定的道理,倘非如太極拳之巧妙者,而又能不恃力恃快,實很難决勝,因為太極拳之巧妙,是在於能以四両撥千斤,則對方雖有千斤之力,倘我勢順而彼逆,故千斤力亦不為其用,因對方之快是自動的,若遇精於太極拳者,祗以手粘之,則彼欲動且不能,又怎能快勝呢?
凡練太極拳,如能立如平準,便能虛靈頂勁,活動時欲如車輪之圓潤,則須以腰為主宰,因為太極拳之舉動,無處不是隨腰部運動圓轉。至於力的運用,不外是偏沉則隨,雙重則滯八字,比方兩處均用力,則互為抵抗,有力者則勝,是謂之雙重則滯,若兩力相遇,有一方突然鬆弛,則用力的必為鬆處化去,是謂偏沉則隨,我們每見有多年純功的人,有時不免為對方所牽制,就是犯了雙重的毛病,想避免這毛病,則必須先知陰陽,陰陽就是虛實之意,故稍發覺有雙重的時候,卽須偏沉,立分虛實,但仍要粘連不脫。故能粘便是能走,還要陰陽相濟,如彼虛則我實,如彼實則我虛,可是變化本無一定的,祗須視對方之動作而應付,相互為用,那纔可説是懂勁。懂了勁,可説是太極拳巳入門了,然仍不可間斷,必須日日練習,處處揣摩,如有所悟,默誌於心,心動則隨之,沒有不如意,這樣,技藝可算日精了,太極拳本來不是自作主張的,須處處從人,對方的動作,必有一定方向,則我要隨其方向而去,因不稍抵抗,所以對方之力便落了空,這是因他過於用力的緣故,我旣知對方有一定方向,而尚不知隨他而作,真是捨近而求遠了,所以太極拳與人粘連密切之時,就要應付他,不然,便會失却機會,正所謂差之毫釐而謬以千里。
上述的理論,是太極拳的奧妙,非有夙慧的人,是不能領會的,那末,我們是平庸之輩又豈可等閒視之呢!
[1] The two aspects of polarity, passive and active [yin and yang], emerge from a grand polarity [taiji], which itself comes from nonpolarity [wuji]. When we are practicing this boxing art, movement divides every part of the body into a role of empty or full, i.e. passive or active, and it is for this reason the art is called Taiji.
[2] When the body does not move, it is in a state of being a grand polarity. But once it moves even a little bit, then passive and active qualities emerge and become distinguishable.
[3] The goal in Taiji Boxing is to neutralize energy. Therefore when I connect with and stick to the opponent, I should act in accordance with his actions. When he bends, I extend. When he extends, I bend. I closely join with him, being neither too slack nor too vigorous, making sure that I do not commit the errors of overdoing or underdoing.
[4] If he uses hardness to attack and I also use hardness to resist, this is incorrect. If he uses hardness and I softness, only then will there be no obstruction. Unobstructed, his force will instead be yielded to and neutralized. When I yield and neutralize, his hardness causes him to lose his balance, which inevitably causes him to fail. I am now in the advantageous position and my energy will remain smooth. By sticking to his coarse energy with my smooth energy, then even if he has strength, he will not be able to use it.
[5] My speed is not fixed, but instead has to be determined by my observation of the opponent. I must not act from myself, and then I will automatically be able to stick and connect continuously. But unless my arms are fully relaxed, not allowing the smallest bit of awkward effort, then I will not be able to follow him and thereby skillfully close in on him. If I get cocky and my arms are using effort, then I am getting distracted by the pleasure of acting from myself and will be incapable of achieving the skill of letting go of myself to follow him. Therefore even though “there is an endless variety of possible scenarios”. sticking and following is an unchanging principle.
[6] Once we have practiced the set to familiarity, we should practice pushing hands often. With “a lot of practice over a long time”, you will naturally come to identify energies and then become miraculous.
[7] Regardless of practicing either the solo set or the pushing hands, in both cases you must have the intentions of pressing up your headtop and of energy sinking to your elixir field. Your stance should “neither lean nor slant”, instead your body should be upright. In your movement, you should “suddenly hide and suddenly appear”, meaning that your emptiness and fullness are not constant, causing the opponent to be unable to predict your changes.
[8] If the opponent attacks my left side, then the place on my left side where he is sticking to me promptly changes to become empty. The situation on my right side is the same. When sticking with an opponent, I should go along with his intention and neutralize it. I must never even slightly resist, and then his force will always land on nothing.
[9] If the opponent attacks upward, I have to make him feel that my position is so high that it would be like trying to touch the sky. If he wants to attack downward, I have to make him feel that my position is so deep that it would be like facing an abyss and fearing falling into it. If he advances, I act faster by retreating, making him feel that I am even farther away and he cannot get to me. If he retreats, I act faster by advancing, making him feel that I am even nearer and he cannot get away from me. All of these words are about my ability to stick and follow without disconnecting, making the opponent unable to use his power.
[10] Even for something as light as a feather or as insignificant as a fly, I will not allow it to land on my body. This describes the intention of neither coming away nor crashing in. Once your skill is refined, you can be like this. Due to your awareness and sensitivity, the slightest contact will tell you everything about the opponent. When your skill has reached this level, you will naturally have the quality of “he does not understand me, only I understand him”, and it will be no surprise for you to become a “hero who encounters no opposition”.
[11] Even though there are a great many schools of boxing arts, they do not go beyond using strength and speed to win. It is a fixed principle that without the skillful ingenuity of an art such as Taiji Boxing, one would not be able to help but rely on strength and speed, and then it would be very difficult to decisively win.
[12] Taiji Boxing’s ingenuity lies in being able to use “four ounces to move a thousand pounds”. Even if the opponent has a thousand pounds of force, my energy is smooth while his energy is coarse, rendering his thousand pounds useless. Because his speed is generated by his own actions, if he encounters an expert in the Taiji boxing art, those hands will be sticking to him so much that when he wants to take action he cannot. How then could he use speed to win?
[13] Always when practicing Taiji Boxing, if you are able to stand like a scale, then you will be able to have the quality of forcelessly pressing up your headtop. During movement, if you want to have the complete roundness of a turning wheel, then you have to use your waist to control the movement. Because movement in Taiji Boxing involves every part complying with the waist, the movement will be rounded.
[14] The use of force in a nutshell: “If you drop one side, you can move. If you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck.” By extension, if two people are equally using force, they will be resisting against each other and the stronger one will win. Therefore equal pressure on both sides means getting stuck. But if two people are using force against each other and one suddenly loosens, then the one who is exerting strength will be neutralized by the one who relaxes. Therefore letting go on one side means being free to move.
[15] We have often seen someone who has put in many years of training and still sometimes unavoidably ends up controlled by the opponent. This is simply due to the error of double pressure. If you would like to avoid making this error, you must first understand passive and active, i.e. emptiness and fullness. Once you even slightly sense that double pressure is happening, you have to drop one side so that the sides divide into an empty side and a full side. However, you still have to stick and not disconnect, and thus be able to maintain sticking and yielding, for passive and active still have to support each other. If the opponent empties, I fill, and if he fills, I empty. But to adapt in such a way does not have a fixed pattern, and so it is necessary to observe the direction of the opponent’s movement and respond in accordance with it. When emptiness and fullness are reinforcing each other, you can then be said to be identifying energies.
[16] Once you are identifying energies, it can be said that you have learned the fundamentals of Taiji Boxing. But you must not let this mean that you can take a break from the training. Instead you must continue to practice every day, contemplating every part of the art. As you come to grasp it more and more, absorbing the experience of it into your mind, then mind will act and body will comply, all will happen as you will it, and in this way you can expect that your skill will daily improve.
[17] In Taiji Boxing, you must never act from yourself, instead you must act always according to the opponent. Since my opponent’s movement will be in some direction, I should go along with him in the same direction and send him away along it instead of even slightly resisting against his direction. Thus his power lands on nothing, and the reason for this is that he used too much power. If I know what direction he is going but do not know how to follow along with his direction and then take action anyway, this would indeed be a case of ignoring what is right in front of me in favor of something that has nothing to do with what is going on.
[18] In Taiji Boxing, when you stick and connect to the opponent, you have to respond to what he is doing. If not, you will miss every opportunity, hence: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” The principles described above are the profound subtleties of Taiji Boxing. If you are not adequately intelligent, you will be incapable of understanding these concepts. That being the case, we of this mediocre generation cannot look upon this art as something ordinary.

(三)王宗岳先生太極拳行功心解
III. WANG ZONGYUE’S ESSAY OF UNDERSTANDING HOW TO PRACTICE TAIJI BOXING

以心行義,務令沉着,乃能收歛入骨。以氣運身,務令順遂,乃能便利從心。精神能提起,則無遲重之虞,所謂頂頭懸是也。
意氣須得靈,乃有圓活之趣,所謂變動虛實也。
發勁須沉着鬆靜,專注一方,立身須中正安舒,支撐八面,行氣如九曲珠,無往不利。
運勁如百練鋼,何堅不摧,形如搏兔之鶻,神似捕鼠之貓,靜如山岳,動若江河。
蓄勢如開弓,發勁如放箭,曲中求直,蓄而後發,力由脊發,步隨身換,收卽是放,斷而復連,往復須有摺疊,進退須由轉換,極柔軟然後極堅硬,能呼吸然後能靈活。氣,以直養而無害,勁,以曲蓄而有餘,心為令,氣為旗,腰為纛,先求開展,後求緊凑,乃可臻於縝密矣!
先在心,後在身,腹鬆凈,氣斂入骨,神舒體靜。刻刻在心,切記一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜,牽動往來,氣貼歛入脊骨,內固精神,外示安逸,邁步如貓行,運勁如抽絲,全身意在蓄神,不在氣,在氣則滯,有氣者無力,無氣者純剛,氣如車輪,腰似車軸,似鬆非鬆,將展未展,勁斷意不斷,藕斷絲亦連。
[1] Use mind to move energy. You must get the energy to sink. It is then able to collect in your bones. Use energy to move your body. You must get the energy to be smooth. Your body can then easily obey your mind.
[2] If you can raise your spirit, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song]: “Your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended”.
[3] Your mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the qualities of roundness and liveliness. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song] that you are to “pay attention to the alternation of empty and full”.
[4] When issuing power, you must sink and relax, concentrating it in one direction.
[5] Your posture must be straight and comfortable, bracing in all directions.
[6] Move energy as though through a winding-path pearl, penetrating even the smallest nook.
[7] Wield power like tempered steel, so strong there is nothing tough enough to stand up against it.
[8] The shape is like a falcon capturing a rabbit. The spirit is like a cat pouncing on a mouse.
[9] In stillness, be like a mountain, and in movement, be like a river.
[10] Store power like drawing a bow. Issue power like loosing an arrow.
[11] Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue.
[12] Power comes from your spine. Step according to your body’s changes.
[13] To gather is to release. Disconnect but stay connected.
[14] In the back and forth [of your arms], there must be folding. In the advance and retreat [of your feet], there must be variation.
[15] Extreme softness begets extreme hardness. Your ability to be nimble lies in your ability to breathe.
[16] By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted. By storing power in crooked parts, it will be in abundant supply.
[17] Your mind makes the command, the energy is its flag, and your waist is its banner.
[18] First strive to open up, then strive to close up, and from there you will be able to attain a refined subtlety.
[19] First in your mind, then in your body. Your abdomen relaxes completely and then energy collects in your bones. Your spirit should be comfortable and your body should be calm – at every moment be mindful of this.
[20] Always remember: if one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.
[21] As the movement leads back and forth, energy stays near your back and gathers in your spine. Inwardly bolster spirit and outwardly show ease.
[22] Step like a cat and move energy as if drawing silk.
[23] Throughout your body, your mind should be on your spirit rather than on the energy, for if you are fixated on the energy, your movement will become sluggish. Whenever your mind is on the energy, there will be no power, whereas if you ignore the energy and let it take care of itself, there will be pure strength.
[24] The energy is like a wheel and your waist is like an axle.
[25] Seem relaxed but not relaxed, about to express but not yet expressing. Then when your power finishes, your intent of it continues. When the lotus stalk is snapped, its fibers are still connected.

上文譯意
Interpretation of the text:

練拳的時候,凡氣之所至,則心與意亦俱至,這就是以心行氣,但是心意手足,都要沉着,則氣才能收歛入骨,而技藝也必日益精進,而且又能使氣運全身,在氣運全身的時候,必須處處都要順遂,切不可稍有絲毫阻滯,能明白這道理,則變化定能從心所欲。動作時,首先㸭住丹田之氣,頭頸要伸直,則精神方面,自然能提得起,因此動作便可如意,而絕無遲鈍策重之弊,這就是『頂頭懸』的意思。在遇敵時,如果心意和氣勁能換得靈通,則自無拙力,無拙力才可以圓活如意,旣得圓活之妙,便明白虛實之變化。在發勁時,須要沉着,又要處處放鬆,不可有攙雜意念,然後能意志專一。則無論敵由何方襲來,都能隨意應付。蓋我之精神專注,意與氣無不能到,頭頂頸直,立身才能中正,氣沉丹田,百骸自然舒泰,那時意定而步穩,則八面敵來,自可應付裕如。
至於氣行全身,要好像珠串,圓轉而靈通,雖肢體之至微處,亦可運行無間。而勁的運行,在吐放之時,雖好像無力,其實正如百練鋼,所以練勁至相當時候,雖是極堅之物,也可以把牠摧折。現在試説外表之動作,應該要像搏兔之鷹,旋轉無定,而神意又要像捕鼠之貓,蓄勢待機。靜的時候,要好像山岳之沉實不動,動的時候,却好像江河之滔滔不斷。蓄勢待敵的時候,要好像拉滿弓,發動時要迅速好像放箭,我如能用黏粘來化敵之勁,這就叫做『曲』,旣巳化敵了,就要乘勢直攻,所以就叫『曲中求直』。如果有機可乘,蓄勁便可發出了。然則勁從何來?是由脊骨催出,而透於指甲的,至於姿勢和方向,轉動和步法更是隨身而轉變的。
黏粘的手法叫做『收』,擊敵的時候叫做『放』,如果能黏着粘着,便可趁勢放勁,雖然達到了擊敵的目標,可是黏粘仍是不脫,故其勁似斷,而意仍摺疊未完的。一進一退,須要轉換步法,消長相應,故雖退亦能擊敵。
在演式時,動作愈柔軟,則內勁愈增長,能依照這方法做去,然後可能由極柔而至極剛,這不是説純剛不柔,其實是柔中有剛吧了。人的自然呼吸,其根基是哼哈二氣,元氣隨意之所至,便能進退靈活,養氣用深呼吸,使其直納丹田,這便是『浩然之氣』,慢慢使其下沉,可以常存而不散,至於外家的呼吸,則不能貫澈,祗能達於中腕而止。所以能使心意導氣於丹田的人,習之旣久,則能遍於全身,如遇敵時,隨時可以曲力蓄勁,待機而動,一發必中,則敵想避也不及了,
心臟好像是元帥,動作的號令是由它施發的,元氣又好像是號令的令旗,受命後便立刻指揮四肢五體,腰部好像是元帥的大纛,屹立於中軍,不偏不倚,監督着手足之運用。所以演式也好,推手也好,須要開合。開合得法,各部便能暢快,動作便能如意。至於『後求緊凑』的意思,幷非單言於窄仄,亦非單言於速快,而是由開展後收囘時求緊凑,亦卽是能收能放的意思。
太極拳是以心意為基礎,以身體為作用的,肚腹要任其自然鬆開,,元氣沉靜,才能收歛入脊骨,能氣歛入骨,神志自然舒適,則全體無不安靜。還要時刻在意,內與外合,聯成一氣,故手與足動,心意亦隨之俱動,如心與意靜,則手足亦莫不皆靜,進退要不定,故能牽動往來,鬆肩含胸,沉氣提肛,元氣便由背後收歛直貫於脊骨,而入於各部。氣整則精神自固,外表仍示以安逸之態,故步法之進退,要像貓行之無聲,連綿不斷,而運勁則要如抽絲往來,循環不絕。故身心之運用,都是用精神,而不是用拙力。然有些專習運氣鼓腹的人,看來雖像有氣,其實是無內勁的,因為這是後天的濁氣,而沒有先天『浩然之氣』,結果祗能剛而不能柔。所以呼吸養氣,要好像車輪之循環,旋轉不一,腰門猶如車軸,把握中樞,使先天之氣,運輸於全身,進行時要似鬆而非鬆,將放却又不放,務必黏粘連隨,內勁雖則似斷,而心意仍未斷,正像藕斷絲連一樣,這是我們要切記的。
[1] When practicing the set, wherever energy [mind] goes, mind [energy] goes, hence you are to “use mind to move energy”. However, your intention, hands, and feet all have to have a sense of sinking, and then energy will be able to collect in your bones, your skill will become more refined with each day, and you will also be able to cause the energy to move your body. When you are using energy to move your body, you have to get the energy to move smoothly through every part, without the slightest obstruction. Once you are able to understand this principle, then you will be able to adapt in such a way that you are basically doing as you please.
[2] When moving, first hold energy at your elixir field and straighten your neck, then a quality of spirit will naturally be able to rise up. As a result of this, you will be able to move as you wish and be entirely without the errors of being slow or sluggish. This is the idea behind having a “headtop pulled up as if suspended”.
[3] When you encounter an opponent, if your intention and energy can nimbly carry out alternations [between emptiness and fullness], then you will naturally be without any awkward effort. Without effort, you will be able to move with roundness, liveliness, spontaneity. Obtaining the subtleties of roundness and liveliness, you will then indeed understand the transformations of emptiness and fullness.
[4] When you issue power, it is necessary to sink, and you also have to relax every part. You must not have any random thoughts, and then you will be able to focus your intent. Thus no matter what direction the opponent attacks from, you will easily be able to respond to it.
[5] With my spirit concentrated, my intention and energy will be able to arrive together. With my head upright, neck straight, my body will be able to stand balanced. With energy sinking to my elixir field, my whole body will naturally be comfortable. Now that my intention is determined and my stance is stable, opponents coming from any direction can be dealt with effortlessly.
[6] As for the movement of energy through the body, it should be like the string running through a necklace of beads, curving and threading through. It can move within every part of the body, no matter how small.
[7] As for the wielding of power, when you shoot out, it should seem to be without strength but actually be like tempered steel. When trained power meets an object, no matter how hard it is, it will break.
[8] Let us now discuss movement in terms of outward appearance. You should have the look of a falcon capturing a rabbit, meaning that you are to circle unpredictably. You should also have the spirit of a cat catching a mouse, meaning that you are to store power and wait for the opportunity to act.
[9] When in stillness, you should be as heavy and unmoving as a mountain. When in motion, you should flow as unceasingly as a river.
[10] When storing power to await the opponent, it should be like you are fully drawing a bow. When issuing, it should have the speed of a released arrow.
[11] For me to be able to stick to and neutralize the opponent’s power, this involves curving. Once I have neutralized him, I should then take advantage of the opportunity to attack directly, hence while I am curving, I am seeking to be straightening. Once there is an opportunity to take advantage of, stored power can then be issued.
[12] But where does the power come from? It urges out from the spine and runs through all the way to the fingertips. As for posture and direction, turning and stepping, everything is to be done in accordance with how your body is moving.
[13] Sticking is called “gathering”. Attacking is called “releasing”. If you are able to stick to the opponent, you will then be able to take advantage of opportunities to release power. Even when you manage to strike the opponent, you should still stick to him rather than disconnecting. Therefore the power seems to finish, but the intention remains folded up within and unspent.
[14] When advancing and retreating, there has to be variation in the footwork, steps waxing and waning. Even in retreat you can still be attacking.
[15] When practicing the postures, the softer the movement, the more internal power is generated. If you are able to practice according to this method, then you will be able to go from extreme softness to extreme hardness. This does not mean a pure hardness instead of softness, but actually a softness that contains hardness within it. A person’s natural breathing lies in the two sounds of “heng” and “ha”. Sending your vital energy wherever you want it to go, you will then be able to advance and retreat nimbly.
[16] To nurture energy, use deep breathing, causing it go directly to your elixir field. This is “noble energy”. [Mengzi, chapter 2a: “I am good at nurturing my noble energy, making it is vast and strong.”] By gradually making it sink down, you can keep it there and it will not disperse. As for the breathing of external styles, it cannot bring the energy all the way down, only reaching as far as the Zhongwan acupoint [between solar plexus and navel]. When one who is able to use his intention to lead energy to his elixir field has practiced for a long time, he will then be able to spread the energy throughout his body. If he encounters an opponent, he can at any moment be storing power in his bent limbs and await the opportunity to act. His issuing will be sure to reach its target, and the opponent will not be able to evade it in time.
[17] Your heart [mind] is like a commander, issuing orders to be carried out. Your vital energy is like the flag which conveys orders, immediately directing your limbs. Your waist is like the large banner standing tall in the middle of the army and not tipping over in any direction, controlling the movements of your hands and feet.
[18] To perform the solo set or the pushing hands well, you have to open and close. When you get the knack of opening and closing, every part of your body will be unimpeded and you will be able to move as you please. As for the notion of “striving to close up”, this does not actually mean that the movement becomes very small or quick, it has to do with a sense of becoming compact when withdrawing after opening, as well as the idea of being able to withdraw and then release.
[19] Taiji Boxing uses the mind for the foundation and the body for the function. Your abdomen should naturally loosen so that your vital energy can sink serenely, and it will then be able to collect in your spine. With energy able to gather in your bones, you will naturally have a comfortable state of mind, and then every part of your body will be at peace. You should pay attention to this at every moment.
[20] Inside and outside merge, combined into a singleness of energy. Therefore as your hands and feet move, your mind and intention move along with them, and if your mind and intention become still, your hands and feet also become still.
[21] Advancing and retreating will not be predictable, therefore be able to guide the movement back and forth. Loosen your shoulders, contain your chest, sink your energy, and tuck in your tailbone. Vital energy will then gather at your back and go directly into your spine, and from there will enter every part. Once your energy is in order, your spirit will naturally be given a boost, but outwardly you should continue to show that you are at ease.
[22] Your advancing and retreating steps should be as silent as the steps of a cat. Flowing continuously to move energy around, it should be as though you are drawing silk back and forth, circling ceaselessly.
[23] The movements of your body and mind always utilize spirit rather than an awkward effort. But there are those who concentrate on practicing moving energy it such a way that they bulge their bellies. Although it looks like there is energy there, there is actually no internal power, because it is acquired “corrupt energy” rather than innate “noble energy”, and as a result they will only be able to use hardness and be incapable of using softness.
[24] Breathe to nurture energy like a wheel turning, round and round, over and over. Your waist area is like its axle, maintaining the central pivot point, causing innate energy to be transported throughout your body.
[25] When advancing, you should seem relaxed and yet not relaxed, about to release but not yet releasing. You must stick, adhere, connect, follow. Even when your internal power seems to have finished, your mind and intention are not yet finished. It is just like when a lotus stalk is broken, the way its fibers are still connected. This is something we must always keep in mind.

(四)孫祿堂先生太極拳學論
IV. ESSAY [AUTHOR’S PREFACE] FROM SUN LUTANG’S STUDY OF TAIJI BOXING [1921]

乾坤肇造,元氣流行,動靜分合,遂生萬物,是為後天,而有象。先天元氣,賦於後天形質,包含先天元氣,故人為先後天合一之形體也。人自有知識情欲,陰陽參差,先天元氣漸消,後天之氣漸長,陽衰陰盛,又為六氣所侵,(六氣者卽風、寒、暑、濕、燥、火也)。七情所感,故身軀日弱,而百病迭生,古人憂之,於是嘗藥以袪其病,靜坐以養其心。而又懼動靜之不能互為用也,更發明拳術,以求復其虛靈之氣;迨達摩東來講道豫之少林寺之,恐修道之人久坐而傷神,形容焦悴,故以順逆陰陽之理,彌論先天之元氣,作易筋洗髓二經,教人習之以壯其體。至宋岳武穆王,益發明二經之體義,制成形意拳,而適其用,八卦拳理,亦含其中,此內家拳術之發源也。元順帝時,張三豐先生,修道於武當,見修丹士兼拳術者,後天之力用之過當,不能得其中和之氣,以致傷丹而損元氣,故遵前二經之義,用周太子太極圖之形,取河洛之理,先後易之數,順其理之自然,作太極拳術,闡明養身之妙,此拳在假後天之形,不用後天之力,一動一靜,純任自然,不尚血氣,意在練氣化神耳。其中本一理、二氣、三才、四象、五行、六合、七星、八掛、九宮等奧義,始於一,終於九,九又還於一之數也。一理者,卽太極拳術起點,腹內中和之氣,太極是也。二氣者,身體一動一靜之式,兩儀是也。三才者,頭手足卽上中下也。四象者,卽前進後退,左顧右盼也。五行者,卽進、退、顧、盼、定、也。六合者,卽精合其神,神合其氣,氣合其精,是內三合也;肩與跨合,肘與膝合,手與足合,是外三合也,內外如一,是成為六合。七星者,頭、手、肩、肘、跨、膝、足、共七拳,是七星也,八卦者、掤、捋、擠、按、採、挒、肘、靠、卽八卦也。九宮者,以八手加中定,是九宮也。先生以河圖洛書為之經,以八卦九宮為之緯,又以五行為之體,以七星八卦為之用,創此太極拳術,其精微奥妙,山右王宗岳先生,源遠派分,各隨巳意,而變其形勢。至清道咸年間,有廣平武禹讓先生,聞豫省懷慶府趙論之詳矣。自是而後堡鎮,有陳清平先生者,精於是技,不憚遠道,親往訪焉,遂從學數月,而得其條理;後傳亦畲先生,亦畲先生又作五字訣,傳郝為楨先生,先生以數年之研究。深得其拳之奥妙,余受教於為楨先生,朝夕習練,數年之久,略明拳中大槪之理。又深思體驗,將夙昔所練之形意拳、八卦拳、太極拳,三家會合,而為一體。一體又分為三派之形式,三派之姿勢雖不同,其理則一也,惟前人祗憑口授,無有專書,偶著論説,亦無實練入手之法,……………(下畧)
When the universe began, the primordial energy started flowing. States of movement and stillness separated and combined, giving rise to all things, expressing acquired phenomena. The innate primordial energy was endowed with acquired form. Acquired form still contained within it the innate primordial energy. Therefore human beings are an embodiment of innate and acquired combined into one. People naturally have thoughts and passions, and an irregularity to their passive and active aspects. Their innate primal energy gradually fades and their acquired energy grows in its place.
  As the active aspect wanes, the passive aspect flourishes, and then the six kinds of atmospheres affect us (windy, cold, hot, damp, dry, smoky) and the seven kinds of emotions are felt [joy, rage, worry, obsessiveness, grief, fear, shock]. The body gets increasingly weakened and illnesses repeatedly arise. Ancient people worried about this, and so they experimented with medicines to dispel their ailments and silent meditations to nourish their minds. They also wondered whether movement and stillness could not be used together, and so they also invented boxing arts in order to seek a restoration of their natural energy.
  Later, when Damo traveled east to share the Way, he came to the Shaolin Temple in Henan. He worried the monks were damaging their spirit from sitting in extended meditation, for they appeared haggard and emaciate. Therefore he put forth the theory of smoothness and coarseness, of passive and active, explained about the primal energy of the innate condition, and wrote the Sinew Changing Classic and the Marrow Washing Classic to teach people how to practice in order to invigorate their bodies. Then in the Song Dynasty, Yue Fei built upon the essence of the two classics to create Xingyi Boxing, suitable for practical use, and the principles of Bagua Boxing were also contained within them. This was the origin of the boxing arts of the internal school.
  In the Yuan Dynasty, during the reign of Emperor Shundi [1333—1370], Zhang Sanfeng, a Daoist of Wudang, noticed that those who were both cultivating elixir and practicing boxing arts were using an inappropriate degree of acquired strength and were thus unable to achieve an energy of centered harmoniousness, resulting in harm to their elixir and a diminishing of their primal energy. Thus he abided by the principles of the Sinew Changing and Marrow Washing, applied the form of Zhou Dunyi’s “Explanation to the Taiji Diagram”, seized upon the theory in the He River Diagram and Luo River Document, as well as the reasoning from the Book of Changes, adopting their mentality of naturalness, and made the Taiji boxing art, revealing the secrets of nurturing the body.
  This art makes use of acquired postures, but not of acquired strength. In every movement and stillness, it is entirely natural, never emphasizing animal vigor, for its purpose is to transform energy into spirit. The art contains the subtleties of the single principle, two energies, three realms, four manifestations, five steps, six unions, seven stars, eight trigrams, and nine palaces. It goes from the single principle to the nine palaces, then returns to the single principle [the same idea as with Guo Yunshen’s Nine Palaces stepping chart].
  The “single principle” is the energy of centered harmoniousness within your belly during the starting position of the boxing set. This is the “grand polarity”.
  The “two energies” are your body’s postures of movement and stillness. These are the “dual aspects”.
  The “three realms” are those of head, hand, and foot, or the upper, middle, and lower.
  The “four manifestations” are: advancing, retreating, going to the left, and going to the right.
  The “five steps” are: advance, retreat, left, right, and staying in the center.
  The “six unions” are the three internal unions – essence united with spirit, spirit united with energy, energy united with essence – and the three external unions – shoulder united with hip, elbow united with knee, hand united with foot – merged together as one to make six unions.
  The “seven stars” are: the head, hand, shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and foot.
  The “eight trigrams” are: warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping.
  The “nine palaces” are the eight hand techniques plus centeredness.
  Zhang used the He River Diagram and the Luo River Document as the basis, the eight trigrams and nine palaces as the framework, as well as using the five elements for the embodiment, and the seven stars and eight trigrams for the function, in order to create this Taiji boxing art. Its profound subtleties were detailed in the treatise of Wang Zongyue of Shanxi. It thereafter branched off into different styles, each with its own ideas and variants of the postures.
  In the Qing Dynasty, during the reigns of Emperor Daoguang [1820—1850] and Emperor Xianfeng [1850—1861], there was a Wu Yuxiang of Guangping. He heard that in the village of Zhaobao, Huaiqing Prefecture, Henan, there was a Chen Qingping who was an expert at the art, and unswayed by the distance, he went to personally call upon him. He subsequently learned from Chen for several months and obtained the method. He later taught it to Li Yiyu, who would write the Five-Word Formula. Li then taught the art to Hao Weizhen, who studied it for several decades and deeply grasped its subtleties.
  I received instruction from Hao, practicing daily for several years, and came to somewhat understand the general principles within the art. I also deeply pondered upon my own experiences from my previous training, and then the three arts of Xingyi Boxing, Bagua Boxing, and Taiji Boxing merged to become a single essence. This single essence is yet separated into the three distinct systems. The postures of the three systems are different, but their principles are the same.
  Previous generations passed these arts down only by way of oral instruction and did not make specialized books about them. Whenever theories did happen to get written down, it was often by someone who was not really a practitioner anyway.

孫祿堂先生之太極拳名稱解釋
SUN’S EXPLANATION FOR THE NAME “TAIJI BOXING”

人自賦性含生以後,本藏有生養之元氣,不仰不俯,不偏不倚,和而不流,至善是極,是為真陽,所謂中和之氣是也。其氣平時洋溢於四體之中,浸潤於百骸之內,無處不有,無時不然,內外一氣,流行不息;於是拳之開合動靜,卽根此氣而生,放伸收縮之妙,卽由此氣而出,開者為伸為動,合者為收為縮為靜;開者為陽,合者為陰,放伸動者為陽,收縮靜者為陰,開合像一氣,運陰陽,卽太極一氣也。太極卽一氣,一氣卽太極,以體言則為太極,以用言則為一氣,時陽則陽,時陰則陰,時上則上,時下則下,陽而陰,陰而陽,一氣活活潑潑,有無不立,開合自然,皆在當中一點子運用,卽太極是也。古人不能明示於人者,卽此也,不能筆之於書者,亦卽此也,學者能以開合動靜相交處,悟澈本源,則可以在各式圜研究之中,得其妙用矣。圜者,有形之虛圈○是也。研者,無形之實圈●是也。斯二者,太極拳虛實之理也,其式之內空而不空,不空而空矣,此氣周流無礙,圓活無方,不凸凹,放之則彌六合,捲之則退藏於密,其變無窮,用之不竭,皆實學也,此卽太極拳之所以命名也。
Once conceived, a person is imbued with a nourishing primordial energy, which does not veer in any direction from its function, for it is balanced and does not leak away. It is perfect and complete. It is genuine active energy, so it is considered an energy of centered harmoniousness. This energy tends to fill the limbs and bones, no place where it is not there, no moment when it is not so, both internally and externally, flowing unceasingly.
  Consequently the expanding and contracting, movement and stillness of this art come from this energy. The marvels of releasing and extending, gathering and shrinking, come from this energy. Expanding is [releasing,] extending, and movement. Contracting is gathering, shrinking, and stillness. Expanding is active. Contracting is passive. Releasing, extending, and movement are active. Gathering, shrinking, and stillness are passive. Expanding and contracting are a continuous movement of passive and active, a taiji continuousness.
  Taiji is continuousness. Continuousness is Taiji. In terms of the theory, it is a grand polarity. In terms of the function, it is a continuousness. When it is time for active, then active. When it is time for passive, then passive. When it is time for upward, then upward. When it is time for downward, then downward. Active, then passive. Passive, then active. Continuously moving, yet always stabilized, expanding and contracting happen naturally, always moving from a point at the center between them [not a physical point, rather a center of principle unifying and integrating the two phenomena], which is a grand polarity. Ancient people could not explain it to others, but it is this. They were not able to write in books, yet still it is this.
  You can expand and contract, movement and stillness trading places. If you understand this principle clearly, then you can within each posture combine edge and center, and obtain its marvelous effects. A surrounding edge represents a formed empty circle. A rubbed-in center represents a formless full circle. These two are the principle of empty and full in Taiji Boxing. Its postures within are empty, then not empty, not empty, then empty. This energy circulates unimpeded, nimbly, and without pattern, neither caving in nor bulging out. [From the “Zhong Yong”:] “Sending out, it goes beyond the ends of the universe. Rolling in, it stores away tightly…” Its changes are “inexhaustible”, for in using it, it is never used up, and all of it is “learning of substance”. Herein lies the reason Taiji Boxing has its name.

