TAIJI BOXING ACCORDING TO XU ZHIYI

太極拳(吳鑑泉式)
TAIJI BOXING (WU JIANQUAN STYLE)
徐致一編著
by Xu Zhiyi
[published July, 1958]

[translation by Paul Brennan, July, 2018]

目錄
CONTENTS

第一章 太極拳的優點
Chapter One: The Merits of Taiji Boxing
第二章 太極拳在行功時的心理作用
Chapter Two: Psychological Function in the Practice of Taiji Boxing
第三章 太極拳在動作特點上的生理作用
Chapter Three: The Physiological Effects of Taiji Boxing’s Particular Type of Movement
第四章 太極拳在技擊上的力學根據
Chapter Four: The Basis in Mechanics for Taiji Boxing’s Martial Skills
第五章 盤架子時應當注意的法則
Chapter Five: Principles to be Given Attention When Practicing the Boxing Set
第六章 練習推手時應當注意的法則
Chapter Six: Principles to be Given Attention When Practicing Pushing Hands
第七章 拳式名稱
Chapter Seven: On the Names of the Boxing Postures
第八章 基本動作
Chapter Eight: Fundamentals of Movement
第九章 拳式圖解
Chapter Nine: Explanations for the Boxing Postures
第十章 推手圖解
Chapter Ten: Pushing Hands Explanations
附錄:
Appendices:
 王宗岳的太極拳論
 Wang Zongyue’s Taiji Boxing Treatise
 武禹襄的太極拳論
 Wu Yuxiang’s Taiji Boxing Treatise
 十三勢歌訣
 Thirteen Dynamics Song
 十三勢行功心解
 Understanding How to Practice the Thirteen Dynamics
 打手歌
 Playing Hands Song

前言
INTRODUCTION

本書所介紹的拳式是已故太極拳專家吳鑑泉先生的拳式。但吳先生所遺留的拳照,作者只能找到六十餘幀,並不齊全,而且有些式子沒有加攝過程動作,初學的人很難看懂。因此,由他的高足趙壽邨擇要補充五十個動作。這些補充的拳照,有不少式子都是拳式過程中的銜接動作,不是已經靜止的定式;由於作者缺乏經驗,所攝姿勢還間有與定式不盡符合的地方,這是深為抱歉的。希望學拳者在閱讀圖解時,除注意文字說明外,還需多多參考吳先生的各種拳姿。不但要研究它的形狀,尤其需要研究它的神氣。這樣,就能夠在學習上得到較好的收獲了。
吳先生所傳授的拳理拳法,作者根據個人的淺薄體會分別作了解釋。但限於作者的造詣,在解釋上很可能有許多不盡確當的地方,這是應當由作者自己負責的。又,其中關於科學性質的理論,作者缺乏科學知識,自知力有不及;但由於作者在四十年前練習太極拳的時候,對於太極拳的醫療作用,早已有了親身的經驗,所以一直就殷切希望著練拳的科學家把太極拳的科學道理加以研究和闡述。近年來,已有不少學者對太極拳進行過研究。醫師曲綿域先生就曾經對太極拳作了深入的研究,並發表文章證明它的保健作用。在今天,作者還是懷著同樣的願望,所以不怕貽笑大方,作了拋磚引玉的嘗試。如果這一塊磚頭真能夠引出更多的美玉來,那就不僅是作者一人的莫大幸事了!
吳先生的太極拳是由他的父親吳全佑先生所傳授的;全佑先生先從楊福魁先生(號露蟬,又號祿禪,河北永年縣人)學拳,後來又列入楊氏次子班侯先生的門牆。在許禹生先生所著的“太極拳勢圖解”裡有這樣一段記載:“當露蟬先生充旗營教師時,得其真傳者蓋三人:萬春、凌山、全佑是也;一勁剛、一善發人、一善柔化;或謂三人各得先生之一體,有筋骨皮之分。”根據作者追隨吳先生的多年體驗,吳先生的太極拳確是以柔化為主,所以本書也只能從柔化來說明太極拳的拳理,拳法,並不是否認太極拳的其他兩種功夫,這是應當告訴讀者的。
關於太極拳的源流問題,到現在為止,還在討論中。這一問題,作者從未作過考證,所以本書略而不談。
本書在編寫過程中,曾經得到前輩先生和好多位同學的熱心幫助,如同學趙壽邨擔任拳照的補充工作,還和同學吳耀宗合演推手,並攝成圖片;同學陳振民則把僅存的吳先生拳照割愛相讓;此外,還有前輩張達泉先生和郭啟通、孫潤志、楊炳誠、楊孝文、丁晉山、丁德山、程錫甫、陳覺吾、朱廉湘、周元龍諸同學也都對本書提供了寶貴的意見,使本書能夠減少一些錯誤,都應當致以誠摯的感謝。但由於作者的水平不夠,難免還有許多錯誤沒能察覺出來,如蒙敬愛的讀者熱心賜教,不勝感幸!
作者徐致一謹識 1958年3月
The boxing postures presented in this book are those of the Taiji Boxing master Wu Jianquan. However, of the photographs of Wu’s postures that have been left to us, I have only been able to obtain just over sixty, not at all a complete set, and furthermore, some postures have not had photos of transitional movements added, making it very difficult for beginners to understand. Because of this, his student Zhao Shoucun has been photographed performing an additional fifty movements. These supplementary photographs are often transitional movements linking between postures rather than the completed postures themselves. Due to my own lack of experience, there are still some gaps among the posture photographs and in some places do not entirely conform to the final postures, things for which I deeply apologize. I hope that when you read through these explanations, you will go beyond giving attention to the text and will also want to frequently consult Wu’s boxing postures. You should not only study his posture, you should especially observe his spirit. In this way, you will be able to learn the material even better.
  I have made explanations for the boxing theory and techniques that Wu taught, according to my meager experience. Limited by my level of attainment, these explanations are very likely to be incomplete in places, for which I alone am to blame. Regarding the scientific principles in this book, my scientific knowledge and insight are inadequate. However, because of my forty years of practicing Taiji Boxing, I have since long ago had personal experience of its medicinal effects and thus I eagerly hope for scientists who practice boxing arts to study and elaborate upon the scientific principles of the art. In recent years, there has been quite a bit of research into Taiji Boxing. For example, Dr. Qu Mianyu [of the Beijing Medical School’s “Medical Athletics” Research Department] has made a deep study of the art and has published articles to prove its health effects. To this day, I still harbor the same wish, and thus even though I may invite the ridicule of experts, I will attempt to “toss out a brick to draw forth jade” [i.e. present a mediocre work to try to inspire others to do a better job]. In case this piece of brick really can get some fine jade to come to us, then it would be a great blessing not only to myself.
  Wu’s Taiji Boxing was taught to him by his father, Quan You, who first learned the boxing art from Yang Fukui (called Luchan, from Yongnian County, Hebei) and then later on was included among the students of Yang’s second son, Banhou. Xu Yusheng’s Taiji Boxing Postures Explained [1921] contains this account: “While Yang Luchan served as instructor at the Manchu barracks, three people who got instruction from him were Wan Chun, whose power was hard, Ling Shan, who was good at flinging opponents away, and Quan You, who was good at neutralizing, and so it is said that three people each obtained one of his qualities. When he physically declined, [he then told them all to do obeisance to Banhou as their teacher, and hence they are said to be Banhou’s disciples.]” Based on my own experience of learning from Wu for many years, his Taiji Boxing does indeed prioritize neutralizing, therefore this book cannot help but discuss Taiji Boxing principles and techniques from the basis of neutralizing, but just to make it clear, this is not meant to deny the other ways of training in the art. Regarding the issue of the origins of Taiji Boxing, it is still discussed to this day. As I myself have done no further research into it [since Chapter Two of his 1927 book], I therefore do not address it in this book.
  In the course of making this book, I received enthusiastic assistance from one of my elders and many of my fellow students, such as Zhao Shoucun, who performs the postures in the supplementary photographs, and Wu Yaozong [also known as Y. T. Wu], who performs with Zhao in the pushing hands photographs. My fellow student Chen Zhenmin gave me the priceless and only existing photos of Wu performing the boxing postures [which had been made for his 1935 manual co-authored with Ma Yueliang, the “only existing” not counting the photos that appeared in Chu Minyi’s 1929 manual, which Xu was perhaps unaware of]. Beyond this, my senior Zhang Danquan, as well as my fellow students Guo Qitong, Sun Runzhi Yang Bingcheng, Yang Xiaowen, Ding Jinshan, Ding Deshan, Cheng Xifu, Chen Juewu, Zhu Lianxiang, and Zhou Yuanlong all supplied me with valuable suggestions, causing this book to have fewer errors than it would have. I extend my sincere thanks to them all. But due to my own level of skill being so inadequate, there are surely still many errors that I have missed. If, dear reader, you would point them out to me, I would feel blessed indeed.
  - sincerely written by the author, Xu Zhiyi, March, 1958

第一章 太極拳的優點
CHAPTER ONE: THE MERITS OF TAIJI BOXING

武術的各種套路在鍛煉上都有它自己的特殊目標和要求。由於它的鍛煉目標限定在某些方面,就必然不能兼顧到其他方面,所以任何一項武術都有它的優點,也都有它的缺點。太極拳是一種柔性武術,按照它的方法來進行鍛煉,在療養作用上和柔化功夫上,當然有它的特點;但在擴大肌肉和發展外壯功夫的方面,當然就不能和剛性武術相提並論。因此,說太極拳有優點,並不等於說太極拳沒有缺點,也並不等於說這些優點只是太極拳所獨有。總之,太極拳有它自己的特點是不可否認的事實。下面就根據它的特點來說明它的優點:
The various practice sets in martial arts all have their own particular goals and requirements. Because a martial art’s training goals are confined to certain aspects, it will of course be unable to attend to other aspects, and therefore whatever the martial art, they all have their merits and they all have their defects.
  Taiji Boxing is a type of soft martial art. On the basis of its training methods, it thus promotes healing and develops the skill of neutralization, and so it indeed has its advantages, though for expanding the muscles and developing external strength, it is naturally not as effective as martial arts that emphasize hardness. Therefore to say that Taiji Boxing has merits does not at all mean that it has no flaws, nor even that these merits are exclusive to Taiji Boxing. But it is undeniable that Taiji Boxing has its own special characteristics, and I will explain its merits below in accordance with these characteristics.

甲、作為健身運動的幾個優點
A. ITS MERITS AS A FITNESS EXERCISE

1. 全面鍛煉:
It trains the whole body.

太極拳的動作有幾個極為重要的特點,如柔軟、慢、連貫、走弧線(即圓形動作)和一動無有不動(語見“十三勢行功心解”),都是鍛煉上絕對不可忽視的法則。後文還要分別細說。在這裡只是拿一動無有不動的特點來證明它的全面鍛煉的作用。大家都知道,游泳是需要手足和身體一起動作的一項運動,它已經被公認為有全面鍛煉效果的運動項目之一。太極拳在動作時,凡是全身能動的部分,都需要參加活動,所以叫做一動無有不動。它的運動量雖然較游泳為小,但在全身動作的和諧上和細緻上,卻是有過之而無不及的。可見太極拳具有全面鍛煉的優點。
There are several extremely important characteristics of movement in Taiji Boxing, such as softness, slowness, connectedness, moving in arcs (i.e. roundness), and the principle of “when one part moves, every part moves” (from the essay “Understanding How to Practice”). These are all principles that must not be ignored in your training. They will each be explained in more detail in the chapters that follow, but here I will only highlight the principle of “when one part moves, every part moves” to demonstrate that the art trains the whole body.
  Everybody knows that swimming is an exercise that requires moving the hands, feet, and body in unison, and so it is already acknowledged as being an exercise that has the effect of training the whole body. While practicing Taiji Boxing, whenever any part is able to move, they all have to be participating in the movement, hence “when one part moves, every part moves”. Although it requires less energy than swimming, it actually has an even greater degree of harmoniousness and fine detail in its whole-bodied movement, and so obviously Taiji Boxing has the merit of training the whole body.

2.內外兼顧:
It gives equal attention to internal and external aspects.

太極拳在鍛煉時,不但肌肉活動有各式各樣的柔和動作,同時還要做好呼吸運動和橫膈運動,來促進心、肺、腸、胃等內臟的機能活動。另外,由於每一個動作都用意識加以引導,使人精神集中,不起雜念,以至越煉越純靜(即心境異常安靜之意),也能使中樞神經系統進行更好的調節作用。這種鍛煉方法,一面具有一般運動項目活動肌肉的好處,一面又吸收了靜坐法調息養神的好處,所以能有內外兼顧的優點。
When practicing Taiji Boxing, it not only livens the muscles with all sorts of mild movements, it also exercises the breathing, working the diaphragm, and improves the function of the heart, lungs, intestines, stomach, and the other internal organs. Additionally, every movement is guided by intention, causing your mind to focus and not give rise to distracted thoughts. The more you practice, the more you will achieve pure stillness (meaning that your state of mind is unusually calm), and thus it can also cause your central nervous system to function more smoothly.
  This kind of practice method has two aspects, one being that it has the benefit of using ordinary movement to work the muscles, the other being that it also has the benefit of having absorbed the meditation methods of regulating the breath and nourishing the spirit, and thus it is able to have the advantage of giving equal attention to both what is external and what is internal.

3. 趣味濃厚:
It is highly enjoyable.

太極拳的動作都走圓形或者弧形的線路,在初練架子時,不容易做好圓形動作,當然趣味較少。但練到後來,越練越熟,圓轉如意的程度不斷提高,便會發生濃厚的趣味。到最後,如能在圓形動作中,運用虛實變化和運動調息的功夫時,它的趣味也就更加層出不窮了(這種趣味對於推手也並不例外)。趣味濃厚能提高鍛煉情緒,對促進健康有很大影響,這也是太極拳所具有的優點之一。
Taiji Boxing’s movements are all rounded arcs. In the beginning of practicing the boxing set, it is not so easy to make rounded movements, and so naturally it may be somewhat less enjoyable at that stage. But with more practice, the movements will become more familiar, and you will continuously get better at making smoother arcs, which will produce greater delight.
  Within making rounded movements, you will eventually develop the skill of switching between emptiness and fullness, and the skill of regulating the breath, and from then on it will become ever more enjoyable. (This is also true for the pushing hands exercises). Because it is so enjoyable, it can improve your mood while practicing, which will have an enormous influence toward improving your health, and so this is one of the definite advantages of Taiji Boxing.

4. 陶養性情:
It sculpts the temperament.

太極拳的動作要求柔和,要求輕靈貫串,又要求在動作中包含著“動中有靜、靜中有動”的意識作用,能使性急的或者性慢的練拳人在無形中接受影響,矯正原有的習慣。因為太極拳一面講究靈敏,能使人提高敏感,一面又講究沉靜,能使人抑制浮躁。另外,在推手時,即使兩人功力相等,但好勇鬥狠的一方,往往受到更多或者更重的打擊,這也能使粗暴的人得到潛移默化的效果。由此可見太極拳具有陶養性情的優點,在理論上和事實上也都有一定的根據。
Taiji Boxing’s movements strive for both mildness and nimbleness, to be imbued with a mentality of “stillness within movement, movement within stillness”. This attitude can imperceptibly influence practitioners, be they impatient [by bringing a sense of stillness to their movement] or too patient [by bringing a sense of movement to their stillness], rectifying their original habits.
  Because Taiji Boxing focuses on sensitivity, it can cause a person to become more aware, and because it also focuses on calmness, it can cause a person to restrain rashness. When two people of equal skill are pushing hands, but one of them is more combative, he will end up being the one who is receiving most of the attacks or the most powerful of the attacks, and this experience can subtly influence him to be less of a brute.
  It is therefore clear that Taiji Boxing has the merit of cultivating a better temperament, a point that is based in both theory and fact.

5.人人可練:
Everyone can practice it.

太極拳動作柔軟,速度較慢,拳式也並不難學,而且式子的或高或矮和用力的或多或少都可根據各人的體質而有所不同。由於它的運動量可大可小,不但年老體弱的人經常練習不致發生流弊;即使對於身體強壯或者從事劇烈運動的人也都是極為適宜的。推手雖是兩人對練技擊的方法,但由於太極拳以靈敏柔化為主,只要任何一方不用僵勁或者猛力,也決不會發生傷害事故。這些都是太極拳合於人人可練的優越條件。
Taiji Boxing’s movements are soft and slow, and its postures are not really difficult to learn. The height of the postures, and the amount of effort they would thus require, can be adjusted to suit one’s own physical ability.
  Because the amount of energy one puts into it can be increased as well as decreased, not only can the old and weak practice it frequently without any harm, it is just as suitable for the strong and athletic.
  Pushing hands is a method of martial training for two people, but because Taiji Boxing emphasizes sensitivity and neutralization, provided neither person uses any stubborn strength or aggressive force, it will never lead to accidental injuries.
  These are each good reasons why Taiji Boxing can be practiced by everyone.

6.醫療作用:
It functions as medicine.

運動量較大的體育運動,消耗體力過多,弱者不能勝任,多數病者更不相宜。太極拳有它的種種特點,以適應病人的不同要求(但正在咯血或者出血的病人除外),所以能幫助病人在恢復和增進機能活動上獲得顯著的效果。我們對於疾病的發生,在很早以前,就有“氣血不和”的說法。這句話,以前曾經被認為不可理解,其實是舊時的用語:以心代腦,以氣代神經纖維,所以和現代學說難以相通。根據作者的體會,這句話原是包含著神經系統對於心臟血管系統的調節和支配不能統一的意義在內,所以內科中醫用藥時都是以促進病人的本能來治療其自身的疾病;針灸醫師和推拿醫師也都是用刺激或者壓迫有關神經的方法來達到治療的效果。太極拳一面運用有效的動作來活動全身肌肉(當然包括神經纖維的活動在內);一面又運用深長的呼吸來調節心臟的機能活動和血液的流行。同時還要用意識引導動作,使人排除雜念,專心一意,在極其寧靜的情緒下進行鍛煉,都在於促使神經中樞對整個神經系統發生良好作用,以自己的本能來治療疾病或者增進健康。體育治療是現代醫學中一門新的科學,作者對於中西醫學又無絲毫門徑,對於太極拳的這一優點只能憑個人的淺薄體會,作如上的介紹。
Energy-intensive sports consume more of one’s strength than a weak person can handle, and are quite unsuitable for people who are ill. Among Taiji Boxing’s various characteristics is that it suits the needs of sick people (except for those who are already spitting up blood or hemorrhaging internally), able to achieve remarkable results when it comes to aiding recovery and enhancing mobility.
  Long ago, when illness occurred, it was described as: “Energy and blood are not in harmony.” I used to think that this phrase was beyond my comprehension, but then I realized it is just worded in an old-fashioned way, a mode of thought that uses “heart” instead of “brain” and “energy” instead of “nerves”, and thus does not easily link up with our modern ideas. Based on my own experience, this phrase contains the idea of the nervous system and cardio-vascular system not being fully integrated into coordinated functioning. When medicines are applied in traditional Chinese medicine, it is always to spark the body’s innate ability to heal itself. Physicians who use acupunture, moxibustion, or deep massage are all using methods of either stimulating or suppressing nervous function in order to bring about a cure.
  Taiji Boxing is an effective method of movement for exercising the muscles of the whole body (which of course also means exercising the nervous fibers within them), and is also a method of using deep breathing to regulate heart function and improve blood circulation. Moreover, it uses intention to guide movement, causing a person to discard distracting thoughts and focus one’s attention, which puts one into a very peaceful mood over the course of the practice, and this adds up to causing improved function to spread throughout the entire nervous system, activating one’s ability to heal oneself, or simply improving health generally.
  Using exercise as treatment has become a new field of study in modern medicine, but I am certainly no expert when it comes to medicine, be it Chinese or Western, and so this brief presentation of this particular merit of Taiji Boxing has been based only on my own meager experience.