(五)顧汝章先生練太極拳之騐經
V. GU RUZHANG’S EXPERIENCES OF PRACTICING TAIJI BOXING [text copied from Gu’s 1936 manual]

余練太極拳術,覺與其他之拳術不同,蓋外家派勁路方法,均有分別,此則須綿綿不斷之意,尤須貫串,故余常以孔子之『吾道一以貫之』為喻。然須每式虛實宜分清楚,如一串念經珠之粒粒不連,而其中有一線貫串之,是線卽不斷之意也。又相傳太極拳為張三豐在觀內念經,忽聞院外有蛇雀之鬥爭,乃仿其大意而成。初學者,未能領悟其意,迨至年久功純,漸趨柔軟;練拳之時,覺有蛇體蜿蜒之意,擊首則尾應,擊尾則首應,擊身則首尾皆應,循環不巳,變化無窮,轉換之時,自有妙用在乎其間,但仍須注意養氣功夫。孟子曰:『吾善養吾浩然之氣。其為氣也,至大至剛。』太極拳門之養氣,其意相同,以養成其浩然之氣,庶幾日近有功。故練拳之時,神宜內歛,氣沉丹田,鬆肩墜肘。每式之動作,不可有分散心意之統一,外而鼓盪其氣,充塞於週身之間,圓滿無缺,拳譜所謂『氣以直養而無害』,卽此意也。茲再將練法各字,分述之如下:
In my practice of the Taiji boxing art, I have felt it to be different from other boxing arts. In the external school, the energy of every technique in the practice sets is separated, whereas in this art it is required that there be an intention of continuousness that must run all the way through it. Therefore I often explain by way of these words from Confucius [Lun Yu, 4.15]: “All my doctrine has a single unifying thread running through it.” Although you must distinguish between empty and full in every posture, it is like a string of prayer beads, the way they are not actually connected one to another but are connected because of a string that runs through them, and it is this string that is the idea of continuousness.
  Tradition has it that Zhang Sanfeng was indoors reciting scriptures when he suddenly heard a snake and a sparrow fighting outside in the courtyard, and he then imitated the general idea of what they were doing and it became Taiji Boxing. Beginners will not yet be able to understand its concepts but after many years will reach the point of practiced skill, gradually inclining toward softness.
  When practicing the boxing set, I feel there is an intention of a snake body wriggling – “Strike its head and its tail responds, strike its tail and its head responds, or strike its middle and both head and tail respond.” The movement goes on and on without end, transforming without limit. As you go through these changes, you will gain marvelous effects from it, yet you must focus your attention on the work of nurturing your energy. Mengzi said: “I am good at nurturing my noble energy.” His energy was the grandest and most indomitable. The way of nurturing energy in the school of Taiji Boxing is the same idea as his.
  Cultivating your “noble energy” is a daily task. When practicing the boxing set, spirit should gather within, energy should sink to your elixir field, and you should loosen your shoulders and drop your elbows. In the movements of each posture, you must not break apart the integration of mind and intent. Rouse your outward energy so it fills into every part of your body until there is no part unfilled. It says in the Boxing Classics [Understanding How to Practice]: “By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted.” This is exactly the idea.
  I now present various principles of practice, described individually below:

鬆:
LOOSEN

鬆字為太極拳之第一要訣,其意與散字不同也。蓋散則如沙,彼此各不相連也,世俗所謂如沙之散;鬆則有不斷之意,又如佛珍之一百零八粒,雖可分開,但其中又有一線貫串之,卽非散開之意也。故練太極拳時,首要由肩鬆肘鬆,腕鬆後而全身各部均須鬆之。
Loosening is the prime essential in practicing Taiji Boxing. Its intention is not the same as scattering, which is like sand grains going every which way, unconnected to each other, and thus it is a common thing to say “like sand scattering”. But with loosening, there is the intention of not disconnecting, making it more like the hundred and eight Buddhist prayer beads. Although they can be seen as separate beads, there is a thread running through them and so they are not dispersed from each other. Therefore while practicing Taiji Boxing, we must start from loosening our shoulders, then elbows, then wrists, after which every part of the body must be loosened.

開:
OPEN

開字。卽張開之謂也,如開弓之開,在太極拳中為開合虛實。拳經有云:『先求開展』。但練拳者當開時,力求其開,尤須有不盡之意,夫如是,則筋自長矣,筋長則意力長。故曰,開字如開弓之意,如拳中斜飛式,白鶴亮翅,單鞭,等動作,皆開字明顯之處,不可有徧勝之處,顧前不顧後,尤為大忌。
Opening means to spread open, as if drawing a bow. In Taiji Boxing there is opening and closing, emptiness and fullness. It says in the Boxing Classics [Understanding How to Practice]: “First strive to open up,…” During moments of opening while practicing the boxing set, striving to open must be done with an intention that wants to keep on opening. In this way, your sinews will then naturally be stretched, and with your sinews lengthened, the strength of your intention will be developed. That is why it is said that opening is like drawing a bow. Movements in the boxing set such as DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE, WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS, and SINGLE ROD all exhibit the quality of opening, but must not be overdone to one side, for regarding what is in front without considering what is behind is something very important to avoid.

展:
EXTEND

展字卽承前文開字之後為展,蓋展字如展畫之意,由捲而展,均伸張之謂也。如拳中倒輦猴,高探馬,等動作,皆含有展字之意也。
Extending continues from opening. Extending is like unrolling a painting scroll until it is fully spread. Movements in the boxing set such as RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY and RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE both contain the intention of extending.

緊:
TIGHTEN

緊字是針對懈字之良藥,非緊張之意,亦卽拳譜所謂『後求緊凑』。故凡練拳,不獨太極為然,均須首求開展,以鍛練其筋骨,迨至成功,所出之手,無不緊凑,庶免為敵所襲擊之意也。
Tightening is the best cure for slackening, but does not have the intention of being tense. The phrase in the Boxing Classics continues: “… then strive to close up.” Generally when training in boxing arts, not only Taiji, we must initially seek to open up and extend in order to develop our sinews and bones. Once we have achieved success in that regard, we will put out our hands with more compactness to prevent the opponent’s ideas of making surprise attacks.

懈:
SLACKNESS

懈字為練太極拳中最忌之一字,練時如有懈字發現,則精神提不起,而有遲重之虞矣。蓋意有所注,神有所分,雖練亦與不練等。或練習半蹚卽行休息,而不續練是卽懈字之表現,初學者尤易犯之,對於功夫上,亦蒙其影响,故余謂苟不練拳則巳,若存心練拳,須勿懈其心志,方能日進有功也。
Slackening is the prime thing to avoid in practicing Taiji Boxing. If you are slackening during practice, your spirit will be unable to lift up and it will feel frustratingly slow and sluggish. When you are intent upon it but your spirit is not involved, practicing is no better than not practicing. Or if you get only halfway through the boxing set and take a rest, and then do not come back to it, that is also a display of slackness. Beginners are especially prone to it as it blankets over skill-building with its influence. And so I say: “If you’re not practicing the art, then that’s that.” But if you are practicing with mindfulness, you must not slacken in your resolution, and then you will be able to progress toward achievement with each day.

慢:
SLOW DOWN

慢者非急促也,為練太極拳必不可少之一字,要慢而匀,不可因慢而停,尤須貫串,方能得着拳中真締。在練架子,是為體之根本,亦卽知己功夫,與人推手是為用,亦卽知人功夫,所謂知己知被,百戰百勝。手之慢匀,初學不易做到,而足則更難矣。拳經曰『邁步如貓行』。落地要輕靈,不可有嚮聲,夫如是,則日久自能上下相隨,氣貫丹田也。
To go slow means to not be in a rush. It is an indispensable feature of practicing Taiji Boxing, which should be done slowly and evenly. But the postures must not come to a halt due to the slowness, for they have to be continuous, and you will then be able to obtain the true essence of the art. Practicing the solo set is the foundation of the system and is the practice of knowing yourself. Pushing hands with a partner is the application training and is the practice of knowing the opponent. And so it is said [Art of War, chapter 3]: “Knowing both self and opponent, in a hundred battles you will have a hundred victories.” For the hands to be moving slowly and evenly is difficult for beginners to achieve, even more difficult to do with the legs. It says in the Boxing Classics [Understanding How to Practice]: “Step like a cat.” The feet should come down with delicacy and must not make a sound. In this way, after a long period your upper body and lower will naturally become capable at coordinating with each other, and energy will be reaching to your elixir field.

以上數則,為余練太極拳之經騐,故錄之以告同好,學者可舉一而反三,在練拳時,將拳中理論,默識揣摩、自不難階及神明矣。
The list of principles above is my own experience of practicing Taiji Boxing, which I have recorded to share with my comrades. [Because time is short, and I had to hurry up and finish the book for the printers, I have related only a little bit,] but students will glean much from the little that is here. When practicing, be guided by the theory within the art. If you memorize and ponder, it surely will not be difficult to proceed to mastery.

(六)胡樸安先生論太極拳在體育上之價值
VI. HU PU’AN’S “THE VALUE OF TAIJI BOXING IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION” [text copied from Wu Zhiqing’s 1936 manual]

欲言太極拳在體育上之價值,當先言太極拳動作之理,欲言太極拳動作之理•當先言太極拳之名稱如何解釋?蓋太極拳之動作是全身的運動•不是一部分的運動•其在體育上之價值,卽此全身運動•又太極拳的運動•是柔和的運動•不是劇烈的運動•其在體育上之價值,卽此柔和的運動•其全身的運動與柔和的運動•卽是聯綿不斷的太極運動,所以必將太極拳的名稱解釋清楚•然後知這两種運動•是自然的趨勢•不是玄妙的•也不是技術的•順身體的自然動作•毫無勉強矯揉於其間•茲文本此意•先解太極拳的名稱•次言太極拳動作的理•再次言太極拳在體育上的價值。
If we wish to discuss Taiji Boxing’s value as physical education, we must first discuss its principles of movement, and in order to do that, we must first explain why it is named “Taiji”. Taiji Boxing’s movements are a whole-bodied exercise rather than the exercising of isolated parts. Its value as physical education lies in this whole-bodied quality. Furthermore, Taiji Boxing’s movements make a mild kind of exercise rather than a strenuous one. Its value as physical education also lies in this quality of mildness.
  This whole-bodied mild exercise makes a continuous taiji movement [i.e. circular – as in the spinning taiji symbol]. Surely this makes the name “Taiji” Boxing quite clear, and then an understanding of these two qualities of exercise will naturally fall into place. It is nothing mysterious, no special skill, just the natural movement of the body without at all forcing anything to happen within it.
  The intent of this article is first to explain the name of the art, then describe its principles of movement, and then to discuss its value as physical education.

一 太極拳的名稱
1. The Name “Taiji” Boxing

太極拳的源流究竟如何•創始於何人•雖有零星的紀載•終不能予以真確之相信•關於此點•爭論者極多•本文祇以太極動作之理•以解釋太極拳命名之義•毫不牽強附會玄秘之談•也不用拳術上流行的術語或歌訣•作模糊影响之言•其是否合於創始太極拳者命名的原意•亦不顧及•要之以『理解』的解釋•期與人共喻而巳,考太極二字•出於周易繫辭•繫辭云•『易有太極•是生两儀•两儀生四象•四象生八卦』•吾人以淺顯的言語•解釋此四句•两儀四象八卦•皆由太極而生•太極是一切原動力•两儀四象八卦的動•悉是太極的動•宇宙一太極•人身亦一太極•人身之腹為太極•两腰為两儀•两手两足為四象•两手两足各有两節為八卦•宇宙之原動力在於太極•人身之原動力亦在於太極•所以太極拳之動作•並不是手足之動作•是腰之動作•亦並不是腰之動作•是腹之動作•腹為人全身最中處•此處一動•全身無不動矣•他種運動•或為手之運動•或為足之運動•或為身之運動•必合各部分之運動•為全部分之運動•或支配不匀平•或學之不得法•不免有畸形發達之弊•太極拳之運動•不動則巳•動則全身皆動•故一動而不全身皆動者•非太極也•腹旣為人全身最中處•腹部一動•两腰两手两足之動•皆不疾而速•他種運動•或為手之動作•或為足之動作•或為身之動作•在某一部分動作•必須在某一部分用劇烈之力•始能達到某一部運動之目的•太極拳之動作•祇在發動之中心一點動作(卽腹的動作)•不必用劇烈之力•全身之動作無有不到•外面極其柔和•內面延綿之斷力•息息增長•故一動作卽見劍拔弩張之形者•非太極也•明乎此•知全身的運動與柔和的運動•皆是自然的趨勢•太極拳所以名為太極者•卽處處是太極的動作•換言之•卽處處是中心的動作•
As for the actual origin of Taiji Boxing and who created it, although there are some fragmentary records, they are not sufficient to provide us with any convincing truth, and so there is much controversy over this point. However, this article only makes use of the principles of Taiji Boxing movement to explain the significance of the name “Taiji”. I will not discuss here any bizarre or strained interpretations, nor employ specific terminology from the art nor its poetic instructions, which would only confuse the issue. I will also not take into account whether or not I am really in touch with the original intention of using the name “Taiji” when the art was founded. I will only explain with the notion of making explanation understandable and the hope that it will make sense to everyone.
  Looking into the term “taiji” [grand polarity], it comes from the commentary section to the Book of Changes, which says: “Change has a grand polarity. This generates the dual aspects. The dual aspects then generate the four manifestations. And the four manifestations generate the eight trigrams.” Let us interpret the content of these four sentences in somewhat clearer language: the dual aspects, four manifestations, and eight trigrams all come from the grand polarity, and so the grand polarity is the motive power of them all. Therefore the movements of the dual aspects, four manifestations, and eight trigrams are based on the movement of the grand polarity.
  The universe is a grand polarity, and the human body is also a grand polarity. The belly represents the grand polarity, the two sides of the waist represent the dual aspects, the two arms and two legs represent the four manifestations, and the upper and lower sections of each limb represent the eight trigrams. The motive power of the universe lies in the Grand Polarity, and the motive power of the human body also lies in a grand polarity. Therefore the movements in Taiji Boxing are not the movements of the hands and feet, but the movements of the waist, and not really even the waist, but the abdomen.
  The abdomen is the most central part of the entire body. When this area moves, every part of the body moves. Other kinds of exercise emphasize the arms, or emphasize the legs, or emphasize the torso. Emphasizing parts will diminish the whole-bodied quality, either leading to uneven coordination or even resulting in making the art unlearnable as you unavoidably fall into the error of lopsided development. In the exercise of Taiji Boxing, when there is no movement, no part is moving, and when there is movement, the whole body is moving. Therefore when there is any movement, if every part is not moving, it is not Taiji. With the abdomen being the central point, then when it is moving, the movements of the two sides of the waist, the arms, and legs do not need to be in a rush.
  For other kinds of exercise that emphasize arms or legs or torso, when one part is working on its own, it will have to use strenuous effort in order to be achieve what it is trying to do. Movement in Taiji Boxing depends entirely on movement initiated from the central point (i.e. movement of the abdomen). It is not necessary to use any strenuous effort, for whole-bodied movement involves every part. Externally it appears extremely mild, and internally there is a continuous unbroken energy, a lengthening of the breath. Thus if a movement exhibits the attitude of “sword unsheathed, crossbow loaded”, it is not Taiji. Once this is clear, you will understand that whole-bodied movement and mild movement both tend toward naturalness.
  The reason Taiji Boxing is called “Taiji” Boxing is because it is always the movement of a grand polarity, or in other words – always move from the center.

二 太極拳的動作
2. Taiji Boxing’s Movements

太極拳處處是中心的動作•上節巳言之明白矣•然何以能達到中心的動作•不加以詳細説明•則不容易了解•學太極拳本有『鬆』•『固』•『凝』三字訣•何謂鬆•體要鬆•何謂固•氣要固•何謂凝•神要凝•體鬆氣固神凝•漸漸可以達到中心的動作•但是語焉未詳•知其所以然之故•必學拳者學到某種程度•可以自己體會•茲文仍本『鬆』•『固』•『凝』三字•説明所以能達到中心動作的理由•為閱者便利起見•分別言之。
Taiji Boxing is all about moving with centeredness, as I have already made clear in the previous section. Now, how does one achieve centered movement? Without adding more detailed explanation, it would not be easy to understand.
  In learning Taiji Boxing, there is first of all a three-word formula: loose, firm, concentrated. What is meant by “loose”? The body should be loose. What is meant by “firm”? The energy should be firm. What is meant by “concentrated”? The spirit should be concentrated. If your body is loose, your energy is firm, and your spirit is concentrated, you will gradually be able to achieve centered movement.
  However, before these terms are explained so you may understand why they are used, you have to be at a certain level of learning in order to be able to experience them yourself. I will now go through these terms to explain the reasoning of why you will thereby be able to achieve centered movement. To make them easier to understand, they are described individually below.

(一)體要鬆:
i. Your body should be loose.

鬆字淺顯的解釋•就是不用力•蓋一用力•動作卽不能自然•着意在用力部分•則各部分必不平均•毫不用力•順身體自然的動作•周身普徧•動作無所不到•而且平均如一•徐徐的將動作歸到中心•久而久之•中心之動作以成•所以初學太極拳非鬆不可•鬆是學習太極拳第一步工夫•蓋人之身體•要血脈流通•倘作勉強用力•能得其中•學習太極拳有一句常語•『由開展而至緊朿』•開展者動作不用力是也•緊束者•動作達到中心是也。
Looseness is easy to understand. It simply means using no effort. If you use any effort, your movement will not be able to be natural, and by focusing on the exerting of a single part, every part is sure to fall out of synch. If you do not use any effort at all, you are in accord with your body’s natural movement. Throughout your body, there will be movement in every part, and it will also be even and consistent. Slowly bring your movements into a state of centeredness, and then after a long time, centered movement will be the result. In the beginning of learning Taiji Boxing, this cannot be done without loosening. Loosening is the first stage of the training.
  The human body requires blood circulation. If you forcefully put forth effort, [it will result in an excess of circulation, producing a contrary effect which will instead cause the body harm. To forcefully put forth effort is “hardness”, which is called “awkward effort”. Even if an awkward effort is powerful, it is isolated in one area of the body, and will not achieve a state of centeredness. To not put forth any effort is “softness”, which is called “sinking energy”. Even if a sunken energy is feeble, it is the strength of the whole body,] and so is able to obtain a state of centeredness.
  When learning Taiji Boxing, there is a mantra to keep in mind: “Go from spreading open to binding tight.” To “spread open” means moving without putting forth effort. To “bind tight” means your movement is reaching a state of centeredness.

(二)氣要固:
ii. Your energy should be firm.

固字淺顯的解釋•就是不散漫•毫不用力•誠然鬆矣•但體鬆而氣不氣•則體不勝衣之病夫•亦將以體鬆自詡•體鬆而氣固•體雖不用力•而氣却不散漫•動作始能不散漫•動作不散漫•周身始能一體•自然將動作歸到中心•固是學習太極拳第二步工夫•如何能使氣固•卽把氣沉在腹部•不要浮上面•但與呼吸儘量擴大肺部•將橫膈膜壓抑下去不同•練拳之時•肩要垂•肘要墮•腰要塌•久而久之•氣自然沉下•所謂心虛腹實是也•腹實則氣固•身體便有重心•無論手足如何動作•重心總在腹•得其重心•動作自如矣•故曰身固則身自穩也。
Firmness is easy to understand. It simply means not being scattered. If you do not use any effort at all, you will indeed be loose. However, if your body is loose but your energy is not firm, then your body would not be equipped to defeat illness, rendering even your looseness into a mere boast. But with your body loose and your energy firm, then even though your body is putting forth no effort, your energy is nevertheless not scattered, and so your movement is able to be organized. With your movement organized, your whole body will then be able to function as a whole, naturally bringing your movement into a state of centeredness.
  Firmness is the second stage of training. How can you get energy to be “firm”? Simply by sinking energy to your abdomen and not allowing it to float up. However, deep breaths expanding lung capacity is different from the diaphragm pressing down. When practicing the solo set, your shoulders should hang, your elbows should drop, and your waist should settle. Then after a long time, energy will naturally sink down. This is what is meant by [from Daodejing, chapter 3] “empty mind, full belly”. With your abdomen full and your energy firm, your body will then have balance. No matter what kind of movements your hands or feet make, balance lies entirely in your abdomen. Obtaining balance, your movement will be smooth. Thus it is said: “When your energy is firm, your body will naturally be stable.”

(三)神要凝:
iii. Your spirit should be concentrated.

凝字淺顯的解釋•就是內外相合•而能凝定也•體鬆氣固矣•內外不相合•决不能心之所到•卽身之所到•惟內外相合•然後心身一氣•凝是太極拳第三步工夫•何謂內外相合•肩與膀合•肘與膝合•手與足合•是謂外三合•心與意合•氣與力合•是謂內三合•內外相合•是謂六合•六合則身體中正矣•身體中正•神卽提得起。
The word “concentrated” is easy to understand. Simply put, when inside and out join together, then concentration can be assured, the body loose, the energy firm. If inside and out do not join together, then you would be completely incapable of the condition of “where your mind arrives, your body arrives”. But once inside and out are joined together, then body and mind will function as one.
  Concentration of spirit is Taiji Boxing’s third stage of training. What is meant by “inside and out joined together”? The hand is united with the foot, the elbow united with the knee, and the shoulder united with the hip. These are the “three external unions”. Mind is united with the intention, [the intention united with the energy,] and the energy united with the power. These are the “three internal unions”. Internal and external combined makes the “six unions”. With the six unions, the body is centered. With the body centered, the spirit is elevated.

三 太極拳在體育上之價值
3. The Value of Taiji Boxing in Physical Education

體育之目的•在於身體強健•血氣充裕•精神飽滿•假使能以運動方法•得到上所言三項之効力•可謂盡體育之能事矣。但吾人須當辨別者•強健與猛鷙不同•強健者安和之動作•猛鷙者粗暴之行為•充盈與僨興不同•充盈者持久之正氣•僨興者一時之客氣•飽滿與發揚不同•飽滿者誠於中形於外•發揚者見於外竭於中•真正之體育•當要使身體強健•不要使身體猛鷙•當使血氣充盈•不要使血氣僨興•當要使精神飽滿•不使精神發揚•他種運動•收效雖速•稍一不慎•卽不免有猛鷙僨興發揚之弊•太極拳的運動•此三種之弊•可云絕對無有•太極之動作•首在體鬆•鬆之旣久•自然至於強健•卽不強健•而絕對不猛鷙矣•次在氣固•固之旣久•自然至於充盈•卽不充盈•而絕對不僨興矣•再次在神凝•凝之旣久•自然至於飽滿•卽不飽滿•而絕對不發揚矣•有運動之利而無其弊•極合於為體育而運動之旨•與為運動而運動者•大不相侔•立脚在體育一點而論•太極拳的運動似乎較一切運動為優•不僅以上所言之利弊巳也•以顯而易見者言之•一切運動•必須有寬大的地方與設備•且要集合多人•在學校時•尚可日日運動•離開學校•一年祗能運動幾次•太極拳的運動•無論地方的大小•人的多寡•皆可運動•又毫不要設備•他種運動•如足球賽跑等•未免過於激烈•不是人人可以參加的•結果祗造成少數專門運動員•此種少數專門運動員•在學校注意他種功課•專事運動•體育之意•似不甚合•中國人多而弱•要強種•便要運動的普遍內•不•不能普遍的運動靠少數專門運動員•縱運動成績極好•可以增國際之名譽•而不可以強國內之人民•再激烈的運動•祗有二三十歲的人•可以參加•到了四五十歲•便要告退了•一個人任事的時間•不僅十年•所以運動的需要•也不限於二十歲至三十歲•况且運動太激烈•反與身體健康有礙•每次大運動會後•必有若干大運動家感覺身體之不適•因此太動•有三種的利盈•(一)不要大的地方與設備•是經濟的。(二)人人可以運動•是普遍的。極拳的運(三)老幼皆可運動•是永久的•為運動而運動•他種運動•當然有存在之價值•在積弱之中國•並宜提倡•以增國光•為體育而運動•太極拳的運動•誠然有不可輕視之處•拳•學之頗難•在體育上雖有價值•在事實上終難發達。………』
(上文節錄東方雜誌第但是太極三十卷第二十號體育專號)
The purpose of physical education is to make the body strong, energy abundant, and the spirit full. If you are able to make use of a method of exercise and achieve these three effects, you can indeed be considered to have an aptitude for physical training. However, we have to make some distinctions:
  Strength is not the same as fierceness. Strengthening is a matter of mild movement. Fierceness is a matter of violent actions.
  Abundance is not the same as overexcitement. Abundance is a matter of the genuine energy that endures. Overexcitement is a matter of the temporary energy that lasts but a while.
  Fullness is not the same as overflowing. Fullness is a matter of the sincerity within an outward shape. Overflowing is a matter of being noticeable on the outside but spent on the inside.
  True physical education should make your body strong but not fierce, your energy abundant but not overexcited, and your spirit full but not overflowing. Other kinds of exercise may bring results quickly, but they are gained incautiously, and the errors of fierceness, overexcitement, and overflowing are unavoidable. In the exercise of Taiji Boxing, these three kinds of errors can be deemed worthless.
  The movements of Taiji require first of all that your body be loose. Through loosening your body over a long period, it will naturally be strong, and even if not strong, certainly not fierce.
  Then there is firmness of energy. Through firming energy over a long period, it will naturally be abundant, and even if not abundant, certainly not overexcited.
  And then there is concentration of spirit. Through concentrating spirit over a long period, it will naturally be full, and even if not full, certainly not overflowing. It has the benefits of exercise without the harms, and so it is extremely suited to the aims of physical education.
  There is a large difference between exercise and sports. Let us discuss this point in the context of physical education. The exercise of Taiji Boxing seems superior to all exercises, not only because of the pros and cons discussed above, but because of some obvious things:
  Sports require a large space and special equipment, not to mention a gathering of many people. While in school, you can still participate every day, but once you leave school, you may only be able to engage in it a few times a year. In the exercise of Taiji Boxing, the size of the space does not matter, nor the number of people. All can participate, and there is no special equipment required at all.
  Other types of exercise such as soccer, running races, and so on, are actually overly strenuous. Since not everyone is able to participate, the outcome is merely a small number of specialized athletes. Within an educational institution, this kind of specialization of a small number of athletes distracts them away from the rest of their schoolwork as they get more and more focused on their sport, and this does not seem to really suit the intention of physical education. Chinese people are often weak and should be strengthened, and so exercise should be widespread. If we cannot spread exercise and instead rely on making small numbers of specialized athletes, even if we make great achievements in sports and can thereby boost our international reputation, we would still not be able to strengthen our nation’s people.
  Furthermore, such strenuous activities can only be participated in by people in their twenties or thirties, and once they are in their forties or fifties, they are told to retire from it. A person’s time in the sport is but a mere ten years. A requirement of exercise should be that it not be limited to people in their twenties and thirties. Moreover, overly strenuous exercise is instead a hindrance to the health of the body. After every major sporting event, there are inevitably a number of athletes who find they have been injured in some way.
  Consequently, [the exercise of Taiji Boxing] has three kinds of benefits:
  i. It does not require a large space or special equipment, and so it is economical.
  ii. Everyone can practice it, and so it can be widespread.
  iii. It can be practiced from youth to old age, and so it can be a lifelong activity.
  As for sports among forms of exercise, such activities of course have value for dealing with the protracted weakness of our nation, and they ought to be recommended in order to increase our national prestige. But as a form of physical education, the exercise of Taiji Boxing truly holds a place that is not to be sneered at. However, it is rather difficult to learn, and so although it has value in physical education, it may forever have a struggle to flourish in the real world.
  (The article above is originally from Eastern Variety Magazine, Volume 30, #20 – “Special Physical Education Issue” [Oct 16, 1933])

附錄(一)張祖師三峯傳
Additional text 1: A BIO OF FOUNDER ZHANG SANFENG [text copied from Wu Tunan’s 1931 manual]

先師張三豐,名通,字君實,又名玄玄,亦號昆陽,先世為江西龍虎山人。祖父裕賢公,携本支眷屬徙遼陽懿州。風姿奇異,龜形鶴骨,大耳圓睛。十二歲,始專究儒業,然過目便曉,幷能會通大意。中統元年,舉茂才異等,二年稱文學才識,列名上聞,以備擢用,然非其素志也。
元甲子秋,遊燕京,時方定鼎於燕,詔令舊列文學才識者待用,栖遲於此,聞望日隆,始與平章政事廉公希憲識,公異其才,奏補中山博陵令,遂之官,政暇,遊葛洪山,相傳為稚川修煉處,因念一官蕭散,頗同勾漏,予豈不能似稚川哉?越明年,而丁艱矣!又數月,而報憂矣!先師遂絶仕進意,奉諱歸遼陽,終日哀毀,覓山之高潔者厝,甫畢制居數載,乃朿裝出遊,田產悉付族人,囑代掃墓。挈二行童相隨,北抵燕趙,東至齊魯,南達韓魏,往來名山古刹吟咏閒觀,且行且住,如是者幾三十年,均無所遇,乃西之秦隴挹太華之氣,納太白之奇,走褒斜,度陳倉,見寶鷄山澤,幽邃而清,乃就居焉!中有三尖山,三峯挻秀,蒼潤可喜,因自號為三豐居士云。
延佑元年,年六十七,始入終南,得遇火龍,傳以大道,遂更名玄素,一名玄化,合號玄玄子,別號昆陽,山居四載功效寂然。泰定甲子春,南至武當,調神九載,而道始成。於是湘雲巴雨之間,穩顯遨遊,又十餘歲,乃於至正初,由楚還遼陽省墓訖。復之燕市,公卿故交,死亡己盡矣!遂之西山,復至秦蜀,由荊楚之吳越,僑寓金陵,至正十九年仍還秦,居寶鷄金台觀。又三年,元紀忽終,明運復啓,先師乃結庵于太和,故為瘋漢,人目為邋遢道人。洪武十七年甲子,太祖以華夷賓服,詔求先師,不赴,二十五年乃遯入雲南。建文元年,完璞子訪先師於武當,適從平越歸來,相得甚歡。永樂四年,侍讀學士胡廣奏言,先師深通道法,拳技絕倫,五年丁亥,卽命胡濙等遍遊天下訪之,十年壬辰,又命孫碧雲於武當建宮拜候,幷致書相請,終不可得。天順三年,英宗錫誥贈為通微顯化真人。所傳太極拳名十三勢,一名長拳云。
Master Zhang Sanfeng, called Tong, as well as Junshi, Xuanxuan, or Kunyang, was from Mt. Longhu in Jiangxi. Zhang’s grandfather, the wealthy Duke Xian, moved his family to Yi Prefecture, Liaoyang. Master Zhang had an unusual appearance, hunched like a tortoise, a skeleton like a crane, big ears, round eyes. When he was twelve, he focused on studying Confucianism, which he learned easily, able to thoroughly understand its main ideas. In the first year of the Zhongtong era [1260] of the reign of Emperor Shizu [Kublai Khan], he was recognized as a remarkable talent. The following year, he was proclaimed to have literary insight and was put on a list of people to attend the imperial court for promotion to a governmental position. However, such a path was not his ambition.
  In the fall of the first year of the cycle [1264] during the Yuan Dynasty [actually seven years before it was formally declared], Zhang went to Yanjing [Beijing], which had just been made the new capital [the former capital being Xanadu (Shangdu)]. By imperial decree, literary talents had been called there to await employment. While waiting, Zhang’s reputation increased by the day. His comments on government affairs were noticed by Lian Xixian, who singled out his talent and had him made magistrate of Boling in Zhongshan. During his spare time from governing, Zhang went to Mt. Gehong. Tradition has it that he practiced asceticism at Zhichuan [“young river”]. Because he was so carefree and neglectful of his duties, how could he not be compared to a young river? But then the following year, his parents died, and several months later, he received the sad news. He quit his position and returned to Liaoyang. In constant grief, he searched the hills for a good burial spot.
  After completing the three-year mourning period, he packed his things to go traveling, leaving his estate to his clansmen and instructing them to pay the visits to the graves of his parents on his behalf. Accompanied by two Buddhist novices, he went north through Yan and Zhao, east to Qi and Lu, south to Han and Wei, wandering to famous mountains and ancient monasteries, reciting verse and spending time in contemplation. Moving on, staying for a while, moving on again, his life went on like this for almost thirty years, no place to call home. Then he went west into Shaanxi and Gansu, took the air of Taihua, saw the marvels of Taibai, went to Baoxie, spent time at Chencang. And he found the valley of Mt. Baoji, so invigorating and fresh that he decided to stay. There was a place there called Triplepoint Mountain. It had three peaks [“san feng”] that stood tall and elegant, and were a hearteningly lush green. That is why Zhang became known as the Scholar who Lived at Three Peaks.
  In the first year of the Yanyou era [1314] of the reign of Emperor Renzong [Buyantu Khan], Zhang at age sixty-seven went to Zhongnan to meet Huolong [“fire dragon”] and be taught of the Great Way. Zhang Sanfeng’s name was then changed to Xuanji, as well Xuanhua, and Xuanxuanzi, and also Kunyang. He dwelled in the mountains for four years and achieved quietude. In the spring of the first year of the reign of Emperor Taiding [1324], he went further south to Wudang, where he regulated his spirit for nine years and then achieved the Way.
  He thereafter disappeared while traveling somewhere between the mists of Hunan and the drizzle of Sichuan for about a decade. Then in the first year of the Zhizheng era [of Emperor Huizong (1341)], he returned to Liaoyang from Chu [Hunan/Hubei area] to visit a relative’s grave. After that, he went to Yanshi [in Henan], where an old friend who was a high-ranking official had just died. He then traveled westward to Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, then went from the territories of Jing and Chu to Wu and Yue [making an eastward path from Sichuan to Zhejiang], and lived in Jinling [i.e. Nanjing]. In the nineteenth year of the Zhizheng era [1359], he returned to Shaanxi and dwelled at Mt. Baoji’s Golden Tower View.
  Three years later, he suddenly disappears from Yuan Dynasty records, but reappears later during the Ming Dynasty. Zhang joined a temple on Mt. Taihe. Because he looked like a madman, people called him the “Slob Immortal”. In the seventeenth year of the reign of Emperor Hongwu [1384], the emperor greatly admired Zhang and gave orders that he was to be found. But Zhang would not go to the emperor, and by the twenty-fifth reign year [1392], he had fled to Yunnan. In the first year of the reign of Emperor Jianwen [1398], Wan Puzi went to visit Zhang at Wudang and they took a trip to Pingyue, where they had a delightful time in each other’s company.
  In the fourth year of the reign of Emperor Yongle [1406], the royal tutor Huguang dramatically told of Zhang’s deep understanding of the Way and his peerless boxing skill. In the fifth year [1407], the emperor ordered Huying and others to travel through the realm and find Zhang. In the tenth year [1412], the emperor now ordered Sun Biyun to build a temple at Wudang honoring Zhang, as well as sending letters inviting Zhang to court, but none of these things worked. In the third year of the Tianshun era [1459], Emperor Yingzong bestowed upon him the title of “The Comprehending-the-Profound Demonstrating-Transformation Perfected Man.”
  The Taiji Boxing he passed down was called Thirteen Dynamics, also known as Long Boxing.