乙、技擊上的幾個優點
B. ITS MERITS AS A MARTIAL ART

1. 以柔濟剛:
It uses softness to complement hardness.

太極拳所以重柔輕剛,不僅僅是為了柔能克剛的道理,主要是怕人在技擊上犯了“雙重”的毛病。有人因為把“兩腿同時用力支持身體”叫做“雙重”,以致在拳式中取消了騎馬式,這是不對的,甚至害人不淺。拳式中用不用騎馬式原可由各人自己決定。所謂雙重,是說與人在交手時,既不肯用人剛我柔的“走勁”,去引使對方落空,又不會趁勢用“黏勁”去取得我順人背的優勢,只和道遇人用力我也用力,見人搶先我也搶先,結果是力小輸給力大的,手慢輸給手快的,這並不是對方藝力高,而是自討苦吃。王宗岳太極拳論對於這一點說得非常明白,原可由學者自己去領悟但恐雙重之說誤解越來越深,所以趁此機會略為解釋。雙重的毛病簡單說來,就是只知用剛不知用柔的毛病。須知兩人交手都用剛勁,勁小者必受制於勁大者,或者兩敗俱傷。太極拳處處講柔化,首先在避免這種不必要的或者不利於自己的衝突。但是如果只知退避而不會進擊,就與剛柔相濟和以柔克剛的道理不相符合了。太極拳之所以稱為太極,主要在說明它的用勁是柔中有剛、剛中有柔,相當於太極的陰不離陽,陽不離陰的意義。曾聽人說:專練柔化者不會發人(就是沒有“發勁”的意思),這是錯把“柔”與“發”分為兩件事,並未懂得柔中有剛和剛中有柔的道理。太極拳的動作必須走弧線,就是為增進動作中的由柔轉剛和由剛轉柔的便利而制定的。在運用時,剛柔循環,無端可尋,它與一般直線擊法的出入分明,絕不相同。也許有人要問:手快打手慢,大力打小力,不是更為乾脆,何必要走迂緩的弧線呢?要知道一個人只相信自己的手快力大,絕不估計他人的更快更大而輕易出手,顯然是從主觀出發的冒險行動。他可以僥幸得勝,也可以一敗塗地,在安全上是毫無保障的。太極拳處處用柔勁,首先在避免衝突中的無謂犧牲,以免一出手就遭到失敗的危險,同時可以從柔化中去了解對方的虛實強弱,然後根據已經獲得的優勢而立即還擊;如不當還擊,也不致失手誤傷。至於走弧線,粗粗看來,似乎比走直線為慢,但弧線動作可以隨處轉變,有時更比走直線為快,所謂“後發先至”就是從這當中得來的。這種“剛柔相濟、攻守咸宜”的技擊方法,是太極拳的基本優點所在,學習者應當特別注意。
Taiji Boxing emphasizes softness over hardness not only because of the principle that softness can overcome hardness, but mainly to keep practitioners from committing the error of “double pressure”. Some people think that “double pressure” means that both legs are supporting the weight at the same time, and so they avoid performing any horse-riding stances. This is so incorrect that it will make practitioners neurotic.
  I will leave it up you whether you want to perform the horse-riding stances in the boxing set, since the concept of double pressure instead has to do with pushing hands. It is an unwillingness to use “yielding energy” (“When the opponent is hard, I am soft.”) in order to draw the opponent in to land on nothing, as well as an ignorance of how to take advantage of the situation by using “sticking energy” (“My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse.”) in order to obtain the superior position, only knowing how to respond with force when the opponent uses force, both people struggling to win. If your small strength loses to his greater strength, or your slow hands lose to his quicker hands, this has nothing to do with his skill being higher, but is instead trouble that you are bringing upon yourself.
  Wang Zongyue’s “Taiji Boxing Treatise” makes this point with extraordinary clarity, enabling students to grasp the concept of double pressure on their own, but I fear that the misunderstanding of the term has grown so ingrained that I must take this opportunity to give some further explanation. The error of double pressure is simply the error of only knowing how to use hardness and not knowing how to use softness.
  It has to be understood that when both people are using hardness, the one with less strength will inevitably be under the control of the one with greater strength, or both will end up getting hurt [if they have equal strength]. Taiji Boxing always discusses neutralizing, prioritizing the avoidance of this kind of unnecessary or disadvantageous clashing. However, if you only know how to evade and not how to attack, you are not conforming to the principles of “softness and hardness complimenting each other” or “using softness to overcome hardness”.
  The reason Taiji Boxing is called “taiji” [which represents a balanced state between opposites] is mainly due to its use of energy: “There is hardness within softness and softness with hardness.” This idea is equivalent to the taiji concept of “the active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active.” I once heard someone say that those who focus on neutralizing will not know how to send opponents flying (not the same idea as “issuing energy”). This is a misunderstanding of the concepts of neutralizing and issuing, and an ignorance of the principle of “hardness within softness and softness within hardness”.
  The reason Taiji Boxing’s movements have to make arcs is to make it easier to switch from softness to hardness or hardness to softness. During the exercise, hardness and softness alternate endlessly. Going back and forth in ordinary straight-line fighting motions is completely different. Someone may ask: “Wouldn’t it be easier just to beat slower hands with faster hands and weakness with strength? Why do we need to make these cumbersome arcs?” It should be understood that each person believes only in his own speed and strength, and never expects that his opponent might be faster or stronger, a subjective outlook that enables one to take risks. He might win through sheer luck, but he might also end up utterly defeated, and without any guarantee for his own safety.
  Taiji Boxing always uses soft energy, first of all to avoid sacrificing yourself just for the sake of crashing against the opponent, or to send out a hand only to put yourself in a worse position, but also in the act of neutralizing to be able to gauge the opponent’s state of emptiness or fullness, his strength or weakness, then gain the superior position through such knowledge and immediately counterattack. In this way, even if you do not successfully counterattack, you will at least not end up getting hurt.
  Moving in arcs may superficially appear to be slower than moving in straight lines, but because arcing movements can change direction to go anywhere, they can sometimes actually be faster than straight-line movements, providing the basis for the idea of “leave after but arrive before”. This martial principle of “with hardness and softness complementing each other, attack and defense are both fulfilled” is Taiji Boxing’s most fundamental merit. You should give it particular attention.

2. 以靜待動:
It uses stillness to await movement.

太極拳的柔化方法雖然有攻守咸宜和保障安全的優點,如果用得不得其時或者不得其點,未能掌握對方的動向,還是難以得到充分效果的。因此,在應用時還須依靠“以靜待動”的素養。根據前面的說法,可以想見太極拳的擊人,並不主張採用“先下手為強”的主觀手法,而是在聽出(這是交手時的感覺,術語叫做聽勁,是用身手上的感覺去聽對方的勁路),對方真正動向以後,用“後發先至”的還擊方法。這種擊法首先要求本人自己極度鎮靜,聽任對方爭先出手和出勁,不可著慌,必須等他發出勁來,方可還手。如來勢較猛可用化勁引使落空,捋採二勁就可擇一而用。如不要他近身,也可乘他未至而用掤勁截之,或者乘對方第一勁已過第二勁尚未發動的空隙而發勁擊之。總之,要在對方不及轉變或者陷入劣勢的時候,給以迅速的打擊。打手歌中所說:“彼不動己不動,彼微動己先動”,就是指“以靜待動”“後發先至”而言。這一優點的作用主要表現在下面兩個方面:一是待機而動,容易擊中對方;一是萬一擊不中時,由於對方已處於被動地位,也不致受到對方的還擊。
Although Taiji Boxing’s method of neutralizing has the advantage of being useful for both attack and defense, if you cannot catch the opponent’s timing or his targetting, you will not be able to grasp what he is doing, much less win. Because of this, you should use the principle of “using stillness to await movement”. This phrase makes it clear that Taiji Boxing’s method of defeating opponents does not at all advocate an approach of “he who acts first will win”, but instead one of “listening” to what is happening. (What the art calls “listening” has to do with your level of perception while sparring, using the sensitivity of your body and hands to “listen” for what direction the opponent’s energy is moving.) Once you have ascertained the true direction of the opponent’s movement, use the method of “leave after but arrive before” to counterattack.
  This kind of fighting method requires first of all that you be extremely calm, allowing the opponent to be the first to move and to express power. You must not be in a panic and you must wait for his power to come out in order to then send it back at him. If his incoming force is fierce, you can use neutralizing energy to draw it in to land on nothing, for which you can apply the techniques of either rolling back or rending. If you want to keep him from getting close to you, you can take advantage of the moment before he arrives by using the technique of warding off to stop him in his tracks. Or during the moment when his first attempt has finished and his second attempt has not yet started, you can take advantage of the gap by issuing power to attack him.
  In short, the key is to make use of the instant when the opponent has not yet adapted to the situation or has fallen into a bad position and to attack him right away. The “Playing Hands Song” says: “If he takes no action, I take no action, but once he takes even the slightest action, I have already acted.” This is the same idea as “using stillness to await movement” or “to leave after but arrive before”. The effectiveness of this principle will mainly be demonstrated through these two points: 1. Wait for the opportunity to most easily attack the opponent. 2. Reducing your chance of missing depends on the opponent being in a disadvantageous position and on not giving him a chance to counterattack.

3. 以小制大:
It uses the smaller to overcome the larger.

這是太極拳根據力學原理,利用一種動作(技擊上叫做“着”)在對方的動作上,加上我的勁或者減少我的勁(從有勁突然變為無勁,術語叫做“空勁”,目的在使對方落空,外間所傳說的:空勁打人,在太極拳中是沒有這種勁的),使對方重心動搖,或者先“化”後“黏”逼使對方陷入不利的方位,然後趁勢打擊,絕對不用硬打硬進的手法。拳論中所說的“四兩撥千斤”並不是誇大,在對方重心極度不穩的時候,只要輕輕一撥就倒,無需用很多力量。有時只要大聲一喝,也能使對方受驚順勢而倒。因為人身也是物體,不能不受重心的影響;而人是能自動的,乘他自動而加以打擊,他就比不動的物體更容易失去重心。這裡面部有力學的根據,可以證明小力制大力的可能性,絕不是這門拳術另有其它神秘作用。體弱力薄的人如欲懂得一些技擊上的道理,學習太極拳也最為相宜。關於這一優點的力學根據,後文還要加以說明,這裡就不多說了。
This is a principle in Taiji Boxing that is based on the science of mechanics, using a kind of movement (what would be called in martial arts a “technique”) in which you add your own force to the opponent’s movement. Or you might reduce your force from his movement. (This means that you suddenly switch from having some force to having none, what is called “emptying force”, with the purpose of causing the opponent to lose his balance. What laymen describe as “hitting someone with empty force” is not the same thing.) In either case, you cause the opponent’s balance to wobble.
  Or perhaps you will start by neutralizing him and then sticking, compelling him to fall into a disadvantageous position, then seize the opportunity to attack. Whatever the case, you will never attack or advance using a technique that involves hardness. The phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds” mentioned in Wang Zongyue’s Treatise is by no means an exaggeration. Once the opponent’s balance is extremely unstable, a light deflection is all that is needed, and so it is not necessary to use a large amount of force. Sometimes even just a loud shout can startle him enough to make him topple.
  Because the human body is an object, it cannot help but be influenced by its balance. But it is also capable of moving itself, so take advantage of the opponent’s own movement and attack him simply by adding to it. He will thus lose his balance even more than an inanimate object would. This theory is based in the science of mechanics, which proves that the potential for a small force to overcome a large one is certainly not a mystical trick in this boxing art. And so if a weak person wishes to learn some martial arts principles, it is most appropriate for him to learn Taiji Boxing. The way this principle is related to the science of mechanics, touched upon here only briefly, is explored further in a later chapter [Chapter Four].

4.以退為進:
It uses retreat as advance.

太極拳的用勁雖然千變萬化,但總的說來,只有兩個大字:一個是“走”字,一個是“黏”字(參閱附錄的“太極拳論”)。走是柔化對方以保障自己安全的方法;黏是柔化以後乘機貼進以控制對方變動的方法。這兩個方法,在應用時實在是一個方法的兩面,學習者必須懂得“走即是黏,黏即是走”(語見“太極拳論”)的道理,方能盡其妙用。同時,作動作還要養成走弧線的習慣,須知“由走轉黏和由黏轉走”都是以圓形動作為基礎,功夫越深,在應用時,弧線也就走得越短,甚至只有弧線的意味而很難看出弧線的動作。這種“曲中求直”(語見“十三勢行功心解”)的方法,粗看起來,好似迂緩,但實際上則是“後發先至”的主要關鍵所在。至於走與黏所以要循環運用,簡單說來,只是教人在交手時,先要順著來勁的方向,用“走”法引使落空,以避免衝突(即是避免損傷),然後再順著走化以後的餘勢,隨即用黏法遏制對方的轉變,以造成我順人背的優勢。此時,如果對方還想勉強掙扎,便可越黏越緊,使對方身體失去平衡,若再趁勢發勁,對方在劣勢下無法還手,很難逃避打擊。如果我的黏法遏制不住對方,便不可冒昧發勁,應當放任對方轉變,並繼續用走用黏,去造成優勢,方可發動打擊。當然,功夫較高的技擊家,只要用一次走黏便能把對方擊中。但在練功時,應在循環運用上去力求熟練,以養成“以退為進”的習慣,放能在應用時得到有勝無敗和雖敗不傷的保障。這與硬打硬進缺乏安全保障的方法來比,就不難看出以退為進的方法,確是技擊上一個極大的優點。
Although Taiji Boxing applies energy in endlessly changing ways, there are really only two major things happening: yielding and sticking. (See Wang’s Zongyue’s Taiji Boxing Treatise in the Appendix.) Yielding is a method of neutralizing the opponent to ensure your own safety. Sticking is a method of following upon neutralizing by taking advantage of the opportunity to advance in order to control the opponent. However, these two methods should actually be applied as two parts of a single method. You have to understand this principle (from the Treatise): “In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking.” Then your technique will be fully effective.
  At the same time, you still have to be cultivating the habit of moving in arcs. You need to understand that the basis of all rounded movement is: “yielding turns into sticking and sticking turns into yielding”. As your skill deepens, the arc will shrink until you reach the point that you will only have an arcing intention and then arcing as a movement will hardly be noticeable any longer. This kind of method is described (in Understanding How to Practice) as: “Within curving, seek to be straightening.” It may look crude and slow, but it is actually the key to the principle of “leaving after but arriving before”.
  The alternating between yielding and sticking can basically only be taught through doing pushing hands. You first have to go along with the direction of the opponent’s incoming force, using yielding to draw it in so that it lands on nothing instead of crashing into you (thus keeping yourself from getting injured), then once you have neutralized his technique, immediately use sticking to restrain his ability to adapt, putting you in the superior condition of “my energy is smooth while his energy is coarse”.
  If he still wants to force his way in at this point, then the more you stick to him, the more he will become tightened up, causing him to lose his balance. If you then take advantage of the opportunity to issue power, his inferior position leaves him with no way to send out his hands to deal with it, and it will be very difficult for him to escape your attack. If your sticking fails to restrain the opponent, then you must not rashly issue power. You should let him adjust while you continue to use yielding and sticking, until you have created a superior position from which you can indeed issue.
  A practitioner with a high level of skill will of course need only one action of yielding and sticking to be able to attack the opponent with precision. When practicing, you should constantly strive to be skillful by cultivating the habit of “using retreat as advance”, and then you will always win when you apply techniques, or at least you will have the guarantee of going away uninjured if you happen to lose. Compared to the much riskier method of attacking with hardness, it is not difficult to see that using retreat as advance is indeed of great advantage in martial arts.

本章主要在說明太極拳的性能和趣味所在,並不打算把它誇大為萬能的武術,因為柔性武術偏於修養的作用,在發展肌肉和鍛煉外壯功夫方面是不能與剛性武術相比擬的。這在本章第一段裡已經有所說明,研究武術者不可不知。
This chapter is primarily meant to explain Taiji Boxing’s characteristics and what makes it interesting, not at all to glorify it as some all-powerful martial art. As was already explained in its first paragraph, soft styles of martial arts tend toward self-cultivation, and they simply do not compare to hard styles if what you want is bodybuilding. This is a point that students of martial arts have to understand.

第二章 太極拳在行功時的心理作用
CHAPTER TWO: PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTION IN THE PRACTICE OF TAIJI BOXING

在任何一項體育運動裡,每一個動作,都需要用力,而且有一定的要求。如果沒有人的意識通過神經中樞起著支配作用,那是絕對不可能出現任何一個動作的。各項武術,雖然都是以模仿技擊動作為主,但是在要求上有剛、柔、快、慢和其他不同的特點,所以在練習時,還要根據各人的不同要求,用意識去想象每一個動作的技擊作用。可見練習各項武術都需要“用意”,並不是只有太極拳才重視這個法則。那麼,太極拳為什麼特別要強調“用意不用力”這一個特點呢?這是因為太極拳的用力與其他武術的用力有所不同,所以在“用意”上也顯得格外重要了。現在先從動作與意識的結合來說,太極拳的動作是一種柔軟輕鬆的慢動作,與剛強有力的快動作截然不同。這兩種動作,在要求上,既然有一剛一柔和一快一慢的巨大區別,那麼,在練習時,雖然以同樣的技擊動作作為對象,但是所作的想象,為了符合動作的要求,就不可能採取同樣的內容:一則以動作剛快為主,自然應當從“搶先進攻”去想象它的技擊作用;一則以動作柔緩為主,自然應當從“先化後打”去想象它的技擊作用;它門都有各自的因果關係,不可隨意變更。同時,太極拳的慢動作,對接受意識的支配來說,還有它更重要的作用:剛強有力的快動作,由於速度高,它只能在動作的起迄(止)兩點,甚至只有其中的一點,受著意識的支配(一發必須發足,一收必須收足,在中間沒有回旋餘地)。太極拳由於動作柔和緩慢,不但在一起一迄的動靜兩點上,受著意識的支配,即在由動而靜和由靜而動的任何一個過程中也處處接受意識的引導,想停則隨處可停,想進也隨處可進。這種練法,在技擊上,主要有兩個作用:一是教人在運動時作不斷的想象,把技擊功夫提高到“神明”階段,換句話說,就是利用精神力量(即心理作用)來影響肉體上的種種鍛煉;一是在於養成不妄動的習慣,使人在交手時,不致於不自覺地作出毫無作用的動作。上面主要在說明兩種技擊動作的不同處,下面再把精神影響肉體的道理,略為介紹,以供初學者參考。
關於精神能夠支配肉體的事例,是不勝枚舉的。最常見的,如意志堅強的人在工作上或者事業上往往不怕任何艱難,百折不撓。更顯著的如一些具有堅強意志的忠勇志士,在任何遭遇中,都能夠忍受生活上或者肉體上的任何痛苦而決不屈服,這都可以證明精神力量的偉大作用。再拿小事情來說,一個人在異常高興的時候,往往會覺得眼前的東西樣樣可愛,胃口也會比平常好些;如果遇到憂傷的事情,就會發生相反的現象,這也可以證明生理作用受著心理作用的影響。這是因為我們人的神經系統從中樞到末梢是一個整體。身體同外物相接觸或者受到刺激的時候,首先是引起神經末梢的感覺,感覺對於所接觸到的東西並無認識的能力,在感覺以後,立即由神經末梢的波動,通過神經纖維而傳到神經中樞,方能發生想象作用而有所認識,這就叫做知覺。知覺是人們的種種觀念的發源地。觀念與運動中樞的關係極為密切,如有時我們心理剛想拿一件東西,還沒有想到對象,手便舉了起來;或者在看到梅子的時候,並沒有嘗到酸味,口裡也會充滿涎水,這都是觀念對運動中樞發生作用所引起的反射現象。動作上的所謂熟能生巧,實際上,就是上面所說的反射作用。此外,研究精神治療的人能夠應用催眠術治療疾病或者矯正習慣,也是利用本人的心理作用來達到醫療效果的。有時,我們還無需運用催眠術,只要用言語鼓勵也能發生效力,如最近所看到的一篇譯文(上海新民報所載,艾理從外國“涅瓦”雜志節譯)上說:有一個十二歲的女孩,重病後很久還不能行走,妨礙她獨立行走的主要原因,是她不相信自己再能站起來走路,後來在大家的勸說和鼓勵下,她終於試著練走,結果能走了,醫生不用外科手術而用心理治療,是在培養她對恢復走路能力的信心(大意如此,不盡是原文),就是一個很有力的證明。最近在體育參考資料上還看到一則消息:“外國專家在研究將催眠術用到體育上去的可能性,滑雪中的跳臺運動員在練習中已運用催眠術”,這更可以證明心理作用與體育運動的密切關係了。初學太極拳者必須懂得上面所說的道理,才能深刻了解用意不用力的作用。
太極拳在“十三勢行功心解”裡,一開首就有“以心行氣”“以氣運身”等語,雖然是行功時很重要的一個法則,但是,初學者往往不易領悟。其實,上一句裡的“以心”二字應當作為“用意”來解釋,是大家都想得到的,在“太極拳論”和“十三勢歌訣”裡也一再提到這個“意”字。所難懂的,只是在“行氣”和“用氣”這一個問題上。這個“氣”究竟是什麼東西呢?這是因為我們的先輩對於身體裡面有神經中樞、神經纖維和神經末梢的物質存在,以及它的生理作用都還沒有明確的認識。總以為人的動作是一種“氣”或者一種“神”在內部發生作用,術語上所常用的“內練精氣神”就是從這個認識而來的。拿我們所知道的生理知識來說,這裡所指的“氣”決不是與呼吸有關的氣,應當作為遍布全身的神經纖維和神經末梢來解釋。因為人身的動作和內臟的活動都是這些東西在接受神經中樞的命令以後所發生出來的作用。可見以心行氣不過是運用意識的意思,再與“以氣運身”一語相結合,就能說明意識與動作的主從關係。前人是把“氣”看做神經系統以外的一種東西,所以分作兩句話來說明行動的方法,這是首先應當看清楚的。
上面一段主要在肯定太極拳在行功時的心理作用,至於太極拳如何把心理作用結合到動作去,還得細說一番。在第一章裡,我們已經知道太極拳的動作有不少特點,我們根據這些特點來進行鍛煉,當然也能夠在健康上和技擊上得到很好的效果。但是,太極拳的創造者是把精神鍛煉和肌肉鍛煉看做同樣重要,甚至還把前者看得更為重要。同時,由於前人深信精神能夠支配肉體的道理,所以在鍛煉方法上還要提出“用意不用力”的最高法則,使所有動作在意識的不斷影響下,能夠發生精神力量,以提高太極拳的運動效果。“十三勢行功心解”在“以心行氣”“以氣運身”等話之後,緊接著還有“精神能提得起則無遲重之虞……,意氣須換得靈乃有圓活之趣”等語,也都是以精神來影響動作的說法。因此,我們在練習太極拳的時候,並不是單單從姿勢上和動作上去滿足有形的要求,必須同時在動作上和姿勢上加上一定的想象,並且要確信每一個想象一定能夠在動作上產生預期的效果。這一個方法,作者在三十年前曾經給它取了一個名稱,叫做“想當然”,只是利用它的詞面,不是採取它的原意,作者是作為“一切想象都有當然效果”來解釋的。譬如“以心行氣”和“以氣運身”這兩個不可捉摸的動作,都是無法表演的,我們只有按照拳論的指示,用自己的想象去肯定它的作用和效果。又如以心行氣句下還有“務令沉著”一語,既然太極拳是不許用力的,那麼,我們也只有在動作上作沉著的想象,以符合拳論的指示。另外還有“氣沉丹田”,“氣宜鼓蕩”等指示,雖然可以從動作上得到一定的幫助,但是在行功時,也不是用力去鼓氣或者用力去沉氣,只是在意識上作應有的想象而已。上面所說的想象,說起來雖然簡單,但其效果卻不是一下子就可辦到的,必須在不斷的鍛煉中和不斷的想象中使自己的精神先受一種催眠作用,方能在生理上發生一定的影響。“十三勢歌訣”裡所說的“勢勢存心揆用意,得來不覺費功夫”和“功夫無息法自修”等語,都足以證明這一方法久練自然見功的道理。在技擊上,太極拳就是依靠這種鍛煉方法,來養成中樞神經的反射作用,使人在交手時,只要憑著感覺或者憑著想象,無須通過知覺的分析作用,便能發出適當的動作而取得勝利。這種現象,在我們的手工操作上,有的人能夠練成驚人的技能,也是同樣的道理。
由於“用意不用力”是太極拳裡最為重要的一個法則,所以,作了較多的說明。但這一法則要說得很透徹實在也不容易,作者限於水平,只能說到這裡為止。
No matter what kind of exercise you engage in, every movement requires some exertion. But unless intention is transmitted through the central nervous system, you could not make any movement at all. Every martial art emphasizes the mimicking of fighting movements, although they vary in their degree of hardness or softness, quickness or slowness, and so on. Each individual has different personal goals during their practice, and yet they are all using intention as they imagine each movement’s martial function.
  It is clear from this that practicing any martial art requires “using intention” and that this is not a principle that only Taiji Boxing attaches importance to. That being the case, why does Taiji Boxing put so much emphasis on its special characteristic of “use intention rather than exertion”? This is because Taiji Boxing’s exertion is different from the exertion of other martial arts, and therefore to “use intention” seems to be that much more important.
  Let us first discuss the link between movement and intention. Taiji Boxing’s movement is a kind of soft and light slow movement, completely different from movement that is hard, forceful, and fast. Practitioners of these two kinds of movement each have their own purpose. Since there is a huge difference between hard and soft, and fast and slow, even if they aim at practicing the same movements, what they visualize in relation to the movement will not be working from the same mentality. Those who emphasize moving hard and fast will naturally proceed from a strategy of “attack him before he attacks you” for their visualizations, whereas those who emphasize moving soft and slow will naturally proceed from a strategy of “first neutralize, then attack” for their visualizations. They both have their own reasoning and cannot easily be made to change their minds.
  However, there is a more important reason that Taiji Boxing’s slow movements are controlled by intention. Hard and forceful fast movement moves so fast from its starting point to its ending point that intention can be put in control over the movement only when it is already reaching the target. (i.e. It has to issue fully or withdraw fully, no time in between to change course.) But because Taiji Boxing’s movements are soft and slow, not only can intention be in charge of movement from its starting point to its ending point, it can lead movement into stillness or stillness into movement at any time. Thus if you want to halt, you can halt at any point, or if you want to advance, you can advance at any point.
  This kind of training method has two main martial functions: 1. to teach you to not stop visualizing as you go through the exercise so that your martial skill can be heightened to the level of the miraculous, or in other words, make use of mental strength (i.e. psychological function) to encourage your body through all sorts of training, and 2. to cultivate a habit of not acting rashly, so that when you are sparring, you will not end up mindlessly making movements that have no function at all.
  Above I have focused on explaining differences between two kinds of martial movement. Below I will discuss the theory of how mind influences the body, just a brief introduction to the subject in order to provide beginners with reference material.
  There are countless examples of the mind being able to affect the body. The most commonly seen is when a person with willpower faces difficulties in their job or daily life without ever showing any fear, struggling on through all setbacks. The most remarkable is the willpower of people who are fully committed to a cause, who endure through many hardships, or even great physical suffering, without ever surrendering their ideals. Both of these examples demonstrate that the power of the mind has mighty effects indeed.
  On a smaller scale, a person in moments of unusual happiness finds everything he sees to be delightful and his appetite increases. During times of tragedy, it is the opposite effect [i.e. everything is displeasing and he cannot bear to eat]. Both of these examples demonstrate that one’s psychological state has an influence upon one’s physiological state. This is because our nervous system has a ubiquitous presence, from our core to the tips of our extremities.
  When the body touches against some external object or receives some kind of stimulation, the first sensation is at the nerve endings, though it is a general sensation that does not have the ability to identify the object. But as soon as there is this sensation, it sends pulsations from the nerve endings, through the nerve fibers, and at last to the nerve center, which is then able to generate visualization, and thus the object is identified. This process is called “consciousness”.
  Our consciousness is the source of all our ideas, but our ideas and our motive center are intimately connected. For instance, sometimes we get a sudden thought to grab an object, and the hand is already reaching out to it before we have even fully decided to grab it. Or when we see a plum, we start salivating before even tasting it. Both of these examples demonstrate that ideas spark action in the motive center, thereby leading to the development of reflexes.
  It is said of movement that practice will lead to skill, but that is actually this development of reflexes that I just mentioned. Furthermore, psychotherapists who are able to use hypnosis to treat illness or correct bad habits are making use of one’s own psychological functioning to achieve medical results. Sometimes we do not even need hypnosis and all that is required are some words of encouragement to produce an effective remedy. For instance, I recently read this in an article (published in the Shanghai New People News, an abridged translation of a piece from the foreign magazine Neva):
  “There is a twelve-year-old girl who long after recovering from a serious illness was still unable to walk. The main thing that was keeping her from walking on her own was that she simply did not believe she would ever be able to stand and walk again. Eventually, due to the persuasion and encouragement of those around her, she finally made an attempt to walk, with the result that she was able to walk after all. Instead of performing any kind of surgery, her doctors applied psychotherapy to restore her confidence in her own ability to walk…” This story is quite compelling evidence (though I have supplied here only a paraphrased version to give the gist of it, not the original text of the article).
  I also recently noticed this piece of news in a sports periodical: “Foreign specialists are doing research into the possibility of using hypnosis on athletes. It is already being used in the training of ski jumpers.” This demonstrates an intimate connection between psychological function and athletics. It is necessary to grasp this principle early in your study of Taiji Boxing, and then you will be capable of more deeply understanding the concept of “using intention rather than exertion”.
  It says in the beginning of Understanding How to Practice: “Use mind to move energy.” And: “Use energy to move your body.” Although this is a very important training principle, beginners usually do not comprehend it. Everyone assumes correctly that “use mind” should be interpreted as “use intention”, in accordance with the use of “intention” in Wu Yuxiang’s “Taiji Boxing Treatise” as well as the “Thirteen Dynamics Song”.
  What makes it confusing is simply the issue of “moving energy” and “using energy”, and what exactly this “energy” is. This is because the previous generations who produced these texts did not really have any understanding of the body’s nervous system in terms of its material substance – nerve center, nerve fibers, nerve endings – nor of how it actually works. They always thought that a person’s movement was generated internally by a kind of “energy” or “spirit”. The common notion of “the internal training of essence, energy, and spirit” is based on such an understanding.
  However, based on our knowledge of physiology, this use of “energy” has nothing to do with the breathing of air [氣 meaning either “energy” or “air”, as well as a few other things, depending on the context] and is instead a matter of the nerve fibers and nerve endings throughout the body. The movements of the body, as well as the actions of the organs, take place after receiving commands from the nerve center. Clearly to “use mind to move energy” simply means to use intention, and then when we add “use energy to move your body”, we can say that intention and movement have a master-and-servant relationship.
  Previous generations considered “energy” to be something beyond the nervous system, and therefore they divided the process into two parts [mind moves energy and then energy moves body, instead of just mind moves body] as a method of explaining how movement occurs. This is a point that needs to be clearly understood right from the start.
  The text of this chapter has so far affirmed the importance of psychological function in the practicing of Taiji Boxing, but we have to go into more detail about how it is actually integrated with the movement. From Chapter One, you have already learned that there are many special characteristics of movement in Taiji Boxing. By carrying out your training with these characteristics in mind, you can indeed gain excellent results in terms of both health and martial skill. But the founders of Taiji Boxing considered mental training to be equally as important as physical training, and sometimes it was even seen as the more important of the two.
  Because previous generations strongly believed in the theory that the mind can control the body, they made “use intention rather than exertion” the most supreme principle in their training method. When the movement is continuously being influenced by intention, this can produce greater strength of spirit, thereby heightening the effect of the exercise. After saying “use mind to move energy” and “use energy to move your body”, Understanding How to Practice continues with: “If your spirit can be raised up, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down.” And: “Your mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the qualities of roundness and liveliness.” Both of these statements describe mind having an influence upon movement.
  Consequently, when practicing Taiji Boxing, it is not just a matter of fulfilling the principles related to movement and posture. You also have to add in a certain amount of visualization. Moreover, you should firmly believe with each visualization that it can produce an expected effect on the movement. Thirty years ago, I once gave this method a name, calling it “taking it for granted” (using the more common meaning of the phrase rather than the original meaning of the words [“wanting what comes naturally”], by which I meant that every visualization will have a definite effect.
  Take for example the two phrases “use mind to move energy” and “use energy to move your body”. Both of these actions are invisible and so there is no way they can be shown to you. We only get instructions from the boxing texts, and then we have to make our own visualizations to get actual results. The phrase “use mind to move energy” is followed by: “You must get the energy to sink.” Since Taiji Boxing does not allow any use of exertion, this means we can only visualize sinking within the movement in order to be in accord with this instruction from the text. Then there is also: “Energy sinks to your elixir field.” And: “Energy should be roused.” These ideas can indeed be of great assistance to the movement. But when you are practicing, you still should not be forcing the energy to be roused or to sink, only using intention to visualize these things.
  To “visualize” sounds simple, but it is not actually something you will be able to do right away. You must engage in constant practice with constant visualizing, causing your mind to become almost hypnotized by the activity, and then your psychological state will be able to have a definite influence upon your physiological state. The Thirteen Dynamics Song says: “In every movement, very deliberately control it by the use of intention, for once you achieve that, it will all be effortless.” And also: “Mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.” Both of these statements verify the theory that if you practice this art for a long time, you will naturally see skill develop.
  For martial purposes, Taiji Boxing depends on this kind of training method to build the nerve center’s reflexes. During pushing hands, you then only have to rely on sensation or visualization rather than having to go through the process of consciously analyzing what is going on, and thus you will be able to take the right action and achieve victory. This describes a level of technique that some have been able to develop to the point of astonishing ability, and it is due to this very principle.
  Because “use intention rather than exertion” is one of the most important principles in Taiji Boxing, I have given it extra attention. But this principle is not easy to explain thoroughly and I cannot really do it justice due to my own mediocre level of understanding.

第三章 太極拳在動作特點上的生理作用
CHAPTER THREE: THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TAIJI BOXING’S PARTICULAR TYPE OF MOVEMENT

上一章所說的心理作用,實際上也就是生理作用,原可列入本章範圍以內一起說明,因鑒於這一特點──“用意不用力”是太極拳各項特點中最為特出的一個特點,並且需要較多的解釋,所以另立一章,並不是把它撇出在特點之外。太極拳的各項特點,有些表現在動作方面,有些表現在姿勢方面,都是設煉上的重要標準,在後面的練習方法裡當然還要分別說明其內容,本章為了避免重複,只是把這些特點的生理作用略為介紹,以供學習者參考。
The previous chapter discussed psychological effects. Although this chapter will discuss physiological ones, they can be included within the parameters of that chapter’s same theme: “use intention rather than exertion”, which is Taiji Boxing’s most noteworthy characteristic. As it needs more analysis, I bring it up again in this chapter, but not at the expense of the other characteristics.
  Taiji Boxing’s various characteristics are sometimes a matter of movement, sometimes a matter of posture, and all of them are important standards of training. They will be given extra explanation further below within the discussion of practice methods [in Chapters Five and Eight], and so in order to avoid repetition, this chapter will only briefly introduce the physiological effects of these characteristics for your reference.

(甲)表現在動作方面的幾個重要特點:
A. IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF MOVEMENT

一、柔:
1. Softness

在武術中有專練剛勁的,也有先練剛勁後練柔勁的(如形意拳有明勁、暗勁和化勁的分段),太極拳則始終以鍛煉柔勁為主,所以是一種柔性的武術。柔的好處是用力較少而不使肌肉過於緊張,從擴大肌肉、增強體力來著,雖屬效果較小,但在運動時不致使呼吸過於急促,也不會消耗過多的體力,對身體較弱或者患病初愈的人來設,則是一種適應生理要求、不致發生流弊的保健動作。
Among martial arts, there are those that focus on training hard energy, and there are also those that start by training hard energy and then train soft energy (such as Xingyi Boxing, which has its stages of obvious energy, hidden energy, and neutral energy), and then there is Taiji Boxing, which from beginning to end emphasizes training soft energy, and is therefore a “soft” martial art.
  The benefit of softness is that it uses less exertion and thereby does not cause the muscles to become excessively tense. For expanding muscles and enhancing physical strength, it is less effective than other exercises, but it does not result in rapid breathing or overly deplete one’s strength. For those with weaker bodies or those recovering from illness, it therefore suits physiological requirements as an exercise for building health that does not produce any harm on the way.

二、緩:
2. Slowness

練剛勁或者練明勁,在動作上,都需要快而有力。練柔勁也有用快動作的,但太極拳則是以慢動作為主,所以“緩”也是太極拳的一個動作特點。緩與柔,在動作時,是密切配合的。它對於調和呼吸具有更積極的控制作用,同時也是節制體力消耗的一個有效方法。另外,對於“用意識引導動作”的運動方法,它也起著極為重要的階梯作用,這是太極拳必須用慢動作的主要原由。
To train hard energy, or “obvious energy”, in the movements always requires speed and strength. Training softness may also use quick movements, but Taiji Boxing emphasizes slow movements, therefore “slowness” is also a special characteristic of the movement in Taiji Boxing.
  When moving with slowness and softness, they work in close cooperation with each other. They play a more active role in regulating the breath, and at the same time supply an effective means of moderating the depleting of physical strength. Additionally, in order to develop the quality of “using intention to guide movement”, slowness serves a vital function, and it is for this reason that Taiji Boxing requires the use of slow movement.