附錄(二)王宗岳先生畧傳
Additional text 2: A BRIEF BIO OF WANG ZONGYUE [text copied from Wu Tunan’s 1931 manual]

三豐之後,有王宗岳者,西安人也,得先師真傳,名聞宇內,著作甚多,於太極拳中之奧理,闡發無遺,誠所謂經緯之才也。傳溫州陳州同及河南蔣發。
After Zhang Sanfeng, there was Wang Zongyue of Xi’an. Having obtained Zhang’s true teachings, he then became famous for producing many writings in which he thoroughly explains Taiji Boxing’s profound principles. Truly he can be called an “all-around talent” [i.e. good at both the practical and theoretical]. He taught Chen Zhoutong of Wenzhou and Jiang Fa of Henan.

附錄(三)龍師子祥小史 黃楚英
Additional text 3: A BRIEF HISTORY OF LONG ZIXIANG (by Huang Chuying)

龍師子祥,粵之新會人,現年四十三歲,為人豪爽洒脱,待人接物,彬然有禮,個性涵蓄,己臻化境,不知者固不易知其能武也。授徒時多採學校現行教育方式,循循善誘,從未一露武人本色,以臨學者。除嫻南北派武技外,尤精醫跌打一科。
年十八,以個性酷慕武術,迺棄文習武,投入兩廣國術研究班北派名師顧汝章先生門下學技,當時顧氏因與廣州佛家拳師譚三先生交誼甚深,常有交換門徒教練,顧氏目覩其年少有為,除授以己技外,且使之習技譚氏門下。故其除學得譚氏之佛家手法而外,潛研顧氏之氣功,少林拳術,器械,及太極拳等,尤為獨到。融會南北派,身形矯捷,馬步穩健。更能匠心獨運,發明大鵬展翅之絕技。技成後,尋為廣州國術館助教,後又受聘連灘,時連灘有拳師混名大和尚者。稱雄當地,欺其年少,到館踢盤,龍師以忍無可忍,不得巳施佛家插捶,不三分鐘挫其燄,名乃大翅連灘者垂年餘。後又有廣寧之行,就民教館教席時歷三稔。以顧氏三次南來,招其囘粵任廣州國技社教務主任而去職。當時粵又有廣州國術協會之組,復被推為委員,繼又任競賽部主任。迄廣州淪陷,隻身遠引,生活至此乃入於另一階段,港島重光,徇同學之請,在港與祁潤華石鑑輝等籌組中國健身會於半島,負教務主任之職,於茲數載。迨一九四九年雙十節,受聘為九龍織造工會漂染部拳師。五〇年暮春,又兼任九龍總商會太極拳班主任。桃李盈門,名著武壇,誠為國術存一正宗。今以諸門人懇其編纂太極拳一書之便,謹列序其史畧如次。
旹一九五一年春月
Teacher Long Zixiang is from Xinhui County of Guangdong Province. He is forty-three years old this year. [This would indicate he was born in 1908, but as the Chinese traditionally add a year for the “year” spent in the womb, he was therefore actually born in 1909, and would in the year this was written actually have been forty-two.] With people he is straightforward and casual, but the way that he treats them is very well-mannered, for his personality is modest, having attained a high level within himself. If you did not know him, you would never guess him to be a man of martial prowess. When instructing students, he has gathered many of the teaching methods of modern institutions. He is a systematic and excellent guide, never displaying a bullying aspect toward his students. Beyond being adept in the skills of both northern and southern styles of martial arts, he is also an expert in injury medicine.
  When he was eighteen years old [1926 – again taking account of the womb year and therefore he was actually seventeen], he had a strong yearning for martial arts, and he put aside literary studies so he could train. He threw himself into the Guangdong-Guangxi Martial Arts Research Institute, becoming a formal pupil learning skills from the famous Northern stylist Gu Ruzhang. At that time, Gu had a deep friendship with the Choy Li Fut Boxing teacher, Tan San of Guangzhou, and there was frequent exchange between them of students and instructors. Gu saw that Long was young and promising, and beyond the skills he personally taught him, he encouraged him to learn from with Tan as well. Thus in addition to learning the Choy Li Fut techniques from Tan, he immersed himself in a study of Gu’s qigong, the Shaolin boxing art, weapons, Taiji Boxing, and so on, becoming an especially unique exponent.
  Suiting well to both southern and northern styles, his posture is agile, yet his stance is firm. More than that, he has ingenuity of his own, developing the technique of “rukh unfurls a wing”. After he had achieved skill, he sought to be a teaching assistant in the Guangzhou Martial Arts Institute, and later on received his own teaching space. When he got his teaching position in Liantan, there was an obnoxious boxing monk notorious in the area who wanted to take advantage of Long’s youth. He came to the school and kicked a tray. Long could not tolerate this and had no choice but to perform Choy Li Fut’s “skewering punch”. After just a few minutes the monk had become humble, and Long was for a long while after nicknamed “Rukh’s Wing of Liantan”. Later he also traveled to Guangning County to teach students privately for three years.
  Gu came south three times, and he invited Long to return to Guangdong to take up the position of director of the Guangzhou Martial Arts Association so he could resign [1935 – age 26]. At this time, there was also there the group of the Guangzhou Martial Arts Society, and Long was put forth to be a committee member and additionally was appointed as their director of competitions.
  When Guangzhou fell into enemy hands [July, 1937 – age 28], finding itself alone and cut off from help, his life at this point entered a new phase. Then when peace had been restored to Hong Kong and Macao [the Japanese formally surrendering them in Sep, 1945 – age 36], he gave in to his fellow students’ request and went to Hong Kong, and with Qi Runhua and Shi Jianhui started the Chinese Physical Fitness Society on the peninsula, with him carrying the directorship to this day. On “Double Tenth” [Oct 10], 1949 [age 40], he accepted the position of boxing instructor to the Bleachers and Dyers section of the Kowloon Weavers’ Union. Since the end of spring, 1950 [age 41], he has held the concurrent position of instructor to the Taiji Boxing Club of the Kowloon General Chamber of Commerce.
  He has many students, is a famous author in martial arts circles, and is sincere about keeping Chinese martial arts genuine. All his students now admire the Taiji Boxing book he has put together. A detailed chart of his [Taiji] lineage follows.
  - second month of spring, 1951

附錄(四)太極拳世系表(一)
Additional text 4: TAIJI BOXING LINEAGE CHART – Part 1

許宣平─宋遠撟。(唐代)所傳拳名為三十七勢又名長拳。
Xu Xuanping taught Song Yuanqiao (during the Tang Dynasty). The art was called Thirty-Seven Postures or Long Boxing.
李道子─{ 兪一誠,兪清慧,兪蓮舟(唐代)所傳拳名為先天拳,亦名長拳。
Li Daozi taught Yu Yicheng, Yu Qinghui, and Yu Lianzhou (during the Tang Dynasty). The art was called Innate Nature Boxing or Long Boxing.
韓拱月─程靈洗─程珌(後梁)所傳拳名小九天。
Han Gongyue taught Cheng Lingxi (during the Later Liang [Southern Liang] Dynasty), and the art was then passed down to Cheng Bi. The art was called Small Highest Heaven.
胡鏡子─宋仲殊─殷亨利。所傳拳名為後天法。
Hu Jingzi taught Zhong Shu of the Song Dynasty, who then taught Yin Liheng. The art was called Acquired Nature Method.
張三豐─王宗岳─南派─陳州同─張松溪─葉近泉─單思南─王征南─黃百家─甘鳳池(以後失傳)
Zhang Sanfeng > Wang Zongyue > (southern branch:) Chen Zhoutong > Zhang Songxi > Ye Jinquan > Dan Sinan > Wang Zhengnan > Huang Baijia > Gan Fengchi (this branch lost thereafter)
張三豐─王宗岳─北派─蔣發─陳長興(陳家溝){ 楊露蟬 李伯魁 陳紀信 陳耿信 陳耕耘
Zhang Sanfeng > Wang Zongyue > (northern branch:) Jiang Fa > Chen Changxing (of the Chen Family Village) > Yang Luchan, Li Bokui, Chen Jixin, Chen Gengxin, Chen Gengyun
楊露蟬{ 楊班侯(次予) 楊建侯(三子)
Yang Luchan > Yang Banhou (second son), Yang Jianhou (third son)
楊班侯{ 萬春 吳公甫 侯凌山 陳秀峰
Yang Banhou > Wan Chun, Wu Gongfu, Hou Lingshan, Chen Xiufeng
吳公甫{ 王茂齋 吳鑑泉 齊閣臣
Wu Gongfu [Quanyou] > Wang Maozhai, Wu Jianquan, Qi Gechen
吳鑑泉{ 王棟材 褚民誼 徐致一 吳圖南 吳公儀 吳雨亭 金雲峰 趙仲博 吳公藻
Wu Jianquan > Wang Dongcai, Chu Minyi, Xu Zhiyi, Wu Tunan, Wo Gongyi, Wu Yuting, Jin Yunfeng, Zhao Zhongbo, Wo Gongzao
吳公儀─吳大揆
Wo Gongyi > Wu Dakui
楊健侯{ 楊兆清(澄甫) 楊兆號(夢祥) 李景林
Yang Jianhou > Yang Zhaoqing (Chengfu), Yang Zhaohao (Mengxiang), Li Jinglin
楊兆清{ 楊振銘(長子) 楊振基(次子) 董英傑 陳蓮栢 武滙川 陳微明 聶智飛
Yang Chengfu > Yang Zhenming (eldest son), Yang Zhenji (second son), Dong Yingjie, Chen Lianbo, Wu Huichuan, Chen Weiming, Nie Zhifei
董英傑─董虎嶺
Dong Yingjie > Dong Huling
陳微明─梁勁予
Chen Weiming > Liang Jinyu
楊兆號{ 東潤芳 馬潤之 尤志學 田肇麟 烏拉布
Yang Mengxiang [Shaohou] > Dong Runfang, Ma Runzhi, You Zhixue, Tian Zhaolin, Wu Labu
(懷慶府趙保鎮)陳清平─武禹讓─李亦畬─郝為禎─孫祿堂
Chen Qingping (of Zhaobao Village, Huaiqing Prefecture) > Wu Yuxiang > Li Yiyu > Hao Weizhen > Sun Lutang
李景林 孫祿堂─顧汝章{ 潘珠 龍子祥 嚴尚武 劉錦東 陳咸民
Li Jingjin / Sun Lutang > Gu Ruzhang > Pan Zhu, Long Zixiang, Yan Shangwu, Liu Jindong, Chen Xianmin

附錄(五)太極拳世系表(二)
Additional text 5: TAIJI BOXING LINEAGE CHART – Part 2

龍子祥 Long Zixiang’s students:

龍啓明(長子) Long Qiming [Lung Kaiming] (eldest son)
李澤甫 Li Zefu [author of the fifth preface]
王曉峯 Wang Xiaofeng
樊耀森 Fan Yaosen [author of the third preface]
黃楚英 Huang Chuying [author of the sixth preface and bio of Long]
鍾紹南 Zhong Shaonan [proofreader of the book]
譚豐雅 Tan Fengya [Tam Fung Ngar Paul – Paul Tam]
張寬 Zhang Kuan
潘啓麟 Pan Qilin
冼志權 Xian Zhiquan
李元 Li Yuan
查耀森 Zha Yaosen [author of the bio of Long included in Shaolin Boxing Manual]
譚耀明 Tan Yaoming
陳麗川 Chen Lichuan
陳社來 Chen Shelai
潘燦麟 Pan Canlin
黃文生 Huang Wensheng
黎鋈享 Li Wuxiang
吳頌山 Wu Songshan
麥錦明 Mai Jinming
陳護良 Chen Huliang
劉志良 Liu Zhiliang
黃肇元 Huang Zhaoyuan
周賀蔭 Zhou Zhaoyin
劉世芬(女) Ms. Liu Shifen
劉焯昭 Liu Chaozhao
周亮彪 Zhou Liangbiao
游慶 You Qing
馬錦培 Ma Jinpei
吳銳明 Wu Ruiming [author of the fourth preface]
黃興漢 Huang Xinghan
馬長發 Ma Changfa
劉沛泉 Liu Peiquan
梁望 Liang Wang
莫如浩 Mo Ruhao
黃錫德 Huang Xide
關銓 Guan Quan
黎應生 Li Yingsheng
王作新 Wang Zuoxin
陳鐘示 Chen Zhongshi
黃振 Huang Zhen
黃道 Huang Dao
黎寶賢 Li Baoxian
何奕亮 He Yiliang
梁秉樞 Liang Bingshu
梁炳新 Liang Bingxin
潘子斌 Pan Zibin
黎汝勤 Li Ruqin
何光 He Guang
張源 Zhang Yuan
梁銘川 Liang Mingchuan
霍慎堯 Huo Shenyao
李胡 Li Hu
江林 Jiang Lin
吳成厚 Wu Chenghou
蒙根 Meng Gen
麥柱 Mai Zhu
黃雄 Huang Xiong
鍾國材 Zhong Guocai
唐文達 Tang Wenda
江墉 Jiang Yong
陳兆雄 Chen Zhaoxiong [supplied the 14th piece of calligraphy]
雷少明 Lei Shaoming [supplied the 8th piece of calligraphy]
王漢青 Wang Hanqing [supplied the 6th piece of calligraphy]
鍾玉珍(女) Ms. Zhong Yuzhen
吳蕙芳(女) Ms. Wu Huifang
杜敏昭(女) Ms. Du Minzhao
陳興 Chen Xing
李仁暢 Li Renchang
王福 Wang Fu
何奕光 He Yiguang
黎炳文 Li Bingwen
劉慶長 Liu Qingchang
鍾培 Zhong Pei
陳永興 Chen Yongxing
黃耀輝 Huang Yaohui
李新 Li Xin
黃澤民 Huang Zemin [Wong Jackman (age 10)]
布錦初 Bu Jinchu
伍雄 Wu Xiong
劉鑑泉 Liu Jianquan
陳金海 Chen Jinhai
黃錫璋 Huang Xizhang
李偉 Li Wei
黃桂松 Huang Guisong
李沛霖 Li Peilin
劉業生 Liu Yesheng
李堅 Li Jian
王祺 Wang Qi
張樹勳 Zhang Shuxun

第二章 論著(下)
CHAPTER TWO: VARIOUS WRITINGS – Part 2

(一)太極拳之各家架式異同説
I. DISCUSSING THE SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VARIOUS VERSIONS OF THE TAIJI BOXING SOLO SET [text copied from Wu Zhiqing’s 1936 manual]

國術之分內外,以少林武當為鵠,而少林系之起源稍遠,派別繁多,難以勝記,其架式有長拳短打,又有高䂯中䂯之別,大步小步之分,約而言之,不外乎攻守進退之法顯然可見也。而武當一門,歷史不若少林之久,當時流傳尚不甚廣,輾轉師承,亦因各個生理之特殊,因勢利導,架式雖略有變更,而其理論則一;又如楊澄甫先生架式尚開展,而吳先生鑑泉尚團緊,孫祿堂先生尚舒長,各得其妙,無分軒輊。太極拳之精意,以開展之中須要團緊而舒長,此卽術誠中之『鬆腰,虛靈,頂勁』之意也。然架式雖有不同之點,僅其外表之動作,而其精神則無差異也。
Martial arts are divided into internal and external, specified as “Wudang” and “Shaolin”. Shaolin’s origins are quite old, and there are too many styles of it to remember. There are sets for both “long punching” and “short striking”, differences of high stance or medium stance, large step or small step. In brief, it does not go beyond methods of attack and defend, advance and retreat, which is obvious to any who witness it.
  As for Wudang, its history is not as old as that of Shaolin, and has still not become as widespread, having been passed down personally from teacher to student. Also, due to focus on physiological principles and the concept of adjusting according to circumstances, the sets have gotten slightly modified, though its theory has remained consistent.
  For example, Yang Chengfu’s postures were very open, whereas Wu Jianquan emphasizes compactness, and Sun Lutang emphasized relaxed extension. They each achieved mastery regardless of such distinctions. The essential idea in Taiji Boxing is that within spreading open there has to be the qualities of compactness and relaxed extension. This is the idea behind instructions such as “loosen your waist” and “forcelessly press up your headtop”. The differences between the versions of the set are only a matter of the external appearance of the movements, and there is no difference in terms of their spirit.

(二)太極拳術練法之要義
II. ESSENTIALS OF PRACTICING THE TAIJI BOXING ART [text copied from Chen Weiming’s1925 manual]

(一)虛靈頂勁。
1. FORCELESSLY PRESS UP YOUR HEADTOP

頂勁者,頭容正直,神貫於頂也。不可用力,用力則項強,氣血不能通流,須有虛靈自然之意,非有虛靈頂勁。則精神不能提起也。
By “press up your headtop” is indicated that the appearance of your head is upright and spirit penetrates to your headtop. You must not use exertion. If you use exertion, your neck will be straining, and energy and blood will be unable to flow through. There must be an intention of being forceless and natural. If you do not have this quality of forcelessly pressing up your headtop, then spirit cannot be raised.

(二)涵胸拔背。
2. CONTAIN YOUR CHEST & PLUCK UP YOUR BACK

涵胸者,胸畧內涵,使氣沉於丹田也。胸忌挺出,挺出則氣擁胸際,上重下輕,脚跟易於浮起;拔背者,氣貼於背也。能涵胸,則自能拔背,能拔背。則能力由脊發,所向無敵也。
To “contain your chest” means your chest is slightly shrugged inward, causing energy to sink to your elixir field. Your chest must not stick out. If it sticks out, then energy will swarm to your chest area, resulting in your upper body being heavy and your lower body being light, and your heels will easily float up. To “pluck up your back” means energy sticks to your back. If you can contain your chest, then you will automatically be able to pluck up your back. If you can pluck up your back, then you can issue power from your spine and be invincible.

(三)腰必要鬆。
3. YOUR WAIST MUST LOOSEN

腰為一身之主宰,能鬆腰,然後两足有力,下盤穩固。虛實變化,皆由腰轉動,故曰:『命意源頭在腰隙』。有不得力處,必於腰腿求之也。
The waist is the controller of the whole body. If you can loosen your waist, then your feet will have strength, and your stance will be stable. The transformations between empty and full all come from the turning of your waist. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song] that the “command comes from your lower back”, and if you do not have the advantage, the problem “must be in the waist and legs, so look for it there”.

(四)分清虛實。
4. DISTINGUISH CLEARLY BETWEEN EMPTY & FULL

太極拳術,以分清虛實,為第一要義。如全身皆坐在右腿,則右腿為實,左腿為虛,全身皆坐左腿,則左腿為實,右腿為虛,虛實能分清,而後轉動輕靈、毫不費力,如不能分清,則邁步重滯,自立不穩、而易為人所牽動,可不慎哉。
In the Taiji boxing art, distinguishing clearly empty and full is of prime importance. If the weight is on your right leg, your right leg is full and your left leg is empty. If the weight is on your left leg, your left leg is full and your right leg is empty. If you can clearly distinguish empty and full from each other, movements will be light and nimble, not at all strenuous. If they cannot be clearly distinguished, your steps will be heavy and sluggish, your stance will naturally be unstable, and it will be easy for an opponent to pull you off-balance. Can you afford to be incautious?

(五)沉肩墜肘。
5. SINK YOUR SHOULDERS & DROP YOUR ELBOWS

沉肩者,肩鬆開而下垂也,若肩不能鬆垂,两肩端起,則氣亦隨之而上,全身皆不得力矣。墜肘者,肘往下鬆墜之意,肘若懸起,則肩亦不能沉,放人不遠,近於外家之斷勁矣。
To “sink your shoulders” means your shoulders loosen and hang down. If they cannot loosen and hang, they will end up lifting, then energy will also follow them upward, and your whole body will have no strength. To “drop your elbows” means an intention of loosening your elbows to drop them downward. If your elbows are lifted up, your shoulders cannot sink, and you will not send the opponent far. It would be more like the interrupted power of external styles.

(六)用意不用力。
6. USE INTENTION, NOT EXERTION

太極拳論云:『此全是用意不用力』。練太極拳,全身鬆開,不使有分毫之拙勁,以留滯於筋骨血脉之間,以自縛朿,然後能輕靈變化,囘轉自如。或疑不用力,何以能長力,蓋人身之經絡,如地之有溝洫,溝洫不塞而水行,經絡不閉而氣通,如運身殭勁,充滿經絡,氣血停滯,轉動不靈,牽一髮而全身動矣。若不用力而用意,意之所至,氣卽至焉,如是氣血流注,日月貫輸,周流全身,無時停滯,久久練習,則得真正內勁,卽太極論中所云:『極柔軟,然後能極堅剛』。卽此意也。太極拳功夫純熟之人,臂跨如棉裏鐵,分量極沈沉重,練外家拳者,用力則顯有力,不用力時,則甚輕浮,可見其力,乃外勁浮面之勁也。外家之力,最易引動,故不尚也。
A Taiji Boxing essay [Li Yiyu’s Five-Word Formula] says: “This is entirely a matter of using intention and is not a matter of using strength.” When practicing Taiji Boxing, your whole body should be loosened. If you do not allow there to be the slightest bit of clumsy effort clogging up the spaces between your muscles and bones, vessels and meridians, and which would tie you up in knots, then you can be nimble and adaptable, rounded and unhindered. You may ask: “If one does not exert oneself, how can one get stronger?” A person’s body has energy channels like irrigation canals. When a canal is unblocked, the water can move, and when the channels are not closed off, energy can flow. If your whole body is stiff, it is as though the channels have been filled in, and thus the energy and blood become stagnant, the movement becomes awkward, and your whole body will be affected by but the tug of a hair. If you use intention instead of exertion, then wherever your intention goes, energy will arrive. If energy and blood are flowing, coursing through with each day, circulating through your whole body without a moment of stagnation, then after practicing for a long time, you will obtain genuine internal power. Another Taiji essay [Understanding How to Practice] says: “Extreme softness begets extreme hardness.” This is the idea. One who is skilled in Taiji Boxing has arms like silk wrapped around iron and they feel very heavy. When practitioners of external styles use exertion, it is obvious they are exerting themselves, and when they do not use exertion, they are very light and floating. It can be seen that their strength is an external and superficial strength. The strength of external styles is the easiest to take advantage of, therefore do not esteem it.

(七)上下相隨。
7. YOUR UPPER BODY & LOWER COORDINATE WITH EACH OTHER

上下相隨者,卽太極論中所云:『其根在脚,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指,由脚而腿而腰,總須完整一氣』也。卽手動腰動脚動,眼神亦隨之而動,如是方可謂之上下相隨,有一不動,卽散亂矣。
The meaning of this is stated in the Taiji Treatise: “Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a fully continuous process.” Your hands move, your waist moves, your feet move, and even your gaze also goes along with the movement. If it is like this, then you can say your upper body and lower are coordinating with each other, but if there is one part that is not moving with all the rest, then you are in disorder.

(八)內外相合。
8. INSIDE & OUT JOIN WITH EACH OTHER

太極所練在神,故云神為主帥,身為驅使,精神能提得起,自然舉動輕靈;練架子不外虛實開合,所謂開者,不但手足開,心意亦與之俱開。所謂合者,不但手足合,心意亦與之俱合。能內外合為一氣,則渾然無間矣。
Taiji training is all about the spirit. Therefore it is said [in an earlier version of Understanding How to Practice]: “Your spirit is the general and your body is the army.” If your spirit can be lifted, naturally the movement will be nimble. When practicing the solo set, there is nothing more to it than emptiness and fullness, and expansion and contraction. Expansion is not only a matter of hands and feet. The intention also expands. Contraction is not only a matter of hands and feet. The intention also contracts. If you can merge inside and outside into a single unit, there will be entirely no distinction between them.

(九)相連不斷。
9. THE MOVEMENTS ARE LINKED TOGETHER WITHOUT INTERRUPTION

外家拳術,其勁乃後天之拙勁,故有起有止,有續有斷,舊力已盡,新力未生,此時最易然人所乘。太極拳用意不用力,自始至終,綿綿不斷,周而復始,循環無窮,蓋卽所謂如:『長江大海滔滔不絕也』。又曰『運勁如抽絲』。皆言貫串一氣也。
In external styles of boxing arts, their strength is only the clumsy strength of acquired habit. Therefore there is a start and a stop, a continuing and an interrupting. It is when old force is spent and new force is not yet initiated that is the easiest moment for an opponent to take advantage of. Taiji Boxing uses intention, not exertion, and so from beginning to end, it is continuous without interruption, recycling endlessly. As it is said [in the Classic]: “It is like a long river flowing into the wide ocean, on and on ceaselessly.” It is also said [in Understanding How to Practice]: “Move energy as if drawing silk.” These words describe a continuous flow throughout.

(十)動中求靜。
10. WITHIN MOVEMENT, SEEK STILLNESS

外家拳術,以跳躑為能,用盡氣力,故練習之後,無不喘氣者。太極以靜制動,雖動猶靜,故練架子愈慢愈好,慢則呼吸深長,氣沉丹田,自無血脉賁張之弊,學者細心體會,庶可得意焉
External styles of boxing arts look upon jumping and posing as ability. Practitioners spend all of their energy, and therefore after practicing are always panting for breath. Taiji uses stillness to control movement, and although moving, seems yet to be in stillness. Therefore when practicing the solo set, the slower the better. When it is slow, your breath will be deep and long, energy will sink to your elixir field, and there will naturally be no excessive rise in heart-rate. Students who are attentive and realize through experience will all get the idea.

接右列之十要義,然太極拳練習之不可缺者,每一動作,均須有十要義在內,否則亦等於無練,學者希留意參合也。
The ten essentials above are indispensible to the practice of Taiji Boxing. Every movement must have the ten essentials within them, otherwise it does not count as practice. I hope you will pay attention to them and refer to them.

(三)太極拳五要訣
III. TAIJI BOXING’S FIVE-WORD FORMULA [by Li Yiyu]

一要小心靜:
1. The mind is CALM.

心不靜,則不專一,舉手前後左右,全無定向,故要心靜。起初舉動,未能由己,要息心體認,隨人所動隨曲就伸,不丢不頂,勿自伸縮,彼有力,我亦有力,我要在先,彼無力,我亦有力,我意仍在先。要刻刻留心,挨何處心要用力在何處,須向不丢力不頂中討消息。從此做去,日積月累,便能施之於身,此全是用意,不是用勁,久之則人為我制,我不為人制矣
If your mind is not calm, it will not be focused, and each movement of your hands, be it forward or back, left or right, will not be in any definite direction. Therefore your mind should be calm. At first your movement will not yet be able to come from yourself, and so you should clear your mind and let your body intuit, going along with the opponent’s movements. Bend and then extend, neither coming away nor crashing in, and do not expand and contract on your own. When the opponent has power, I also have power, but my power beats him to the punch. When he has no power, I also have no power, for it is my intention that beats him to the decision. You should constantly pay attention. Wherever the opponent nears you, your mind should go there. You must neither come away nor crash in, and then you will be able to analyze what is going on. After doing this for about a year or so, it will become a natural part of you. This is entirely a matter of using intention and is not a matter of using strength. Over time, you will reach the point in which you can say “he is under my control and I am not under his”.

二要身靈:
2. The body is LIVELY.

身滯則進退不能自如,故要身靈。舉手不可有呆像,彼之力方覺侵我皮毛,我之意己入彼骨裏,两手支撑,一氣貫串,左重則左虛,而右已去;右重則右虛,而左己去。氣如車輪,週身俱要相隨,有不相隨處,身便散亂,便不得力,其病在於腰腿求之。先以心使身,後使身能從心,由己仍從人,由己則滯,從人則活。能從入之手上,便有分寸,量彼勁之大小,分釐不錯,權彼來之長短,毫髮無差;前進後退,處處恰合,工彌久,而技彌精矣。
When your body is sluggish, advancing and retreating cannot be done smoothly. Therefore your body should be lively. When moving your hands, there must be nothing resembling hesitation. When the opponent’s force hinders even the hairs on my skin, my intention instantly enters his bones and my hands are bracing him, all as one event. If he puts pressure on my left side, I empty my left side and my right side goes forth, or if he puts pressure on my right side, I empty my right side and my left side goes forth, the energy like a wheel. Your whole body should be coordinated. If there is a lack of coordination anywhere, your body will then be disorganized, and you will then have no power. Seek for the problem in your hips. First use your mind to command your body. Later your body will be able to follow your mind, yet this moving from yourself will still depend on following the opponent. If you act from yourself, you will be sluggish. If you follow the opponent, you will be lively. If you can follow the opponent, your hands on him will detect in finer detail, weighing the size of his power and being accurate to the smallest measure, assessing the length of his attack and not being off by the slightest bit, and you will advance and retreat always at the right moment. The more you work at it, the more perfected your skill will be.

三要氣歛:
3. The energy is COLLECTED.

氣勢散漫,便無含蓄,身易散亂,務使氣歛入脊骨,呼吸通靈,週身罔間,吸為合為蓄,呼為開為發,蓋吸則自然提得起,亦拿得人起。呼則自然沉得下,亦放得人出,此是以意運氣,非以力使氣也。
If your energy is scattered, then it will not be stored, and your body will easily fall into disorder. You must cause the energy to collect into your spine. Inhaling and exhaling penetrates and enlivens, influencing every part of your body. Inhaling is contracting and storing. Exhaling is expanding and releasing. Since with inhaling there is a natural rising, take the opponent up. Since with exhaling there is a natural sinking, send the opponent away. This is the use of intention to move energy, not the use of exertion to force energy.

四要勁整:
4. The power is COMPLETE.

一身之勁,練成一家,分清虛實,發勁要有根源,勁起脚跟,主於腰間,形於手指,發於脊背。又要提起全付精神,於彼勁將出未發之際,我勁巳接入彼勁,恰好不後不先,如皮燃火,如泉湧出,前進後退,無絲毫散亂,曲中求直,蓄而後發,方能隨手奏效,此謂之借力打人,四両撥千斤之法也。
The power of your whole body is trained to become a single unit, distinguishing clearly between empty and full. To issue power, there should be a source of it. Power starts from your heel, it is directed at your waist, and expresses at your fingers, issuing from your spine. With it there should also be a rousing of all your spirit. When the opponent’s power is about to come out but has not yet issued, my power connects with and invades his instantly, neither late nor early, as if my skin is a burning fire or as if a spring is gushing forth. I advance and retreat without the slightest disorder, and seeking the straight within the curved, I store and then issue. Thus I am able to be effortlessly successful. This is called “borrowing his force to hit him with”, the technique of “using four ounces to move a thousand pounds”.

五要神聚:
5. The spirit is GATHERED.