三、鬆:
3. Looseness

太極拳,從保健方面來說,是一種“在運動中兼修靜坐功”的鍛煉方法,在術語中叫作“動中求靜”。因此,在練拳時,絕對不許有絲毫強項、努目、挺胸、拔腰等緊張姿態。不但在動作上最有關係的手腕、臂、肩首先應當放鬆,即在胸、腹、腰、背等處也必須做到無處不鬆,方為合法(下肢要承載體重,雖然不能求鬆,但也要力求自然)。這樣做,首先可以不引起情緒上的緊張,其次在使腹呼吸和橫膈運動不受牽掣,可以發揮更大的作用。它與上面所說的柔緩兩動作相結合,成為三位一體,是太極拳一切動作的基礎動作,也是練太極拳的人所以能夠在平淡無奇的姿勢中得到健康效果的關鍵所在。
Looking at Taiji Boxing from the point of view of health care, it is a means of training “the simultaneous cultivation of meditation while exercising” [i.e. a “moving meditation”], or what is called in the art: “seeking stillness within movement”. Consequently, when practicing the boxing set, you must never allow the slightest stiffening of the neck, glaring of the eyes, sticking out of the chest, curling of the lower back, or agitated tension.
  Not only do the most linked parts of the movement – wrist, arm, shoulder – first have to loosen, but in your chest, belly, waist, and back, there also has to be no place that is not loose, and then it will be correct. (As your lower limbs have to support weight, they cannot really seek looseness, but they should strive for naturalness.) In this way, you can firstly prevent the exercise from leading to agitated emotions, and secondly keep your abdominal breathing and the movement of your diaphragm from being impeded by them, thereby giving rise to even greater effectiveness.
  Combining this quality with softness and slowness, the three qualities become a single quality that is the foundation of every movement in Taiji Boxing and is the key to why practitioners can gain such health benefits from such generic postures.

四、和諧:
4. Harmoniousness

絕大多數的武術項目,在動作上,都講究和諧,在術語上,一般叫作內三合、外三合,總稱六合,太極拳當然也不會例外。但太極拳所要求的和諧,必須是:全身各部分,從頭到腳都能與手所指示的動作密切配合,做到“一動無有不動”,成為完整一體的樣子。不但在動作上的進退起落、上下左右要處處互相呼應、十分和諧;同時在呼吸方面和意識方面,也要儘可能地與每一個姿勢的虛實動靜相結合。它的作用,首先在使全身各部分,在每一個動作中,都能得到同時運動的機會;其次是利用動作的完整性來促進腹呼吸的鼓蕩作用(即拳論所謂“氣宜鼓蕩”);同時,對於上面所說三個基礎動作的適當配合,也能起著極為自然的調節作用。由於太極拳所要求的和諧不同於一般和諧,所以在動作上也成為一個重要特點了。
Most martial arts pay particular attention to having harmonious movement, commonly using the terms “three internal unions” and “three external unions”, together making the “six unions”, and Taiji Boxing is no exception. But for the harmoniousness needed in Taiji Boxing, these things are required:
  - Your whole body, every part, from head to foot, has to be able to act in close coordination with your hands, achieving the condition of “if one part moves, every part moves” and thus functioning as a complete unit.
  - Whether advancing or retreat, rising or lowering, moving upward or downward, left or right, not only should all parts be working in harmonious unison, your breathing and intention should also in each posture be able to coordinate with the changes of emptiness and fullness, movement and stillness.
  The function of harmoniousness is firstly to get all the parts of the body to be moving in unison, secondly to take advantage of this quality of completeness to promote abdominal breathing (what is meant in Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise by “energy should be roused”), and also to be in proper accordance with the three fundamental principles above [soft, slow, loose], thereby developing an extreme naturalness. Because the harmoniousness required in Taiji Boxing is different from ordinary harmoniousness, it therefore becomes a significant characteristic of its movement.

五、連貫:
5. Connectedness

這是指整套太極拳在各個拳式之間,或者各個動作之間,都要前後銜接,不可在銜接處有顯著的停頓或者露出斷續的痕跡(在無形中用意識表示虛實輕重者不在此限),務使全部動作,節節貫串,綿綿不絕,如同一氣呵成一般。例如體操或者簡單的武術動作,都是做完一式再做一式,各式之間不相銜接,恰恰與此相反。這一特點主要在使各個式子的和諧動作連接起來,形成一種自然的節奏,來提高動作的效果。拳論中所說“如長江大海滔滔不絕”,就是指這種景象而言。另外,這種有節奏的連續運動,由於動作異常細緻,還具有逐步引人入勝的濃厚趣味,可以提高練拳人的情緒,在生理上,當然也會引起良好的作用。
This means that all of the postures throughout the Taiji boxing set, or the movements within any given posture, have to be linked together in succession and must not show any pauses or interruptions between them (not counting the almost invisible moments when you are using intention to express emptiness or fullness, lightness or heaviness), making sure that all of the movements are connected together and continuous, as though a “single breath from beginning to end”.
  When people perform specific calisthenic exercises or isolated martial arts movements, they always finish one posture and then do another, the postures not linked together, exactly the opposite of this principle. This characteristic mainly has to do with connecting the harmonious movements within the postures to make a kind of natural rhythm that will improve the effects of the movements. It says in Wang Zongyue’s Treatise: “It is like a long river flowing into the wide ocean, on and on ceaselessly.” This statement indicates this kind of state.
  Moreover, this kind of rhythm of continuous movements, due to the movements being performed with unusual meticulousness, will captivate the practitioner with ever increasing enjoyment, which can enhance one’s emotional state and thereby induce better physiological functioning.

六、圓形動作:
6. Roundness of movement

一般鍛煉身體的動作,絕大多數是走直線的,而太極拳則個個動作要走弧線;由於動作的前後連貫,弧線往還相接,自然就成為圓形動作了。圓形動作的好處,不但對於上述各特點的完成要求起著積極的作用(不走弧線是不可能做到太極拳所需要的和諧與連貫的);同時由於動作的圓轉曲折,以及全身上下都有或大或小或明或暗的圓動作在和諧地進行,能使肌肉、骨骼和韌帶同時得到適當而均勻的活動。所以在鍛煉效果上,也不是任何直線動作所能相提並論的。當然,這一特點,還得與上述各特點相配合,方能發揮太極拳的運動效果,否則,就不過是一般的圓形動作了。
Ordinary exercise almost always involves moving in straight lines, but every movement in Taiji Boxing should be making arcs. Because the movements continue from one into another, the arcs link together and naturally give a circular shape to the movements.
  The advantage of rounded movements is not only that they invigorate the functioning of the principles listed above (for without roundness of movement, you will not be able to achieve harmoniousness and connectedness), but also that the harmonious whole-body performance of round movements, no matter how large or small, obvious or hidden, will enable the muscles, bones, and ligaments to have the proper evenness of movement. Therefore the result of such training is superior to any exercises that move only in straight lines.
  Of course, this principle has to work in conjunction with the others above in order for the effects of practicing Taiji Boxing to be fully realized, and otherwise you will just be making a bunch of round movements.

七、用意不用力:
7. Using intention, not exertion

這是說練拳時應當多用意識去影響動作,不要依靠多用力氣去求得效果(完全不用力,是不可能的,少用力是可能的)。關於這一特點的生理作用和它的重要性,已在上一章詳細說明,此處不再多說。
This means that when you practice the boxing set, you should always use intention to influence the movement instead of relying on strength to seek results. (It is actually impossible to entirely use no exertion at all, but you can certainly use less.) As for this principle’s physiological effects and its importance, these things have already been explained in detail in the previous chapter and so they do not need to be repeated here.

(乙)表現在姿勢方面的幾個重要特點:
B. IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF POSTURE

一、懸頂弛項:
1. Suspend your headtop and relax your neck.

懸頂在術語中叫做“頂頭懸”,又叫做“虛領頂勁”,是說頭頂與地平線應當保持垂直的姿勢,如同頭頂上有繩索懸著的一般。這樣頭部可以自然垂直,同時也不致於前俯後仰或者左右歪斜。懸頂不同于拔頂,所以在拳論中又有“虛領頂勁”的指示,教人不要故意拔頂。弛項與強項恰恰相反,是教人頸部不要用力,應當任其自然放鬆,以與懸頂相適應。太極拳要求全身都能放鬆,頭部是神經中樞所在的地方,當然更不應有絲毫緊張。根據蘇聯生理學家巴甫洛夫的理論,我們應當相信,凡是使神經中樞受到良好影響的方法(神經中樞需要安靜,不需要緊張),也就是使中樞神經系統對全身各個系統和器官的機能活動起著良好作用的有效方法。因此,我們對於太極拳的頸部姿勢不僅僅在於保持它的垂直,尤其重要的是在於注意它的鬆弛與自然。同時,我們還應當記著頭部姿勢的正確與否,對於全身整個姿勢也有很大的影響。至於面容方面,當然也要聽其自然:第一不要努目而視(不努目的呆視也要避免),否則,是與拳論“神宜內斂”一語不合的,同時也會使眼球的肌肉活動不夠靈活;第二不要用力閉口,更忌使勁咬牙,鼻腔呼吸是符合衛生的好習慣,因此,閉口是必要的,但是口上用力不宜過大,那樣會形成屏氣不吐的毛病(練拳時如果呼吸太緊張是應當張口徐徐吐氣的);第三應當舌抵上鄂,使唾腺分泌更多的津液,不但可以適應練拳時的潤喉之需,使呼吸不致受喉頭干燥的影響,同時有較多的津液咽入胃臟,對消化也有一定的幫助。
To “suspend your headtop” is described in the art as “your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended”, and is also said as “forcelessly press up your headtop”. This means that your headtop should maintain a vertical line in relation to the ground, as though there is a cord attached to the top of your head. In this way, your head can be naturally vertical and not end up drooping forward, lolling back, or tilting to either side. However, suspending the headtop is not the same as pulling it up, as indicated in Wang Zongyue’s Treatise by “forcelessly press up your headtop”, instructing you that you should not be deliberately pulling up [i.e. pushing up] your headtop.
  Relaxing the neck is entirely the opposite of tightening the neck, indicating that the neck area should have no exertion and should instead be naturally loosened, and thus the idea of the head being suspended is appropriate. Taiji Boxing requires that the whole body be able to loosen. As the head is the headquarters of the central nervous system, it in particular should not have any tension. According to the theories of the Soviet physiologist Pavlov, which we can indeed put our trust in, any method that has a beneficial influence upon the central nervous system (which needs to be kept in a state of calm rather than agitation) will have the effect of causing the nervous system to then have a beneficial influence upon the rest of the bodily systems and the organs. Consequently, the position of the neck in Taiji Boxing should not only stay vertical, but should also be kept naturally relaxed. Together with having your head in its correct position, this will have an enormous influence on the posture of your whole body.
  As for the look on your face, here are some pointers for maintaining its naturalness:
  1. You should not have an angry look in your eyes (nor a vacuous one), otherwise you would not be conforming to the statement in Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise that “spirit should be collected within” [since with angry eyes it would be projected outward (and with vacant eyes it would be internally empty)], and would also be causing the eye muscles to stiffen and slow down the movement of your eyes.
  2. You should not close your mouth too tightly, and should especially avoid gnashing your teeth. Because it is healthier to be breathing through the nose, you should have your mouth closed, but if you are applying any strength to the act of closing your mouth, this will then lead to the error of holding your breath. (While practicing the boxing set, if your breathing becomes too tense, you should let your mouth open and slowly exhale through it.)
  3. Your tongue should be touching your upper palate, which causes your salivary glands to secret more. This will not only enable your throat to stay moistened while practicing, thereby preventing your breathing from creating a dry throat, it will also mean that more saliva is getting swallowed into your stomach, thereby boosting digestion.

二、含胸拔背:
2. Hollow your chest and round your back.

在生理上,身體的強弱與肌肉運動力的強弱有著密切關係。但肌肉有隨意肌與不隨意肌的區別,前者是與身體各部分的骨骼骨節相聯結,在意識的暗示之下,能夠隨意伸縮;後者則是圍繞在內臟的壁部,不受意識的暗示,而是由於本體的伸縮力自成運動。因此,可以想見不隨意肌的肌肉活動,如專靠四肢運動,顯然只能得到間接的或者較小的效果,如果要獲得較大的直接效果,勢非在軀幹上另加適當的運動不可。太極拳的含胸拔背就是為達到的這種效果的一個主要姿勢。含胸與挺胸恰恰相反,挺胸是使胸部突出,含胸是使胸部收進,兩者作用不同,可想而知。太極拳是以練習深呼吸(即術語所謂氣沉丹田)為其主要運動之一,所以用含胸的姿勢能使內部橫膈有向下舒張的機會(含胸是隨著動作而有所變動的,並不是固定的姿勢),可以很自然的形成橫膈式的深呼吸(吸氣時腹部能自然收縮,呼氣時腹部能自然舒張,與氣功療養法的逆呼吸相同),同時由於橫膈的張縮,使腹腔和肝臟受到時緊時鬆的腹壓運動,對輸送血液和促進肝臟機能活動,當然也有良好的生理作用。至於拔背,原是隨同含胸動作,背部自然弓出的一個姿勢,能含胸自然也能拔背。它的主要作用在使脊柱的背椎(也稱胸椎)部分能夠得到從前弓形〔)〕轉向後弓形〔(〕的調劑活動;其次,是在運動時使肩背部分的肌肉得到更多的舒展活動。技擊上所說的“力由脊發”,就是從這裡練成習慣的。橫膈式呼吸運動,對其他內臟機能當然也有一定的生理影響,本書不作專門研究,所以從略。
In terms of physiology, the strength or weakness of the body as a whole is intimately connected to the strength or weakness of the muscles. However, there is a distinction between voluntary muscles and involuntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are connected to bones and are under your conscious control, able to lengthen and shorten as you please. Involuntary muscles are wrapped around organs and are not under your conscious control, lengthening and shortening on their own.
  You can infer from this that if the exercise is biased toward the limbs, the involuntary muscles would obviously only be able to receive an indirect or very negligible effect from it. But if you wish for them to gain greater and more immediate results, it cannot be done without the addition of suitable actions for the torso to perform. Taiji Boxing’s “hollow your chest and round your back” is a major postural principle for achieving such a purpose. Hollowing the chest is the exact opposite of sticking the chest out. Whereas sticking out the chest causes the chest to bulge forward, hollowing causes the chest to gather in. Both of these actions would obviously have completely different functions.
  In Taiji Boxing, training deep breathing (expressed by the phrase “energy sinks to your elixir field”) is one of the main aspects of the exercise. Hollowing the chest can give the diaphragm better opportunity to expand downward (The hollowing adjusts along with the movement and is not really a fixed position.), putting the diaphragm in a very natural position for deep breathing. When inhaling, your abdomen can naturally contract, and when exhaling, your abdomen can naturally expand, similar to reverse breathing as it is used in qigong for recovery from illness.) The expanding and contracting of the diaphragm will at the same time be causing a tightening and releasing of pressure upon the abdominal cavity and liver, thus improving the transporting of blood and promoting better liver function, a wonderful physiological effect indeed.
  As for rounding the back, it automatically accompanies the action of hollowing the chest, the back naturally making a position of arching. So if you can hollow your chest, naturally you can round your back. Its primary function is to cause the spine (specifically the area of the thoracic vertebrae) to be able to adjust from making a forward bow shape to making a bow shape toward the rear. Its secondary function is to get the muscles of the shoulders and upper back area to stretch out further. The martial principle of “power comes from your spine” is based on developing this habit.
  The action of your diaphragm during the breathing described above will surely have an influence upon the physiological function of the other organs, but as this book does not have room for such a specialized study, I will not go into further detail about it here.

三、轉腕旋膀:
3. Rotate the wrist and forearm.

在早先,作者也是把“沉肩墜肘”看作太極拳的特點之一,其實“不許寒肩”(即兩肩聳起,如同畏寒之狀,與沉肩恰恰相反)和“墜肘護脅”,原是一般武術所同有的規律,只能稱為要點,不能稱為特點。當然,太極拳的沉肩墜肘,在技擊上,還另有它的特殊作用,但也不過是運用上的不同,不能作為姿勢上的特點而論,所以不列入本文以內。轉腕旋膀(膀指小臂)的術語,雖是作者所創造,不見經傳,但太極拳的動作是走弧線的,我們在絕大多數的上肢運動裡,都可以看到“腕隨掌轉”和“膀隨腕轉”的細緻動作,以與圓形動作相配合,這與一般剛性武術的上肢運動(手腕要固定有力,小臂的屈伸也很少旋轉)是顯然有別的。因此,我們有理由把它作為姿勢上的一個特點。它在技擊上是提高柔化作用的一個方法,同時它也增進了腕、肘、臂、肩各部在聯合動作中的肌肉活動,都是一般直線動作所不能得到的運動效果。
Long ago, I considered “sinking the elbow and dropping the shoulders” to be one of the special characteristics of Taiji Boxing, but it turns out that “do not have chilled shoulders” (meaning the shoulders are lifting up as though in fear of cold, the opposite of sinking the shoulders) and “drop the elbows to shield the ribs” are common rules in ordinary martial arts, and so they can only be deemed to be essential characteristics rather than special characteristics. Of course Taiji Boxing’s principle of “sink the elbow and drop the shoulders” still has its particular martial function, but it will only affect the way the posture is applied, not do anything unusual to the posture itself, and therefore I have not included it among the principles listed in this chapter.
  To “rotate the wrist and forearm” is a piece of terminology of my own making rather than something said in the boxing classics. However, Taiji Boxing’s movements make arcs, and in the majority of movements performed with the upper limbs, we can see detailed aspects of movement such as “the wrist going along with the rotation of the palm” and “the forearm going along the rotation of the wrist”, things that perfectly live up to having “roundness” of movement. This is manifestly different from the movement of the upper limbs in ordinary hard-style martial arts (in which the wrist is strongly fixed in place, and the forearm bends and extends but rarely rotates).
  Consequently, we have grounds to consider it to be a special characteristic. As a martial element, it is a means of heightening the effectiveness of neutralizing, and also promotes greater kinesthetic awareness by improving the integrated coordination of wrist, elbow, arm, and shoulder. Both of these qualities are results that cannot be obtained through ordinary straight-line movement.

四、展指凸掌:
4. Extend the fingers and stick out the palm.

太極拳名為拳術,其實握拳甚少而用掌特多。掌的練法,一般都講究手指用力並緊,太極拳偏偏相反,要求自然舒展,既不許用力併攏,也不要故意伸開。可是在伸臂出掌到達終點的時候,特別是立掌前推的動作,卻要把掌心用暗勁微微一凸(如不用暗勁,也要用意識在暗中表示),使指尖有一種感覺,如同有氣貫注一般,同時在小臂上也會覺得肌肉微微緊張。這兩個姿勢雖都是很小的特點,但展指是放鬆肩臂的主要作用,而凸掌則與腹呼吸有密切關係(它是與沉氣相呼應的),有一些練拳的人只注意展指而並不重視凸掌,在作者看來,是不夠嚴格的。
Taiji Boxing is known as a “boxing” art, but actually it rarely involves making fists and frequently uses palms. Methods of training the palms typically involve the fingers being held tightly together, but Taiji Boxing does the opposite, seeking for the fingers to be spread naturally rather than forcefully pressed together or stubbornly straightened.
  When you extend an arm and send out a palm to its final position, especially when it is a movement of pushing forward with a standing palm, the center of the palm should have a hidden energy of slightly protruding. (Without this hidden energy, deliberate intention will show through.) This will cause the fingertips to become sensitive, as though energy is being concentrated there, and at the same time, the muscles in your forearms will become slightly alert.
  Both of these postural points may be rather minor details, but extending the fingers has the effect of loosening the shoulders, and sticking out the palms is intimately connected to abdominal breathing (coordinating with deep exhalation). There are some boxing arts practitioners who only give attention to extending the fingers and think that sticking out the palms is unimportant, but that seems incomplete to me.

五、弓腰收臀:
5. Flatten your lower back and tuck in your buttocks.

在拳論中有“主宰於腰”一語,在“十三勢歌訣”裡又有“命意源頭在腰隙”和“刻刻留心在腰間”等語,可見太極拳是十分重視腰部動作的。我們前面談到太極拳是走圓形的動作,可是這種圓形動作,並不是光用手畫些圈子就算對了,腰部也必須有旋轉動作去適應或者去帶動身上其他部分的動作,才算合乎法則。明白了腰部動作應當與一切動作息息相關的道理對於上面所說的幾句拳經也就不難理解了。弓腰即坐腰,也有叫做塌腰的,它是坐身時向下鬆腰使腰部向外弓出的一個姿勢,與一般向上拔腰使腰部向裡癟進的姿勢完全相反;這一姿勢與含胸相配合,就是靜坐法的坐身姿勢。收臀是弓腰後臀部自然收進的姿勢,與一般癟腰突臀的姿勢完全相反。弓腰收臀的作用,主要與沉氣有關,也就是加強橫膈式的呼吸運動;其次在保持尾閭(即尾骶骨,在脊柱的下端)的自然中正(突臀時容易扭臀常常要使尾閭中正受到影響),另外,由於身體重心能夠稍稍降低,對於做好平衡動作,也有很大的幫助。
Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise has the phrase “directing it from your waist”, and the Thirteen Dynamics Song says “the command comes from your lower back” and “at every moment, pay attention to your waist”. Taiji Boxing clearly attaches great importance to the actions of the waist.
  We previously discussed Taiji Boxing’s roundness of movement, but this roundness is not at all just a matter of the hands drawing circles. The waist must also have rotational movement to complement or guide the movements of the other parts of the body, and then you will be performing in accordance with roundness. Once you understand the principle that the movement of the waist should be closely connected with all other movement, it will not be difficult to understand the phrases above from the boxing classics.
  To “flatten your lower back” means to sit your waist. It is also called “collapsing the waist”. Whenever you sit down, your waist loosens downward, causing your lower back to have a posture of filling outward, entirely the opposite of curling your lower back, which would cause your lower back to have a posture of shrinking inward. This action coordinates with hollowing the chest, and is the posture of sitting meditation.
  To “tuck in your buttocks” is a natural result of flattening your lower back, and is entirely the opposite of the ordinary posture of the lower back shrinking in and the buttocks sticking out. The function of flattening the lower back and tucking in the buttocks primarily has to do with getting energy to sink, increasing the strength of the diaphragm’s breathing actions. It secondarily has to do with maintaining the position of the sacrum area (i.e. the tailbone, at the lower end of the spinal column) so that it is naturally centered. (When the buttocks are sticking out, it is easy for the curving away of the buttocks to have a constant affect of drawing the tailbone out of alignment.) Additionally, the body’s center of gravity will be slightly lowered, which will be an enormous aid in helping you to stay balanced throughout the movements.

六、屈膝坐腿:
6. Bend your knees and sit with your legs.

一般武術動作,在一腿向後伸出的姿勢裡都要求腿膝用力伸直,不許彎曲,但太極拳卻以自然伸直為主,而同時又獨多屈膝坐腿的姿勢,為一般武術所少見。它的作用主要還是與沉氣有關。由於在動作中採取了這樣的姿勢,使得膝胯兩骨節的肌肉和韌帶得到更多的伸展活動,在鍛煉上,也有很顯著的運動效果(初練太極拳時自覺腿上並未用力也會發酸即其明證)。另外,由於這一姿勢,兩腿一虛一實,在動作時不斷交換,也避免了兩腿同時用力容易疲勞的缺點。這一姿勢,在過去並未作為特點,其實,它與含胸弓腰密切相配合,是極為重要的一個姿勢,而且也是太極拳所必需的姿勢,所以作者特地把它列了出來,以供初學者參考。
In ordinary martial arts movement, when in a stance involving one leg being extended behind, the leg should deliberately straighten and should not be bending. However, Taiji Boxing emphasizes being more natural in moments of straightening, and is usually in a posture of “bending knees and sitting legs” anyway, something that is seldom seen in ordinary martial arts. Its function is mainly related to sinking energy.
  Adopting this kind of posture throughout the movements causes the muscles and ligaments of the knee and hip joints to gain greater flexibility. The effects of the training will be very noticeable (evidenced by the experience, in the beginning of the training, of feeling that your legs have hardly used any effort and yet they are already becoming sore). Additionally, this kind of posture involves one leg being empty and the other leg being full, and switching these roles throughout the exercise, thereby easily avoiding the problem of both legs becoming fatigued at the same time.
  This postural principle has gone unnoticed, never considered to be a special characteristic, but actually it is intimately connected to hollowing the chest and flattening the lower back. It is a principle of posture that is of the utmost importance, indeed the most indispensable in Taiji Boxing, and therefore I include it in this list for beginners to study.

本章主要在於把太極拳的動作特點與健身有關的道理略為介紹,以供讀者研究。至於其他基本動作當然也有增強體質的作用,但因為都是武術上的一般動作,所以不作說明。
This chapter briefly introduces the special characteristics of Taiji Boxing movements and the ways in which they affect health, in order to supply you with study material. As for other basic qualities of movement, they of course also have the effect of improving the fitness of the body, but as they are all typical of martial arts in general, they are not explained here.

第四章 太極拳在技擊上的力學根據
CHAPTER FOUR: THE BASIS IN MECHANICS FOR TAIJI BOXING’S MARTIAL SKILLS

用拳擊人或者用掌推人,可以使對方身體受到力的作用而移動原有位置,有時,也可能因為用力不當,或者對方已有準備而沒有得到預期效果。從力學來看,不問它們所產生的效果如何,都是符合於運動定律的必然現象。因此,任何一項武術,不論是剛性的或者是柔性的,只要用以擊人的力確是一種物質的力,而且在兩人中間發生作用與反作用的,都是同樣受著運動定律的支配。同時也可以想見:這種運動定律,既不是太極拳所獨有,更不是太極拳另有什麼神通可以創造運動定律或者違反運動定律,只不過是久練太極拳有了成就以後,能夠在運用上,或多或少地掌握著運動定律,以使力的作用符合於自己的要求。由於近來還不免有一些人對於太極拳的技擊術存著神秘的看法,所以作者先把上面的淺薄道理略為介紹,希望愛好太極拳者都能有正確的認識。其次,太極拳的技擊手法變化多端,作者對於它的力學根據,也不可能一手一手的介紹,因此,在本章裡,只是把較為基本的幾個要點,根據個人的體會,作一些原則性的說明。
Whether using your fist to strike an opponent or using your palm to push him, the impact of the force on his body can shift him from his position. Sometimes you may miss or he may be already prepared for you and you will not obtain the result you expect. Looking at it purely from the perspective of the study of mechanics, no matter what effect your attack may produce, it will most certainly conform to the laws of motion. Consequently, no matter what kind of martial art you are using, be it a hard style or a soft style, provided the force you are using to attack the opponent is an actual physical force, a situation of action and reaction will be generated between you, and you will both be governed by the laws of motion.
  It is therefore obvious that these laws of motion are not exclusive to Taiji Boxing. More than that, there is no kind of magic to the art by which it can create its own laws of motion or violate the laws of motion, it is simply that practicing it for a long time will produce enough skill at applying it that you will be able to more or less grasp the laws of motion, and this will then cause your use of power to be in accordance with your needs at any moment.
  Because there are nowadays still some people who view Taiji Boxing’s martial skills as something mystical, I will start by briefly introducing some basic mechanics theory in the hopes that those who love Taiji Boxing will all be able to know what is real. Taiji Boxing’s martial techniques are transforming endlessly, and so I cannot possibly make a mechanics-oriented analysis of every single technique. Therefore within this chapter, I present just a few key essentials, explaining a number of principles based on my own personal experience.

一、符合於力的作用時間和速度變化的規律:
1. It conforms to the principle of duration of force causing alteration of speed.

習外功拳者握拳擊人,出手快而用力大,但其效果只是使對方被擊部分發痛或者受傷,除非用特別強大的力量,很難把對方身體擊出或者擊倒。這主要是因為出拳的目的大都在於擊痛或者擊傷對方,所以只求一擊而中,根本上就沒有在擊中以後使“力”繼續前進的意圖。同時又怕所出之手受到對方傷害,往往抽手極快,以致打在對方身上的作用力,在受到對方反作用力的同時,就立刻消失了。這樣的擊法,只能擊痛對方,不能使對方移動位置,乃是當然的結果。太極拳的擊法,在出手的快慢和用力的多少上,雖然也要根據客觀情況而有所不同,但所出之手與對方身體相接獨以後,並不立即收回,而是有意識的向對方身上繼續加力,以延長力的作用時間,使對方身體發生加速運動,那麼,對方的身體自然要隨著力的方向而變動原有位置了。這與牛頓第二定律:“運動是在外力同一方向的直線上發生變化”和“動量的變化相等於力與時間的乘積”的原理,都是相符合的。太極拳的出手,總是在接觸對方身體以後,開始伸臂發勁,也就是為了這個原因。為了使讀者更能明了力的作用時間對物體速度變化的影響,特再拳出下面兩個例子,以供參考:①在天平的兩個盤上各放相當重的物體,使其平衡,此時,如用一根小玻璃管對重物迅度地打一下(擊人時一擊即回,即是這一類的擊法),天平的平衡不會受到什麼影響,但如把這根小玻璃管放到重物上去,這一頭的盤立即下降,天平的平衡就被破壞了。②我們用大鐵錘去擊幾尺見方的大石塊時,如兩手舉硬柄的大鐵錘用大力去擊石塊,因怕兩手虎口被震痛,往往錘到石面立即鬆勁,由於力的作用時間很短,結果只能擊碎石塊的表面而不能使石塊裂開;如果改用軟柄的大鐵錘(用藤或竹的軟柄可免虎口震痛),兩手使出同量或者較小的力去擊石塊,只要聽任大鐵錘重重落下,使石塊受震(即是加長力的作用時間),石塊就會分裂為二。太極拳中有所謂“內勁”者就是與此相類似的擊法,實際上,並不是力的本質的問題,而是力的作用時間的問題。
When a practitioner of an external boxing art makes a fist and strikes an opponent, he sends out his hand fast and powerfully, but the effect is only that the area of the opponent’s body that is hit receives pain or damage. Unless the power that is applied is especially mighty, it is difficult to get the opponent’s whole body to be launched away or dropped to the ground. This is primarily because the goal of a punch is mainly to cause an opponent pain or injury, and thus there is only a desire to hit the target, but basically no intention to get the power to continue through it. At the same time, he is also worried that his arm might get injured by the opponent while it is extended, and so he usually withdraws his hand very quickly, with the result that he immediately disperses all the applied force that he used to hit the opponent once he feels the reacting force bouncing back from the opponent’s body. The natural result of this kind of striking method is that it will only cause the opponent pain and will not be able to move him from his position.
  In Taiji Boxing’s striking method, although the speed that the hand goes out and the amount of force that is used depends on the situation, the hand is not immediately withdrawn once it connects with the opponent. Instead there is a deliberate continuing of force in the direction of the opponent’s body, prolonging the amount of time that force is applied, and thereby generating acceleration in the opponent’s body, which will then naturally be carried along the direction of force, and he will have been moved from his position.
  This is entirely in accordance with Newton’s Second Law of Motion, which tells us that “a change in motion is made in the straight line of the direction of an outside force”, and also with the principle that “momentum equals force multiplied by time”. This explains why in Taiji Boxing power is always issued by first connecting with the opponent’s body and then extending your arm. So that you can better understand how duration of force affects speed, refer to the two examples below:
  1. Put two objects of equal weight on the trays of a scale so that the trays are both level, then use a small glass tube to hit down quickly on top of one of the objects (just like when striking an opponent and withdrawing the strike right away). The balance of the trays will not be influenced by this, but if you instead place the glass tube on top of the object, that side will then drop slightly, ruining the perfect balance of the trays.
  2. Strike a large square stone block with a sledgehammer. If you are swinging at the block holding a hammer that has a hard handle [i.e. a metal handle], you will shy away from the shock your hands will receive by loosening your grip as you approach the moment of impact. Consequently the duration of force will be shortened and you will only be chipping at the surface of the block rather than smashing it apart. But if you switch to a hammer with a softer handle (such as rattan or bamboo [or wrapped in rubber], which will reduce the shock to the hands), and swing with the same amount of force, or even less, you only have to let the hammer swing through heavily so that the block receives the full shock (thereby increasing the duration of force), and the block will be split in two. The “internal power” in Taiji Boxing is similar to this kind of striking method, in that it is not actually a matter of the nature of the force that is applied, simply the duration of force.

二、符合於物體慣性的規律:
2. It conforms to the principle of inertia.

從牛頓第一運動定律:“物體不受外力不改變原有狀態”,我們知道物體有保持自己靜止或者運動狀態的特性,這種特性,在力學上,叫做慣性。牛頓的第三運動定律又告訴我們:“每一個作用總是有大小相等、方向相反的反作用,或者說,兩個物體的相互作用總是大小相等方向相反的”,例如,槍炮子彈出膛時,槍炮一定要向後反撞,就是反作用力所造成的。至於物體慣性的例子,如人站立在電車裡,電車突然停止,人就要繼續向前晃動,甚至傾跌,就是物體慣性的一種表現。太極拳在出手時,總是以用力越少為越好,不肯立即用大力去打擊對方,這樣,首先就可以不引起太大的反作用力作用於自身。其次,在與對方身體相接觸以後加力於對方身上時,如果對方用大力抵抗,我也能夠很自然的立即鬆手,將力減少或者撤消,使對方身體受物體慣性規律的支配,不由自主地繼續前進而失去平衡。這時,我就可乘對方重心不穩立即發勁擊他;如對方身體向前傾倒並不甚猛,而正在用力掙扎,可以仍向原方向加力於對方身上;如對方前傾之勢甚猛,便應當向左右或者相反的方向去加力,對方都是很容易被擊出或者被擊倒的。如果對方不懂太極拳,兩腳往往不肯隨勢移動,在物體慣性的作用下,總是上身向前傾倒,而不是整個身體一起前進,所以要影響他自己的重心。練太極拳者,在這種情況下,必然要動步相隨,以保持自己的平衡。如上面所舉乘電車的例子,我們在遇到電車突然停止時應當趁勢向前邁步以免傾跌,正是同樣的道理。
According to Newton’s First Law of Motion, “unless influenced by an outside force, an object will not change its original state”. We know that an object at rest will stay at rest and that an object in motion will maintain its particular motion. The term in mechanics for this property is “inertia”. Furthermore, Newton’s Third Law of Motion tells us that “for every action, there is a reaction of equal size in the opposite direction”, or perhaps we could phrase it as “the interaction of two objects is always of equal size and in opposite directions”. For example, when a bullet exits the chamber of a gun, the gun rushes backward. This is the reacting force that is created. As for an example of inertia, if you are standing in a trolley and it suddenly comes to a halt, you will continue forward, swaying to the point that you may even stumble. This would be a way to demonstrate inertia.
  In Taiji Boxing, when sending out a hand, it is always the case that the less exertion you use, the better. Do not be so willing to immediately use a great amount of force to strike the opponent. In this way, you are first of all preventing an excessive reacting force from coming back to your own body. Second, when you add force to the opponent’s body after you have connected with him, if he uses a great amount of force to resist against it, you can very naturally loosen your hand right away to reduce his force or dispel it altogether, thus putting his body under the control of inertia, and he will not be able to keep himself from continuing forward and losing his balance. You can then take advantage of the opponent’s instability by immediately issuing energy to attack him.
  If his forward movement is not really very aggressive, he may still be in a position to struggle against you, and so you can again add more force to his body in the direction he was going. If his forward movement is very aggressive, you should then add force to the left or right or in the opposite direction. In either case, he will be very easy to launch away or knock down. If the opponent has no understanding of Taiji Boxing, and he is not willing to go along with the momentum and shift the position of his feet, the action of bodily inertia will cause his upper body to lean forward instead of his whole body moving forward together, thereby affecting his center of gravity. In this kind of situation, a practitioner of Taiji Boxing has to step in order to maintain his balance. Similarly, in the example of the trolley car, when you are in a trolley car that suddenly comes to a halt, you should go along with the forward momentum by taking a step in order to avoid stumbling. This is the same idea.

三、符合於合力的原理:
3. It conforms to the principle of net force.

在太極拳的擊法裡,凡是對方先出手向我攻擊,最忌從相反的方向去用力抵抗,應是或多或少地順着對方進擊的方向,加力於對方的力上,以產生更大的合力,使對方身體失去平衡,陷入於不利的地位。這種擊法,是以“柔”“順”為主,與硬打硬進的方法絕然不同,所以在效果上也有很大的區別。兩人交手時,如果雙方都用硬打硬進的方法,其結果雖然是手快贏手慢、力大贏力小,但力大手快者也未必能完全避免損傷。因此,練太極拳者,在習慣上,總是以靜待動,並不搶先出手,即使出手在先,也只是引人出手,以便在接觸中憑感覺去探知對方的虛實,然後乘機而作。如無機可乘,便立即變換手法,寧可一變再變,只化不打,決不冒昧進擊以圖一逞。當然,功夫較深者,也能一交手就擊中對方弱點而使對方跌出,但在原則上,總是以利用合力,牽動對方重心為上。上面所說的“加力於對方力上”,有時是化勁,目的在引動對方重心,有時是發勁,須用在對於重心不穩的時候。總之,都離不開順著來力的方向及時加力,從合力上來提高打擊的效果,這是借人之力以供我用的方法,也就是太極拳能够以小力勝大力的關鍵所在。為了使練拳者對合力原理有更多的了解,特在下面作一些力的合成圖示,以供參考。
Taiji Boxing’s method of attack is always to let the opponent attack first, for it is forbidden to forcefully resist against him. You should mostly go along with him in the same direction he is attacking and add force to his force in order to generate an even greater net force, thereby causing his body to lose its balance, and he will fall into a disadvantageous position. This method of fighting emphasizes using softness and smoothness. It is nothing like methods of striking with hardness or using hardness to advance, and thus the result is greatly different. When two people are sparring, if they are both using methods of hardness in striking and advancing, then although the one with faster hands and greater strength will defeat the one with slower hands and less strength, he will not necessarily be able to avoid getting injured.
  Because of this, the instinct of Taiji Boxing practitioners is always to await movement with stillness and never to try to be the first to attack. You may send out your hand first, but only to induce the opponent to send out his hand in order to make contact with him so that you can feel the state of his emptiness and fullness, and then take advantage of whatever opportunity arises. If there is no opportunity to take advantage of, promptly switch to a different hand technique, for it is better to change and change again, to just keep neutralizing without attacking, than to become impatient and attack recklessly.
  Those who have a deep level of skill can of course simply connect with an opponent’s hands, instantly zero in on his weak points, and send him stumbling away, but in general you should always be making use of net force to affect the opponent’s center of gravity. To “add force to his force” is sometimes a matter of neutralizing [when he is coming forward], the goal being to get him to shift his center of gravity, and sometimes a matter of issuing [when he tries to back off], in which you must make use of the moment when his balance is unstable. Basically you have to go along with the direction of incoming force and then add force to it, the net force of both enhancing the effect of your attack. This is the method of borrowing the opponent’s force in order to fuel your own technique, and it is the key to Taiji Boxing’s ability to use a small force to defeat a large force. In order for you to better understand the principle of net force, study the several diagrams below. [To better understand these diagrams, familiarize yourself with these simple characters: 左 (left), 右 (right), 前 (front), 后 (rear), 上 (above) 下 (below).]