上四者俱備,歸綜神聚,神聚則一氣鼓鑄,練氣歸神,注勢騰挪,精神貫注,開合有致,虛實清楚,左虛則右實,右虛則左實;虛非全然無力,氣勢要有騰挪,實非全然占煞,精神要時貫注,緊要全在胸中,腰間運用,不在外面,力從人借,氣由脊發,胡能氣由脊發?氣向下沉,由两肩收於脊骨,注於腰間,此氣之由上而下也,謂之合。由腰形於脊骨,布於两膊,施於手指,此氣之由下而上也,謂之開;合便是收,開便是放。能懂得開合,便知陰陽,到此地位,功用一日,技精一日,漸至從心所欲,罔不如意矣!
With the four above prepared, finally spirit gathers. Once spirit is gathered, then energy is tempered, and this smelted energy then reinforces spirit. Energy is ready to move and spirit is concentrated. Expanding and contracting are decisive. Emptiness and fullness are distinct. When left is empty, right is full. When right is empty, left is full. Empty does not mean you are in that area completely weak, but that energy should there be ready to move. Full does not mean you are in that area completely stuck, but that spirit should there be concentrated. It is crucial that changes are within your chest and waist and are not external. Force is borrowed from the opponent. Energy is issued from your spine. How can energy issue from your spine? It sinks downward, going from your shoulders, gathering in your spine, and concentrates in your waist. This energy going from above to below is called “contracting”. Then it goes from your waist to your spine, spreading to your arms to be applied at your fingers. This energy going from below to above is called “expanding”. Contracting is gathering. Expanding is releasing. When you can understand expanding and contracting, then you will understand passive and active. When you reach this state, then daily work will yield daily refinement, and gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want and everything will happen as you imagine.

(四)太極拳十三勢歌訣
IV. SONGS OF TAIJI BOXING’S THIRTEEN DYNAMICS SET

(一)
Part 1 [five short songs]:

(一)掤捋擠按四正方。採挒肘靠斜角成。乾坤震兌乃八卦。進退顧盻定五行。
Ward-off, rollback, press, and push are the four cardinal directions [i.e. the four primary techniques].
Pluck, rend, elbow, and bump are the four corner directions [i.e. the four secondary techniques].
They are associated with the eight trigrams – Qian, Kun, [Kan, Li,] and [Sun,] Zhen, Dui, [Gen].
Advance and retreat, stepping left and right, and staying put – these are associated with the five elements.
(二)極柔卽剛極虛靈。運若抽絲處處明。開展緊凑乃縝密。待機而動如貓行。
From extreme softness, extreme hardness comes naturally.
When the movement is like drawing silk, at every point there is clarity.
Through opening up then closing up, you will gain a refined subtlety.
Await the moment, then make your move, stepping like a cat.
(三)拿住丹田練內功。哼哈二氣妙無窮。動分靜合屈伸就。緩應急隨理貫通。
Focus on your elixir field to smelt internal skill.
Within “heng” and “ha”, there are endless subtleties.
With passive and active dividing in movement and blending in stillness, bend and extend.
Responding slowly to slowness and quickly to quickness, the theory will be realized.
(四)舉動輕靈神內歛。莫教斷續一氣研。左宜右有虛實處。意上寓下後天還。
Move lightly and nimbly, spirit gathering within.
Show no interruption in the movement, for it should be continuous.
When your left has to do something, your right also has something to do, for empty and full have their places.
When your upward intention contains a downward, bad habits return [i.e. it brings stiffens to the opponent’s posture].
(五)順項貫頂两膀鬆。朿烈下氣把𦡁撑。胃音開勁两捶爭。五指抓地上彎弓。
Extend your neck and draw up your headtop, your arms both loosening.
Strongly bind energy downward, bracing it upward at your crotch.
Sound it from your gut when you express power, beating with your fists.
While your toes grip the ground, your upper body bends like a bow.

(二)
Part 2 [“Thirteen Dynamics Song”]:

十三勢來莫輕視,命意源頭在腰際,變轉虛實須留意,氣遍身軀不少滯,靜中觸動動猶靜,因敵變化示神奇,勢勢存心揆用意,得來不覺費功夫,刻刻留心在腰間,腹內鬆靜氣騰然,尾閭中正神貫頂,滿身輕利頂頭懸,仔細留心向推求,屈伸開合聽自由,入門引路須口授,功夫無息法自修,若言體用何為準,意氣君來骨肉臣,想推用意終何在,益壽延年不老春,歌兮歌兮百四十,字字真切義無遺,若不向此推求去,枉費功夫貽歎息,
Do not neglect any of the thirteen dynamics,
their command coming from your lower back.
You must pay attention to the alternation of empty and full,
then energy will flow through your whole body without getting stuck anywhere.
  In stillness, movement stirs, and then in moving, seem yet to be in stillness,
for the magic lies in making adjustments based on being receptive to the opponent.
In every movement, very deliberately control it by the use of intention,
for once you achieve that, it will all be effortless.
  At every moment, pay attention to your waist,
for if there is relaxation and stillness within your belly, energy is primed.
Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop,
thus your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.
  Pay careful attention in your practice that you are letting bending and extending,
contracting and expanding, happen as the situation requires.
Beginning the training requires personal instruction,
but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.
  Whether we are discussing in terms of theory or function, what is the constant?
It is that mind is sovereign and body is subject.
If you think about it, what is emphasizing the use of intention going to lead you to?
To a longer life and a longer youth.
  Repeatedly recite the words above,
all of which speak clearly and hence their ideas come through without confusion.
If you pay no heed to those ideas, you will go astray in your training,
and you will find you have wasted your time and be left with only sighs of regret.

(五)太極拳之擎放密訣
V. THE TRICK TO RAISING & RELEASING [by Li Yiyu]

擎、引、鬆、放、四字
Raise, draw in, relax, and release.
擎。擎開彼勁借彼力。中有靈字。
引。引到身前勁始蓄。中有歛字。
鬆。鬆開我勁勿使屈。中有靜字。
放。放時腰脚認端的。中有整字。
I get the opponent’s body to rise up and I borrow his force. (This has to do with “lively”.)
Once I have drawn him in front of me, my power begins to store. (This has to do with “collected”.)
I relax my power, but I do not allow it to collapse. (This has to do with “calm”.)
When I release, it comes from my waist and legs. (This has to do with “complete”.)

(六)太極拳主宰賓輔説明
VI. TAIJI BOXING’S PROCESS OF COMMAND & OBEY

腰脊 為第一之主宰。
The lower back is first to command,
喉頭 為第二之主宰。
the throat second to command,
地心 為第三之主宰。
the solar plexus third to command.
丹田 為第一之賓輔。
The elixir field is first to obey,
掌指 為第二之賓輔。
the palms second to obey,
足掌 為第三之賓輔。
the soles of the feet third to obey.

(七)太極拳十六關要説明
VII. TAIJI BOXING’S SIXTEEN KEY POINTS

活潑於腰,靈機於頂,神通於背,流行於氣。
行之於腿,蹬之於足,運之於掌,足之於指。
歛之於髓,達之於神,凝之於耳,息之於鼻。
呼吸於腹,縱之於膝,渾噩一身,發之於毛。
[1] Liveliness lies with your waist.
[2] Inspiration penetrates to your headtop.
[3] Spirit courses through your spine.
[4] Flowing lies with your energy.
[5] Movement lies with your legs.
[6] Pressing is felt at the foot.
[7] Wielding lies with your palms.
[8] Sufficiency reaches to your fingers.
[9] Gathering is a matter of your marrow.
[10] Arriving is a matter of your spirit.
[11] Concentration depends on your ears.
[12] Breathing occurs through your nose.
[13] Breathing operates from your abdomen.
[14] Springiness lies with your knees.
[15] Simplify things by using your whole body.
[16] Issuing is expressed at every hair.

附錄:八門五步
Additional text [1]: THE EIGHT GATES & FIVE STEPS

掤位南,捋位西,擠位東,按位北,採位西北,挒位東南,肘位東北,靠位西南,是為方位。
Warding off – S, rolling back – W, pressing – E, pushing – N, plucking – NW, rending – SE, elbowing – NE, bumping – SW.

坎,離,兌,震,巽,乾,坤,艮,是為八門。
Kan ☵, Li ☲, Dui ☱, Zhen ☳, Xun ☴, Qian ☰, Kun ☷, and Gen ☶ are the eight gates.

進步屬火,退步屬水,左顧屬木,右盼屬金,中定屬土,是為五行。
Advancing corresponds to fire. Retreating corresponds to water. Going to the left corresponds to wood. Going to the right corresponds to metal. Staying centered corresponds to earth. These are the five elements.

方位八門,乃陰陽顛倒之理,周而復始,隨其所行也。總之,四正四隅,不可不知也,夫掤捋擠按,是四正之手,採挒肘靠,是四隅之手,合隅正之手,得門位之卦,以身分步,五行在意,支撑八面五行。夫進退為水火之步,顧盼為金木之步,以中土為樞機之軸。懷藏八卦,脚踏五行,手步八五,其數十三,出於自然十三勢也,故名之曰八門五步。太極拳初名為十三勢,其意殆基於此。
The positions of the eight gates are based on the principle of the passive and active aspects inverting each other, cycling round and round, following each other in their process. All of the four primary techniques [corresponding to the cardinal directions] and four secondary techniques [corresponding to the corner directions] must be understood. Warding off, rolling back, pressing, and pushing are the four primary techniques. Plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping are the four secondary techniques. The combining of these cardinals and corners thus positions the trigrams.
  The body makes its steps according to the five elements, bracing in all directions. Advancing and retreating are the steppings of water and fire, left and right are the steppings of metal and wood, and the central earth is the axis for all of them.
  Embrace the eight trigrams as you step through the five elements. Techniques plus steps equals eight plus five, amounting to thirteen, naturally expressed as the Thirteen Dynamics, known as the Eight Gates & Five Steps. Taiji Boxing was originally known as Thirteen Dynamics, and this explains why.

八門五步用功法
ON THE TRAINING METHOD FOR THE EIGHT GATES & FIVE STEPS

八卦五行,是人生成固有之良,必先明知覺運動四字之根由,知覺運動得之後,方能懂勁,由懂勁後,自能皆及神明矣。然用功之初,要明知覺運動,雖固有之良,亦非偬促問而得之於我也。
The eight trigrams and five elements are innate within us. You must first understand that they are based in these four terms: perception, realization, activation, action [these four terms amounting to “moving with awareness”]. Once you have achieved moving with awareness, then you will be able to identify energies. Once you can identify energies, then you will be able to be miraculous. But in the beginning of training, you should understand moving with awareness. Although it is innate, it is nevertheless hard to achieve within oneself.

(二)太極拳架式名稱及用法表(共一〇五架式)
Additional text 2 [and 3]: NAMES & FUNCTIONS OF THE TAIJI BOXING POSTURES (totaling 105 postures)

式數 術名 用法
posture number / name / function
一 太極赴式
1. TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE
二 攬雀尾 此式內分平提、下按、掤起、掤止、攄起、攄止、推擠、平按、左攬右攬
2. CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (This trains the basic techniques divided into these sections: lifting until level, pushing down, ward-off beginning, ward-off finishing, rollback beginning, rollback finishing, press out, level push, catching to the right, and catching to the left.)
三 單鞭 勾摟按掌之法
3. SINGLE ROD (This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.)
四 提手 為擠按變化之法
4. RAISE THE HANDS (This is a method of neutralizing by pressing and pushing.)
五 白鶴亮翅 為掤按提掛之法
5. WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (This is a method of warding off while pushing away, lifting up while hanging down.)
六 摟膝抝步 伸縮两臂活動腰膝之法
6. BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (This is a method for developing suppleness in the arms and exercising the waist and knees.)
七 手揮琵琶 為活步鬆腰運用两臂之法
7. PLAY THE LUTE (This is a method of livening the stepping, loosening the waist, and exercising the arms.)
八 摟膝抝步 三步、為伸縮两臂活動腰膝之法 (第二次)
8. BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (2nd time) (This is a method for developing suppleness in the arms and exercising the waist and knees.)
九 左摟膝步 仝上 (第三次)
9. LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (3rd time) (Same as for the previous posture.)
十 右摟膝步 仝上 (第四次)
10. RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (4th time) (Same as for the previous posture.)
十一 手揮琵琶 仝第七項 (第二次)
11. PLAY THE LUTE (Same as for Posture 7.)
十二 坐盤抱極 為扭胯練腿之法
12. TWISTING STANCE, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE (This is a method of twisting the hips to train the legs.)
十三 上步搬攔捶 為運臂練腿左搬右轉之法
13. STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (This is a method of wielding the arm in connection with the leg, parrying to the left and turning to the right.)
十四 進步指襠捶 為鬆腰墜肘、含胸拔背之法
14. ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.)
十五 如封似閉 為格敵封閉法
15. SEALING SHUT (This is a method of blocking the opponent and sealing him off.)
十六 十字手 為防上禦下及運用腕力之法
16. CROSSED HANDS (This is a method of defending above and below, applying strength at the wrists.)
十七 抱虎歸山 為起承及伸屈双腿之法
17. CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (This is a continuation from the previous posture, involving extending and bending in the legs.)
十八 探海迎面掌 為迎敵及伸屈腰胯之法
18. SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (This is a method of engaging the opponent as well of exercising the flexibility of your waist and hips.)
十九 斜步攬雀尾 為掤捋擠按及轉變之法 (第二次)
19. DIAGONAL STEP, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (2nd time) (This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push, as well as transitioning between postures.)
二十 單鞭 見第三項 (第二次)
20. SINGLE ROD (2nd time) (See Posture 3.)
二一 肘底看捶 為動身轉變之法
21. GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW (This is a method of transitioning between postures.)
二二 倒攆猴 連三式、為旋轉双掌伸縮臂肘之法
22. RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (This is a method of circling the palms to develop flexibility in the arms.) (The technique is performed three times.)
二三 扑腿抱極 為轉變進擊之法
23. CROUCHING, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE (This is a method of switching to an attack.)
二四 斜飛式 為轉變進擊双掌運用之法
24. DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (This is a method of switching to an attack, wielding both palms.)
二五 提手 見第四項 (第二次)
25. RAISE THE HANDS (2nd time) (See Posture 4.)
二六 白鶴亮翅 見第五項 (第二次)
26. WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (2nd time) (See Posture 5.)
二七 摟膝抝步 見第八項 (第五次)
27. BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (5th time) (See Posture 8.)
二八 海底針 為伸縮腰脊之法
28. NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (This develops flexibility in the lower back.)
二九 肩通臂 為練肩背之力通於臂指之法
29. SHOULDER THROUGH THE ARM (This is a method of training power in your upper back to go through to your arm and fingers.)
三十 白蛇吐信 為閃身擊敵之法
30. WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE (This is a method of evading and attacking.)
三一 撇身捶 為靈活腰胯閃轉反撇之法
31. TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (This is a means of increasing the flexibility of the waist and hips, and a method of evasively turning and countering with a flinging punch.)
三二 上步搬攔捶 為進步化敵擊敵之法 (第二次)
32. STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (2nd time) (This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.)
三三 進步指襠捶 為鬆腰墜肘、含胸拔背之法 (第二次)
33. ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (2nd time) (This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.)
三四 上步攬雀尾 為轉變啣接之法 (第三次)
34. ADVANCE, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (3rd time) (This is a method of transitioning between postures.)
三五 單鞭 見第三項 (第三次)
35. SINGLE ROD (3rd time) (See Posture 3.)
三六 抎手(連三式)為化敵護身之法
36. CLOUDING HANDS (This is a method of neutralizing the opponent and shielding the body.) (The technique is performed three times.)
三七 單鞭 勾摟按掌之法 (第四次)
37. SINGLE ROD (4th time) (This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.)
三八 高探馬 為縮步聳身探敵法
38. RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (This is a method of withdrawing a step and raising your body to reach out to the opponent.)
三九 右分脚 為運掌及反踢腿法
39. RIGHT KICK TO THE SIDE (This is a method of wielding your palms and reversing a situation by way of a kick.)
四十 左分脚 仝上 (第二次)
40. LEFT KICK TO THE SIDE (2nd kick) (Same as for the previous posture.)
四一 囘身蹬足 為運掌囘身却敵之法 (第三次)
41. TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (3rd kick) (This is a method of turning around and wielding a palm to prevent an opponent’s attack.)
四二 摟膝步 為架格擊敵法 (第六次)
42. BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (6th time) (This is a method of blocking and striking the opponent.)
四三 上步栽捶 為化敵突擊法
43. STEP FORWARD, PLANTING PUNCH (This is a method of neutralizing the opponent and suddenly attacking.)
四四 白蛇吐信 為首尾相應之法 (第二次)
44. WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE (2nd time) (This is a method of “head and tail responding together”.)
四五 上步搬攔捶 為搬攔化敵法 (第三次)
45. STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (3rd time) (This is a method of parrying and blocking to neutralize the opponent.)
四六 進步指襠捶 為鬆腰墜肘,含胸拔背之法 (第三次)
46. ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (3rd time) (This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.)
四七 上步蹬足 為練習腿力法 (第四次)
47. STEP FORWARD, PRESSING KICK (4th kick) (This is a method of training leg strength.)
四八 左披身伏虎 為左右閃轉避寔之法
48. LEFT DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE (This is a method of dodging side to side to avoid the full force of an attack.)
四九 右披身伏虎 仝上 (第二次)
49. RIGHT DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE (2nd time) (Same as for the previous posture.)
五十 起身右蹬足 為佯却寔攻之法 (第五次)
50. RISE UP, RIGHT PRESSING KICK (5th kick) (This is a method of fake defense, real attack.)
五一 双風貫耳 為防衛還擊之法
51. DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS (This is a method of defending and countering.)
五二 左蹬足 見四十一項用法 (第六次)
52. LEFT PRESSING KICK (6th kick) (See Posture 41.)
五三 轉身蹬足 仝上 (第七次)
53. SPIN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (7th kick) (Same as for the previous posture.)
五四 上步搬攔捶 以搬攔為化敵之法 (第四次)
54. STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (4th time) (This is a method of parrying and blocking to neutralize the opponent.)
五五 進步指襠捶 為鬆腰墜肘,含胸拔背之法 (第四次)
55. STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (4th time) (This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.)
五六 如封似閉 為格敵封閉之法 (第二次)
56. SEALING SHUT (2nd time) (This is a method of blocking the opponent and sealing him off.)
五七 十字手 為防上禦下之法 (第二次)
57. CROSSED HANDS (2nd time) (This is a method of defending above and below.)
為八 抱虎歸山 承上起下及運掌之法 (第二次)
58. CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (2nd time) (This is a method of continuing from the previous posture to begin the next one, involving wielding the palms.)
五九 探海迎面擊 為迎敵及伸腰胯之法 (第二次)
59. SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (2nd time) (This is a method of engaging the opponent as well of exercising the flexibility of your waist and hips.)
六十 斜步攬雀尾 掤捋擠按及轉變之法 (第四次)
60. DIAGONAL STEP, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (4th time) (This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push, as well as transitioning between postures.)
六一 斜單鞭 為勾摟推按之法 (第五次)
61. DIAGONAL SINGLE ROD (5th SINGLE ROD) (This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.)
六二 野馬分鬃 (連三式)為化敵法之掤式
62. WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (This is a method of neutralizing opponents with ward-offs.) (The technique is performed three times.)
六三 上步攬雀尾 為掤捋擠按之法 (第五次)
63. STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (5th time) (This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push.)
六四 單鞭 為勾摟按掌之法 (第六次)
64. SINGLE ROD (6th time) (This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.)
六五 坐盤抱極 為扭胯練腿之法 (第二次)
65. SITTING TWISTED, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE (2nd time) (This is a method of twisting the hips to train the legs.)
六六 玉女穿梭 為乘虛搗敵之法
66. MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (This is a method of taking advantage of a gap to smash the opponent.)
六七 上步攬雀尾 為掤攄擠按四法之複習 (第六次)
67. STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (6th time) (This is for training the four techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push.)
六八 單鞭 為勾摟按掌之法 (第六次)
68. SINGLE ROD (6th [7th] time) (This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.)
六九 抎手 (連三式)為勾摟按掌之法 (第二次)
69. CLOUDING HANDS (2nd time) (This is a method of luring in, brushing across, and pushing with the palm.) (The technique is performed three times.)
七十 單鞭下勢 為鬆腰展胯之法
70. SINGLE ROD, LOW POSTURE (This is a method of loosening your waist and opening up your hips.)
七一 左右金鷄獨立為乘勢克敵之法
71. LEFT & RIGHT GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (This is a method of taking advantage of opportunity to defeat the opponent.)
七二 倒攆猴 為退步却敵之法 (第二次)
72. RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (2nd time) (This is a method of retreating while driving away an opponent.)
七三 扑腿抱極 為轉變進擊之法 (第二次)
73. CROUCHING, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE (2nd time) (This is a method of switching to an attack.)
七四 斜飛式 為轉變進擊双掌運用之法 (第二次)
74. DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (2nd time) (This is a method of switching to an attack, wielding both palms.)
七五 提手 為擠按之法 (法三次)
75. RAISE THE HANDS (3rd time) (This is a method of pressing and pushing.)
七六 白鶴亮翅 為掤按提捶之法 (第三次)
76. WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (3rd time) (This is a method of warding off while pushing away, lifting up while hanging down.)
七七 摟膝抝步 為伸縮两臂活動腰胯之法 (第七次)
77. BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (7th time) (This is a method of developing suppleness in the arms and exercising the hips.)
七八 海底針 為伸縮腰脊之法 (第二次)
78. NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (2nd time) (This develops flexibility in the lower back.)
七九 肩通臂 為練肩背之力通於臂指之法 (第一次)
79. SHOULDER THROUGH THE ARM (2nd time) (This is a method of training power in your upper back to go through to your arm and fingers.)
八十 白蛇吐信 為首尾相應之法 (第三次)
80. WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE (3rd time) (This is a method of “head and tail responding together”.)
八一 撇身捶 為撇開敵人進擊之法 (第二次)
81. TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (2nd time) (This is a method of flinging aside the opponent’s attack.)
八二 上步搬攔捶 為進步化敵擊敵法 (第五次)
82. STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (5th time) (This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.)
八三 進步指襠捶 為鬆胸墜肘、含腰拔背之法 (第五次)
83. ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (5th time) (This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.)
八四 上步攬雀尾 為轉變啣接之法 (第七次)
84. STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (7th time) (This is a method of transitioning between postures.)
八五 單鞭 為勾摟推按之法 (第八次)
85. SINGLE ROD (8th time) (This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.)
八六 抎手 為化敵護身之法 (第三次)
86. CLOUDING HANDS (3rd time) (This is a method of neutralizing the opponent and shielding the body.)
八七 單鞭 為勾摟推按及轉變啣接之法 (第九次)
87. SINGLE ROD (9th time) (This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm, as well as a method of transitioning between postures.)
八八 高探馬 為縮步聳身化敵之法 (第二次)
88. RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (2nd time) (This is a method of withdrawing a step and raising your body to neutralize the opponent.)
八九 穿掌 仝上
89. THREADING PALM (Same as for the previous posture.)
九十 囘身蹬足 為前後顧盻之法 (第八次)
90. TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (8th kick) (This is a method of having awareness both in front and behind.)
九一 上步搬攔捶 為進步化敵擊敵之法 (第六次)
91. COME DOWN, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (6th time) (This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.)
九二 進步指襠捶 為轉身接打法 (第六次)
92. STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (6th time) (This is a method of turning your torso to continue into a strike.)
九三 上步攬雀尾 為複習掤捋擠按之法 (第八次)
93. ADVANCE, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (8th time) (This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push.)
九四 單鞭 為鬆腰展胯之法 (第十次)
94. SINGLE ROD (10th time) (This is a method of loosening your waist and opening up your hips.)
九五 單鞭下勢 為鬆腰展胯之法 (第二次)
95. SINGLE ROD, LOW POSTURE (2nd time) (This is a method of loosening your waist and opening up your hips.)
九六 上步七星 為格敵之法
96. STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE (This is a method of blocking the opponent.)
九七 退步跨虎 為化敵之挒法
97. RETREAT, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE (This is a method of rending to neutralize the opponent.)
九八 轉身擺蓮 為旋轉擺腿之法
98. SPIN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK [10th kick] (This is a method of spinning around and doing a swinging kick.)
九九 灣弓射虎 為乘勢衝擊之法
99. BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER (This is a method of seizing the opportunity with a thrusting strike.)
一〇〇 上步搬攔捶 為進步化敵擊敵之法 (第七次)
100. STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (7th time) (This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.)
一〇一 進步指襠捶 為轉身接打法 (第七次)
101. ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (7th time) (This is a method of turning your torso to continue into a strike.)
一〇二 如封似閉 為封閉格攔之法 (第三次)
102. SEALING SHUT (3rd time) (This is a method of blocking the opponent and sealing him off.)
一〇三 十字手 為防上禦下之法 (第三次)
103. CROSSED HANDS (3rd time) (This is a method of defending above and below.)
一〇四 抱虎歸山 為承上結下之尾式 (第三次)
104. CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (3rd time) (This continues from the end of the previous posture and connects into the next.)
一〇五 合太極 為全拳終結之式
105. CLOSING POSTURE (This is for concluding the whole set of postures.)

(四)太極步法位置圖例
Additional text 4: ON THE TAIJI FOOTWORK DIAGRAMS

一、两足以鞋印分左右,如左足用左脚印。右足用右脚印。學者須認明此記號,便知面部之應向何方。
1. The feet are shown as shoeprints. (You have to recognize which foot is being shown in order to know what direction you are facing in the diagram.)

left / right

二、脚尖着地者,用▲記號,此乃凖備次一步之動作。
2. A moment of the toes touching down is indicated with a black triangle. This represents preparation for the step that will follow.

三、每一步法,用號碼表示動作之先後,並用箭頭指示方向。
3. Each step uses numberings to show the order of movement and arrows to show the direction of movement.

四、两足同時動作者,用同一號碼字。
4. When the feet are moving at the same time, a single numbering is applied to both of them.

五、不着地之足不編號碼字,如蹬足則書一『蹬』字,並以箭頭示其方向。
5. Actions in which a foot is not touching down are not numbered, the word 蹬 “kick” being shown instead. Directional arrows are still used in these cases.

六、每圖之第一號,是接上圖之末一號碼,如第二圖之第一號,卽第一圖之第七號,餘倣此。
6. The first step in each diagram is the same as the last step in the previous diagram. For example, step 1 in diagram 2 is the same as step 7 in diagram 1, and so on in this manner.

七、同一式者,摟膝抝步上步搬攔捶單鞭雲手等,均各有一圖,但步法方向,未必全同者,因各承上圖不同所致然也。
7. Some postures repeat, such as BRUSH KNEE IN CROSSED STANCE, or STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH, or SINGLE ROD, CLOUDING HANDS, etc. Footwork diagrams are supplied also for repeated postures, but the direction of the steps is not necessarily the same as the first time, and this is due to the preceding posture being different than before.

八、號步之大小,角度之濶窄,人各不同,此種圖僅備示範,並無計及比例尺寸。
8. Since the size and width of the steps will not be the same for each person, these diagrams are only meant to provide a model, not an exact blueprint.

九、步法位置有一式一圖者,數式一圖者不等;均附於該動作照片之後,學者先看照片讀説明,明白身手動作後,再依步法圖之走位順序方向,便可依式演出。
9. The footwork diagrams may show the steps for a single posture or several. They are always included after the series of photographs that they relate to. First examine a series photos and read the explanations that go with them, and then after you understand the movements of your body and hands, consult the relevant diagram to check that the directions of your steps complies with the rest of the performance of those movements.

太極步法路綫畧圖
TAIJI FOOTWORK MAP:

每格一華尺一方尺計 (each block equals one square “Chinese foot”) [comment in lower right corner]
無極式 WUJI POSTURE (3 vertical /12 horizontal)
攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (1v / 12h)
左右摟膝 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (2v / 8h)
上步搬攔捶 STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (2v / 4h)
進步指襠捶 ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (2v / 2h)
抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (2v / 1h)
探海迎面掌 SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (4v / 4h)
倒攆猴 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (5v / 5h)
肩通臂 FAN THROUGH THE ARMS (4v / 8h)
上步攬雀尾 ADVANCE, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (3v / 14h)
第一次雲手至單鞭 1st CLOUDING HANDS, SINGLE ROD (3v / 13–10h)
左右披身伏虎 LEFT & RIGHT DRAPING-BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER (6v / 7h)
進步指襠捶 STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (6v / 1h)
第二次抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (7v / 0h)
探海迎面掌 SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (7v / 3h)
野馬分鬃 LEFT & RIGHT WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (7v / 6h)
玉女穿梭 MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE (6v / 12h)
上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (5v / 18h)
第二三次雲手至單鞭 2nd & 3rd CLOUDING HANDS, SINGLE ROD (5v / 17–11h)
上步七星 STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG-DIPPER (4v / 14h)
退步跨虎 RETREAT TO SITTING-TIGER POSTURE (4v / 17h)
轉身擺連 TURN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK (4v / 16h)
彎弓射虎 BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER (2v / 18h)
合太極 CLOSING POSTURE (3v / 12h)

[CHART OF THE TWO POLARITES, FOUR DIRECTIONS, EIGHT TRIGRAMS, TEN CELESTIAL STEMS, AND TWELVE TERRESTRIAL BRANCHES:]

壬癸




戌亥 乾 ☰  ☶ 艮 丑寅
庚辛 酉 兑 ☱ 西 戊 陽陰 己 東 ☳ 震 卯 甲乙
未申 坤 ☷  ☴ 巽 辰巳




丙丁

Two Polarities & Four Directions:

N

W 西 陽 yang [active] / yin [passive] 陰 東 E

S

Eight Trigrams:

QIAN KAN GEN
乾 坎 艮
☰☵☶
DUI   兑   ☱     ☳ 震 ZHEN
☷☲☴
坤 離 巽
KUN LI XUN

Celestial Stems :

壬 REN [day 9]  癸 GUI [day 10]
辛 XIN [day 8]            甲 JIA [day 1]
戊 WU [day 5]  己 JI [day 6]
庚 GENG [day 7]            乙 YI [day 2]
丁 DING [day 4]  丙 BING [day 3]

Terrestrial Branches:

子 ZI [midnight]
亥 HAI [9–11pm]  丑 CHOU [1–3am]
戌 XU [7–9pm]    寅 YAN [3–5am]
西 YOU [sunset]      卯 MAO [dawn]
申 SHEN [3–5pm]    辰 CHEN [7–9am]
未 WEI [1–3pm]  巳 SI [9–11am]
午 WU [noon]

[CHART OF THE DIRECTIONAL ASSOCIATIONS OF THE EIGHT TECHNIQUES & FIVE ELEMENTS:]

pushing

N

water

plucking 採 NW 西北  東北 NE 肘 elbowing

rolling back 捋 W 西 metal 金  中 “central palace” 宮  木 wood 東 E 擠 pressing

bumping 靠 SW 西南  東南 SE 挒 rending


fire

S

warding off

動作圖解
[CHAPTER THREE] EXPLANATIONS OF THE MOVEMENTS
附步法位置圖四十五幀 圖例見前 龍子祥示範圖共二〇五幀
(including forty-five footwork diagrams as well as two hundred and five photographs of Long Zixiang demonstrating) [The function descriptions are often copied from Wu Zhiqing’s 1936 manual, application explanations often copied from Gu Ruzhang’s 1936 manual.]