如圖1:以AB線作為對方手臂向前發出的力量和它的方向,以AC線作為一般擊法用力橫擊的力量和方向,那麼,AC橫力和AB直力相加就是對方所受到的合力,如圖中AD斜線所表示的力量和方向。
In diagram 1, the line from A to B is the direction of force of the opponent sending a hand forward. The line from A to C is the direction of force of an ordinary blocking action to the side [knocking his attack toward his right]. The sideways force of the AC line added to the forward force of the AB line gives the net force for the opponent’s attack, the direction of this overall force being shown by the diagonal line from A to D. See diagram 1:

如圖2:A’B’線仍作為對方的直力(力量和方向與圖1的AB線相同),以A’C’線作為太極拳順著方向作用於對方的斜力(力量與圖1AC線相同,方向不相同),那麼對方所受到的合力,應當為A’D’線所表示的力量和方向。
In diagram 2, the line from A’ to B’ is again the opponent’s forward force (the same as the AB line in diagram 1). The line from A’ to C’ is the act of the Taiji boxer going along with his force and diverting it diagonally (the same force as the AC line in diagram 1, but in a different direction [absorbing more than blocking]). The direction of the net force that the opponent ends up with is shown by line from A’ to D’. See diagram 2:

如圖3:A”C”斜力的方向比圖2A’C’斜力更為斜些,那麼,對方所受到的合力應當為A”D”線所表示的力量和方向。
In diagram 3, the line from A” to C” is a diagonal force that is even more slanted than the A’C’ line in diagram 2. The direction of the net force that the opponent ends up with in this case is shown by line from A” to D”. See diagram 3:

從三個圖所表示的情況來看:圖1的AD合力小於圖2的A’D’合力,而圖2的A’D’合力又小於圖3的A”D”合力,這與力學上力的合成原理所證明的“兩個分力大小不變,兩分力間的夾角越小,它的合力越大;夾角越大,合力就越小“都是相符合的。可見太極拳的上述擊法與合力原理也是相符合的。有時在擊法上,我們並不需要太大的合力,那麼,我們可以將AC分力減少,如圖4,AB線不變,AC線較短,而所得的合力AD’則仍然與圖1的AD相等,這也可以證明太極拳用力較小而收效較大的力學根據。
Notice the pattern shown by these three diagrams: the net force of the AD line in diagram 1 is smaller than the net force of the A’D’ line in diagram 2, which is in turn smaller than the net force of the A”D” line in diagram 3. This is corroborated by this explanation of net force in the science of mechanics: “If the sizes of two forces do not change but the angle between them shrinks, their net force will be greater, and if the angle between them grows, their net force will be smaller.” It is clear that Taiji Boxing’s fighting method conforms to the principle of net force.
  Sometimes when fighting, you will not really need a very large net force, and so you can apply less force in the AC line. In diagram 4, the AB line is the same, but the AC line is shorter, resulting in the net force in the line from A to D’ being equal to the AD line in diagram 1. Therefore according to principles of mechanics, it can indeed be proven that Taiji Boxing uses a small force to produce a large effect. See diagram 4:

上面所說的是對方出手擊我的例子。如果是由我出手在對方身上的加力的時候,我們可以從下面三個圖示來研究太極拳的擊法。
The four diagrams above depict examples of the opponent attacking you. Examples of how you then send out your hand to add force to his body are depicted in the three diagrams below, giving a more complete study of Taiji Boxing’s fighting method:

如圖5:EO線作為對方的胸部,AB線作為我用手掌向對方胸部直線前推的作用力。這樣的用力直推,一則對方胸部有同量的反作用力作用於我身,二則我如努力前推,對方也可努力抵抗,在兩不相讓的時候,往往變成僵持的形勢。如對方力大,反要將我頂回。按照太極拳的原則,如我不打算抽回手掌,就必須用圖6或者圖7所指示的方法去應付對方。
In diagram 5 below, The line from E to O is to the opponent’s chest area. The line from A to B is the force of your palm pushing straight forward toward his chest. This kind of forceful push may result in his chest sending the same amount of reacting force back at you, or if you stubbornly push forward, he may stubbornly resist you. When both people are unwilling to yield, they will typically end up stuck in a stalemate. Or if the opponent is stronger than you, you will end up being moved back. To act in accordance with the principles of Taiji Boxing, if you do not want to withdraw your palm, you will then have to use the methods shown in diagrams 6 or 7 in order to deal with the opponent.

如圖6:AB線仍作為直推的作用力和方向,AC線則作為我的手掌在直推的同時再用手掌和手指利用摩擦力向上加力的動作(即拳論所謂“若將物掀起……”的掀勁)。這時,向前向上兩力合成AD合力,使對方受到更大的推力,而從合力的方向來看,也有同時使對方腳尖離地、身向後仰的作用,都是不利於對方的。
In diagram 6 below, the AB line is again the force of your forward push. The line from A to C is your palm and fingers then adding an upward frictional force to your forward push (i.e. the “lifting” energy of “like when you lift up an object” from Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise). The forward and upward forces together make the net force of the line from A to D, causing the opponent to receive a larger pushing force. This net force also has the effect of causing his toes to lift up and his body to lean back, both of these things putting him in a disadvantageous position.

有時遇到對方向下沉身,我的向上加力不能將對方掀動時,我就應當在前推的同時趁勢用手指改向下方加力(手指向下抹也是利用摩擦力)。如對方右腿在身後支撐,應當偏向其左下方加力,如左腿在後則應偏向右下方加力。
如圖7:AD是AB(向前直力)與AC(向下斜力)相合成的合力,它的方向與對方沉身的方向相順,所以就容易推動對方身體了。
Sometimes you will encounter an opponent who will sink his body down in response to this. Your addition of an upward force will then not be able to get him to lift up, so you should go along with his action by switching to adding force downward (creating a frictional force by wiping downward with your hand). If his right leg is bracing his body from behind, you should add force downward to your left, or if his left leg is behind, you should add force downward to your right. In diagram 7 below, the line from A to D is the net force of the AB line (forward) and the AC line (diagonally downward), its direction going along with the direction of the opponent’s sinking body, making it easy to push him.

假定用了圖7的方法以後,對方依然頑抗而未被推動,那麼,我就應當有意識地向AC方向稍稍加力,以逼使對方用力向上反抗,並立即轉為向上加力(如圖6所示),或者立即撤消手掌上的力量(這與利用物體慣性有關),使對方力的作用落空。如果對方不懂移步相適應的方法,或者突然之間不及動步挽救,身體便要向前傾倒而站立不穩,我於此時再加力於對方身上,就能得到預期的效果了。
After employing the method in diagram 7, the opponent might again resist getting pushed, in which case you should deliberately add a little more force along the AC line [i.e. downward] in order to compel him to use force to resist upward, and then immediately switch to adding force upward (as in diagram 6), or just suddenly releasing the strength in your hands altogether (making use of inertia), causing the opponent’s force to go nowhere. If he does not understand methods of stepping to adapt to the situation, or in the abruptness of the moment it is too late for him to save himself by stepping, his body will then lean forward and he will be standing unstably. If now you again add force to his body, you will thus be able to achieve the result you wanted in the first place.

四、符合於力偶原理:
4. It conforms to the principle of coupled forces.

凡兩個平行力,大小相等,方向相反者,在力學上,叫做力偶,力偶不能產生合力,但能使物體旋轉。在太極拳的擊法裡,如對方以右手擊我左肩(或者以左手擊我右肩,可以類推),我的左肩應當順著來手的方向轉身避讓,使對方的力不受我身阻力而繼續前進,同時,我立即以右手擊對方的左肩,無須用很大的力,就能使對方身體旋轉。如圖8:
Whenever two parallel forces of equal size are moving in opposite directions, the term in mechanics for this is “coupling”. Coupled forces cannot produce net force, but can cause objects to turn. Within Taiji Boxing’s fighting method, if an opponent uses his right hand to attack your left shoulder (or uses his left hand to attack your right shoulder), your left shoulder should go along with the direction of his incoming hand, your body turning to evade it, so that his force cannot find your body and continues forward. At the same time, immediately use your right hand to attack his left shoulder, and without needing to use a large amount of force, you can thereby cause his body to turn. See diagram 8:

AC作為對方伸手擊我左肩時他右肩所受的作用力。當對方擊著我時,我即轉身避讓(只旋腰,不動步),使這一個作用力繼續前進以引動對方身體,我隨即循BD方向擊他左肩,這時,對方兩肩受著AC和BD兩個方向相反的平行力,就要使自己身體旋轉(如OE虛線所示),而發生不穩狀態。如果對方感覺不穩而立即抽回右手,則AC作用力自然消失,而產生另一AC’力作用於對方右肩(如圖9),
The line from A to C is the opponent’s hand extending to attack your left shoulder while his right shoulder at the same time is receiving force. When the opponent strikes at you, turn your body to evade it (only by moving your waist, not stepping), causing his force to continue forward and his body to be lured in, and then immediately go along the direction of the line from B to D with an attack to his left shoulder. His shoulders are now receiving the effect of line AC and line BD, two parallel forces moving in opposite directions, and so he will have to turn his body (shown by the dotted OE line), thus producing an unstable position. If he feels the instability and immediately withdraws his right hand, the force from A to C will of course vanish, generating another force from A to C’ toward his right shoulder. See diagram 9:

此時,BD力仍存在,對方反而受著BD和AC’兩個同方向的平行力,其合力為OE,對方受力更大,便要向後方(即OE方向)退步或者跌出,這就是力偶轉變為合力的一種現象。為了說明上的便利,故上面只用兩肩作比。例如,太極拳的“挒”勁(參閱推手圖解)就是根據力偶原理,在對方的兩臂上“化”“打”並用,以使對方身體傾側,然後再趁勢加力於對方身上。
Because the force from B to D still remains, the opponent’s reversal of direction means that he is now receiving the effect of line AC’ and line BD, two parallel forces moving in the same direction, the net force being the line from O to E. Since he is now receiving an even greater force, he has to step back (in the OE direction) or he will fall down. This is a situation of coupled forces being changed into net force. (In order for the explanation above to be easier to digest, I have used only the shoulders to illustrate the idea.) This is an example of Taiji Boxing’s “rending” technique (explained in Chapter Ten), which functions on the basis of the principle of coupled forces, one of the opponent’s arms being neutralized while the other is being attacked at the same time, causing his body to be leaned away. You may then take advantage of the situation by adding force to his body.

五、符合於物體平衡的原理:
5. It conforms to the principle of equilibrium.

物體有三種平衡狀態,即穩定平衡、不穩定平衡和隨遇平衡。
Objects have three states of equilibrium: stable equilibrium, unstable equilibrium, and adaptive equilibrium.

如圖10:錐形體是處於穩定平衡狀態,它在不太傾斜的時候,重心雖然升高,但重心的重垂線不容易越出底面積,很快就能回復原狀。
This cone structure is in a state of stable equilibrium. As long as it is not overly tipped from its base, then even though its center of gravity is rising up, the vertical line of its center is not passing over the boundary line of its base, and it very quickly can return to its original condition. See diagram 10:

如圖11:錐形體是處於不穩定平衡狀態,只要微微一側,它的重垂線立即越出底面積,雖然重心降低也不能免於傾倒。
This cone is in a state of unstable equilibrium. It only needs the slightest tilt for the vertical line of its center to immediately pass over the boundary line of its base, and even though its center of gravity is lowering, it cannot avoid tipping over. See diagram 11:

如圖12:錐形體是處於隨遇平衡狀態,無論如何推動,它的重心不升高也不降低,重垂線也總是在底面積以內,所以叫做隨遇平衡。
This cone is in a state of adaptive equilibrium. Regardless of how it is pushed around, its center of gravity is neither rising up nor lowering, and the vertical line of its center always stays within the boundary of its base, and hence it is “adaptive”. See diagram 12:

由此可見:如要使物體有很大的穩度,非降低重心並擴大底面積不可,人體直立時,重心在臍部,没有外物外力的幫助,不可能增加很大的穩度。例如走繩索者必須手持長杆,兩端係重物,使杆的兩端低於兩腳,將重心降低到極點,故能在繩索上自由走動。練武術者大多要練站樁功夫(即是常做騎馬勢),有的還要練沉氣功夫,在運用時,當然可以穩定身體重心或者降低身體重心。但人的兩腳所占的底面積,有了寬的一面,就會有窄的一面。在兩腳前後站開時,是前後寬而左右窄,在兩腳左右站開時,是左右寬而前後窄,如向其窄處打擊,身體重心的重垂線還是很容易越出底面積以外。可見技擊家如僅僅依靠重心降低而不知彌補底面積上的缺點,還是很難保持身體穩定的。太極拳以擊出對方身體為它的主要擊法,故在發勁時首先要動搖對方重心,使對方身體的重垂線越出底面積而失去穩定平衡。自身也處處以維護身體的穩定平衡為主,但在方法上,則並不是專靠蹲腿沉氣去支撐自己的身體。須知太極拳既是以全身重量寄托於一腳為它的基本姿勢之一,一腳的底面積較兩腳更為狹窄,被擊時,重心的重垂線也更容易越出底面積,都是很顯然的事實,但為什麼,反能把身體的平衡維持得更好呢?惟一的方法,是全靠兩腳的隨勢變換虛實,以適應身體穩度的需要。所謂兩腳變換虛實,就是:當一腳不穩時,立即以全身重量移置於另一腳上,使身體由不平衡而復歸於平衡,也就是底面積時時隨著重心的變動而變動。這樣就自然能够使重垂線在將要越出底面積的一瞬間又納入另一個底面積了。這在形式上雖然與隨遇平衡的物體有所不同,但在實際上卻有同樣的效果;行功時有所謂“動中求靜”者,在技擊上,也是包涵這個意義在內的。又如前述走繩索的例子,有功夫的人在走較短的鋼索時,可以不用長杆幫助,就是靠兩腳善於變換;否則與力學原理相違反,就會跌落下來。
It is clear from these examples that if you want an object to have a very strong stability, it will not work unless you both lower its center of gravity and widen its base. When a person stands straight, his center of the gravity is in the area of the navel, and so unless he is aided by an outside object or outside force, it is impossible for him to have a strong stability. For example, a tightrope walker has to carry a long pole. The weight at each end causes the tips of the pole to be lower than his feet, bringing his center of gravity all the way down and enabling him to walk freely on top of the rope.
  Martial arts practitioners will usually do stance training (most commonly the horse-riding stance), some of them going further and training to sink their energy. When applying techniques, such training can indeed stabilize or lower your body’s center of gravity. But the base that your feet are forming will have width in one direction and a narrowness in another direction. When your feet stand with one foot forward and one foot back, there is width to the front and rear, but narrowness to the sides. When your feet stand with one foot to the left and one foot to the right, there is width to the sides, but narrowness to the front and rear. If you are attacked at an area of narrowness, the vertical line of your body’s center of gravity can very easily be made to pass over the boundary line of your base. It is clear from this that if a martial artist only relies on his center of gravity being low and does not understand how to remedy the defects of his base, it will be very difficult to maintain his stability.
  Therefore the most important part of Taiji Boxing’s fighting method is that when you issue power, you first have to upset the opponent’s center of gravity so that the vertical line of his center passes over the boundary line of his base and he loses his stable equilibrium. It is also crucial to always maintain the stable equilibrium of your own body, but the way to do this is by no means a matter of simply squatting down and sinking your energy in order to prop your body up. You have to understand that since shifting the weight of the whole body to be supported on one foot [i.e. an empty stance] is one of the most basic positions in Taiji Boxing, a base involving just one foot is even narrower than a base with two feet, and so when you get hit, the vertical line of your center of gravity would be made to go beyond the boundary line of your base that much more easily, a very obvious fact. Why then can the body’s stability be maintained better this way?
  The only means of fulfilling the body’s requirements of stability is entirely a matter of your feet switching between emptiness and fullness according to the situation. To “switch between emptiness and fullness” just means that the moment one foot becomes unstable, immediately shift the weight onto the other foot, causing your body to return from a state of unstable equilibrium to one of stable equilibrium, your base changing along with the changes of your center of gravity. In this way, you will naturally be able to let your vertical line slip beyond the boundary line of your base for a brief moment because it is being brought into the boundary of the base made by your other foot.
  Although this is somewhat different from the adaptive equilibrium of the cone, it is effectively the same result. The martial concept of “seeking stillness within movement” also contains this idea. Returning to the example of the tightrope walker above, when skillful walkers walk along a shorter steel wire, they can do so without the aid of the long pole, and this is because their feet are so good at such switchings. Otherwise the principles of mechanics would be violated and they would fall off.

本章主要在證明太極拳的用勁方法與力學定律相暗合,以免初學者被玄虛的說法所迷感。可惜作者學力不足,不能在理論上有更多和更深的闡述,真是憾事。
This chapter is meant to demonstrate how Taiji Boxing’s methods of expressing power are in agreement with the laws of mechanics mainly in order to keep beginners from getting lost in otherwise mystical explanations. Alas, my own level of knowledge on the subject is inadequate, and so I very much regret that am in incapable of providing a lengthier and more insightful treatment of mechanics theory.

第五章 盤架子時應當注意的法則
CHAPTER FIVE: PRINCIPLES TO BE GIVEN ATTENTION WHEN PRACTICING THE BOXING SET

太極拳的成套拳式,在習慣上,叫做“架子”。盤架子就是打拳的意思。由於太極拳是一種“重意不重形”的武術,不但流傳下來的式子有好幾種,而且同一種式子,由同一位老師傳授,到造詣較深的時候,各個人也不會在式子的“神似”上或者“形似”上完全一致。這同學習書法是一樣,初學者,對於任何字體總是力求形似,到後來有了形似的底子,再根據自己的心得和愛好專在神似上求發展,日久自然要變樣了。盤架子也是如此。其次,太極拳的架子,還可以根據學拳人自己身體的強弱或者要求的高低而有所不同。因此,任何一種架子都可以分作大中小三種姿勢來練:大架子可以往小裡練,也可以把架子練得更大些;小架子可以往大裡練,也可以把架子練得更小些。總之,要先往大裡練,然後再往小裡練,“十三勢行功心解”裡說:“先求開展後求緊湊”,盤架子也不能例外。但架子的大小與運動量的大小有關,架子較大運動量也較大,架子較小運動量也較小,故上面所說的先求開展後求緊湊,對身體較弱的練拳人來說,是並不相宜的,在初學時,務須量力而行,不可勉強。
盤架子本來也是一種練習技擊的東西,所以在別的書裡都要提到拳式上的用法,本章以說明太極拳的運動方法為主,所以下面所說的法則只是根據健身運動的要求而寫作。其實,太極拳的技擊功夫和健身效果,原是同一個方法下的兩個產物,如果在意識上把每一個動作都看做技擊方法,當然可以增進技擊功夫,但同時也並不會減低它的健身效果。如果意識作用專注在健身方面,自然可以得到更顯著或者更充分的健身效果;但在無形中也有培養技擊基礎的作用,不過在没有研究技擊方法以前,並不是人人都能運用這種基礎的。
以上是初學太極拳者首先應當認識清楚的兩個要點,下面根據作者的見解,分做三個階段,來說明盤架子的法則:
The Taiji Boxing practice routine is commonly called the “set”. To “practice the set” means to perform the boxing postures. Because Taiji Boxing is a kind of martial art that emphasizes intention rather than shape, not only have many variations of the postures been passed down, but once practitioners have attained a deeper level of skill, despite being taught the same postures by the same teacher, their own individuality will draw them into being less and less identical in spirit and shape.
  This is a similar situation to learning calligraphy. A student will begin by striving to imitate some standard version of the character shapes. Once he eventually has a solid grounding in drawing these shapes, he will then act in accordance with his own experience and personal taste, focusing on developing more expressiveness of spirit. After a long time, drawing words in this way will naturally lead to a shift in their shape. Practicing the boxing set goes through the same process.
  Furthermore, the Taiji boxing set can take into account differences of individual strength level and height. Whatever the version of the postures, the set can be practiced in three sizes: large frame, medium frame, or small frame. The large frame can be done smaller, or even extra large. The small frame can be done larger, or even extra small. It is best to start with an expanded frame and then shrink it later, as is said in Understanding How to Practice: “First strive to open up, then strive to close up.”
  The size of the frame also has to be consistent through the entire set. However, the size of the posture affects the size of its movement. The larger the posture, the larger the movement. The smaller the posture, the smaller the movement. Therefore the instruction to “first strive to open up, then strive to close up” may not actually be appropriate for practitioners with weaker bodies. In the beginning, you must do what you can actually do and not force yourself to do what you cannot.
  Since the boxing set is a tool for training martial skill, other books tend to also describe applications. But this chapter focuses simply on Taiji Boxing’s methods of movement, and so the principles I present further below address only its requirements as a health exercise. Taiji Boxing’s martial skills and health benefits are in fact two outcomes of the same methods of training. If you are intent upon regarding each movement as a martial technique, this will of course enhance your martial skill, but it will not at all reduce its effects as a health-building exercise. Or if you instead want to focus on its health-building aspect, naturally you will be able to gain noticeable and even abundant results in this regard, and yet you will also be imperceptibly developing a foundation for martial skill. But unless one has previously studied martial methods, not every practitioner will be able to make use of this foundation. These two aspects should be clearly understood by beginners right from the start.
  Below I have arranged, according to my own opinions, which principles are most important in the practice of the boxing set, dividing them into three stages of development.

第一階段:
1st STAGE

初學太極拳者,不問他先前有没有練過其他武術,在最初的階段裡,最好不要把太極拳的種種要點一下子就全部吸收到各個拳式或者整套架子裡去,免得顧此失彼,反而收穫不大,所以作者只提出下面四個要點,作為盤架子的初期法則:
In the first stage of learning Taiji Boxing, regardless of whether you have trained in any other martial arts, you should not attempt to plug the various principles into the postures all at once as you go through the set, which would be too many things at a time to think about and you would not get much benefit from the exercise. Therefore I present only the four principles below as a standard for your initial training in the set.

一、輕:
1. Lightness

拳論中所說的:“一舉動,周身俱要輕靈”,是太極拳已經練熟以後的標準,初學者應當先從“輕”字入手,不必急於求“靈”。根據經驗:凡是練過其他武術者,雖然身手比較靈活,但因為在動作上已經用慣大力,大多是靈有餘而輕不足。至於從來没有參加過體育運動的人,也多半是學靈容易而學輕較難。作者初學太極拳時心裡想著“打拳必須用力”的想法,總是注意靈而不注意輕。後來明白了太極拳的特點,才把這個想法扭轉過來。須知太極拳的練法,主要是從精神上去養成感覺靈敏,並不是專從動作上去追求身手靈活。前者用力少而後者用力多,用力過大對敏感有一定影響(例如兩臂相擊,用力握拳,可以減少痛感)。因此,在初學時,應當先在用力越少越好的輕字上多下功夫,不妨把動作的靈活放在次要地位,等到輕字有了基礎再去練靈字,決不嫌晚。拳論中所說的“一羽不能加,蠅蟲不能落”的高度敏感,雖然不是完全從輕字中得來,但輕字是練成這種靈敏功夫的入門階梯。同時還應當知道:練好輕動作只是為以後練功打下基礎(不要把基礎當做目的),一則可以在動作的輕重上,減少注意而聽任自然,二則在兼練沉著功夫的時候,也不致妄動拙勁而誤入歧途。
It says in Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise: “Once there is any movement, your entire body must have lightness and nimbleness.” This is a standard for those who have already developed some skill in Taiji Boxing, but beginners should start with lightness and do not need to be in a hurry to strive for nimbleness. Based on my own experience, practitioners who have trained in other martial arts generally have more nimble bodies and hands, but because they are already accustomed to moving vigorously, they usually have more than enough nimbleness and yet insufficient lightness. Likewise for those who have never participated in sports, it is for most of them easy to learn nimbleness but more difficult to learn lightness.
  When I started learning Taiji Boxing, I had the idea in my head that “practicing a martial art will surely require some exertion”, and so I was always giving attention to nimbleness and never to lightness. But when I later understood the special characteristics of this art, my opinion turned around. It has to be understood that the practice of Taiji Boxing is mainly a mental cultivation of awareness and sensitivity, and is not really focused on a physical quest for nimbleness of body and hands. The former uses only a small amount of exertion, but the latter uses a large amount.
  Using too much exertion will certainly affect your sensitivity. (For example, when arms are clashing against each other, or you are tightly clenching your fists, these things are liable to diminish your sensitivity.) Therefore in the beginning of the training, the attitude should be: the less exertion the better. Give lightness the priority and make nimbleness of movement secondary. Once lightness has been established, then you can move on to training nimbleness, but certainly not the other way around.
  Wang Zongyue’s Treatise describes a high level of sensitivity: “A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land.” Although achieving this kind of sensitivity does not come entirely from training lightness, lightness is nevertheless the initial step toward developing it. You should furthermore be aware that training lightness of movement is just the foundation for skills that will be trained later (and you should not look upon the foundation as the goal). For one thing, with lightness of movement established, you will be able to reduce your attention upon it and instead allow yourself to act with naturalness. For another, once you are also training heaviness, you will then not be making rash and clumsy actions that would otherwise send you down the wrong path.

二、慢:
2. Slowness

大家都知道太極拳的動作要慢,但是不是越慢越好呢?這是很值得研究的一個問題。在拳論裡既說“一舉動,周身俱要輕靈”,又說“動急則急應,動緩則緩隨”,可見太極拳並不是只要慢不要快。在“十三勢行功心解”裡還說“精神能提得起,則無滯重之虞……意氣須換得靈,乃有圓活之趣”,也可證明太極拳是要求靈活而反對滯重的。雖然在行功心解的後段另有“運勁如抽絲”一語,可以作為動作要慢的根據,但原意是教人用勁要同抽絲一般的綿綿不絕,不可用又脆又快的斷勁;如果作為越慢越好來解釋,那麼,與上面所引的幾句話就無法相通了。根據作者的體會:太極拳的動作應當比一般武術都慢,那是毫無疑義的,尤其在初學的階段,更須刻意求慢,也可以說是越慢越好。這樣的練法,一則對於體弱的人更為相宜,二則可以避免動作草率而影響姿勢的正確,三則在初練時先養成了慢動作的習慣,日後愈練愈靈活,仍可在動作上保持一定的慢速度,不致越練越快而違反原則。可見慢同輕一樣都是一種基礎功夫,在基礎上應當去建築一些什麼東西,那當然是另一回事了。至於造詣較深者專練動中求靜的功夫時,動作雖然應當由靈活而歸於淳樸,但在速度上仍可根據各人習慣不必刻意求慢,因為此時的意識只在求靜而不在求慢,與初練時的求慢而慢,也是不一樣的。
Everyone knows that the movements of Taiji Boxing are supposed to be slow, but is it really a case of “the slower the better”? This is a worthwhile question to examine. It says in Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise: “Once there is any movement, your entire body must have lightness and nimbleness.” And also [from Wang Zongyue’s Treatise]: “If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow.” It is clear from these statements that Taiji Boxing is by no means restricted to slowness and never allowed to move quickly.
  It says in Understanding How to Practice: “If your spirit can be raised up, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down… Your mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the delight of being rounded and lively.” This further demonstrates that Taiji Boxing should be nimble rather than sluggish. The extra section of Understanding How to Practice has this phrase: “Move energy as if drawing silk.” This could be considered the basis of the requirement to move slowly, but its original purpose was to instruct people to move energy with the same kind of continuousness as a single thread of silk, and that they must not use sudden or fast movements, which would interrupt the energy. If we make “the slower the better” our motto, then it will contradict the phrases above.
  Based on my own experience, Taiji Boxing’s movements should be slower than those of ordinary martial arts, obviously, but especially in the beginning stage we have to deliberately seek to be slow, therefore for that stage we can indeed say “the slower the better”. By practicing in this way means: 1. It is more suitable for those who are physically weak. 2. It can prevent sloppiness in the movements and thereby encourage correctness of posture. 3. Cultivating a habit of slow movement in the beginning can gradually increase nimbleness while still maintaining a slow speed instead of only when speeding up.
  Therefore slowness, like lightness, is a fundamental skill, a foundation to build more things on, things that can wait for the time being. Those at a higher level are focused on seeking stillness within movement. Their movement is changing from a state of nimbleness back to a state of simplicity, but they can keep their movement at whatever speed is appropriate to their individual tendencies instead of deliberately seeking slowness. This is because the intention is then only on seeking stillness and not on seeking slowness, and thus they will be working on a kind of “slowness” that is not the same slowness beginners seek.

三、圓:
3. Roundness

在太極拳裡,任何一個動作,都要走弧線,不許走直線,即使到了功夫很深的時候,還是非走弧線不可。不過在初練時,要求姿勢展開,同時在動作上又要刻意求慢,所以有必要把弧線走得更為圓大,以適應姿勢和動作的要求。日後功夫較深,姿勢逐漸緊湊,弧線相應縮短。當然也不需要把圓圈走得太大了。但在線路上,即使是一個很小的動作,還是應當保持固有的弧線,不可改變。目前有些教師為了便利初學起見,把每一個式子都拆成較多的小動作,以致在整個動作上看不出弧線來。須知這只是一種教授方法,並不是太極拳的動作可以不走弧線。因此,在這種教法下學會拳套以後,仍須把拆開的動作聯合起來,改成弧線動作,進行練習,以抹去各個動作間的斷續痕跡(即是拳論中所說的“無使有斷續處”),方可在學習上告一段落。圓形動作雖然並不難做,但要做到很自然、很適當也不是一件簡單的事。因為它與全身動作都有密切關係,不可能很快的就練到這種境地。所以對於初學者只要求在手的動作上儘先養成走弧線的習慣,日後全身動作相互配合,自然能把圓形動作做得更為圓滿的。太極拳講究“動中有靜,靜中有動”,動靜轉變和相互循環,則是以圓形動作作為階梯,可見圓的作用是很重要的。希望初學太極拳者,一開始就在圓字上認真下功夫,去體會它的作用,不要只在形式上依樣葫蘆就算完事了。
In Taiji Boxing, whatever the movement, they all have to travel in arcs and must not travel in straight lines. Even when your skill has become very deep, it is still the case that without making arcs it will not be right. However, in the beginning of the training, you should strive for your postures to be opened up at the same time that you are making your movements deliberately slow, and therefore you will have to make larger arcs to suit the size of the postures and movements. As your skill deepens over time, the postures will gradually become more compact, and the arcs will shrink along with them. There is of course no need to make your arcs overly large while you practice the set, but even very small movements should still maintain a quality of arcing, an aspect that must not be changed.
  There are currently some teachers who try to make things easier for beginners by breaking down each posture into many smaller movements, with the effect that its overall movement ends up not showing any arcs. It has to be understood that this is only a method of giving instruction, and not at all taken as indicating that the movements of Taiji Boxing can be performed without arcs. Consequently, after learning the boxing set in this fashion, the movements that have been broken down have to be linked back up and converted into arcing movements. In the course of practicing, you will then wipe away every hint of a pause between the movements. (This is what is meant by this statement in Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise: “Do not allow there to be breaks in the flow anywhere.”) You will thereby be able to finish the first stage of the training.
  Although making arcing movements is not difficult, achieving naturalness and appropriateness in doing so is not easy. Because it is intimately connected to whole-body movement, it is impossible to reach this condition quickly. Therefore in the beginning, you should primarily be concerned with cultivating the habit of making arcing movements with your hands, then over time your whole body will coordinate with your hands and naturally you will be able to make the arcing movements more complete.
  Taiji Boxing pays particular attention to this idea: “Within movement there is stillness, and within stillness there is movement.” Movement and stillness transform into each other and alternate back and forth, and it is arcing movement that makes this happen. From this can be seen that the function of roundness is very important. I hope that right from the beginning of the training you will take this concept of roundness seriously and work at it, so that you will learn from experience that its purpose is not just a matter of mechanically copying movements.

四、勻:
4. Evenness

上面所說的,第一點──輕是動作上的力量問題,第二點──慢是動作上的速度問題,第三點──圓是動作上的線路問題,現在在第四點裡還要提出一個動作的勻度問題。所謂動作的勻度者,就是說:手的動作,不論速度較快或者較慢都應當用相應的“等速運動”去完成它的動作過程。例如我們平時一出手,很快的就從起點伸到了終點,由於動作過程需時極短,我們就不可能也没有必要去掌握它的“等速運動”。但太極拳是走慢動作的,在初學時,即使很注意,我們在動作的過程中還是很容易發生快慢不勻的毛病,或者在每一個式子裡動作有快有慢,或者在整套架子裡,前後快慢參差不齊。前面已經說過,練太極拳應當用意識去支配動作,但是這一法則,一般說來,是較難掌握的。因此,我們有必要首先在動作的勻度上去運用我們的意識,為日後進一步掌握這個法則打下有利的基礎。練習勻度的方法,簡單說來,就是每次出手應當把動作的過程看做是各個“點”相接而成(即如虛線……的樣子),不要把它看做只有起止兩點的一條實線,這樣,就能夠使我們的動作,在無形中,有按“點”進行的意味,久練之後,養成習慣,手的動作也自然能夠在任何速度上都不會失去應有的勻度了。當然,在功夫較深的時候,我們的動作還要講究虛實變化,雖然在動作的快慢上並不要求嚴格一致,但在出手上,不論動作快慢,仍須保持適當的等速運動(即按“點”進行),否則,就是違反了“運動如抽絲”的要求,而且在動作上還要發生浮滑的毛病。
Reviewing the points explained so far: 1. lightness has to do with the strength of the movement, 2. slowness has to do with the speed of the movement, and 3. roundness has to do with the path of the movement. Let us now discuss: 4. the evenness of the movement.
  The motion of the hand, however fast or slow it is moving, should stay at a consistent speed throughout the movement. Ordinarily when we reach out a hand, it very quickly arrives at its destination because the amount of time needed to get there is an extremely short moment, and we do not need to have any notion of how consistent its speed is during such an action. However, Taiji Boxing moves slowly, and so beginners have to give great attention to the way we can easily slip into the error of speeding up or slowing down through the course of the movements. The movement may become faster or slower when performing a particular posture, or some postures may end up done faster or slower than other postures over the course of the set as a whole.
  As has already been explained, practicing Taiji Boxing requires that your use intention to control your movement, but this is usually a more difficult concept to understand. Because of this, you first have to put your intention into having evenness of movement, and then as you progressively understand each of these principles, you will be building the right foundation to work from. The method of practicing evenness, in brief, is to treat each extending of your hand as a connecting of points along the way (like a dotted line), rather than just as a movement that has a starting point and a finishing point (like a solid line). In this way, you can cause your movement to imperceptibly contain a sense of moving along a string of points, and then after practicing in this way over a long time, it will have become habitual, and the movement of your hands will naturally be able to proceed at any speed without losing a quality of evenness.
  Then once your skill has deepened, you will have to give attention to the transformations of empty and full. Although the speed of every movement is not strictly identical, when you extend your hand at whatever speed, you will have to maintain a consistent speed (i.e. move along a string of points), otherwise you will be violating the requirement of “move energy as if drawing silk”, and your movement will also end up generating the error of floating.

以上四點,都與太極拳的基礎有關,所以作者都列為第一階段的練習法則。但各人的情況不同,仍可由各人自己斟酌,分點進行,不一定要四點同時貫徹。不過在没有打下一些基礎以前,最好不要開始第二階段的練習方法,因為循序漸進的練習可以獲得更大的效果。
The four principles above all have to do with building a foundation in Taiji Boxing, and therefore I have listed them as standards for the first stage of training. Every person’s circumstances are different, and so it is up to you as to which of the four you want to work on at any given moment. It is not necessary to try to implement them all at once. However, before you have developed a foundation with the first stage, it is better not to start working on the principles from the second stage. By progressing stage by stage, you will achieve greater results.

第二階段:
2nd STAGE

在上一階段裡,提到在練習時,作每一動作都應注意輕、慢、圓、勻四個要點,主要是為了打好基礎,這對盤架子來說,還只能算做準備功夫。根據經驗:這種準備功夫越是練得好的,也往往會在動作上顯得格外拘謹,這是必經的階段,我們不可嫌它呆板而看做毛病。同時,也正因為這樣,我們有必要,在第二階段裡提出另外幾個要點,作為練習的進一步目標。假如說:我們在第一階段裡對動作的要求要作到“端正”,那麼在第二階段裡就應當練得“流麗”。須知在動作端正的基礎上加上流麗,對任何一個動作都不會失掉規矩,但如果先練流麗,後練端正,在成就上就難免事倍功半。下面就是本階段的四個要點:
In the first stage, you should focus on the four principles of lightness, slowness, roundness, and evenness while practicing each movement. They are mainly for building a foundation, and therefore pertaining to the set they can only be treated as preparatory training. According to my own experience, the more you practice those preparatory skills, the more your movement will appear constrained, but this is simply a part of going through that stage, and you must not worry that such an appearance of stiffness means you are doing it all wrong.
  However, due to this effect, it is necessary in the second stage to adopt several additional principles in order to progress in your practice. If in the first stage the goal is to perform your movements correctly, then in the second stage you should be training to make your movements flow. But you have to understand that flowing is a quality added on top of the foundation of doing the movements properly, and then all of the movements will be kept from veering away from the proper standard. If instead you first practice flow and then try to get the movements to be correct, it would be hard to avoid a situation of getting half the result from twice the effort. Presented below are the four principles for this stage.