無極式
WUJI POSTURE
無極者,動靜未分之謂也作此式時,必須神舒體靜,心志專一,目不遊視而平直,耳不雜聲而凝斂,頭正項直,涵胸拔背,摒絕思慮,氣納丹田;背北面南,雙足分開立正與雙肩一樣寬,雙手自然垂直,全身鬆弛,不作絲毫豪强。
Wuji [nonpolarity] means there is not yet any distinction between movement and stillness. When doing this posture, you must relax your spirit, calm your body, concentrate your mind. Your eyes are looking straight ahead instead of wandering around, ears focused within instead of noticing every sound. Make your head upright and your neck straight. Contain your chest and pluck up your back. Ignore all thoughts and send energy to your elixir field. Your back is toward the north and you are facing to the south, feet spread apart to shoulder width, hands hanging down naturally. Your whole body is loose and does not put forth any effort. See photo 1:

太極起式
[Posture 1:] TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE
两手不必用力,由下徐徐往前向上提起,高度與雙肩成一直線。
Your hands do not need to use any effort as they slowly lift forward and upward until at shoulder level. See photo 2:

第弍式,攬雀尾,內分八圖。
Posture 2: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (divided into eight photos)
用法:此式內分平提,下按,棚起,棚止,攄起,攄止,推擠,平按,右攬,左攬。
Function: This trains the basic techniques divided into these sections: lifting until level, pushing down, ward-off beginning, ward-off finishing, rollback beginning, rollback finishing, press out, level push, catching to the right, and catching to the left.
攬雀尾左棚式之一
LEFT WARD-OFF, part 1:
此式由上式演至双手提起時,右手即在上面向左方灣曲,左手却在下向右方灣曲,成抱極狀,同時右足向右方畧移三十度角,左足跟着右足移動,至右足旁足尖着地,成吊丁式而止。頭腰胯均向右斜角。此為左棚之預備姿勢。
Continuing from the previous posture, once your arms have lifted, your right arm above bends to the left while your left arm below bends to the right, making a posture of holding a taiji sphere. At the same time, your right foot does a slight turn thirty degrees to the right and your left toes shift to touch down beside your right foot, making a hanging T-shaped stance. Your head and torso are both facing toward the right corner. This is the preparation posture for LEFT WARD-OFF. See photo 3:

攬雀尾左棚式之二
LEFT WARD-OFF, part 2:
此式由上式之左掌越過右肘,然後右掌在上引後,左掌在下引前,左足向左斜角伸前,成左弓右箭,頭與胸均向左斜方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left palm goes past your right elbow, then your right palm above draws to the rear as your left palm below draws to the front, your left foot extending forward to the left corner to make a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. Your head and chest are facing to the left corner.
此為左棚,如敵用右手打來,即以右手握其手腕,同時上左弓步,以左手棚其脇部。
(Application for the left ward-off: If an opponent uses his right hand to strike at me, I then use my right hand to connect to his wrist while stepping forward into a left bow stance, and use my left hand in a ward-off to his ribs.) See photo 4:

攬雀尾右棚式
RIGHT WARD-OFF:
此式由上式之右足引至左足旁,再由左足旁向右方斜角前伸,成右弓左箭,同時將右掌越過左肘,繼着使右掌在上往後引,使右掌在下向右方斜角往前引,頭與胸均向右斜角。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot draws in to be beside your left foot, then extends forward to the right corner, making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow. At the same time, your right palm passes by your left elbow, then your right [left] palm draws away to the rear from above and your right palm draws forward to the right corner from below. Your head and chest are both facing to the right corner.
此為右棚,如敵以左手向胸部打來,即以左手握着敵人之手腕,用右手棚敵人之脇部。
(Application for the right ward-off: If the opponent then uses his left hand to attack my chest, I use my left hand to grab his wrist and use my right hand in a ward-off to his ribs.) See photo 5:

攬雀尾之一捋式
CATCH THE SPARROW – Part 1 (ROLLBACK):
此式由上式之左手向右斜角往上伸,至右手近處,然後右掌俯左掌仰順勢向下一拖,至左腰處而止。雙足畧向左移。頭與身亦隨之而轉動。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand extends upward to the right corner until near your right hand, then your palms turn over so your right palm is facing downward, left palm facing upward, and they drag downward toward the left side of your waist, your feet slightly shifting to the left, your head and torso going along with the movement.
此為捋式,如敵用拳向胸部打來,我即涵胸雙手擒着敵手,順其勢向斜下一拖,使其勁向外化去。敵左來向右化,右來向左化。
(Application for the rollback: If the opponent uses his fist to attack my chest, I then hollow my chest, catching his arm with both hands, and follow his momentum diagonally downward with a pull, causing his power to be neutralized and sent outward. If he were to attack with his left fist, I would neutralize to the right. If he attacks with his right fist, I will neutralize to the left.) See photo 6:

攬雀尾之二擠式
Part 2 (PRESS):
此式由上式之左腰下雙掌演成左掌在上,右掌在下,成交叉狀,雙掌徐徐往右方擠出,眼睛跟着雙掌移動,頭向右方而止。
Continuing from the previous posture, the left side of your waist lowers and your arms cross, left palm above, right palm below, then your palms slowly press out to the right. Your gaze follows the movement of your palms, your head turning to the right.
此為擠式,若我手為敵方接住,即以手掌挾着己肘,向外擠出,左來左擠,右來右擠。
(With my hands connecting to the opponent, I place my palm at my own elbow and press outward. If he attacks with his left hand, I do a left press. If he attacks with his right hand, I do a right press.) See photo 7:

攬雀尾之三按式一
Part 3 (PUSH, part 1):
此式由上式之雙掌徐徐向胸部壓入,涵胸墜肘,右足跟着雙掌壓入時而上仰,眼睛平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms slowly draw in toward your chest, your chest hollowing, elbows dropping, your right foot going along with the movement by pointing upward. Your gaze is level. See photo 8:

攬雀尾之四按式二
Part 4 (PUSH, part 2):
此式由上式之壓入雙掌徐徐向外推出。右足順勢下放。身手足同時向前推進,馬步成右弓左箭。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms slowly push out, your right foot coming down. With body, hands, and foot advancing in unison, make a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow.
以雙掌按着敵方之手封其門户順勢按出,
(I use both palms to push on the opponent’s arm, sealing off his technique, then seize the opportunity to also push him away.) See photo 9:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
此式由上式之雙掌橫着向外,順勢往左方拖去,頭身足均隨着向左方轉動。成左弓右箭。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms go across, facing outward, dragging away to the left. Your head, body, and feet go along with the movement by turning to the left, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. See photo 10:

第三式,單鞭,內分弍圖
Posture 3: SINGLE ROD (divided into two photos)
用法:勾摟按掌之法。
Function: This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.
單鞭之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之腰胯復由左向右扭轉,右臂順身勢由左向右平攬一週,即向右平舉變勾。左手由左下垂,繞圈,經身前向上抄至右脅間,手心向上,右脚由伸變立,左脚由曲變懸,垂成直立,眼平視左方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your torso then twists from left to right, your right arm going along with the movement of your body by arcing to the right, the hand changing to a hook, raised until level, as your left hand hangs down and arcs from the lower left, passes in front of your body, and scoops up until at your right ribs, palm facing upward. Your right leg switches from straightening to standing and your left leg switches from bending to hanging, making a posture of standing [one-legged]. Your gaze is level toward the left. See photo 11:

單鞭之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之腰胯扭轉向左,左脚向右收進一步,然後伸出左方,成左弓右箭,同時左臂由右脅間向左肩前抄轉,徐向左方伸出,掌之虎口,正對左肩,右手仍勾不變,臂畧抬高,仍舉於右。眼平,肘墜,合胸,援背,項直,腰活。
Continuing from the previous posture, your torso twists to the left as your left foot withdraws a step to the right, then reaches out to the left, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. At the same time, your left arm scoops from your right ribs to your left [right] shoulder, the hand turned [to be facing to the left], then slowly reaches out to the east, the tiger’s mouth aligned with your left shoulder, your right hand remaining a hook, the arm slightly lifting, still raised to the right. Your gaze is level and your elbows hang down. Contain your chest and pluck up your back. Keep your neck straight and liven your waist.
如敵方雙手打來,即以右手勾敵左手,順勢由裡向外一格,而以掌攻其肩部。如敵欲起脚,乘其重心失去,單足不牢時,而力攻之。
(If an opponent attacks me with both hands, I use my right hand to hook his left hand and then go outward from inside to block it away, then take advantage of the opportunity to attack with a palm strike to his shoulder. Or if he wishes to kick, he is made to lose his balance, for while he is unstable on only one foot, I fiercely attack.) See photo 12:

1: 無極式 WUJI POSTURE
2–5: 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
6 & 7: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

第四式,提手。
Posture 4: RAISE THE HANDS
用法:為擠按變化之法。
Function: This is a method of neutralizing by pressing and pushing.
此式由上式两脚隨腰胯向右西南方磨轉,同時左脚仍成弓狀,右脚畧提向西南方斜角伸出,足踭着地,足趾翹上,前虛後實,同時左臂順身幹由左向右平放下垂,以肘抱肋,指尖向上,右臂及掌,比左臂畧前。
Continuing from the previous posture, your feet go along with your torso by pivoting to the right, toward the southwest, your left leg staying bent, your right foot slightly lifting and reaching out toward the southwest, heel touching down, toes lifted, front foot empty, rear foot full. At the same time, your left arm goes along with your torso by releasing across from the left to the right, the elbow hanging down to be embracing toward your ribs, the fingertips pointing upward, your right arm and palm slightly farther forward than your left arm.
如敵雙拳或單拳向面部打來,即以雙手或單手向上迎格,即從後一坐其使其拳不能下。若敵再以腿踢我下部,腿則空踢,然後雙手對其手,按而推出之。
(If an opponent uses both fists or a single fist to strike to my face, I use both hands or a single hand to block upward, sitting back so his fist cannot reach me. If he also uses his leg to kick to my groin, his kick will land on nothing, and I will use both hands to seal off his hand, then use a push to send him away.) See photo 13:

第五式,白鶴亮翅。
Posture 5: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
用法:為棚按提掛之法
Function: This is a method of warding off while pushing away, lifting up while hanging down.
由上式之右脚畧橫後半步,磨轉足尖,由虛而變實,左脚同時隨右脚磨轉,由實而變虛,左足前伸,右膝稍灣如坐,腰胯轉向左方,同時右臂由前上,徐徐繞圈至右耳傍而止,左臂同時向下移動,與右臂成一斜直線,眼平視東方,
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot goes a half step sideways to the rear, turning its toes [to point toward the southeast], and changes from empty to full. Your left foot goes along with your right foot by changing from full to empty, the leg extending forward, your right knee slightly bent as though you are sitting, your torso turned to the left. At the same time, your right arm goes upward in front of you, slowly arcing until beside your right ear, as your left arm moves downward, making a diagonal line with your right arm. Your gaze is level toward the east.
如敵用十字腿打來,即以左手格其右腿,以右手格其左手。
(If an opponent attacks me by kicking while punching with his opposite hand, I use my left hand to block his right leg and my right hand to block his left hand.) See photo 14:

1 & 2: 提手 RAISE THE HANDS
3 & 4: 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (4 same as 1)

第六式,摟膝抝步,內分三圖。
Posture 6: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (divided into three photos)
用法:為伸縮兩臂活動腰膝之法
Function: This is a method for developing suppleness in the arms and exercising the waist and knees.
摟膝抝步之一
Part 1:
由上式之軀向左擰轉幹,左脚隨之轉動,两臂亦因之磨轉,左掌翻腕向上,與右掌相對,由右往左,旋轉两臂,上下互掉,左臂伸出身外,右臂却傍於肋下。眼與隨臂轉動,看着西方之左掌。成背南面北。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body turns to the left, your left foot turning along with it, your arms swinging across as well, your left palm turning to be facing upward so that your palms are aligned toward each other, moving from left to right, your arms arcing into place above and below each other, your left arm reaching out, right arm defending below your [left] ribs. Your gaze follows the movement of your arms to look toward your left palm in the west. Your back is facing to the south, your chest facing to the north.
如敵在背後一拳打來,即以右手握敵方手腕。同時以左手托着敵肘若敵方在前面以腿踢來,卽以手撥開其腿同時以掌擊之,此式可破前後左右之攻擊。
(If an opponent uses his fist to attack me from behind, I use my right hand to grasp his wrist while using my left hand to prop up his elbow. If an opponent in front of me then uses his foot to kick, I will use a hand to brush aside his leg while using the other palm to strike. This technique can defeat attacks from any direction – front, back, left, right.) See photo 15:

摟膝抝步之二
Part 2:
此式與上式恰巧相反,將身幹向右寧轉,以右脚踭為重心,左脚跟着磨轉至右足傍,足尖着地而成丁式。右掌向膝前撥下引上至耳傍西方而止,左掌由胸前橫過,至右肋下傍着,眼亦隨身轉動,看着西方之右掌。
This movement is simply Part 1 on the other side, your body now turning to the right, the weight going onto your right heel, your left foot going along with the turn to be beside your right foot, toes touching down and making a T-shaped stance. At the same time, your right palm deflects downward in front of your [right] knee, then draws upward until beside your [right] ear, pointing to the west, as your left palm goes across your chest to be below your right ribs. Your gaze goes along with the turning of your body to look toward your right palm in the west.
用法與上式同,祗要分別左右。
(The application is the same as for the previous movement, but with left and right reversed.) See photo 16:

摟膝抝步之三
Part 3:
此式由上式雙之旋轉時,復由右往左轉至向東而止,同時左脚向東出一步,左膝灣右脚向後伸直,成左弓右箭。同時右臂由右耳邊向前平按,指尖白上,臂成狐形,左臂同時下按過膝於左腿前。眼向東平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, after both turns, then turn from right to left to be facing to the east, your left foot stepping out to the east, the knee bending, your right leg straightening, making a posture of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. At the same time, your right hand goes from beside your right ear, pushing forward and level, the fingers pointing upward, the arm making a rounded shape, as your left hand pushes downward in front of your left leg, passing by the knee. Your gaze is level toward the east.
用法以左掌撥開敵手,以右掌向敵胸部打去。
(Application: I use my left palm to deflect away the opponent’s hand, then use my right palm to strike out to his chest.) See photo 17:

第七式,手揮琵琶,
Posture 7: PLAY THE LUTE
用法:為活步鬆腰運用兩臂之法。
Function: This is a method of livening the stepping, loosening the waist, and exercising the arms.
由上縮之右脚向前活步,靠近左脚後踭,將身微俯,以右臂內式,左臂向前灣伸,然後將身往後一沈,而成含胸臂援,沈肩墜肘,眼向東平視,左脚尖略豎起。
Continuing from the previous posture, gather in your right foot with a lively step forward to be close behind your left heel, your body slightly inclining forward, your right arm going inward as your left arm extends forward with the arm bent, then sink your body to the rear, containing your chest and plucking up your back, sinking your shoulders and dropping your elbows. Your gaze is level toward the east. Your left toes are slightly lifted.
為守勢,若敵不攻,我則以此式待之此亦名小關門。若我一拳打去,被敵破開還我一拳時,應即以右手握其拳,同時以左手托其肘,順手一拳使其傾跌。
(This is a guarding posture. If the opponent does not attack, I use this posture to await him. This posture is also called LESSER CLOSING-THE-GATE POSTURE. If I punch at him, but he deflects it and punches at me, I then use my right hand to grasp his fist and my left hand to prop up his elbow, easily causing him to lean and stumble away.) See photo 18:

2–5: 摟膝步 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (5 same as 2)

1 & 2: 手揮琵琶 PLAY THE LUTE (提起頓下 The foot lifts and comes down again.)

(第八式)・摟膝抝步・(第二次)
Posture 8: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (2nd time)
用法:見第六項。
Function: See Posture 6.
摟膝抝步之一
Part 1:
動作及用法與第十六圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 16. See photo 19:

摟膝抝步之二
Part 2:
動作及用法與第十七圖式相同
The movement and application are the same as for photo 17. See photo 20:

第九式・左摟膝步。內分圖二・(第三次)
Posture 9: LEFT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (3rd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:見第六項
Function: See Posture 6.
摟膝抝步之三
Part 3:
動作及用法與第十五圖式相同,所差的是第十五圖式之右脚是抝步,本圖式之右脚是足尖着地成吊丁式。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 15, except that in that case the right foot is making a crossed step, whereas in this case the right toes are touching down to make a T-shaped stance. See photo 21:

摟膝抝步之四
Part 4:
此式由上式之腰幹向東轉正,同時右脚向東出一步,右臂同時向東由上撥下至右膝傍,左掌却由左耳邊向東伸出成半弧形。眼向東平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your torso turns to the east as your right foot takes a step out to the east, your right arm at the same time going to the east, deflecting downward from above until beside your right knee, your left palm making an arc to reach out to the east from beside your left ear. Your gaze is level toward the east.
如敵人以拳打來,即以右拳撥開,而以左拳敵之胸部。
(If the opponent uses his fist to strike at me, I use my right fist [palm] to deflect it aside and use my left fist [palm] to attack his chest.) See photo 22:

第十式・右摟膝步・內分二圖・(第四次)
Posture 10: RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (4th time) (divided into two photos)
用法:見第六項。
Function: See Posture 6.
摟膝抝步之五
Part 5:
動作及用法與第十九圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 19. See photo 23:

摟膝抝步之六
Part 6:
動作及用法與第十七圖式相。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 17. See photo 24:

1–8: 左右摟膝步 LEFT & RIGHT BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (8 same as 6, 6 same as 4, 4 same as 1)

十一式・手揮琵琶。
Posture 11: PLAY THE LUTE
動作及用法與第七圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo [Posture] 7. See photo 25:

十弍式・坐盤抱極。
Posture 12: TWISTING STANCE, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE
用法:為扭胯練腿之法。
Function: This is a method of twisting the hips to train the legs.
此式由上式之左脚踭磨轉向北,右脚尖着地吊踭撇向南,同時腰身向北轉,胯扭下坐,两肩同時翻轉,左手向下橫於胸前,右掌向上橫於臍前,如抱球狀,眼平視南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left heel pivots the foot toward the north and your right foot pivots on the ball of the foot to swing the heel toward the south. At the same time, your torso rotates to the north, your hips twisting and sitting downward, your shoulders turning along with the rotation, and your left hand faces downward, horizontal in front of your chest, as your right palm faces upward, horizontal in front of your chest, as though you are holding a sphere. Your gaze is to the south [north].
如敵一拳攻我肩部,我則立即一坐盤,如右邊打來,則右邊閃去,左邊打來,則左邊閃去,使敵之勁往外化去同時卽以雙掌合捧敵人之拳,使不得脱,而以肘還擊之。
(If an opponent punches toward my shoulder, I promptly sit and twist, causing his power to be neutralized and sent away. If he was striking to my right, I would evade on my right side, and if he was striking to my left, I would evade on my left side. At the same time, my hands come together to carry his fist, causing him to be unable to escape, and I use my elbow to return a strike.) See photo 26 [reverse view]:

1 & 2: 手揮琵琶 PLAY THE LUTE
3: 坐盤抱極 TWISTING STANCE, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE

十三式・上步搬攔捶。
Posture 13: STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
用法:為運臂線腿左搬右轉之法。
Function: This is a method of wielding the arm in connection with the leg, parrying left and turning right.
此式由上式两脚不變位置,身軀稍向東轉,同時右手指捲曲如拳。右臂以肘為軸,翻轉由懷裏向外撇出,同時左掌隨右拳翻轉,向東打出。此時右足即提起放橫前進一步,拳下脚亦隨之而下地。眼平視,腰胯放鬆扭轉。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your feet not leaving their location, your body slightly turns to the east, your right hand curling up almost into a fist, the arm rolling over at the elbow, and flinging outward from your chest, your left palm going along with the rolling over of your right fist by striking out to the east. At the same time, your right foot lifts and advances a step with the foot sideways, fist and foot lowering in unison. Your gaze is level, your torso turning loosely.
如敵一拳向胸部打來,我即以左手撥開,如敵再一拳打來,我即以右手壓住其拳,並進步以掌封其手,同時又進步以拳打敵下陰
(If the opponent punches toward my chest, I use my left hand to deflect it away. If he punches again, I now use my right hand to press down his fist, then advance [with my right foot] while using my [left] palm to seal off his arm. I will then advance again [with my left foot] and punch to his groin.) See photo 27:

十四式・進步指擋捶。
Posture 14: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
用法・為鬆腰墜肘・含胸拔背之法。
Function: This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.
此式由上式之左足上前一步,以左掌提起,向東平推下按,右捶向懷中縮囘,由腰下斜斜打出,再以左掌按下在右肘節間,眼睛向東平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, [your right foot comes down and] your left foot takes a step forward as your left palm lifts and pushes downward to be level toward the east, while your right fist withdraws to your chest and then strikes out diagonally downward from your waist, your left palm now pushing down at your right elbow area. Your gaze is level toward the east.
用法與上圖搬攔捶相連,而成一氣。
(The application is a continuation from PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH, performed as a single flow.) See photo 28:

十五式・如封似閉・內分弍圖。
Posture 15: SEALING SHUT (divided into two photos)
用法:為格敵封閉法
Function: This is a method of blocking the opponent and sealing him off.
如封似閉之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之腿膝向後一坐,身腰向內一納,右膝向前畧曲,左脚向東伸出,右拳放開,掌心向上,按着右臂之左掌,使之翻在右臂腋下,眼向東平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your legs sit toward the rear, your torso hollowing inward, your right knee slightly bending forward, your left leg extended to the east, as your right fist opens, the palm facing upward, and your left palm touches your right arm, turning over to be under your right armpit. Your gaze is level toward the east.
如被敵方握住右手腕時,即以此法破之,其用法即以左手在下,用力挒開,同時以双手封其門户。而推按之
(If the opponent grasps my right hand, this technique will defeat it. I will use my left hand to rend it aside from below, then use both hands to seal him off and push him away.) See photo 29:

如封似閉之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之腰幹胯向東推出,同時两臂徐徐隨軀幹向東平按,兩腿亦同時變換,左脚由直而變彎,右脚由彎而變直,成左弓右箭,
Continuing from the previous posture, your torso and hips send out to the east, your arms going along with your torso by slowly doing a level push to the east, as your legs switch roles, left leg switching from straight to bent, right leg switching from bent to straight, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow.
用法與上圖相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 30:

十六式・十字手・
Posture 16: CROSSED HANDS
用法:為防上禦下及運用腕力之法。
Function: This is a method of defending above and below, applying strength at the wrists.
此式由上式之軀幹畧向東南斜角轉動,雙掌變拳,交叉在胸前,腿部位置暫時不變。
Continuing from the previous posture, your torso turns slightly toward the southeast corner as your palms become fists and cross in front of your chest, your leg position not yet changing.
如敵以拳迎頭打下,我以雙拳交叉往上格之,使其勁不能下。
(If an opponent uses a fist to attack my head, I then cross my hands and put them upward as an intercepting rack, keeping his power from landing on me.) See photo 31:

1 & 2: 上步搬攔錘 STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
3: 進步指襠錘 ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH and 如封似閉 SEALING SHUT
4: 十字手 CROSSED HANDS

十七式・抱虎歸山。
Posture 17: CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
用法:為起承及伸屈雙腿之法。
Function: This is a continuation from the previous posture, involving extending and bending in the legs.
此式由上式之雙拳變掌,徐徐向上,两手由上而下,圓抱如圈,同時右脚伸出東,右脚踣下。
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists become palms, slowly go upward, then come downward from above, roundly embracing as though making a circle. At the same time, your right [left] leg extends toward the east as your right leg squats down.
如敵用掛面脚向我面部打來,我即坐下以手抽其脚,使其失去重心。
(If the opponent uses a hang-his-face kick to attack my face, I then sit back while using my left hand to pull in his front foot, making him lose his balance.) See photo 32:

十八式・探海近面掌・內分弍圖。
Posture 18: SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (divided into two photos)
用法:為迎敵及伸屈腰胯之法。
Function: This is a method of engaging the opponent as well of exercising the flexibility of your waist and hips.
探海迎面掌之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之雙脚〔則收囘〕距離與肩成一直線,然後將右足尖提起着地把左掌提至左耳邊,把右掌跟着右足伸向西北方時,斜斜撥至右膝傍,軀幹由正南方向西北角轉動,此時全身坐於左腿上,右脚虛而伸身直,左脚實而彎,眼視西北。
Continuing from the previous posture, your feet then reduce to a distance of shoulder width [by way of your left foot withdrawing] and your right foot lifts to be touching down with the toes, your left palm at the same time lifting to be beside your ear, your right palm going along with your right foot as it aligns toward the northwest, deflecting diagonally to be beside your right knee, your torso turning from the south toward the northwest, the weight now sitting onto your left leg, your right foot empty, the leg straightening, left foot full, leg bent. Your gaze is to the northwest.
如敵欲走之時,我即以右腿虛式往外探之,同時如敵以一腿踢來,敵腿我卽以右手勾着,而以左掌迎擊其面部。
(When the opponent wants to escape, I will then extend my right empty leg, and then if he attacks with a kick, I will use my right hand to hook his leg and use my left palm to strike to his face.) See photo 33:

探海迎面掌之二
Part 2:
此式由上之左掌經耳邊向西北探出,而以右掌撥過左膝傍,當左掌探出時,伸出之右脚跟着起立,成為左脚伸直右脚彎,前弓後箭,眼視西北。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left palm passes your ear and reaches out to the northwest as your right palm now goes past your left [right] knee in its deflection to the side. At the same time, your right foot steps out and your left leg straightens, right leg bending, making a stance of front leg a bow, rear leg an arrow. Your gaze is to the northwest.
用法與上式相連
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 34:

十九式・斜步攬雀尾,內分五圖・
Posture 19: DIAGONAL STEP, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (divided into five photos)
用法:為掤・捋・擠・按・及轉變之法。
Function: This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push, as well as transitioning between postures.
攬雀尾之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之右掌彎上右耳邊,徐徐向前伸出,而將左掌翻轉,成两掌心相向,如捧物向懷中捋囘。當雙掌捋變時,彎曲之右脚變為伸直,而伸直之左脚變為彎曲,重心墜於左脚,眼視西北方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right arm bends and goes upward beside your right ear, then slowly reaches out forward, your left palm turning over. With your palms now facing each other as though carrying an object, perform a rollback toward your chest. At the same time, your right leg straightens and your left leg bends, the weight going onto your left foot. Your gaze is to the northwest.
用法與第六圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 6.) See photo 35:

攬雀尾之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 7. See photo 36:

攬雀尾之三
Part 3:
動作及用法與第八圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 8. See photo 37:

攬雀尾之四
Part 4:
此式動作及用法與第九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 9. See photo 38:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
此式動作及用法與第十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 10. See photo 39:

1 & 2: 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
3–6: 探海迎面掌 SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE and 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

二十式・單鞭・內分二圖。(第二次)
Posture 20: SINGLE ROD (2nd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:見第三項。
Function: See Posture 3.
單鞭之一
Part 1:
動作及用法與第十一圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 11. See photo 40:

單鞭之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 41:

1–4: 由攬雀尾至單鞭 switching from CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL to SINGLE ROD

二十一式・肘底看捶・
Posture 21: GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW
用法:為動身轉變之法。
Function: This is a method of transitioning between postures.
此式由上式之左脚踭向東南踏實,右脚即跟着左脚,向南出半步,脚尖向東南,左脚向前伸出半步,脚尖稍翹,右膝微彎,腰胯向東旋轉,右臂由右上方向東南下按,晝一大圓圈,至左臂時,左臂即繞向內,而向上抄出,同時右手握拳,拳眼向上,左臂同時屈肘,手指向上,掌心向東南,右拳藏於左肘之下,眼平視東。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your left heel stepped down fully in the southeast, your right foot follows forward toward your left foot, taking a half step to the south, toes pointing toward the southeast, and your left foot also reaches out forward a half step, toes slightly lifted, your right knee slightly bent, your hips turning to the east, as your right arm goes from the upper right and pushes down to the southeast, drawing a large arc, your left arm meanwhile taking a path inward and scooping upward. At the same time, your right hand grasps into a fist, the fist eye facing upward, and your left elbow bends, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the southeast, your right fist hidden below your left elbow. Your gaze is level toward the east.
如敵由側面用拳打來,我先以左手化開之,若彼再以一拳打來,我以右手由上壓下,同時左手撤囘,再由胸部伸出,擊敵下顎。
(If an opponent uses his fist to attack from the side, I use my left hand to neutralize it aside. If he then uses his fist to attack again, I use my right hand to press down from above, my left hand at the same time withdrawing and then extending straight from my chest to strike to his lower jaw.) See photo 42:

1 & 2: 肘底看錘 GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW (提起頓下 The foot lifts and comes down again.)
(与手揮琵琶同法) (same as in PLAY THE LUTE)

二十二式・倒攆猴・內分三圖・
Posture 22: RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (divided into three photos)
用法。連三式・為旋轉雙掌伸縮臂肘之法。
Function: This is a method of circling the palms to develop flexibility in the arms. (The technique is performed three times.)
倒攆猴之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之右捶放鬆,由左肘下往後方圓轉,於西南方上至臂膊時平橫,同時左手平放,掌心微向前,軀幹稍向右轉,眼視右手。同時左脚向西南方右脚邊移動,再至右脚邊引後至西北方,右足彎,左足直,成右弓左箭。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist hangs down, arcs to the rear, and upward to the southwest until the arm is level [and then pushes out to the southeast], as your left hand goes out level [behind you], the palm facing slightly forward [upward], your torso turning slightly to the right [left], your gaze toward your right hand. At the same time, your left foot shifts to the southwest to be beside your right foot, then draws back to the northwest, your right bent leg and left straight leg switching to a stance of right [left] leg a bow, left [right] leg an arrow.
此為詐敗封門式,若敵一拳或一腿攻來,我卽退步以掌按其手或脚而封之,免為敵所制故也。
(This is for pretending defeat to seal the opponent off. If he attacks with a punch or kick, I then retreat while using my hand to push down his hand or foot and seal off his attack, keeping him from gaining control over me.) See photo 43:

倒攆猴之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之左手向上轉圈至耳傍平橫按出,同時右掌心翻轉向上,徐徐下降至右膝邊,引後而上至與右肩齊平。同時右脚斜移至左脚傍,再由左脚傍而引後至西北方斜角。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand goes upward, arcing until beside your ear, then pushes out level, as your right palm turns over to be facing upward, slowly lowers until beside your right knee, draws to the rear, and rises upward until level with your right shoulder. At the same time, your right foot shifts diagonally until beside your left foot, then draws back to the northwest [southwest] corner.
用法與上式相連
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 44:

倒攆猴之三
Part 3:
此式由上式之右掌從右肩平橫伸出,而以右掌撥下左膝傍,徐徐提起至左肩齊平,同時將屈曲之右脚伸直,將伸直之左脚屈曲,成前箭後反弓之狀,重心墜於左足,軀幹與眼睛俱向東南斜方,
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm extends level from your right shoulder as your left palm deflects downward beside your left knee and slowly lifts until level with your left shoulder. At the same time, [your left leg steps toward your left foot and then retreats to the northwest corner], the leg straightening, your left leg bending, making a reverse bow stance – front leg an arrow, rear leg a bow – the weight shifting onto your left leg. Your torso and gaze are toward the southeast corner.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 45:

二十三式・扑腿抱極・
Posture 23: CROUCHING, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE
用法:為轉變進擊雙掌運用之法。
Function: This is a method of switching to an attack, wielding both palms.
此式由上式之全身扭轉向南,向時左手由左腰間往西向上圓轉,至左肩前,右手由右膝傍反上,至两掌心上下相合,如抱球狀,两脚亦隨胯轉變,左實而右虛,眼視南方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your torso turns to be facing to the south [north] as your left hand goes from the left side of your waist, arcing upward to the west to be in front of your left shoulder, your right hand going from beside your right knee and turning over to be facing upward, your palms aligned with each other above and below as though holding a ball. Your feet also go along with the turning of your hips, left foot filling, right foot emptying. Your gaze is to the south [north].
此式與坐盤抱極同,所異者惟腿法耳。
This posture is the same as TWISTING STANCE, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE, except for the action of the legs. See photo 46:

1–7: 倒輦猴 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
8: 扑腿抱極 CROUCHING, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE

二十四式・斜飛式
Posture 24: DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
用法:為轉變進擊雙掌運用之法。
Function: This is a method of switching to an attack, wielding both palms.
此式由上式之右手旋轉,隨右脚向西南上托,右臂斜向上,左手向東北下按,斜斜向下,同時右脚向西南出一步灣膝,左脚伸直,眼視西南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand turns along with your right foot as it steps to the southwest, propping up with the arm angled diagonally upward, your left hand pushing downward to the northeast, palm facing diagonally downward. At the same time, your right foot takes a step out to the southwest and the knee bends, your left leg straightening. Your gaze is to the southwest.
此式為防敵由後攻來,若右手打至,即用左手握其拳。同時上步以右手掤敵之脇部
(This posture is for defending against an opponent attacking from behind. If he strikes with his right hand, I use my left hand to grasp his fist, and while stepping forward I use my right hand to do a ward-off to his ribs.) See photo 47:

二十五式・提手(第二次)
Posture 25: RAISE THE HANDS (2nd time)
用法:見第四項。
Function: See Posture 4.
此式由上式之左脚收囘向右脚跟靠攏,同時右脚向西南出半步,左脚彎,右脚伸,脚踭着地,脚尖斜豎,两手內合,手臂成弧形,指與肩齊,眼視西南,全身坐於左脚。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot gathers in to be close to your right heel, then your right foot takes a half step out to the southwest, your left leg bending, right leg straightening, heel touching down, toes diagonally lifted. Your hands are coming together inward, arms making a rounded shape, fingers at shoulder level. Your gaze is to the southwest, the weight sitting fully onto your left leg.
用法與第十三圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 13.) See photo 48:

1 & 2: 斜飛 DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
3 & 4: 提手 RAISE THE HANDS

二十六式白鶴亮翅・(第二次)
Posture 26: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (2nd time)
用法:見第五項。
Function: See Posture 5.
動作及用法與第十四圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 14. See photo 49:

1–3: 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

二十七式・摟膝抝步・(第五次)。內分三圖・
Posture 27: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (5th time) (divided into three photos)
用法:見第八項。
Function: See Posture 8.
摟膝抝步之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第十五圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 15. See photo 50:

摟膝抝步之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第十六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 16. See photo 51:

摟膝抝步之三
Part 3:
動作及用法與第十七圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 17. See photo 52:

1–5: 摟膝步 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (5 same as 2)

二十八式・海底針・
Posture 28: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
用法:為伸縮腰脊之法。
Function: This develops flexibility in the lower back.
此式由上式之左脚收囘靠近右脚,而以左足尖點地。同時將右臂隨腰脊收囘懷中,復以右指尖點下地面,左臂外靠於左膝傍。眼平視東南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot withdraws to stand near your right foot, toes touching down, as your right arm goes along with your lower back by withdrawing toward your chest, then your right fingers point downward to the ground [as you incline forward and squat down], your left arm going near to the outside of your left knee. Your gaze is level toward the southeast.
如敵一拳由胸部打來,即以手握其腕,往下壓之,使其勁往下墜。
(If the opponent punches to my chest, I grab his wrist and press down, making his power drop downward.) See photo 53:

二十九式・肩通臂・
Posture 29: SHOULDER THROUGH THE ARM
用法:為練肩背之力通於臂指之法。
Function: This is a method of training power in your upper back to go through your arm and fingers.
此式由上式之右脚不動,左脚向東南伸出。两臂隨腰腿向東南方斜斜向上推出。右掌高於額上,左掌傍於左耳前。重心墜於左足,眼視雙掌。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot stays where it is as your left foot reaches out to the southeast, your arms going along with your waist and legs by pushing out diagonally to the southeast, your right palm high, above your forehead, your left palm near, in front of your left ear, the weight going heavily onto your left foot. Your gaze is toward your palms.
如敵由面部打來,即以右手還架其拳,使不得下,同時以左手叉敵腰部,向外送出使其傾跌。
(If an opponent strikes from in front of me, I use my right hand to prop up his fist so that he cannot lower it, at the same time using my left hand to obstruct his waist and send him outward, causing him to topple over.) See photo 54:

三十式・白蛇吐信・
Posture 30: WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE
用法:為閃身擊敵之法。
Function: This is a method of evading and attacking.
此式由上式之右掌變拳,斜下於股際左掌覆於額上,頭腰由斜伸而變直伸,雙脚置位不變,眼平視西北方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm becomes a fist and lowers diagonally to be by your [right] thigh as your left palm [fist] covers your forehead, your head and waist changing from slanting to being upright, your feet not leaving their location [as your legs lower into a crouch]. Your gaze is level toward the northwest.
如敵用拳由腰部打來,卽以右手壓下,身向後退,彼拳即落空,我卽以右拳打敵之面部。
(If an opponent punches to my waist, I then press down with my right hand while my body moves back so that his punch lands on nothing, and then I use my right [left] fist to strike to his face.) See photo 55:

三十一式・撇身捶・
Posture 31: TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
用法:為靈活腰胯閃轉反撇之法。
Function: This is a means of increasing the flexibility of the waist and hips, and a method of evasively turning and countering with a flinging punch.
此式由上式之左脚起立,右脚因起立便由伸變屈,成右弓左箭,同時右臂握拳,以肘為軸,圓轉一週,拳心向上,是時覆於額上之左掌,乃下覆於右臂肘節間,眼與拳均向西北方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left leg stands up, your right leg also rising up by going from straight to bent, making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow. At the same time, your right forearm, with the hand still grasped into a fist, makes an arc, rolling over at the elbow, so the center of the fist is facing upward, as your left palm, which was covering your forehead, goes downward to cover at your right elbow area. Your gaze and your fist are both going to the northwest.
如敵拳脚一齊打來,我卽收右腿,使其腿踢空,右手壓着敵人之拳,再以左掌按敵之手,右拳由裡翻出,而擊敵人之面部。
(If an opponent attacks me with a [left] punch and [right] kick at the same time, I then withdraw my right leg, causing his kick to land on nothing, my right hand pressing down his fist. Then my left palm pushes down on his arm, and my right hand turns over from inside with a strike to his face.) See photo 56:

1–3: 海底針 NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
4: 肩通臂 SHOULDER THROUGH THE ARM and 白蛇吐信 WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE
5: 撇身錘 TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH

三十二式・上步搬攔捶・(第二次)
Posture 32: STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (2nd time)
用法:為進步化敵・擊敵之法
Function: This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.
此式由上式之右拳變掌,由右腰間向後旋轉,以右掌推出,左掌跟着後退,右掌旋至胸前,即以左掌覆於右肘節間,右掌是時以肘尖為軸,當右掌轉動時,即變為拳打出。同時腰胯扭轉坐於左腿上,右脚由伸直而變提起,脚尖橫平行於西北。眼視拳心
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist becomes a palm and arcs to the rear from the right side of your waist, then pushes out as a palm, your left palm at the same time going to the rear. Then your right palm arcs until in front of your chest, your left palm covering at the elbow area, and your right forearm rolls over at the elbow, your right palm becoming a fist and striking out. At the same time, your torso twists, sitting onto your left leg as your right leg lifts, the toes pointing sideways toward the northwest. Your gaze is toward the center of your fist.
用法與第二十七圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 27.) See photo 57:

三十三式・進步指擋捶・(第二次)
Posture 33: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (2nd time)
用法:為鬆腰墜肘,含胸拔背之法。
Function: This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.
此式由上式之右脚放下,左脚卽上前一步,成左弓由箭,同時將右拳垂下由右膝邊引後轉上右肩,將拳斜斜揷出,拳眼向上,左掌仍覆於右肘節間,身向西。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down and your left foot takes a step forward, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow, as your right fist hangs down and draws back from beside your right knee, then arcs up to your right shoulder and inserts diagonally downward, the fist eye facing upward, your left palm again covering at your right elbow area. Your body is facing to the west.
用法與第二十八圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 28.) See photo 58:

1 & 2: 上步搬攔錘 STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
3: 進步指襠錘 ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

三十四式・上步攬雀尾・(第三次)內分五圖・
Posture 34: ADVANCE, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (3rd time) (divided into five photos)
用法:為轉變轉啣接之法
Function: This is a method of transitioning between postures.
上步攬雀尾之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 6. See photo 59:

攬雀尾之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 7. See photo 60:

攬雀尾之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 8. See photo 61:

攬雀尾之四
Part 4:
動作及用法與第九圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 9. See photo 62:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
此式動作及用法與第十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 10. See photo 63:

三十五式・單鞭・(第三次)內分二圖
Posture 35: SINGLE ROD (3rd time) (divided into two photos)
用法 見第三項。
Function: See Posture 3.
單鞭之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第十一圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 11. See photo 64:

單鞭之二
Part 2:
動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 65:

1–4: 上步攬雀尾 ADVANCE, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
5 & 6: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

三十六式 抎手・內分六圖・
Posture 36: CLOUDING HANDS (divided into six photos)
用法:為化敵護身之法・(連三式)・
Function: This is a method of neutralizing the opponent and shielding the body. (The technique is performed three times.)
抎手之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之右勾手鬆開變掌,右手往下垂,隨腰往左轉一週,轉至左肩前,手心向內,同時右脚隨右臂向東移半步,豎起脚踭,以足尖點地,與左左脚相靠,左手同時鬆開翻腕,手心向下。眼睛跟着掌心移動
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hooking hand releases and becomes a palm, the hand hanging down, and goes along with the leftward rotation of your waist by arcing until in front of your left shoulder, palm facing inward. At the same time, your right foot goes along with your right arm by shifting a half step to the east, to stand next to your left foot, heel lifted, toes touching down, as your left hand loosens and bends at the wrist so the palm is facing downward. Your gaze follows along with the movement of your hands.
如敵由右方打來我即以右手擰開,並以左手擊敵腰部,若敵目左打來,我即以右手握其腕,左手握其肘。
([Application for Part 2:] If an opponent strikes from my right, I then use my right hand to deflect it aside and use my left hand to strike to his waist. [Application for Part 1:] If an opponent strikes from my left, I then use my right hand to grab his wrist and my left hand to grab his elbow.) See photo 66:

抎手之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之左手隨腰往下向右圓轉,轉至小腹前,掌心向上旋至右肩上,軀幹即向右扭轉,两臂隨軀幹轉旋轉,手心仍向內,两脚尖同時向右磨轉两膝微彎,眼睛跟掌心移動。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand goes along with your waist, moving downward and arcing toward the right until in front of your lower abdomen, whereupon the palm is facing upward, and continuing until over your right shoulder, [as your right hand arcs to the right and your left foot steps to the left,] your torso twisting to the right. While your arms arc along with the rotating of your torso, the palms are again facing inward [until at the end of the action in which the outer palm is facing outward], and the toes of both feet are turned toward the right, both knees bending. Your gaze follows along with the movement of your hands.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 67:

抎手之三
Part 3:
此式之動作及用法與六十六圖式抎手一相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as in Part 1 – photo 66. See photo 68:

抎手之四
Part 4:
此式之動作及用法與第六十七圖式抎手二相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as in Part 2 – photo 67. See photo 69:

抎手之五
Part 5:
此式之動作及用法與第六十六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 66. See photo 70:

抎手之六
Part 6:
此式之動作及用法與第六十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 67 [except that in this case the left foot has not yet stepped out]. See photo 71:

三十七式・單鞭・(第四次)
Posture 37: SINGLE ROD (4th time)
用法:勾摟摟掌之法。
Function: This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.
此式動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 72:

1–7: 抎手 CLOUDING HANDS
8: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

三十八式・高探馬・內分二圖・
Posture 38: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (divided into two photos)
用法:為縮步聳身探敵法。
Function: This is a method of withdrawing a step and raising your body to reach out to the opponent.
高探馬之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之左右手從左右後方上圓轉,左掌經左耳邊向東北斜方探出,右手經右耳邊向西南方探出,同時把左脚收囘半步,足尖點地,斜向東南方,眼睛視左掌。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands go [inward] from the left and the right rear, arc upward, and reach out, your left palm passing beside your left ear to reach out diagonally toward the northeast, your right hand passing beside your right ear to reach out toward the southwest. At the same time, your left foot withdraws a half step, toes touching down pointing diagonally to the southeast. Your gaze is toward your left palm.
如敵由前後打來,我即以左右手穿敵咽喉或眼。
(If I am attacked by opponents in front and behind, I send out my hands to jab to their throats or eyes.) See photo 73:

高探馬之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之右掌翻轉,屈肘,手尖向東經領下穿出,臂與肩齊,同時將左掌斜下而貼於腰際。双足不變。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm turns over, the elbow bending, fingers pointing toward the east, and threads out, passing below your chin, the arm at shoulder level, as your left palm diagonally lowers to be against your waist, your feet not leaving their location.
如敵由左方打來,我則用左手一圈,將敵之肘壓住,同時以右掌穿敵咽喉。
(If the opponent to my left then attacks, I send my left hand in an arc to press down his elbow, at the same time using my right palm to jab to his throat area.) See photo 74:

三十九・四十・式・左右分脚・內分四圖・
Postures 39 & 40: LEFT & RIGHT KICK TO THE SIDE (divided into four photos)
用法:為運掌及反踢腿法。
Function: This is a method of wielding your palms and reversing a situation by way of a kick.
左右分足之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之雙掌提起向上,由西至東,旋轉一大圈,向下拖去而至左腰際,同時將左足提起向東伸出,由彎而直,腰胯扭轉,眼平視西方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms lift up and go from west to east, arcing in a large circle, and dragging downward until by the left [right] side of your waist. At the same time, your left leg lifts and reaches out to the east, going from bent to straight, your torso correspondingly turning. Your gaze is level toward the west.
如敵以右掌向面部打來,則以右掌格之。
(If an opponent uses his right palm to strike to my face, I then use my right hand to block it.) See photo 75:

左右分足之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之右脚。拖至左脚邊,以左脚踭為軸,將腰身旋轉,而成面北背南,然後以左脚獨立,提起右脚向東一蹬,雙掌同時伸起,如鳥鼓翼狀,眼平視東。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot pulls in to be beside your left foot and your left heel pivots [leftward], your torso turning to be facing toward the north, your back toward the south. Then with your left foot standing one-legged, your right foot lifts and presses out to the east, your palms at the same time rising up and extending with a movement that looks like wings flapping. Your gaze is level toward the east.
敵人之手既受格去,隨即以右足踢敵脇部。
(Once I have blocked away the opponent’s hand, I then use my right foot to kick to his ribs.) See photo 76:

左右分脚之三
Part 3:
此式由上式之右手由頭上旋至左手處,雙手掌向西,眼睛跟着手掌移動,同時將蹬起之右足放下地面,把直立之左脚伸直在地上,成左直右出,重心墜於右足。雙掌如刀拖下。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand arcs from over your head toward your left hand, then both palms go to the west, your gaze following them. At the same time, your right foot comes down and your left leg reaches out, making a stance of left leg straight, right leg bent, the weight on your right foot, and your palms are dragging downward like the action of a saber.
用法與上圖相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 77:

左右分脚之四
Part 4:
此式由上式之右脚向後旋轉,使足尖向西南,跟着將左脚收起,貼着右足邊,腰胯跟着雙足旋向南方。然後將左足提起向東南一蹬。雙掌亦同時提起與肩齊,如鼓翼狀,眼視東南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot arcs to the rear with the toes pointing to the southwest, then your left foot withdraws and lifts to be close beside your right foot, your torso going along with your feet by turning to be squared to the south. Then your left foot lifts and presses to the southeast, your palms at the same time lifting and going out to shoulder level with a movement that looks like wings flapping. Your gaze is to the southeast.
用法與上圖相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 78:

1 & 2: 髙探馬 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
3–6: 左右分脚 LEFT & RIGHT KICK TO THE SIDE

四十一式・囘身蹬足・內分二圖・
Posture 41: TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (divided into two photos)
用法:為運掌囘身却敵之法。
Function: This is a method of turning around and wielding a palm to prevent an opponent’s attack.
囘身蹬足之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之蹬起左脚,斜斜放後在右脚右足尖邊成偷步勢,同時將直立之右足尖旋向東北,雙膝微彎,將鼓起之雙掌,放下在雙腰旁,眼視正南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your raised left foot comes down diagonally to be behind your right foot, and with your right toes angled sideways you are making a “stealth step” posture. At the same time, your right toes are turned to point toward the northeast, your knees slightly bending, and your raised palms release downward to the sides of your waist. Your gaze is to the west.
此式用法,與左右分脚同,惟此式乃因敵人由背後打來,用轉身化勁者。
(This posture’s method of application is the same as in LEFT & RIGHT KICK TO THE SIDE. If an opponent strikes me from behind, I use the turning of my body to neutralize his power.) See photo 79:

囘身蹬足之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之右足尖向正北一轉,便整個身體朝向北方,立將屈曲之右足伸立。而使左足提起蹬向西方,腰際之雙掌,張起如鼓翼狀,眼視西方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot turns so the toes are pointing toward the north, causing your body to also be facing to the north, and you stand on your straightening right leg. Then your left foot lifts and presses to the west, your palms rising from your waist and extending with a movement that looks like wings flapping. Your gaze is to the west.
用法與上圖式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 80:

1–4: 囬身蹬足 TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

四十二式・摟膝步・(第六次)內分四圖・
Posture 42: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (6th time) (divided into four photos)
用法:為架格擊敵法。
Function: This is a method of blocking and striking the opponent.
摟膝抝步之一
Part 1:
此式由上式蹬起之左脚放下地面,把腰胯扭向正西,使後脚斜
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down and your torso turns to be facing toward the west, causing your rear foot to point diagonally. See photo 81:

摟膝抝步之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之伸直右脚上步至左足左邊,將腰胯扭轉,向正南方,垂下之左掌,向前提起,臂彎如弧,掌尖向東方,右掌由上胸部橫過,護於左腋下,眼視東方,右足尖點地。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot steps forward to be next to your left foot, your torso turning to be facing toward the south. At the same time, your left palm lifts forward, the arm bending as though curved, fingers pointing toward the east, your right palm going across your chest from above to guard below your left armpit. Your gaze is to the east. Your right toes are touching down.
此式用法與第十六圖式相同,惟東西方向相反。
(This posture’s application is the same as for photo 16, except in this case toward the southwest.) See photo 82:

摟膝抝步之三
Part 3:
此式由上式之右掌斜斜撥下,至右膝右邊,左掌由胸部橫過伸出,臂彎如弧,掌向西方,同時將右足尖上前一步,把左脚斜伸,成右弓左箭,眼平視西。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm deflects diagonally downward to be to the right side of your right knee as your left palm passes your chest and reaches out, the arm bending as though curved, the palm facing to the west. At the same time, your right foot steps forward, drawing your left foot into pointing diagonally, making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow. Your gaze is level toward the west.
此式與第八十一圖式相同,惟右撥左撑相反。
(This posture’s application is the same as in photo 81, except in this case deflecting to the right and attacking with the left palm.) See photo 83:

摟膝抝步之四
Part 4:
此式由上式之右脚踭為軸心,向北旋轉,左足跟着上至右足邊,以足尖着地,同時把垂下之右掌,由下彎起,曲臂如弧,掌向東方,另把左掌橫過胸前,護於右腋下,眼睨東方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right heel pivots to point the foot toward the north and your left foot follows forward to be next to your right foot, toes touching down. At the same time, your right palm lifts from below, the arm bending as though curved, the palm facing toward the east, your left palm going forward across your chest to guard below your right armpit. Your gaze is to the east.
用法與第十九圖式相同,左撥右撑相反。
(The application is the same as for photo 19, except in this case deflecting to the left and attacking with the right palm.) See photo 84:

四十三式・上步栽捶・
Posture 43: STEP FORWARD, PLANTING PUNCH
用法:為化敵突擊法。
Function: This is a method of neutralizing the opponent and suddenly attacking.
此式由上式之左脚上前一步,成左弓右箭,同時將左掌斜下於左膝邊,而以右掌變拳,斜斜向西揷下,拳背向上,眼視右拳。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps forward, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow, as your left palm goes diagonally downward to be beside your left knee and your right palm becomes a fist and inserts diagonally downward to the west, the back of the fist [fist eye] facing upward. Your gaze is toward your right fist.
如敵人用右拳或右脚攻來,我即以左手撥開,再進步以右拳擊敵人腹部。
(If the opponent attacks me with a right punch or right kick, I use my left hand to deflect it aside, then advance and use my right fist to strike to his belly.) See photo 85:

1–8: 摟膝步 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (7 same as 5, 5 same as 2)
9: 上步栽錘 STEP FORWARD, PLANTING PUNCH (9 same as 7)

四十四式・〔翻身〕白蛇吐信・
Posture 44: [TURN AROUND,] WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE [2nd time]
用法:為首尾相應之法。
Function: This is a method of “head and tail responding together”.
此式由上式之雙脚原位不變,左胯下坐,右脚伸直地面,腰向左轉,翻身向北,面向東,眼平視,同時右拳翻腕上提,平屈於右肩前,左臂由前上高舉於左前上方,臂彎成弧形,掌心向外。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your feet not moving from their location, your left hip sits downward as your right leg straightens to be almost on the ground, your waist turning to the left [right], your torso turning toward the north, your face looking to the east, your gaze level. At the same time, your right wrist turns [so the center of the fist is facing downward] as the arm lifts up to be bent level in front of your right shoulder, your left arm going from in front of you, raising high to be in front of you to the upper left, the arm bending to make a rounded shape, the center of the palm [fist] facing outward.
用法如第五十五圖式,惟東西方向相反。
(The application is the same as for photo 55, but the direction in this case is to the west.) See photo 86:

四十五式・上步搬攔捶・(第三次)
Posture 45: STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (3rd time)
用法:為搬攔化敵法。
Function: This is a method of parrying and blocking to neutralize the opponent.
此式動作及用法與第二十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 27. See photo 87:

四十六式・進步指擋捶・(第三次)
Posture 46: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (3rd time)
用法:為鬆腰墜肘・含胸拔背之法。
Function: This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.
此式動作及用法與第二十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 28. See photo 88:

1 & 2: 白蛇吐信 WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE
3: 上步搬攔錘 STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
4: 進步指襠錘 ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

四十七式・上步蹬足(第四次)・內分二圖・
Posture 47: STEP FORWARD, PRESSING KICK (2nd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:為練習腿力法。
Function: This is a method of training leg strength.
上步蹬足之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之左脚為重心不動,而將右脚向左脚旁上前一步,把右脚尖點地,同時將雙手變掌,由上旋下,成一大圓圈,而貼於兩腰邊。身向東南,眼平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your left foot staying where it is and the weight staying on your left leg, your right foot steps forward to be beside your left foot, toes touching down. At the same time, your hands become palms and arc downward from above, making a large circle that brings them near the sides of your waist. Your body is facing to the southeast, your gaze level.
用法與第七十六圖式左右分脚蹬足相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 76.) See photo 89:

上步蹬足之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之貼在左足旁之右脚,提起向東南一蹬,重心墜於左足。同時以腰際之雙掌張起如鼓翼狀兩掌心向下,眼視東南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot goes close beside your left foot, lifts up, and presses out to the southeast, the weight on your left foot, your palms at the same time rising from your waist and extending with a movement that looks like wings flapping, the centers of the palms facing downward. Your gaze is to the southeast.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 90:

四十八式・左披身伏虎・
Posture 48: LEFT DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE
用法:為左右閃轉避寔之法。
Function: This is a method of dodging side to side to avoid the full force of an attack.
由式此上式蹬起之右脚收囘,置於左脚後踭處,左脚隨卽向北再退一步,左膝坐下,右脚伸出地面,同時將提起之左掌橫平於胸前,隨即雙掌如切刀狀,由上拖下,即將左掌變拳,提起左譬如弧形,使拳護於耳際頭上,而將右掌變拳,橫平於左脇下,眼視正南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot withdraws to be placed behind your left heel, then your left foot retreats a step to the north and the knee squats down, your right leg straightening. At the same time, your left palm goes across in front of your chest and both palms slice like the action of a saber, dragging downward from above, then your left palm becomes a fist, the arm bending to look like a semicircle, and lifts by your ear to guard above your head, as your right palm becomes a fist and goes across below your left ribs. Your gaze is to the south.
若敵左拳及左脚齊攻我,則用雙手緊握敵之手腕,用力往下一墜,同時即速以左手攻敵頭部。
(If the opponent attacks me simultaneously with his left fist and left foot, I then use both hands to grab his wrist and forcefully pull down, at the same time quickly using my left hand to attack his head.) See photo 91:

四十九式・右披身伏虎・(第二次)內分二圖・
Posture 49: RIGHT DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE (2nd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:見四十八項。
Function: See Posture 48.
右披身伏虎之一
Part 1:
此式由上式雙拳變掌,同時將伸直之右脚收囘直於左脚邊,翹起右踭,坐下之左脚隨卽立起,雙膝微彎,眼視北方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists become palms as your right foot withdraws to be next to your left foot, heel lifted. You are sitting onto your left leg, both knees slightly bent. Your gaze is to the north.
用法與左披身同,惟南北方向相反。
(The application is the same as on the left side, but with north and south reversed.) See photo 92:

右披身伏虎之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之左脚伸出地面,右脚下坐,同時雙掌在上如刀切下,左掌橫平於胸前變拳,右掌右腋下旋上頭上變拳,護於額前,眼視北方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left leg extends as your right leg squats down, your palms at the same time slicing downward like the action of a saber, your left palm going across in front of your chest, becoming a fist, and your right palm arcs below your right armpit and over your head, also becoming a fist, to guard in front of your forehead. Your gaze is to the north.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 93:

1 & 2: 上步蹬足 STEP FORWARD, PRESSING KICK
3 & 4: 左披身伏虎 LEFT DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE

1–4: 右披身伏虎 RIGHT DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE

五十式・起身右蹬足・(第五次)
Posture 50: RISE UP, RIGHT PRESSING KICK (5th time)
用法:為佯却實攻之法。
Function: This is a method of fake defense, real attack.
此式由上式之雙拳變掌,由頭上旋下至於伸出之左脚眼處,向上一捧,把雙掌翻轉,向斜角一張,如鼓翼狀,同時將下坐之右脚起立,收囘至左脚旁,以足趾點地,然後提起向東南斜角一蹬,眼視東南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists become palms and arc downward from above your head until reaching out near your left heel, then prop up, turning over, and extend to the corners with a movement that looks like wings flapping. At the same time, you rise up on your right foot, which then withdraws until beside your left foot, toes touching down, and then lifts and presses out to the southeast. Your gaze is to the southeast.
用法與第七十六圖式及七十八圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photos 76 and 78.) See photo 94:

五十一式・雙風貫耳・
Posture 51: DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS
用法:為防衞還擊之法。
Function: This is a method of defending and countering.
此式由上式之蹬起右脚放下向東南斜角上前一步,把左脚伸直,成右弓左箭。同時以鼓起之雙掌,向面前頭上旋上,由掌變拳,眼視雙拳。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right pressing foot comes down stepping forward to the southeast, your left leg straightening, making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow. At the same time, your palms stand up and arc upward and forward to be above your head, the palms becoming fists. Your gaze is toward your fists.
如敵以雙拳打來,即以雙拳往下一撥開敵手,乘勢以雙拳還擊敵之太陽穴。
(If the opponent strikes with both fists, I take both of my fists downward to deflect his hands aside, then take advantage of the momentum to return punches to his temples.) See photo 95:

五十二式・左蹬足・(第六次)內分二圖・
Posture 52: LEFT PRESSING KICK (6th time) (divided into two photos)
用法:見四十一項用法。
Function: See Posture 41.
左蹬足之一
Part 1:
此式由上式之左脚上前一步,至右脚旁,以足趾點地。同時將雙拳由上旋下變雙掌,手橫於雙腰處,腰胯扭轉向正南方,眼視東方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps forward to be beside your right foot, toes touching down. At the same time, your fists arc downward from above, becoming palms, so that your hands are horizontal at the sides of your waist, your waist and hips twisting to be squared to the south. Your gaze is to the east.
用法與第七十八圖式左右分脚蹬足相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 78.) See photo 96:

左蹬足之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之左脚向東提起一蹬,右足隨即伸立,同時以腰際之雙掌向左右張起,如鼓翼狀,眼視東方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot lifts and does a pressing kick to the east, your right foot correspondingly straightening until standing. At the same time, your palms lift from your waist and extend to the left and right with a movement that looks like wings flapping. Your gaze is to the east.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 97:

1–3: 起身蹬足 RISE UP, RIGHT PRESSING KICK and 双風貫耳 DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS
4 & 5: 左蹬足 LEFT PRESSING KICK

五十三式・轉身蹬足・(第七次)內分二圖・
Posture 53: SPIN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (7th time) (divided into two photos)
用法:同上
Function: Same as in the previous posture.
轉身蹬足之一
Part 1:
此式由上式蹬起之左脚放下,橫於右脚之右方,而以雙脚之足尖為軸,把腰胯凖備轉向北方,同時將鼓起之雙掌,垂下於雙腰旁,掌心向上,眼視西方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot releases downward and goes to the right, across your right foot. (You will then pivot on the balls of both feet, your waist and hips ready to turn around to be squared to the north.) At the same time, your palms lower to the sides of your waist, the centers of the palms facing upward. Your gaze is to the west.
用法與第九十圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 90.) See photo 98:

轉身蹬足之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之雙足尖為軸,將腰胯扭轉至正北方,而以右足提起向東一蹬,同時將傍於腰際之雙掌張起,如鼓翼狀,眼平視東方。
Continuing from the previous posture, pivot on the balls of both feet so that your waist and hips are twisted around to be squared to the north. Then your right foot lifts and does a pressing kick to the east, your palms at the same time rising from your waist and extending with a movement that looks like wings flapping. Your gaze is level toward the east.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 99:

五十四式・上步搬攔捶・(第四次)
Posture 54: STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (4th time)
用法:以搬攔為化敵之法。
Function: This is a method of parrying and blocking to neutralize the opponent.
此式動作及用法與第二十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 27. See photo 100:

五十五式・進步指擋捶。(第四次)
Posture 55: STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (4th time)
用法:為鬆腰墜肘・含胸拔背之法。
Function: This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.
此式動作及用法與第二十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 28. See photo 101:

五十六式・如封似閉・(第二次)內分二圖・
Posture 56: SEALING SHUT (2nd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:為格敵封閉之法。
Function: This is a method of blocking the opponent and sealing him off.
如封似閉之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第二十九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 29. See photo 102:

如封似閉之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第三十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 30. See photo 103:

五十七式・十字手・(第二次)
Posture 57: CROSSED HANDS (2nd time)
用法:為防上禦下之法。
Function: This is a method of defending above and below.
此式動作及用法與第三十一圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 31. See photo 104:

1 & 2: 轉身蹬足 SPIN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
3: 上步搬攔錘 STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
4: 進步指襠錘 STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
5: 如封似閉 SEALING SHUT
6: 十字手 CROSSED HANDS

五十八式・抱虎歸山・(第二次)
Posture 58: CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (2nd time)
用法:為承上起下及運掌之法。
Function: This is a method of continuing from the previous posture to begin the next one, involving wielding the palms.
此式動作及用法與第三十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 32. See photo 105:

五十九式・探海迎面掌・(第二次)內分二圖。
Posture 59: SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (2nd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:為迎敵及伸腰胯之法。
Function: This is a method of engaging the opponent as well of exercising the flexibility of your waist and hips.
探海迎面掌之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第三十三圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 33. See photo 106:

探海迎面掌之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第三十四圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 34. See photo 107:

六十式・斜步攬雀尾(第四次)內分五圖・
Posture 60: DIAGONAL STEP, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (4th time) (divided into five photos)
用法:為掤捋擠按及轉變之法。
Function: This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push, as well as transitioning between postures.
攬雀尾之一
Part 1:
動作及用法與第六圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 6. See photo 108:

攬雀尾之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 7. See photo 109:

攬雀尾之三
Part 3:
動作及用法與第八圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 8. See photo 110:

攬雀尾之四
Part 4:
動作及用法與第九圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 9. See photo 111:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
此式動作及用法與第十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 10. See photo 112:

1 & 2: 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
3–6: 探海迎面掌 SEARCHING THE SEA, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE and 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

六十一式・斜單鞭・(第五次)
Posture 61: DIAGONAL SINGLE ROD (5th SINGLE ROD)
用法:為勾摟推按之法。
Function: This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.
此式由上式之右掌收囘在胸前,向右肩上旋出,把右臂斜斜伸起,右掌五指成勾形垂下於後,同時把左掌垂下,向胸前一圈,由胸前提掌撑出,臂曲如弧,指尖向上。當雙掌動作時隨卽將右脚收囘一步,然後將左脚向西南斜角出一步。腰胯均扭向西南,眼平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm withdraws in front of your chest, goes in front of your right shoulder, and arcs away, the arm slowly extending and lifting, the palm making a hook shape with its fingers, hanging down behind you. At the same time, your left palm hangs down and makes a circle, going in front of your chest, then lifting from your chest and bracing out, the arm bent to make a curved shape, the fingertips pointing upward. During the movements of your palms, your right foot withdraws a step, then your left foot steps out diagonally to the southwest, and your waist and hips twist toward the southwest. Your gaze is level.
用法與第十二圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 12.) See photo 113:

1–4: 斜單鞭 DIAGONAL SINGLE ROD (4 same as 1)

六十二式・野馬分鬃・內分三圖・
Posture 62: WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (divided into three photos)
用法:為化敵法之掤式。
Function: This is a method of neutralizing opponents with ward-offs.
野馬分鬃之一
Part 1:
此式由上式斜伸於後之右手垂下,橫過臍前,以右掌包過左肘尖,然後再把右掌向西北方徐徐掤出,同時把左掌向左腰斜下,成右掌橫平於口前一尺餘,姆指向上,左掌背向上近於腰側,同時又將伸直之右脚,收向左足旁,然後向西南斜角進一步,成右弓左箭之勢。腰胯扭向西北,眼平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand hangs down and goes across to pass in front of your navel, the palm wrapping around your left elbow, then slowly wards off to the northwest, your left hand at the same time going diagonally downward toward the left side of your waist, your right palm more than a foot in front of your mouth, thumb pointing upward, the back of your left hand facing upward near your waist. At the same time, your right foot withdraws to be beside your left foot, then advances a step to the southwest [northwest], making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow, your waist and hips twisting toward the northwest. Your gaze is level.
用法與左右掤式相同,見第五圖式・
(The application is the same as for the left and right ward-offs in Posture 5.) See photo 114:

野馬分鬃之二
Part 2:
此式由上式垂於腰際之左掌,提起橫過臍前,然後把左掌包過右肘,徐徐向西南角掤出,同時將右掌斜下於右腰際,左掌橫平於口前一尺餘,拇指向上,臂橫曲如弧,右掌心向下,同時又將伸後之左脚收囘於右脚旁,然後向西南斜角進一步,成左弓右箭,腰胯扭向西南,眼平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left palm goes across to pass in front of your navel, wrapping around your right elbow, then slowly wards off to the southwest, your right palm at the same time going diagonally downward to be at the right side of your waist, your left palm more than a foot in front of your mouth, thumb pointing upward, the arm horizontal, bent to make a curved shape, your right palm facing downward. At the same time, your left foot withdraws to be beside your right foot, then advances a step to the southwest, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow, your waist and hips twisting toward the southwest. Your gaze is level.
用法與上圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for the previous movement.) See photo 115:

野馬分鬃之三
Part 3:
此式由上式垂下之右掌橫過於臍前,包過於左肘,徐徐向西南斜角掤出,橫臂曲肘如弧形,右掌橫平於口前一尺餘,拇指向上,同時將左掌垂下於左腰際,掌心向下。同時又將伸後之右脚收囘於左脚旁,然後向西南方進一步,成右弓左箭,脚胯扭向西北,眼平視。如第一百一十四動式一樣。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm goes across to pass in front of your navel, wrapping around your left elbow, then slowly wards off to the northwest, the arm horizontal, elbow bent to make a curved shape, your right palm more than a foot in front of your mouth, thumb pointing upward, your left palm at the same time hanging down to be at the left side of your waist, palm facing downward. At the same time, your right foot withdraws to be beside your left foot, then advances a step to the southwest [northwest], making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow, your waist and hips twisting toward the northwest. Your gaze is level. It is the same as in photo 114.
用法與上圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for the previous movement.) See photo 116:

1–7: 野馬分鬃 WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE

手揮琵琶
PLAY THE LUTE
此式為上步攬雀尾之過渡動式,而非架子,由上式傍於左腰際之左掌,提起至胸前,曲肘豎腕,掌心向北,五指向上,臂彎如半弧,同時又將橫平之右臂垂下,提起右腕比左臂畧低,掌心向南,與左掌相合狀。同時又將後伸之左脚上前一步,以踭着地,足指豎起,是時全身坐於右脚,右膝微彎,將身一沈,含胸拔背,眼視正西。
This posture is a transitional movement for STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL and not a proper posture in itself. Continuing from the previous posture, your left palm lifts to be in front of your chest, elbow bent, wrist upright, palm facing to the north, fingers pointing upward, arm bent like a semicircle, as your right arm hangs down, the wrist upright and a little lower than your left arm, palm facing to the south, the palms aligned toward each other. At the same time, your left foot steps forward, heel touching down, toes lifted, your body sitting onto your right leg, the knee slightly bent. Sink your torso, contain your chest, and pluck up your back. Your gaze is to the west.
此為過渡式,用法不贄。
(This is merely a transitional posture, and so an application explanation is not given.) See photo 117:

六十三・上步攬雀尾・(第五次)內分五圖・
Posture 63: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (5th time) (divided into five photos)
用法:為掤捋擠按之法。
Function: This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push.
上步攬雀尾之一
Part 1:
此式由上式左脚之踭為軸心,旋至正南放平,繼將右脚上前至左脚邊,然後前進一步,先成右弓左箭再將雙掌翻旋於左腰旁,然後向西北角俯掌提起,至右掌與右肩平為度,此時左掌心反轉向上,再因雙掌由上施下之關係,雙脚反成右箭左弓之勢,全身坐於左脚,眼視西北。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left heel pivots to point the foot toward the south and your right foot advances to be next to your left foot, then steps forward to first make a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow. At the same time, your palms arc toward the left side of your waist, then lift toward the northwest corner until your right palm is at shoulder level, your left palm now facing upward. Then your palms drag downward from above, your feet making a stance of right leg bent, left leg straight, your body sitting onto your left foot. Your gaze is to the northwest.
用法與第六圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 6.) See photo 118:

攬雀尾之二
Part 2:
動作及用法與第七圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 7. See photo 119:

攬雀尾之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 8. See photo 120:

攬雀尾之四
Part 4:
此式動作及用法與第九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 9. See photo 121:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
此式動作及用法與第十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 10. See photo 122:

六十四式・單鞭・(第六次)・內分二圖・
Posture 64: SINGLE ROD (6th time) (divided into two photos)
用法:勾摟按掌之法。
Function: This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.
單鞭之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第十一圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 11. See photo 123:

單鞭之二
Part 2:
動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 124:

1 & 2: 手揮琵琶(過渡動作) PLAY THE LUTE (transitional movement)
3–5: 上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
6 & 7: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

六十五式・〔右轉身〕坐盤抱極・(第二次)・
Posture 65: [RIGHT-TURNING] SITTING TWISTED, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE (2nd time)
用法:為扭胯練腿之法。
Function: This is a method of twisting the hips to train the legs.
此式應撮背面,惟便於學者易賭起見,特撮取正面。學者如演式時,可依原動作進行,背北面南可也
This posture ought to be a view from the back, but it is easier for you to see if it is shown from the front. When practicing the set, you can perform this posture in accordance with the original version of the movement, or in this way with your back to the north and facing to south.
此式之動作及用法與第二十六圖式相同,所差者,惟此圖之右臂在上,左臂在下。
(The movement and application are the same as for photo 26, except in this case your right arm is above, left arm below.) See photo 125:

六十六式・玉女穿梭・內分四圖・
Posture 66: MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (divided into four photos)
用法:為乘虛搗敵之法
Function: This is a method of taking advantage of a gap to smash the opponent.
玉女穿梭之一
Part 1:
此式由上式扭轉之腰胯轉向正西,而把坐盤之左腿提起上前一步彎曲,將右脚伸後,成左弓右箭。同時將抱極之右掌向前撑出,將左掌繞面前擋於頭上,右掌心向南,左掌心向上,眼平視西,虛靈頂勁。
Continuing from the previous posture, your torso turns to face to the west [southwest], then your left leg lifts and steps forward, the leg bending, your right leg straightening behind, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. At the same time, your right palm props out forward and your left palm arcs in front of you to block above your head, your right palm facing to the south [southwest], left palm facing upward. With your gaze level toward the west [southwest], forcelessly press up your headtop.
如敵以拳打來,我即以一手格之,一手還擊敵之面部。向西方應敵。
(If an opponent attacks with a punch, I promptly use one hand to block and the other hand to return a strike to his face, thereby dealing with an opponent to the west [southwest].) See photo 126:

玉女穿梭之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之雙掌收下,盤於右腰際,同時將右脚收囘於左脚邊,以足趾着地為軸心,即將腰胯隨雙足旋轉,由向西跟右轉,而至東南斜角止,隨將右脚上前一步,成右弓左箭,同時將盤於腰際之雙掌向上翻出,使左掌向東南斜角掤出,而以右掌繞過右耳邊,掩護於頭部前方,眼視東南。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms gather in, lowering and coiling in toward the right [left] side of your waist, your right foot at the same time gathering in to be beside your left foot, toes touching down and pivoting, your torso going along with your feet by spinning around rightward to be facing to the southeast corner. Then your right foot steps forward, making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow, your palms at the same time going upward and turning over to be facing outward, your left palm propping out to the southeast corner, your right palm arcing past your right ear to guard in front of your head. Your gaze is to the southeast.
用法與上式相連。向東南方應敵。
(The application is a continuation from the previous movement, now dealing with an opponent to the southeast.) See photo 127:

玉女穿梭之三
Part 3:
此式由上式提起之雙掌,收下盤於左腰際,同時將伸後之左脚收囘於右脚邊,以足趾着地,隨將腰胯扭轉向東北方,然後將左脚前出一步,成左弓右箭,同時又以盤於腰際之雙掌向上翻出,使右掌向東北斜角掤出,而以左掌繞過左耳旁,掩護於頭部前方,眼視東北。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms gather in, lowering and coiling in toward the left [right] side of your waist, your left foot at the same time gathering in to be beside your right foot, toes touching down, your torso turning to be facing to the northeast. Then your left foot steps out forward, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow, your palms at the same time going upward and turning over to be facing outward, your right palm propping out to the northeast corner, your left palm arcing past your left ear to guard in front of your head. Your gaze is to the northeast.
用法與上式相連。向東北方應敵。
(The application is a continuation from the previous movement, now dealing with an opponent to the northeast.) See photo 128:

玉女穿梭之四
Part 4:
此式由上式提起之雙掌收下,盤於左腰際,同時將後伸之右脚收囘於左脚邊,以足趾着地為軸,把腰胯隨雙足向後旋轉,至斜向西北角為止,隨卽將右足進前一步,成右弓左箭,同時又把盤於左腰之雙掌,向上翻出,使左掌向西北斜角掤出,而以右掌繞過右耳邊,掩護於頭部前方。眼視西北方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms gather in, lowering and coiling in toward the right [left] side of your waist, your right foot at the same time gathering in to be beside your left foot, toes touching down and pivoting, your torso going along with your feet by spinning around [rightward] to be facing to the northwest corner. Then your right foot steps forward, making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow, your palms at the same time going upward and turning over to be facing outward, your left palm propping out to the northwest corner, your right palm arcing past your right ear to guard in front of your head. Your gaze is to the northwest.
此式為應付東南西北四隅攻來之敵人而用。
(This technique is for dealing with attacks from opponents at all four corners – southwest, southeast, northeast, and now to the northwest.) See photo 129:

1 & 2: 坐盤抱極 SITTING TWISTED, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE
3–10: 玉女穿梭 MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH

手揮琵琶
PLAY THE LUTE
此為玉女穿梭與攬雀尾過渡動式,而非架子。由上式之伸後左脚上前一步,以脚踭着地趾尖上翹,右膝微彎,以軀幹坐於右足。同時將掤出之左掌及提起之右掌,垂下在胸前向西一合,左手在前上,右手在後下,两掌心相向,眼平視西。
This posture is a transitional movement between MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH and STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL rather than a proper posture in itself. Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps forward, heel touching down, toes lifted, your right knee slightly bent, your torso sitting onto your right leg. At the same time, your palms lower together toward the west to be in front of your chest, your left hand above and forward, right hand below and behind, the palms aligned toward each other. Your gaze is level toward the west. See photo 130:

六十七式・上步攬雀尾(第六次)・內分五圖・
Posture 67: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (6th time) (divided into five photos)
用法:為掤捋擠按四法之複習
Function: This is for training the four techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push.
上步攬雀尾之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第一百一十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 118. See photo 131:

攬雀尾之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 7. See photo 132:

攬雀尾之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 8. See photo 133:

攬雀尾之四
Part 4:
此式動作及用法與第九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 9. See photo 134:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
此式動作及用法與第十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 10. See photo 135:

六十八式・單鞭・(第七次)・內分二圖・
Posture 68: SINGLE ROD (7th time) (divided into two photos)
用法:為勾摟按掌之法
Function: This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.
單鞭之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第十一圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 11. See photo 136:

單鞭之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 137:

1 & 2: 手揮琵琶(過渡) PLAY THE LUTE (transitional movement)
3–5: 上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
6 & 7: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

六十九式抎手・(第二次)・內分六圖・
Posture 69: CLOUDING HANDS (2nd time) (divided into six photos)
用法:為勾摟按掌之法。
Function: This is a method of luring in, brushing across, and pushing with the palm.
抎手之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第六十六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 66. See photo 138:

抎手之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第六十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 67. See photo 139:

抎手之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第六十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 68. See photo 140:

抎手之四
Part 4:
此式動作及用法與第一百三十圖九式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 139. See photo 141:

抎手之五
Part 5:
此式動作每用法與第一百三十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 138. See photo 142:

抎手之六
Part 6:
此式動作及用法與第一百三十九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 139 [except that the left foot has not yet stepped out]. See photo 143:

單鞭
SINGLE ROD
此式動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 144:

七十式・單鞭下勢
Posture 70: SINGLE ROD, LOW POSTURE
用法:為鬆腰展胯之法。
Function: This is a method of loosening your waist and opening up your hips.
此式由上式伸後之右脚往後下一坐,把膝屈曲,使軀幹下坐,而以左脚伸直於地,同時以向上之左掌屈肘於胸,使左指尖向下,右手鈎仍然不動,眼視東方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg squats down to the rear, the knee bending, making your torso sit downward, your left leg extending straight, almost on the ground. At the same time, your left palm goes upward, the elbow bending, and goes in front of your chest, the fingers pointing downward, your right hooking hand remaining in its position. Your gaze is to the east.
如敵用拳攻來,我即以單手握其手腕,順勢往下墜,使敵前傾。
(If an opponent attacks me with a punch, I then use a hand to grasp his wrist and sink down his attack, causing him to fall forward.) See photo 145:

1–7: 抎手 CLOUDING HANDS
8: 單鞭下勢 SINGLE ROD, LOW POSTURE

七十一式・左右金鷄獨立・內分二圖
Posture 71: LEFT & RIGHT GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (divided into two photos)
用法:為乘勢克敵之法。
Function: This is a method of taking advantage of opportunity to defeat the opponent.
左金鷄獨立
Left:
此式由上式垂下之左掌尖,直向左脚尖一挑,右手隨卽垂於右膝旁,由鈎變掌,同時把伸出之左脚收囘一步而企立,當左脚企立時,隨即將右脚彎膝,離地而起,脚尖向地,是時傍於右膝邊之右掌,跟着右脚提起而上豎,臂彎如弧,立於右膝上,指尖向上,眼平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left fingers go toward your left toes with a carrying action, your right hand going along with it by lowering beside your right knee, changing from hook to palm. Then your left foot withdraws and stands one-legged, whereupon your right foot lifts, the knee bent, toes pointing toward the ground, your right palm going along with it by lifting until vertical, the arm bent as though curved, stood up on your right knee, fingers pointing upward. Your gaze is level.
如敵用拳劈來,則用手托其肘,便其勁向外化去,同時用脚踢敵人陰部。
(If the opponent attacks with a chopping palm, I use my right hand to prop up his elbow, neutralizing his power outward, while at the same time I use my foot to kick to his groin.) See photo 146:

右金鷄獨立・
Right:
此式由上式提起之右脚放下,胸腰跟着彎曲前俯,但眼睛不視地而向前平視,是時右臂由彎而下垂,隨時立地之左脚屈膝提起,足尖向地,同時以垂於左膝之左掌,彎臂提起,使肘尖坐於膝盖上,指尖向上,與上圖適相反。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down, your chest and waist going along with it by bowing forward, but your gaze stays forward and level instead of looking toward the ground, your right arm at the same time going from being bent to hanging down. Then your left foot lifts, the knee bent, toes pointing toward the ground, your left palm lifting, the arm bent, the elbow tip sitting on the knee, fingers pointing upward. It is the reverse of the photo above.
用法與上圖相連。
(The application is a continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 147:

七十二式・第二次倒攆猴・內分三圖
Posture 72: RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY [2nd time] (divided into three photos)
用法:為退步却敵之法。
Function: This is a method of retreating while driving away an opponent.
倒攆猴之一
Part 1:
此式由上式提起之左脚放下,以脚尖點地,然後將左脚向後西北斜角退一步,同時把豎起之左掌放平,掌心向上,而以右掌提起向前伸出,左掌隨即下垂,向後旋去,馬步隨即由右弓左箭,變為右箭左弓,眼視正東。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down, toes touching down, then retreats a step to the northwest corner. At the same time, your left palm goes out level, the palm facing upward, then your right palm lifts and extends forward as your left palm hangs down and arcs away to the rear, your stance switching from right leg a bow, left leg an arrow, to right leg an arrow, left leg a bow. Your gaze is to the east.
用法與第四十三圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 43.) See photo 148:

倒攆猴之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第四十四圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 44. See photo 149:

倒攆猴之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第四十五圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 45. See photo 150:

七十三式・扑腿抱極・(第二次)
Posture 73: CROUCHING, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE (2nd time)
用法:為轉變進擊之法。
Function: This is a method of switching to an attack.
此式動作及用法與第四十六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 46. See photo 151:

1–3: 左右金鷄獨立 LEFT & RIGHT GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (3 same as 1)
(提起頓下 The foot lifts and comes down again for 2 & 3.)
4–8: 倒輦猴 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
9: 扑腿抱極 CROUCHING, HOLDING A TAIJI SPHERE

七十四式・斜飛式(第二次)
Posture 74: DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (2nd time)
用法:為轉變進擊雙掌運用之法。
Function: This is a method of switching to an attack, wielding both palms.
此式動作及用法與第四十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 47. See photo 152:

七十五式・提手(第三次)
Posture 75: RAISE THE HANDS (3rd time)
用法:為擠按之法。
Function: This is a method of pressing and pushing.
此式動作及用法與第四十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 48. See photo 153:

1–4: 斜飛至提手 switching from DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE to RAISE THE HANDS

七十六式・白鶴亮翅(第三次)
Posture 76: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (3rd time)
用法:為掤按提捶之法。
Function: This is a method of warding off while pushing away, lifting up while hanging down.
此式動作及用法與第四十九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 49. See photo 154:

1–3: 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

七十七式・摟膝抝步(第七次)內分三圖・
Posture 77: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (7th time) (divided into three photos)
用法:為伸縮两臂活動腰胯之法。
Function: This is a method of developing suppleness in the arms and exercising the hips.
摟膝抝步之一
Part 1:
動作及用法與第十五圖式相同
The movement and application are the same as for photo 15. See photo 155:

摟膝抝步之二
Part 2:
動作及用法與第十六圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 16. See photo 156:

摟膝抝步之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 17. See photo 157:

2–5: 摟膝步 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (5 same as 2)

七十八式・海底針(第二次)
Posture 78: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (2nd time)
用法:為伸縮腰脊之法。
Function: This develops flexibility in the lower back.
此式動作及用法與第五十三圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 53. See photo 158:

七十九式・肩通臂(第二次)
Posture 79: SHOULDER THROUGH THE ARM (2nd time)
用法:為練肩背之力通於臂指之法。
Function: This is a method of training power in your upper back to go through to your arm and fingers.
此式動作及用法與第五十四圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 54. See photo 159:

八十式・白蛇吐信(第三次)
Posture 80: WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE (3rd time)
用法:為首尾相應之法。
Function: This is a method of “head and tail responding together”.
此式動作及用法與第五十五圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 55. See photo 160:

八十一式・撇身捶(第二次)
Posture 81: TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (2nd time)
用法:為撇開敵人進擊之法。
Function: This is a method of flinging aside the opponent’s attack.
此式動作及用法與第五十六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 56. See photo 161:

1–3: 海底針 NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
4: 肩通臂 SHOULDER THROUGH THE ARM and 白蛇吐信 WHITE SNAKE SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE
5: 撇身錘 TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH

八十二式・上步搬攔捶(第五次)
Posture 82: STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (5th time)
用法:為進步化敵擊法。
Function: This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.
此式動作及用法與第五十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 57. See photo 162:

八十三式・進步指擋捶(第五次)
Posture 83: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (5th time)
用法:為鬆腰墜肘・含腰拔背之法。
Function: This is a method for loosening the waist and lowering the elbows, as well as containing the chest and plucking up the back.
此式動作及用法與第五十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 58. See photo 163:

1 & 2: 上步搬攔錘 STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
3: 進步指襠錘 ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

八十四式・上步攬雀尾・(第七次)內分五圖・
Posture 84: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (7th time) (divided into five photos)
用法:為轉變啣接之法。
Function: This is a method of transitioning between postures.
上步攬雀尾之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 6. See photo 164:

攬雀尾之二
Part 2:
動作及用法與第七圖式相同
The movement and application are the same as for photo 7. See photo 165:

攬雀尾之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 8. See photo 166:

攬雀尾之四
Part 4:
此式動作及用法與第九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 9. See photo 167:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
動作及用法與第十圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 10. See photo 168:

八十五式・單鞭・(第八次)・內分二圖・
Posture 85: SINGLE ROD (8th time) (divided into two photos)
用法:為勾摟推按之法。
Function: This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm.
單鞭之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第十一圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 11. See photo 169:

單鞭之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 170:

1–4: 上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
5 & 6: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

八十六式・抎手・(第三次)內分六圖
Posture 86: CLOUDING HANDS (3rd time) (divided into six photos)
用法:為化敵護身之法。
Function: This is a method of neutralizing the opponent and shielding the body.
抎手之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第六十六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 66. See photo 171:

抎手之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第六十七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 67. See photo 172:

抎手之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第六十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 68. See photo 173:

抎手之四
Part 4:
此式動作及用法與第六十九圖式相同
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 69. See photo 174:

抎手之五
Part 5:
此式動作及用法與第七十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 70. See photo 175:

抎手之六
Part 6:
此式動作及用法與第七十一圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 71 [except that the left foot has not yet stepped out]. See photo 176:

八十七式・單鞭・(第九次)・
Posture 87: SINGLE ROD (9th time)
用法:為勾摟推按及轉變啣接之法。
Function: This is a method of pulling in with a hook and pushing with a palm, as well as a method of transitioning between postures.
此式動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 177:

八十八式・高探馬・(第二次)內分二圖・
Posture 88: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (2nd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:為縮步聳身化敵之法。
Function: This is a method of withdrawing a step and raising your body to neutralize the opponent.
高探馬之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第七十三圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 73. See photo 178:

高探馬之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與等七十四圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 74. See photo 179:

1–7: 抎手 CLOUDING HANDS
8: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

八十九式・穿掌
Posture 89: THREADING PALM
用法:同上。
Function: Same as for the previous posture.
此式由上式伸出之右掌翻轉掌心向上,而將左掌從肋下掌出於右掌之上,然後將右掌收置於腋下,同時將左脚向東南角出一步,成左弓右箭,眼視東方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right reaching palm turns over to be facing upward, then your left palm goes from below your ribs, going out over your right palm, as your right palm withdraws to be under the armpit, your left foot at the same time stepping out to the southeast to make a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. Your gaze is to the east.
如敵用拳迎面打來,我則以右手往下壓住敵拳,同時以左掌向敵咽喉進攻。
(If the opponent punches directly in front of me, I then use my right hand to press down his fist and use my left hand to attack his throat area.) See photo 180:

九十式・囘身蹬足・(第八次)內分・
Posture 90: TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (8th time) (divided into [two photos])
用法:為前後顧盼之法。
Function: This is a method of having awareness both in front and behind.
囘身蹬足之一
Part 1:
此式由上式左脚之脚尖,由東南角畧轉至正南,隨將穿出之左掌曲肘收囘於胸前,雙掌同時翻轉,掌心向下,同時將伸後之右脚收囘於左脚旁,而以趾尖點地,眼視西方是時腰胯均轉向南方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left toes slightly turn from the southeast to the south, your left palm withdrawing in front of your chest, the elbow bending, both palms turning over in unison so the centers of the palms are facing downward. At the same time, your right foot withdraws to be next to your left foot, toes touching down. Your gaze goes to the west, your waist and hips turning to be squared to the south.
用法與第九十六圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 96.) See photo 181:

囘身蹬足之二
Part 2:
此式由上式翻轉之雙掌伸開如鼓翼狀,同時以右脚提起向右方蹬出,而以左脚直立為重心,眼視西方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms spread apart with a movement that looks like wings flapping, your right foot at the same time lifting and pressing out to the right, the weight on your left foot. Your gaze is to the west.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 182:

九十一式・上步搬攔捶・(第六次)
Posture 91: COME DOWN, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (6th time)
用法:為進步化敵擊敵之法。
Function: This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.
此式由上式伸出之右掌變拳,在腋旋一小圈,屈肘握拳,向前打出,而以伸出之左臂,收囘於胸前,以左掌按於右肘節上,同時以蹬出之右足向下轉東,旋一小圈,然後將足橫平於前,而漸下於地,是時左膝微彎,以軀幹坐於其上,眼視正西。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm becomes a fist, arcs in a small circle toward your [left] armpit, the elbow bending, and the fist strikes out forward, your left arm gathering in to be in front of your chest, the palm touching on top of your right elbow area. At the same time, your right foot arcs in a small circle, lowering toward the east so the foot is sideways in front of you. (Then the foot will gradually come down, your left knee slightly bending, and your torso will sit onto [your right leg].) Your gaze is to the west.
用法與第二十七圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 27.) See photo 183:

九十二式・進步指擋捶・(第六次)・,
Posture 92: STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (6th time)
用法:為轉身接打法。
Function: This is a method of turning your torso to continue into a strike.
此式動作及用法與等二十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 28. See photo 184:

1 & 2: 髙探馬 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
3: 囬身蹬足 TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
4: 上步搬攔錘 COME DOWN, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
5: 進步指襠錘 STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

九十三式・上步攬雀尾(第八次)內分五圖・
Posture 93: ADVANCE, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (8th time) (divided into five photos)
用法:為複習掤捋擠按之法。
Function: This is for training ward-off, rollback, press, and push.
攬雀尾之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第六圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 6. See photo 185:

攬雀尾之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第七圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 7. See photo 186:

攬雀尾之三
Part 3:
此式動作及用法與第八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 8. See photo 187:

攬雀尾之四
Part 4:
此式動作及用法與第九圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 9. See photo 188:

攬雀尾之五
Part 5:
動作及用法與第十圖式相同。
The movement and application are the same as for photo 10. See photo 189:

九十四式・單鞭下勢・(第十次)・
Posture 94: SINGLE ROD, LOW POSTURE (10th time)
用法:為鬆腰展胯之法。
Function: This is a method of loosening your waist and opening up your hips.
單鞭之一
Part 1:
動作及用法與第十一圖式相同
The movement and application are the same as for photo 11. See photo 190:

單鞭之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 12. See photo 191:

1–5: 上步攬雀尾 ADVANCE, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
6: 單鞭 SINGLE ROD

單鞭下勢
SINGLE ROD, LOW POSTURE
此式動作及用法與第一四五圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 145. See photo 192:

九十五式・上步七星・
Posture 95: STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE
用法:為格敵之法。
Function: This is a method of blocking the opponent.
此式由上式垂下之左掌用指尖向下往前挑起,隨即起立,左膝微彎,軀幹坐於其上,右脚順勢上前一步,以踭着地,趾尖向上,同時以左掌變拳屈肘於胸前,而以右鈎手變拳,由後而下,再由下而上,亦屈肘於胸前。雙臂成半弧形,左拳內右拳外,含胸拔背,眼視正東。
Continuing from the previous posture, your downward hanging left palm sends its fingers downward and forward, then lifting up as you stand up, your left knee slightly bending, your torso sitting onto that leg, your right foot going forward a step, heel touching down, toes pointing upward. At the same time, your left palm becomes a fist and goes in front of your chest, the elbow bending, and your right hooking hand changes to a fist, goes downward from the rear, then upward from below, to also be in front of your chest, the elbow bent, your arms forming a semicircle, your left fist on the inside, right fist on the outside. Contain your chest and pluck up your back. Your gaze is to the east.
如敵用拳打來,我則雙拳交叉如十字形格之,同時起右脚還擊敵脚。
(If an opponent attacks me with a punch, I use both fists to make an X shape, propping upward to obstruct him. At the same time, I lift my right foot with a countering attack to his leg.) See photo 193:

九十六式・退步跨虎・
Posture 96: RETREAT, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE
用法:為化敵之挒法。
Function: This is a method of rending to neutralize the opponent.
此式由上式伸出之右脚往後退一步,由直變彎,由虛變實,左脚則由實變虛,由彎變直,翹起趾尖。同時以雙拳變掌,右掌垂下經右股輕輕一彈,然後向右邊旋上,至右耳旁而止,左掌則由下彎出於左腰外,右掌上左掌下,成一斜直線。眼視東方。此架式雖名退步胯虎,亦與白鶴亮翅相似。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot retreats a step and the leg bends, the foot becoming full, your left foot emptying, the leg straightening, toes lifting. At the same time, your fists become palms, your right palm hanging down and passing your right thigh with a gentle flick, then arcing to the right and upward, finishing beside your right ear, as your left palm bends in and goes outward from below to be beyond the left side of your waist. Your right palm is above, left palm below, making a diagonal line with each other, your gaze to the east. Although this posture is called SITTING-TIGER POSTURE, it is the same thing as WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS [even reusing the photo of it].
用法如敵人以脚踢來,則用手將其腿撥開,並退步使其腿落空
(Application: If the opponent attacks me with a kick, I then use my [left] hand to deflect his leg aside while retreating, causing his kick to land on nothing.) See photo 194:

九十七式・轉身擺蓮・內分二圖・
Posture 97: SPIN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK
用法:為旋轉擺腿之法。
Function: This is a method of spinning around and doing a swinging kick.
轉身擺蓮之一
Part 1:
此式由上式伸出之左足尖,經北往西旋轉,成足尖向西,踭向東,右足尖亦跟着扭轉,翹起後踭,雙膝微彎,腰胯扭向正北如坐盤。同時右掌由胸橫過左腋旁,左掌則旋向西方,雙臂微彎,指尖向上,眼視西方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left toes pass through the northern direction, turning [outward] toward the west so that the toes are pointing to the west and the heel is pointing to the east, your right toes correspondingly turning [inward], the heel raising, both knees slightly bent, your waist and hips twisting around to be squared to the north, and you are almost making a sitting twisted stance. At the same time, your right palm goes across your chest to be beside your left armpit and your left palm arcs to the west, both arms slightly bent, fingertips pointing upward. Your gaze is to the west.
如敵人以刀槍棍等打來,我用擺蓮腿踢其手腕,使其受傷,不能握兵器。
(If an opponent attacks me by wielding a weapon such as a saber, spear, or staff, I will use a swinging lotus kick to kick his wrist, injuring him so he is unable to grasp his weapon.) See photo 195:

轉身擺蓮之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之雙脚踭為軸,旋向東三十度角,隨將左脚提起向後旋大半圓形,直立為重心,卽將軀幹向後右方旋一圓形,至面部向東南角時,提起右脚伸直,趾尖向上,由左方往右一擺,同時雙臂伸出,而以雙掌齊拍向右擺動之右脚右面,拍然有聲,雙掌即向左方擺去,眼視東南。
Continuing from the previous posture, pivot on your heels to turn thirty degrees toward the east, then your left foot lifts and arcs a half circle to the rear, whereupon the weight goes onto it and your body goes into a full rightward turn. Once you are facing to the southeast, your right foot lifts, the leg extending straight, toes pointing upward, and swings across from left to right. At the same time, your arms reach out and your palms in unison slap the right side of the top of your right foot, making an audible slap, then swing away to the left. Your gaze is to the southeast.
用法與上式相連。
(The application is the continuation from the previous movement.) See photo 196:

九十八式・彎弓射虎・
Posture 98: BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER
用法:為乘勢衝擊之法。
Function: This is a method of seizing the opportunity with a thrusting strike.
此式由上式擺動之右脚,向後而下於地,隨將右膝彎曲下坐為重心,軀幹坐於其上,而直立之左脚則因右膝下坐而伸出於東北斜角,同時雙掌於擺向左方時即變拳,左臂彎於胸前,沉肩墜肘,拳口向上,右臂彎於右耳上外,拳口向下,如彎弓狀,身向東北,眼平視。
Continuing from the previous posture, your swinging right foot comes down to the rear, then the knee bends, the weight shifts, and your torso sits onto that leg, your left leg correspondingly straight and pointing toward the northeast. At the same time, your palms become fists, your left arm bent in front of your chest, the shoulder sinking, elbow hanging, the fist mouth facing upward, while your right arm bends and goes outward above your right ear, the fist mouth facing downward. The posture looks like you are drawing a bow. Your torso is facing to the northeast [southeast], your gaze level.
此式是化勁,若能將敵手握住,而敵又向外捽墜,我即乘勢將彼踢出。
(This posture is a neutralizing technique. If I can grab the opponent’s hand, I will pull him off-balance, and I could even take advantage of the opportunity to send out a kick.) See photo 197:

1 & 2: 上步七星 STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE
3: 退步跨虎 RETREAT, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE (3 same as 1)
4–6: 轉身擺連 SPIN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK (撥脚 deflecting kick)
7: 湾弓射虎 BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER

九十九式・上步搬攔捶(第七次)
Posture 99: STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH (7th time)
用法:為進步化敵擊敵之法。
Function: This is a method of advancing to neutralize and strike the opponent.
此式由上式之雙拳化掌右上左下向左方一拖,至胸前而以左掌按右臂,右掌隨卽變拳,由左向上一旋,使拳脊由上擊下。同時以屈曲下坐之右膝向上一伸,反使伸直之左脚成為彎膝,是時右脚即提起向東上步,脚面橫平,軀幹由左脚之力支持,往下一坐,眼平視東方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists become palms and pull to the left, then once they are in front of your chest, your left palm pushes down on your right arm as your right palm becomes a fist and circles upward from the left to strike down from above with the back of the fist. At the same time, your crouched right knee straightens upward as your straightened left knee bends, then your right leg lifts to step forward to the east, the foot sideways and level, your torso sitting downward, supported by the strength of your left leg. Your gaze is level toward the east.
用法與第二十七圖式相同。
(The application is the same as for photo 27.) See photo 198:

一百式・進步指擋捶・〔(第七次)〕
Posture 100: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (7th time)
用法:為轉身接打法。
Function: This is a method of turning your torso to continue into a strike.
此式動作及用法與第二十八圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 28. See photo 199:

一零一式・如封似閉(第三次)內分二圖・
Posture 101: SEALING SHUT (3rd time) (divided into two photos)
用法:為封閉格攔之法。
Function: This is a method of blocking the opponent and sealing him off.
如封似閉之一
Part 1:
此式動作及用法與第二十九圖式相同
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 29. See photo 200:

如封似閉之二
Part 2:
此式動作及用法與第三十圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 30. See photo 201:

一零二式・十字手・(第三次)
Posture 102: CROSSED HANDS (3rd time)
用法:為防上禦下之法。
Function: This is a method of defending above and below.
此式動作及用法與第三十一圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 31. See photo 202:

一零三式・抱虎歸山・(第三次)
Posture 103: CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (3rd time)
用法:為承上結下之尾式。
Function: This continues from the end of the previous posture and connects into the next.
此式動作及用法與第三十二圖式相同。
This posture’s movement and application are the same as for photo 32. See photo 203:

一零四式・合太極・內分二圖・
Posture 104: CLOSING POSTURE (divided into two photos)
用法:為全拳終結之式。
Function: This is for concluding the whole set of postures.
合太極之一
Part 1:
此式由上式伸出之左脚收囘一步,脚尖向南,隨將右脚尖畧移向左方,至雙足距離與雙肩成一直線。同時雙掌由下捧上,至胸前便將雙掌反轉使掌心向下,徐徐下壓,鬆肩墜肘,虛靈頂項,眼平視南方。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot withdraws a step, toes pointing toward the south, your right toes then slightly shifting to the left, both feet now shoulder width apart. At the same time, your palms carry upward from below, and once they are in front of your chest, they turn over to be facing downward and slowly press down. Loosen your shoulders, drop your elbows, and forcelessly press up your headtop. Your gaze is level toward the south. See photo 204:

合太極之二
Part 2:
此式由上式之雙掌,徐徐下垂,至两胯旁,復歸於無極式原狀。此為一套拳術終止之式,學者尤應注意,凝神息慮,心靜意舒,始終一貫,不可散失,收其心,歛其氣,復納於丹田,仍歸於無極,則獲全始全終矣。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms slowly hang down to be beside your hips, restoring you to the original position of the WUJI POSTURE. This posture brings the whole set to an end, and so you have to give it special attention. Concentrate your spirit and dissipate your thoughts. Calm your mind and relax your intentions. Having performed the set as a single thread from start to finish, you must not now become scattered. Withdraw your mind and gather your energy, sending it back to your elixir field. You have returned to a state of nonpolarity, completing the whole process from beginning to end. See photo 205:

1 & 2: 上步搬攔錘 STEP FORWARD, PARRY & BLOCK PUNCH
3: 進步指襠錘 ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH and 如封似閉 SEALING SHUT
4: 十字手 CROSSED HANDS
5: 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
6: 合太極 CLOSING POSTURE

下編 運用之部
PART TWO: APPLICATION

第一章 論著
CHAPTER ONE: VARIOUS WRITINGS

太極拳打手論
[I] DISCUSSING PLAYING HANDS [text copied from Wu Tunan’s 1931 manual]

打手者,研究懂勁之法也。先師曰:『由着熟,而漸悟懂勁,由懂勁,由懂勁而階級神明』。旨哉言乎!然而,宜如何始能着熟?宜如何始悟懂勁?宜如何始階級神明?此本章之所宜首先研究者也。
夫太極拳之各勢旣巳練習,則當首先注意姿勢是否正確?動作能否自然?待其正確且自然矣,然後進而練習應用,應用旣皆成熟,斯可謂着熟矣。
雖然,此不過彼往我來之一勢一用而耳!若彼連用數法,或因我之着熟而變化之,斯時也,則如之何?於是手懂勁尚焉。
夫懂勁者,因巳之不利處。推及彼之不利處也,方我欲擊敵前,心中必先具一念,然後始擊之也。反是,彼能無此一念乎?雖智愚賢不肖異等,而其先具之一念,未嘗異也
故彼念旣興,我念亦起,真偽虛實,難測異常,苟無一定之主宰。則必至於張皇失措。方恐應敵之不暇。尚何希其致勝哉!
雖然,常擊彼之念旣起。則當存心彼我之着法孰速?欲擊之目的孰當?彼未擊至我身也,可否引其落空?或我之動作是否能動於彼先?待旣擊至我身也,宜如何變其力之方向。使落不及我身?或能因彼之力。而使其力折囘而還彼身。此等存心,究宜如何始能得之?蓋因我之某處懼彼之擊也,彼之某處亦懼我之擊,此明顯之理也。然而避我之怕擊處,擊彼之怕擊處,則彼欲勝,豈可得也。孫子曰:『知己知彼,百戰百勝。』此之謂也。
方此時也,可謂懂勁矣。懂勁後,愈練愈精,漸至舍己從人,因敵變化,不思而得,從容中道,非達於神明矣乎?學者,果能盡心研究之,則出奇入妙,將在於是也。是為論。
Playing Hands is a method of learning to identify energies. A previous master said [in the Treatise]: “Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous.” This is exactly the idea. In our training, what should we do to be able to ingrain the techniques, to be able to identify energies, to be able to reach a miraculous level? This chapter requires your immediate attention.
  Once the solo set has been learned, the first thing to do is check whether or not the postures are correct and the movements are natural. Once everything is correct and natural, move on to practicing applications, and once you are skillful with applications, then you can say you have ingrained the techniques.
  However, they are only single actions of defend and counter. If an opponent continues to attack, adapting to my techniques, then what do I do? This is why identifying energies is important. Through identifying energies, I go from being in an unfavorable position to putting him in an unfavorable position. When I want to attack the opponent, the idea is first in my mind and then there is the attack. Conversely, can he function without the same kind of thought? People have different degrees of intelligence and virtue, but they are all the same in that they all first have the idea of what they will do before they do it.
  When an idea starts in him, an idea also starts in me. What is real or fake, full or empty, is extremely difficult to discern, and if I try to function without being in control, I would surely become so flustered that I think I would be too busy to deal with him, in which case there would be no hope of defeating him.
  Nevertheless, the thought constantly arises of wanting to attack him. Therefore I keep these things in mind: Is it I or the opponent who has the quicker technique? Where is he targeting? Before he has struck my body, can I draw him in to land on nothing? Or can my movement get ahead of his? In the moment his attack is reaching me, how can I alter the direction of his force so that it will miss my body? Or can I cause his force to turn all the way around and be sent back at him?
  In our training, what should we do to be able to gain these qualities? As I have certain areas where I am afraid to be hit, so does the opponent. This is an obvious principle. And so I evade at the places I do not want to be hit and attack the places where he does not want to be hit, and then even if he seeks to win, there is no way he can. Sunzi said: “Knowing both self and opponent, in a hundred battles you will have a hundred victories.” This is the idea.
  You can at that point be said to be identifying energies. “Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be.” Gradually you will reach the point that you are letting go of yourself and going along with the opponent, acting according to his adjustments, catching everything he tries to do, calmly balancing everything out, and have you not then reached a miraculous level? If you can study wholeheartedly, wonders will emerge as a result.

顧汝章先生太極拳推手講義
[II] GU RUZHANG’S “TAIJI BOXING’S PUSHING HANDS CURRICULUM” [text copied from Gu’s 1936 manual]

太極拳術之練法,可分之為二,卽練架子與練推手是也。推手者,為二人或三人互相推手也,如練架子純熟之後,則應繼續研究推手,以求懂勁,而達實用,猶讀書必習作文。夫練架子,為知己功夫,在推手時,為知彼功夫,孫子曰:『知己知彼,百戰百勝』。可見『推手』一項,亦佔有重要之位置,豈可忽哉!然推手本無定勢,由掤,捋,擠,按,採,挒,肘,靠,等式,千變萬化,循環不巳,如環之無端;又非如他種拳術,而有固定方法者可比。惟初學推手時,須照本書推手方法,依其次序而習之,萬勿躐等,則日久功到自然成矣。
吾人在教授初學推手時,必先使其明瞭內容,何者為掤,何者為捋,如對方用擠或按來攻我,須用何式何法以化之,庶免臨時思索,則事半功倍。更不宜任意發勁,令初學者,受傾落之痛苦,否則彼懷畏懼之心理,裹足不前,則國術普遍之功,俟諸何日!迄至推練有相當根基,酌量發勁而試騐之,尤未為晚也,蓋非如是辦法,不能引起學者興趣,凡我同志,以為然否?
故練習推手,須依照太極拳論之範圍,切勿隨便做去,而成病手;迨至純熟,最好與程度相等者研究,互相琢磨,最為有益,如隨便畫圈揉手,以致勁別不分,而養成滑手之病,墊攔之弊。茲再將太極拳論,以分柝方法詳述之,說明其必須之規矩如左:
The training method in the Taiji boxing art can be divided into two parts: practicing the solo set and practicing the pushing hands. Pushing hands is when two people, or even three, are pushing each other with their hands. Once you have become skillful in the practice of the solo set, you should then continue your study with pushing hands in order to identify energies and reach the level of practical application. For an analogy, you have to practice writing in order to learn how to read well. Training the solo set is the practice of knowing the self. When pushing hands, it is the practice of knowing the opponent. Sunzi said: “Knowing both self and opponent, in a hundred battles you will have a hundred victories.” This can be seen in any example of pushing hands. Since it occupies such an important position, how can it be overlooked?
  Pushing hands did not originally have fixed postures. It came from the techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, push, pluck, rend, elbow, and bump, constantly transforming, going round and round without end like a limitless circle. While it is not like other kinds of boxing arts, it is comparable in that it has fixed methods. During the beginning of learning pushing hands, the methods in this book should be complied with, practicing according to the sequence. On no account are steps to be skipped, and then in the course of time, skill will naturally develop.
  When we teach beginners pushing hands, we must first clarify its contents. What is ward-off? What is rollback? If an opponent attacks using press or push, what technique or method must be used to neutralize it? By taking time to deeply ponder, twice the effect will be gained for half the effort. It is not appropriate to be just willfully issuing power.
  Beginners must endure being thrown, which will keep them from being fearful and hesitant to go forward, and this is the whole point of the widespread practice of martial arts. When the day comes that their pushing training has built up a sufficient foundation, discuss how to issue power and have them experiment with it, no matter how long it takes. If we do not proceed in this way, we will be unable to spark the interest of students. My comrades, am I not right?
  Therefore when practicing pushing hands, the parameters of Taiji Boxing’s theory must be complied with, and students are not to just do whatever they feel like, which would create bad habits. Once someone has achieved skillfulness, it is best to work with someone else who is at the same level, for they will then refine each other to bring about the most benefit. If they casually rub circles with their hands, energies will not be distinguished and they would cultivate the bad habits of sliding and blocking. This brings me again to Taiji Boxing’s theory, which I will use as a means of analyzing in detail as I explain the required standards below.

第一步 審查推手者,有無求懂勁之資格
STAGE ONE OF EXAMINING ONE’S PUSHING HANDS: THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF THE PREREQUISITES FOR WORKING TOWARD IDENTIFYING ENERGIES

(甲)開合陰陽,
A. OPEN & CLOSE, PASSIVE & ACTIVE

太極拳經云:『太極者,無極而生,動靜之機,陰陽之母也。動之則分,靜之則合,』是足徵太極拳根本,係從無極而來,乃無為而有為也。內中包含動靜之義,若動中有靜,乃能心平氣和,以辦別對方之勁,靜中有動,乃能轉換精氣神,以變化對方之勁,在動時,則為分,為開,為攻,為順抽絲。在靜時,則為捲,為合,為守,為逆抽絲。故太極拳一切動作,不離開此二種作用,其用開合之自身,必須具陰陽之功,所謂陰陽者,內中包含虛,實,收,放,及弛,張,等功用也,两者務須相對,以變化萬方,若缺其一,無論餘一之如何巧妙。均屬無用,此太極生两儀之説也。以上所述,如能做到,非待走架子巳練到此項作用後不可,若由推手,而能造此項開合陰陽功用,决無此理也。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Taiji [grand polarity] is born of wuji [nonpolarity], meaning it is the moment when stillness becomes motion, and gives rise to the passive and active aspects. When there is movement, the passive and active aspects become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable.”
  This is a sufficient description of the essence of Taiji Boxing. It comes from wuji, and thereby it does through non-doing. It contains within it the manifestations of movement and stillness. If there is stillness within movement, it can calm your mind and harmonize your energy, in order for you to differentiate the opponent’s energies. If there is movement within stillness, it can convert essence to energy to spirit, in order for you to transform the opponent’s energies. When there is movement, there is spreading out, opening, attacking, and outward reeling of silk. When there is stillness, there is rolling in, closing, defending, and inward reeling of silk.
  Therefore in every movement in Taiji Boxing, there is no departing from these two kinds of functions. When you open and close with your body, you must have the skill of passivity/activity, which embodies the functions of emptiness/fullness, gathering/releasing, slackening/expanding, and so on. The two opposites must correspond to each other in order to transform in all ways. If you lack either one, no matter how good the other may seem to be, both will be rendered useless.
  Thus is explained the “great pole” generating the two polarities, as described above. If you think you will be able to accomplish this without needing to practice the solo set, that these effects have already been trained into you, you will be wrong. And if you think that through practicing only pushing hands you will be able to bring about these functions of open/close and passive/active, you will utterly lack these principles.

(乙)粘黏連隨,
B. STICKING, ADHERING, CONNECTING, AND FOLLOWING

太極拳經云,『無過不及,隨曲就伸,』係指太極拳,與人對待時,旣須有陰陽動靜之功用,又須個人運用之姿勢,不越其範圍,亦不可不及,施之於人,須恰當其機,恰臨其時乃可以輕制重也,
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend.”
  This has to do with Taiji Boxing’s partner work. Each person has to be functional at passive/active and movement/stillness. Both must also neither overreach in their postures nor stop too short. In carrying out techniques upon the opponent, you must take the right opportunities. When you see the appropriate moment, then you can use lightness to control heaviness.

因是一切對待,須要:
In accordance with all of this while dealing with an opponent, you must:
無過。則為粘勁,若過,則為頂病矣。
[1] “Neither go too far…” – This refers to sticking energy. If you go too far, that is the error of crashing in.
不及。則為丢病,能及,則為黏勁矣。
[2] “… nor not far enough,…” – This refers to the error of coming away. If you can go far enough, that is adhering energy.
隨曲。則為連勁,若不能隨曲,則為匾病矣。
[3] “… comply and bend…” – This refers to connecting energy. If you cannot comply and bend, you will make the error of collapsing.
就伸。則為隨勁,伸過,則為抗病矣。
[4] “then engage and extend.” – This refers to following energy. If you overextend, that is the error of resistance.
此四項功用,係完全由推手而得,惟欲求此,四項功用之實况,須具下列(丙)(丁)两項之條件。
These four kinds of skills are obtained entirely through doing pushing hands, and will only come to you if you work hard for them. Once these four are a reality, you must then possess the two conditions (C & D) which follow.

(丙)剛柔順遂,
C. HARDNESS & SOFTNESS, SMOOTHNESS & COARSENESS

太極拳經云。『人剛我柔謂之走,我順人背謂之粘。』係指人以剛來,己以柔應,柔與剛遇,須不與頂勢,不生丢象,而柔勁中,尤須藏有掤勁,為有掤勁,而不丢頂,方能走也,故無掤勁之柔,與剛遇則匾,不足以應剛,自不能稱之為走矣。
若用順遂之勢以臨人、方可逼人以不順也,令人不得勢也,此非有用粘字功夫不可矣,粘字近于攻,為剛,走字近於柔,為守,俗呼走為瀉勁,粘為補勁,因個人有粘走之功,而後可以調節對方之勁,不生丢頂,而後方可粘黏為一也,如是乃可動靜相應,得以感覺對方勁之如何矣。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking.”
  The situation here is: the opponent attacks with hardness and I respond with softness. When softness encounters hardness, it must not crash into it [i.e. respond by likewise becoming hardness], nor come away from it [i.e. become too soft], for soft energy particularly needs to have ward-off energy stored within it. Having ward-off energy, as well as neither coming away nor crashing in, then you will be able to yield. When softness without ward-off energy encounters hardness, it will collapse, being insufficient to respond to hardness, and that certainly could not be called yielding.
  If you can use smooth energy when dealing with an opponent, then you can compel him to use coarse energy, causing him to be unable to get into a good position. If you are not sticking to him, you will not be able to do this. Sticking verges on attack, which is hard. Yielding verges on softness, which is defensive. It is commonly said that yielding is an energy of flowing out and sticking is an energy of filling in. Because both people have the ability to stick and yield, then each has the ability to harmonize with the other’s energy. Not generating any instances of coming away or crashing in, you can then stick and adhere to each other as one. If these are the case, then movement and stillness can respond to each other and you will be able to sense the state of the opponent’s energy.

(丁)急緩粘走。
D. QUICKNESS & LEISURE, STICKING & YIELDING

太極拳經云。『動急則急應,動緩則緩隨。』上列所論,雖能用走以引進,用粘以使對方根斷,仍須就對方動作之快慢,而追隨之也,所以動急則急應,動緩則緩隨,而後其功可得矣,如不能急緩相生,則不能粘走相應,豈能感覺對方勁之動靜變化乎。
試觀上列四項,如在走架子時,不能具開合陰陽之習慣,所運之勁,又無剛柔之分,所動之度,不能行急緩之功,安能得黏連粘隨之效乎。若欲在推手時,由粘黏連隨中,再求開合,陰陽,剛柔,急緩,順遂,豈非倒行逆施乎,况此乃二人之動作,即個人有此心意,多為對方所牽制,而不可能,卽能粘黏連隨,亦係為病手之粘黏連隨,為不得機不得勢之粘走,安能得收太極拳之功用乎。所以欲求懂勁,必先具求懂勁之資格,有此資格,乃多行推手,以求經騐,而後真正之粘黏連隨可生,此為學太極拳者,不可超過之程序也。雖然,此項粘走之『變化萬端』,而理為一貫,必須由推手着熟,而漸悟懂勁,由懂勁而階及神明,然非用力之久,不能豁然貫通焉』此為學習推手,以求懂勁之過程也。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow.”
  With this concept, although you can use yielding to entice the opponent to enter and use sticking to cause his root to break, you still have to regard his speed and pursue him in accordance with it. Thus the skill of “if he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow” can then obtained. If quickness and leisure cannot generate each other, then sticking and yielding will not be able to respond to each other. How then would you be able to sense when the opponent’s energies are changing between movement and stillness?
  Keep an eye on the four themes above. If when practicing the solo set you are unable to have a habit of open/close and passive/active in the energy of the exercise, or to distinguish between hard and soft when gauging your movement, then you will be unable to have the skill of acting quickly/leisurely. How could you then get any results from sticking, adhering, connecting, and following? If you wish to be doing pushing hands starting from sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, and from that point work toward open/close, passive/active, hard/soft, quickness/leisure, smooth/coarse, would that not then go against commonsense?
  Furthermore, this is an exercise between two people, and so each person has the same things in mind. Often you will be unable to control the opponent, which is a matter of your ability in sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, or an issue of faulty technique during them. If your sticking and yielding is not putting you in the right place at the right time, how can you acquire any functionality in your Taiji Boxing? Therefore if you want to work toward identifying energies, you must first possess the requirements for identifying energies.
  Once in possession of all these parts, then through frequent practice of pushing hands you will obtain further by way of experience, and then genuine sticking, adhering, connecting, and following will be generated. But when learning this part of Taiji Boxing, you must not try to rush ahead through the process. Although this passage is about sticking and yielding – “There is an endless variety of possible scenarios, but there is only this single principle [of sticking and yielding] throughout. Once you have ingrained these pushing hands techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.” – this is the process in the pushing hands training of working toward identifying energies.

因此學習推手者,在第一步,應審查其:
In accordance with the above, the first stage of learning pushing hands should be examined through these questions:
(一)有無開合之勁,卽一切動作,有無順逆抽絲之勁也。
1. Do you have the energies of open and close? Do you have in every movement the energies of reeling silk outward and inward?
(二)有無陰陽之分,卽一切動作,有無虛實之分也。
2. Are you distinguishing between passive and active? Are you in every movement distinguishing between empty and full?
(三)有無緩急之功,卽一切動作,有無快慢之能也。
3. Do you have the skill of quickness/leisure? Do you have in every movement the ability to be fast/slow?
如均有之,乃可學習推手,以求粘黏連隨之功矣。
If you have all of these things, your pushing hands training can move on to the skills of sticking, adhering, connecting, and following.

第二步:審查推手者,粘黏連隨之姿勢與精神:
STAGE TWO OF EXAMINING ONE’S PUSHING HANDS: THE POSTURE & SPIRIT OF STICKING, ADHERING, CONNECTING, AND FOLLOWING

(一)輕。
LIGHTNESS

太極拳經云:『虛靈頂勁。』求粘黏連隨者,自身必須有輕淨之能力,然後可以知其量,所以頂勁虛懸,乃頂上有掤勁之謂也,因此精神能提得起,所以無遲重之虞,而後變化,自然活潑矣。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Forcelessly press up your headtop.”
  When working toward sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, you must have in yourself the ability to be extremely light, then you can know the opponent’s power. Therefore your headtop is to be effortlessly suspended, and then there is ward-off energy all the way up to your headtop. Because of this, spirit can be lifted up, and so there will then be no worry of the movement being late or sluggish, and instead changes will be natural and lively.

(二)沉。
HEAVINESS

太極拳經云:『氣沉丹田。』求粘黏連隨者,自身必須有沉着之能力,然後可以制人,而不復受制於人,故氣沉丹田,為下掤勁之功也,乃以心行氣,務令沉着,得歛入骨髓之故也,則推手時,不致浮飄其動作矣。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Energy sinks to your elixir field.”
  When working toward sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, you must have in yourself the ability to be extremely calm, then you can control the opponent and not be controlled by the opponent. Therefore energy sinking to your elixir field is the skill of a downward ward-off energy. In using mind to move energy, you must be calm so as to get it to gather into your bones, and then when pushing hands, it will not result in the movements floating.

(三)中正不偏。
BEING CENTERED RATHER THAN LEANING

太極拳經云。『不偏不倚。』不偏求粘黏連隨者,必須自身中正不偏之功,而後可以支撑八面也。在粘黏連隨時,應以中正之身,與之以週旋,則進退,乃能裕如,不致為人所擊,致招變化不開之病。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Neither lean…”
  In working toward sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, you must have the skill in your body of being centered and not leaning so as to be able to brace in all directions. When sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, your body should be centered in order to twist, and then when advancing or retreating, you will maintain effortlessness, presenting no place for the opponent to attack, not committing the error of drawing him in to try and neutralize him but then neglecting to spread him away.

(四)不倚不墊。
NEITHER SLANTING NOR DIGGING IN

太極拳經云。『不偏不倚。』不倚求黏粘連隨者,必須不將巳勁,倚靠人之身手之弊,不以己之身手,而為人墊勁之弊,因倚靠人之一點,及替人墊勁,均失求懂勁之意矣,而己身易浮起,足根易斷,為人所引進矣,因此倚墊二字,乃頂抗病之謀也。
The Classic continues: “… nor slant.”
  In working toward sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, you must not send forth your own energy, but instead rely on the errors of the opponent’s body or hands. Do not use your own body and hands, but instead make use of the opponent’s error of digging in. If you were to lean against him at that spot [where he is digging in,] you will simply replace his digging-in energy, which would unavoidably make you lose your chance to identify his energies. Your body would easily float up, your heel would easily disconnect from the ground, and the opponent would have a way in. Slanting and digging in are both vehicles for the error of resistance.

(五)靈。
NIMBLENESS

太極拳經云:『忽隱忽顯。』求粘黏連隨者。己勁應有靈敏活潑之功,能隱則為柔,為輕,能顯則為剛,為沉。如能到柔相變,輕沉相換,靈敏迅速,令人不測,乃係不為人懂而極易懂人之法也。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Suddenly hide and suddenly appear.”
  In working toward sticking, adhering, connecting, and following, your own energy should have the ability to be sensitive and lively. When you are able to “hide”, that is a matter of softness and lightness. When you are able to “appear”, that is a matter of hardness and heaviness. If you are able to have hardness and softness transform into each other, to have lightness and heaviness alternate with each other, to be sensitive and decisive, and to cause your opponent to have nothing to perceive, then you will have the method of easily being able to read him while keeping him from reading you.

以上五項。如能行之,多係两膊常相繫住,及鬆淨專主一方之關係,而後方可两者倒換靈敏,左重則右虛,右重則左杳矣,有此靈敏之功後,對方若仰來,則以高粘之,俯來,則以深黏之,對方若進,則長以連之,若退,則促以隨之,如是四者,則粘黏連隨之功可得,其知覺靈敏,有如一羽不能加,其身手圓活,卽蠅蟲亦不能落也,拳經云:『人不知我,我獨知人,英雄所向無敵,蓋皆由此而及也。』
If you are capable with the five themes above, it will usually be the case that your arms will work in tandem to release in a specific direction and later be able to take turns dexterously. [The Taiji Boxing Classic says:] “When there is pressure on the left, the right [left] empties. When there is pressure on the right, the left [right] disappears.” Once you have this level of sensitivity:
  [1] If the opponent moves upward toward you, he is made to go higher because you are sticking to him. [“When looking up, it is still higher.”]
  [2] If he moves downward toward you, he is made to go lower because you are adhering to him. [“When looking down, it is still lower.”]
  [3] If he advances, he is made to reach farther because you are connecting to him. [“When advancing, it is even farther.”]
  [4] If he retreats, he finds himself nearer to you because you are following him. [“When retreating, it is even nearer.”]
  With these four being the case, the skills of sticking, adhering, connecting, and following will thus be obtained. With keen sensitivity it is as though “A feather cannot be added and…” with nimbleness of body and hands as if “… a fly cannot land.” The Classic continues: “The opponent does not understand me, only I understand him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.”

因此學習推手,在第二步,應審查其:
In accordance with the above, the second stage of learning pushing hands should be examined through these questions:
(一)有無領起頂頭懸,減輕之功。
Do you have the quality of leading upward to suspend your headtop – the skill of lightening?
(二)有無下沉丹田氣,增沉之功。
Do you have the quality of energy sinking to your elixir field – the skill of becoming heavier?
(三)身體是否中正不偏。
Is your body centered instead of leaning?
(四)有無墊擱人手之弊。
Are you committing the error of bracing against your opponent’s hands?
(五)能否靈敏以變換,剛柔輕沉。
Can you alternate fluently between hardness and softness, lightness and heaviness?

如有此五項之功,而無有弊,則推手之姿勢,及精神,可謂得矣,粘黏連隨之功,不愁不生矣,四功巳得,再求懂勁自易,制人之法,亦可連帶不及而獲矣。
If you possess these five skills and are without error, then it can be said you have obtained both the posture and spirit of pushing hands. You also then do not need to worry that the skills of stick, adhere, connect, and follow are not developing, for these four skills will have already been obtained. Working toward identifying energies will now be natural and easy, and the method of controlling opponents will be obtained without seeking it.

第三步,審查推手者,求懂勁之方法。
STAGE THREE OF EXAMINING ONE’S PUSHING HANDS: METHODS OF WORKING TOWARD IDENTIFYING ENERGIES

(一)秤勁,
WEIGHING ENERGY

太極拳經云:『立如平準。』求懂勁者,必須立如平準,與人對待時,自身視之如磅秤,頭頂作為天秤之凖頭,两手作左右之两盤,两膊相繫,作為天秤之橫木,腰作磅秤之根株,下通至尾閭,有如磅秤之立柱,尾閭中正,神貫於頂,上下一線,有此種種,乃可秤對方勁之大小,稍有輕重浮沉,莫不顯然而有準,是為懂勁之輕重法也。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Stand like a scale.”
  In working toward identifying energies, you must stand like a scale. When awaiting the opponent, your body appears as a flat scale. Your head is like the uppermost point above the hinge, your hands making the trays to each side, your arms bound to each other to make the horizontal balance beam, your waist the platform base, and going down through the base to your tailbone, there is the supporting post holding everything up. Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop, making a single line up and down. Equipped will all these things, you can then weigh the size of the opponent’s energies. Whether there is the slightest bit of lightness or heaviness, floating or sinking, they will all be revealed with precision. This is the method of identifying the lightness or heaviness of energies.

(二)化勁。
NEUTRALIZING ENERGY

太極拳經云:『活如車輪。』求懂勁者,雖有平準在身,仍須裝置於車輪之上,因人與物異,雙方均思求秤人,而不願為人秤,須為秤就人,人不能就秤也。故須以氣作輪,以腰為軸,两膊相繫以待,如輪之橫人,上下相隨,為輪之豎行,稍一觸動,則上下,左右,前後,旋轉自如,而後乃可秤得人上,是為懂勁之法也。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “Move like a wheel.”
  In working toward identifying energies, although you now have “stand like a scale” in your body, you still need to install a wheel-like property. Because people and things are different, the two parts are to be put together as a scale-man, but we are not to entertain the notion of a man-scale, for we must add the scale quality in the context of the body and cannot do it the other way around. [In other words, while your body must adopt some scale-like attributes, you should not try to imitate a scale so exactly that you cease to function like a person when facing an opponent.] Therefore you must treat energy as a wheel and your waist as the axle, your arms united in service of each other. When your wheel is turning horizontally, your upper body and lower will be coordinating with each other, the wheel rotating on a vertical axis. When you feel the slightest touch, then in going up or down, left or right, forward or back, rotations will be smooth, and then it can be the case that the scale quality has been achieved by your body. This is the method of identifying the direction of energies.

(三)牽引。
DRAWING IN

太極拳經云:『偏沉則隨,雙重則滯。』求懂勁者,旣懂對方勁之來去方面,又懂對方勁之輕重大小,可謂巳得懂勁之方法矣,自身旣立如平準之中正不偏,又活如車輪之上下相隨,對方若加之以勁,則一方感覺偏沉,自可本其沉勁之方向以相隨,是為舍己從人矣。若勁係來勢,則以車輪之轉,而引進落空矣,若勁係去勢,則牽動四両撥千斤矣。此牽引勁,為推手不可少之勁也。牽引勁之所生,乃在自身有偏沉之功,對方卽加之以勁,仍須調整使之偏沉也。如能旋轉,其原動力,均在車輪微微偏沉,左右上下前後之一點,因有此不平均之微沉,而車輪牽動以旋轉矣,若輪之左右前後,均是相等之重,此為雙重之病,力量相等,必改滯住其輪,不能動矣,若偏重一邊太過,車輪必致傾覆而倒矣,何能有秤人之勁乎。故此處偏沉,乃指微微之偏,不是偏重一邊之偏也。
The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “If you drop one side, you can move. If you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck.”
  In working toward identifying energies, if you are identifying the direction that the opponent’s energy is coming or going, and are identifying the weight and size of his energy, then it can already be said you have obtained the method of identifying energies. Having in yourself the centered and unleaning quality of standing like a scale, as well as the upper and lower body coordination of moving like a wheel, then once the opponent adds some energy, you feel the direction it is going and sink toward that side, and can then follow along with it based on the direction his energy is now sinking. This is letting go of yourself to follow the opponent. If his energy is coming toward you, then turn like a wheel and draw it in to land on nothing. Once his energy has passed you, then tug on his action with four ounces [of extra weight] moving [his initial weight of] a thousand pounds. [The equivalent English idiom to “four ounces moving a thousand pounds” is therefore “the straw that broke the camel’s back”.]
  This drawing-in energy is the indispensable energy in pushing hands. What creates the drawing-in energy is your body possessing the skill of sinking to one side. If the opponent adds energy, you still must adjust by getting it to sink to one side. If you can rotate his original force, it is always with the wheel slightly sinking away to one side and at a single point, whether left or right, up or down, forward or back. Because there is this irregularity in slightly sinking, the wheel tugs at his movement by rotating. If the wheel has equal pressure to the left and right, or forward and back, this is the error of double pressure. With the power equalized in this way, it would inevitably change the situation by impeding your wheel so you cannot move. [i.e. The wheel is being pushed to both sides at the same time and is thus held fast. If we translate “double pressure” as “double weighted”, the image is then of the scale’s trays being held level with each other rather than one side dropping and the other side rising.] But if you go to one side too far, your wheel will be overturned, and how can you then have the energy of a scale-man? Therefore this sinking to one side depends on being done slightly rather than with exaggeration.

以上三項,為求懂勁之法,須有如平準,車輪,二物,時伴其身,此項之準輪,兼有制人之運用法,須有牽引力,為之推動,拳經云:『每見數年純功,而不能運化者,率皆為人所制,卒不能制人者,雙重之病未悟耳。』亦卽無牽引力所致也。欲避此病,須知陰陽,此虛實輕沉,以倒換之論也,又須知粘走,此剛柔順遂,以變化之謂也。然後,粘卽是走,走卽是粘,陰不離陽,陽離不陰,粘走相應,陰陽相濟,是為懂勁,懂勁之後,愈練愈精,默識揣摩,漸至從心所欲矣。
The three themes above are methods of working toward identifying energies. You must possess qualities such as scaleness and wheelness, and both of these things are to accompany your body always. With these qualities together, you have a method of controlling the opponent’s movement, but you must have ability to draw him in for there to then be a pushing action.
  The Taiji Boxing Classic says: “We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is generally under the opponent’s control, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood.” The meaning of that particular term is: an inability to draw the opponent in. “If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active.” – meaning emptiness and fullness, lightness and heaviness – which has to do with rotation. You also must understand sticking and yielding – meaning hardness and softness, smoothness and coarseness – which has to do with transforming.
  The Classic then goes on: “In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The passive does not depart from the active and the active does not depart from the passive. Sticking and yielding correspond to each other, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies. Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.”

學習推手者,第三步,應審查:
The third stage of learning pushing hands should be examined through these questions:
(一)平準之感覺性強弱,內中分毫,能分別否?
As to the strength or weakness of the sensitivity of your scale, do you feel inside the slightest differences and can you make distinctions?
(二)車輪之橡皮帶,內中氣量夠度否?
As to your rotating like a rubber tire, are you sufficiently inflated within [so that you rotate rather than collapse]?
(三)牽引力,能否隨心意,以活潑變化輕沉否?
As to your ability to draw the opponent in, can you do as you please and change with liveliness between lightness and heaviness?
(四)推手者之腦力,是否遲鈍,抑靈敏否?
As to your mental acuity when pushing hands, are you dull-witted or are you sharp?

如此四項,俱臻上乘,則懂勁之功,自可操券而得矣,能懂其勁,則上下相隨,左右逢源,信手而發,悉中肯綮矣,惟應注意者,求懂勁,雖屬舍己從人,然從人自有分寸。不可盲從,從人尤須有一定地點,不可亂從,故欲從人,應就近己身之一點,而粘之,粘定後,卽在此點與之週旋不脫以隨之,無論對方如何變化,均以此粘點,作半勁之中心,從一不從二,從近不從遠,因從近,則槓杆在我,易於得機得勢,因從一,則不致開門捉影,顧此失彼矣。此為求懂勁,極端注意粘定之點,萬不可舍近以求遠也。太極拳經云:『本是舍己從人,多誤舍近求遠』,此為太極拳經最後之結論,學習者應極端注意之。
茲並附两表,作自修時,自行問答之用
If you attain these four things to a high level, then you have the skill of identifying energies and will undoubtedly succeed. If you can identify the opponent’s energies, then your upper body and lower will be coordinated with each other, and to the left and right you will achieve what you intend, effortlessly issuing and precisely on target. But you will have to pay attention when working toward identifying energies.
  Although this has to do with the principle of letting go of yourself and following the opponent, in following him you will naturally have a sense of how far to do so and must not be following along blindly. When following him, you especially need to have a specific spot that you are following and must not be following him randomly. If you want to follow him, it should be at a spot close to you that you are sticking to. Once you are sticking firmly to that spot, then however it turns, do not come away from it. Regardless of how he adjusts, remain with that spot, staying focused upon it. Follow only one spot at a time, not two, and following only one that is close to you, not one that is far. Because I am following a point that is close to me, the fulcrum of the lever lies within me, and it is easy to release at the right moment and in the ri