一、靈活:
1. Nimbleness

太極拳以慢動作為基礎,它所要求的靈活,不但在動作上有一定的限度,即在精神上也要注意含蓄,不可盡情暴露以顯示過度的靈活。其次,太極拳雖然以敏感為重,但在本階段裡,還應當先從動作的形象上去求得靈活,如把靈活與敏感並為一談,對初學者來說,反而要無所適從。因此作者在這裡只要求初學者注意下面三點:①如果原來的架子已經練得夠開展了,那麼,應當酌量收小一些,使與緊湊的要求相符合;②在速度上,不要再刻意求慢,應當使手的動作比較自由或者稍稍放快;③動作時,不要只動四肢不動腰肢,而且要使腰肢居於支配的地位(即拳論所謂主宰於腰)。換句話說,就是用腰的動作去帶動手足的動作,這是最重的一點,希望特别注意。初學者根據上述三點進行練習,在與原來的拘謹不相抵觸的情況下,得到很自然的調和,就可以符合太極拳所需要的靈活了。
Since Taiji Boxing uses slowness of movement as its foundation, the kind of nimbleness that it requires is not just a matter of movement, but of spirit, and so it should be reserved within and must not be excessively expressed. Also, sensitivity is important in Taiji Boxing, but within this stage, you should first be focusing on having a quality of nimbleness in your movement. If you are trying to understand nimbleness and sensitivity at the same, you will only end up getting confused. Because of this, I have here included these three points for you to give your attention:
  1. If you have already developed sufficient extension in your practice of the boxing set, you should then think about shrinking it a little so that it will be in accordance with the necessary degree of compactness.
  2. As for your speed, you do not need to be obsessive about seeking slowness. You should let the movements of your hands be more natural, or just generally slightly quicker.
  3. When moving, you should not move only your limbs and not your body. Furthermore, you should put your waist in the position of controlling the movement. (This is what is meant in Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise by “directing it from your waist”.) In other words, using the movement of your waist to guide the movements of your hands and feet is a crucial principle, and I hope you will give it particular attention.
  In the beginning of the training, you should progress on the basis of these three points, but without violating the principles from the earlier stage, and then you will obtain a natural harmoniousness. Thus you will be able to be in accord with the level of nimbleness that is needed in Taiji Boxing.

二、鬆凈:
2. Looseness

這一要點,簡單說來,就是全身處處放鬆毫無牽掣的意思。它與上面所說的輕和靈當然有密切關係。初學者也有一開頭就從鬆字上去下功夫的,雖然並不矛盾,不過僅僅為了求輕靈而先去求鬆凈,未免把鬆凈的作用看小了;而且在初學時先練“鬆”,如果過分強化了鬆的作用,也會因為動作的太輕鬆而影響了動作的慢速度,甚至流入浮滑,所以初學者還是按步就班的好。在初學太極拳的時候,往往有這種景象,越是不想用力手腳就越發僵,索性隨它去,反倒自然得多。這是情緒緊張不緊張的問題,只要情緒不緊張,自然能把肌肉放鬆,“十三勢行功心解”裡所說的“神舒”“體靜”,就指出了這裡面的因果關係。至於練習鬆靜的方法,首先應當在情緒上做到放任自然,其次,身體上也要不但要鬆項鬆腰,而且,全身處處都應放鬆使之互相配合,毫無牽掣,方能符合鬆凈的要求,發揮鬆凈的作用。須知太極拳的動作,並不是只停留在輕靈二字上,必須進一步走入沉著階段,方能在不斷的運用中,提高氣沉丹田的主要功夫。所謂沉著,也並不是單單在動作上多加一些力量就算對了,主要在通過全身鬆凈,以求得動作上的自然沉重。根據上面的道理,可見鬆凈的作用,主要在求得沉著,不是在求得輕靈,所以作者把它放在輕靈以後來講。關於全身都要鬆凈一點,也曾有人說過腹部不妨緊張的話,根據“氣沉丹田”來看是對的,不過拳論中還有“氣宜鼓蕩”一語,可見在動作時腹部應當有緊有鬆,並不是一直緊張的,恐怕初學者有所誤會,特再補充幾句。
The idea of this principle is basically that every part of the body is loosened, not even the smallest part holding you back. This is of course closely related to lightness and nimbleness. Beginners sometimes start with looseness. This does not actually violate the learning process, it is just that in their quest for lightness and nimbleness, they are first seeking looseness as a means to achieving them, viewing looseness as something lesser than those other qualities. However, when beginners train looseness first, they tend to try too hard to be loose, and then their movement can become too relaxed and affect their speed, causing their movements to end up as just a bunch of useless floating. Therefore you would probably be better off going through the steps of these stages as written.
  In the beginning of learning Taiji Boxing, you will often experience the condition in which the more you do not want to use exertion, the stiffer your limbs become anyway, and so you might as well have just let yourself be stiff in the first place. This is an issue of whether or not you have emotional tension. Provided you have no emotional tension, you will naturally be able to loosen your muscles. It says in Understanding How to Practice: “Spirit comfortable, body calm.” This indicates their relationship in terms of cause and effect.
  As for the method of practicing looseness, you should first get your emotions to stop interfering with your naturalness of movement, then your body should loosen not only at the neck and waist, but every part of the body, so that all parts can be coordinated without even the smallest part holding you back. You will then be able to conform to the requirements of looseness and also make use of its effects.
  You have to understand that Taiji Boxing’s movements do not really stop at the qualities of lightness and nimbleness, but must progress to the level of sinking. While moving continuously through the postures, you will then be able to improve in the fundamental skill of sinking energy to your elixir field. This “sinking” is not really a matter of adding some more strength to the movements, the key to it being that the quality of looseness is coursing through the whole body in order to get the movements to be naturally heavy. According to this reasoning, it is apparent that the purpose of loosening is primarily to obtain a quality of sinking rather than gaining lightness and nimbleness, and that is why I have explained it after addressing those principles.
  Regarding the loosening of the whole body, someone once suggested that the abdomen probably ought to be tensed in order to be in accordance with the statement [from Wang Zongyue’s Treatise] that “energy sinks to your elixir field”. However, Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise also says that “the energy should be roused”, indicating that the abdomen should have both a tension and a looseness, not just a tension. I have added this extra remark here to prevent beginners from misunderstanding.

三、完整:
3. Completeness

上篇第三章講到“和諧”的特點時,作者已經把動作上的高度完整性有所說明,這裡不再重複。現在所提出的完整二字,不過是一般的要求,只希望在動作的形象方面做到完整一體,至於呼吸方面和意識方面的內部配合,不妨留到下一階段再去練習。在初學時,我們對於慢動作大多很為重視,但在刻意求慢的偏重下,往往不能兼顧到動作的完整性。即使練拳已經多年,也有人在盤架子時,仍難免有手和腳快慢不一的地方。最顯著的,如腳已落步而手還在慢慢的運動,看起來,總是慢有餘而完整不足。這與拳論中所說“由腳而腿而腰,總須完整一氣”(上文還有“形於手指”各句應當合起來看)和“十三勢行功心解”中所說“一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜”的要求,都是不相符合的。另外,行功心解所說的“邁步如貓行,運動如抽絲”也暗示著手與腳的動作應當快慢相稱的意思。因此,我們在本階段裡,必須在形象上,儘可能地做到手和腳的同起同止,以符合完整一氣的要求(腰部動作的配合,已在第一點裡說過,此處只著重在手足方面)。
While explaining the characteristic of harmoniousness in Chapter Three, I discussed completeness already, and so I will not repeat what I said there. What I will say here about the concept of completeness is just an ordinary hint: I simply hope that you show every part moving as one part. As for the internal coordination of breath and intention, you can leave them aside for now and then train them in the next stage.
  In the beginning of the training, treat slowness of movement as being very important, but if you become too obsessive about it, you may be unable to obtain a quality of completeness in your movement. This has caused people who have practiced the set for many years to still have difficulty getting their hands and feet to move in unison. The most obvious example is when the feet have finished their movement but the hands are still slowly moving into place, clearly an overabundance of slowness and an insufficiency of completeness.
  This is contrary to this statement from Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise: “From foot through leg through waist, it must be a continuous process.” (The context for that statement is established by the sentence that precedes it: “Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers.”) It also violates this principle from Understanding How to Practice: “If one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.” How to Practice also says: “Step like a cat and move energy as if drawing silk.” This is a further hint that the hands and feet should move in unison. You therefore in the first stage have to do your very best to get your hands and feet to begin together and finish together, conforming to the principle of completeness. (Coordinating with the movement of the waist was already mentioned in the first principle for this stage [nimbleness], and here I have only given emphasis to the hands and feet.)

四、連貫:
4. CONNECTEDNESS

這一要點在上篇第三章裡已有說明,這裡不再解釋。但有一點必須注意,即在初學時,不可為了追求連貫而把動作的速度隨意改快。須知連貫與圓動作最有關係,如果在速度上不加控制,難免不發生過於圓活的毛病,反而要影響其他要點(也包括第三階段的要點)的適當完成和預期效果,學習者不可不知。
This principle has already been explained in Chapter Three and does not need to be analyzed again here. However, there is a further point that has to be given attention: in the beginning of the training, you must not let the quest to connect the movements cause you to speed them up. You must understand that there is a relationship between connecting the movements and performing them with roundness. If your speed is not kept under control, it will be difficult to prevent the error of excessive nimbleness, which will corrupt the proper development and desired results of the rest of these essentials (also including those in the third stage). You have to be mindful of this point.

第三階段:
3rd STAGE

上一階段,主要是要求在動作方面打下完善而鞏固的基礎,按照拳論所指示的程序,是“由著熟而漸悟懂勁”的一個階段。本階段是最後一個階段,下面所提出的幾個要點,都是“由懂勁而階及神明”的必要法則。雖然拳論所說是以技擊為主,但太極拳的練法重意不重力,吳先生也曾說過“懂勁後的階及神明,並不完全依靠推手,過須從盤架子的高度功夫裡去不斷培養”,可見太極拳的最後階段是健身與技擊可分而又不可分的一個階段,凡是與技擊有關的道理,也就是與健康有關的道理,學習者參考拳論時,應當有這樣的看法。
In the previous stage, the chief aim in your movements was on building a full and firm foundation, in accordance with the sequence described in Wang Zongyue’s Treatise: “Once you have ingrained these techniques [1st stage], you will gradually come to identify energies [2nd stage],…” In this final stage, there are several principles, explained below, which will be indispensable aids for taking you further: “… and then from there you will gradually progress toward something miraculous [3rd stage].”
  Although the Treatise focuses on discussing martial skills, the practice of Taiji Boxing emphasizes intention rather than exertion. Wu Jianquan once said: “Progressing toward something miraculous doesn’t really depend entirely on practicing pushing hands. You still have to keep practicing the boxing set to get high-level skills.” From this can be seen that the final stage in Taiji Boxing is a stage in which you can regard its health-building and martial aspects separately and yet cannot separate them, for these principles relate to both. When consulting the Treatise, you should view it in the same way.

一、分虛實:
1. Distinguishing between emptiness and fullness

在上兩個階段裡,我們的動作,受著慢和勻的約束,同時又要照顧其他要點,雖然在第二階段裡可以練得比較活潑些,但為了打好基礎,總還是拘束較多而自由較少。現在基礎已經打好,我們就應當用另一種方法來進行練習,目的在解除複雜的注意而代之以簡單的注意。在動作上要求分虛實,就是為達到這個目的而提出的一個法則,因此,我們在練習時,對於前階段所應注意的各點可以完全放開(只是不加注意,並不是改變動作),而把注意力集中到動作的靈實上去。所謂分虛實,首先要注意手上的虛實:在手伸出時,從起點到終點,應當看作“由虛而實”,這時,手掌就需要由含蓄而逐漸舒張,到終點時,再微微凸掌,以表示“實”的極點(術語叫做陽極);在收回時,就應當看作由實而虛(術語叫做陽極而陰生),這是,手掌就需要由舒張而漸漸地復歸於含蓄。在握拳的動作裡,也是出拳時逐漸由鬆而緊,收拳時逐漸由緊而鬆,並不是只鬆不緊(專練虛靜功夫者不在此限)或者只緊不鬆。其次,在身體和腰腿等方面,只要與手的虛實相配合,例如:含胸總是隨著手的收回而逐漸擴大;弓步和坐腰坐腿也需要與手的速度相適應。又,在落步時應當腳跟先著地,然後隨著手的接近終點而全腳徐徐踏時;收步時,也要借著踏腳的餘力,趁勢緩緩收回,以與手的虛實相呼應。這一要點與下面所說的“調呼吸”極有關係,我們可以從下一要點裡看出它的重要作用,此處不再多說。
In the previous two stages, your movement is dominated by slowness and evenness, though the rest of the principles have to be given attention at the same time. In the second stage, you can practice with a greater sense of liveliness than in the first stage, but because you are still building your foundation, there remains more restriction about how you move and less of a feeling of moving as you please.
  But now in this stage, your foundation has already been built, and so you should progress to another method, the goal now being to move on from complex principles and instead focus on simpler ones [i.e. the more specific principles of the first two stages being replaced by the more general concepts of the third stage]. While moving, you have to distinguish between emptiness and fullness, which is an idea that fulfills that goal, because when you practice, you can thus ignore the points from the previous stages (meaning only that you no longer need to focus on them, not at all that you are to be altering the movements) and just concentrate all your attention on how the movement is empty or full.
  Distinguishing between emptiness and fullness starts with giving attention to the emptiness and fullness in the hand. When sending out a hand, from the beginning of the motion to the end, you should look upon this as going from emptiness to fullness. The palm should gradually become less concave until it is slightly sticking out by the end of the motion, thereby expressing “fullness” (or “fully active”). When withdrawing the hand, you should look upon this as going from fullness to emptiness. (This is described as: “When active ends, passive begins.”) The palm should be gradually returning from sticking out to being more concave. When making a fist and sending it out, it gradually goes from loose to tight. When withdrawing the fist, it gradually goes from tight to loose. These are not really cases of being only tight and not loose at all, nor being only loose and not tight at all (unless you are focusing on developing emptiness and stillness [explained in principle 4 below]).
  The next step is for your torso and legs to move in a way that corresponds to the emptiness and fullness of your hand. For example, your chest gradually expands as your hand withdraws. Or, as your legs go forward into a bow stance or back into a sitting stance, they should match the speed of the hand as it moves likewise. Also, when a foot steps [forward], it should come down first with the heel, then the rest of the foot gradually comes down as the hand correspondingly finishes [its forward movement]. And when withdrawing a step, you should borrow momentum for the stepping foot by gradually withdrawing it in unison with the emptying of the hand.
  This principle is an essential point that is strongly related to the regulation of the breath. Because you can realize its relevance from the following explanation, there is no need to address it in the midst of this one.

二、調呼吸:
2. Regulating the breath

太極拳在技擊上專講柔化,不以氣力勝人,故在修煉上也純以養氣為主;所謂氣沉丹田,也是利用動作的輕鬆和諧而自然形成,絕對不用強制方法。在上兩個階段裡,我們雖然没有談到太極拳的呼吸方法,但太極拳的動作要慢要勻,所以在無形中,已經具有防止呼吸粗淺短促的作用,同時也不難在自然的過程中逐漸養成呼吸勻細深長的習慣。呼吸能勻細,不但與調息養氣有關,並且是“寧神一志”的輔助方法;呼吸能深長,不但可以提高“吐故納新”的效果,同時對於血液循環和其他內臟機能,也能夠起著良好的推動作用。所以學習太極拳者,應當把呼吸看作更為重要的一種動作,方能在運動中得到更多的效果。現在所提出的“調呼吸”,是功夫較深時的呼吸運動,因為上面所說的勻細深長,在太極拳裡,還只是自然呼吸的一種標準,而不是一種呼吸的運動,所以在適當的時候,我們必須利用動作去影響呼吸,使呼吸也成為一個運動,方能在完整的運動中得到更高的建身效果。在練拳時,我們的動作有大有小,而呼吸則要勻要長,如有些人所說:每一個動作同每一個呼吸都要取得一致,那是不可能的,也是不必要的。因此,我們只要求在每一個式子裡,儘可能地用動作的虛實轉變去配合呼吸的自然循環,也就是說在每一個式子裡,我們應當儘量尋找機會做好下述的呼吸運動:手的動作由虛而實的時候,我們的呼氣也要用同樣的意識和同樣的速度去配合它,在手到終點微微突掌的時候恰好把氣呼足,同時臍下腹部也微微緊張;反之,手的動作由實而虛的時候,我們的吸氣也要用同樣的意識和同樣的速度去配合它,在動作靜止的時候,恰好把氣吸足,同時臍上腹部也微微收縮。上面所說的腹部一張一縮,就是太極拳的“與動作相結合的腹呼吸運動”,拳論裡叫做“氣宜鼓蕩”。只要照樣練習,無須故意用力,日久自然能夠得到氣沉丹田(丹田在臍下)的功夫。這樣的調呼吸,當然是比較難做,所以在初學時,我們盤一趟架子,只能有很少的幾個式子,做得比較自然,經過稍長的時候,或者先在單式動作裡試做一個時期,自然能夠逐漸進步。只要在每一趟架子裡,能夠有三分之一或者四分之一的式子做得很合法,就可以得到很好的運動效果,也無需提出過高的要求,一定要在每一趟架子裡做到個個式子都能調呼吸。如果一時學不好,也不要勉強,以免影響自然呼吸。
Taiji Boxing’s martial aspect focuses on using neutralization to defeat opponents rather than physical strength, and so of course its cultivation aspect is focused entirely on nourishing one’s energy. The concept of “energy sinking to your elixir field” has to do with gentle and harmonious movements, forming natural shapes, and is never a matter of forcing anything to happen.
  In the description of the previous two stages above, there was no discussion of Taiji Boxing’s breathing methods. However, since Taiji Boxing’s movements should be slow and even anyway, this will automatically prevent your breath from being shallow or short, and it will in fact be quite natural to gradually develop a habit of breathing very evenly and deeply.
  If your breath can be even, this will not only help you to regulate your breath and nourish your energy, it will also serve as a means of “calming the mind and focusing the will”. If your breath can be long, it will not only increase the effect of “expelling old air and taking in fresh”, it can also improve blood circulation and organ function. Therefore you should look upon breathing as the more important type of movement, and then you will be able to gain even greater effects from the exercise.
  This concept of “regulating the breath” means training the breath to last longer, or “evenly and deeply” as mentioned above. The standard in Taiji Boxing is natural breathing rather than any particular way to breathe with the movements. Therefore at appropriate moments, you should allow the movement to guide the breath, thereby causing the breathing itself to become an exercise, which can in turn heighten the health-building effects of the exercise as a whole.
  When practicing the boxing set, your movements are sometimes large and sometimes small, but your breath should always be even and long. Someone may say that every little movement is supposed to be coordinated with each breath you take, but that would be impossible and is also unnecessary. Because of this, you only need to get the alternations between emptiness and fullness within a posture to coordinate with the natural circulation of the breath. In other words, within each posture, you should seek to be able to breathe in the following manner:
  When a hand’s movement switches from empty to full, exhale with the same intention and speed, and then as the hand finishes with the palm slightly sticking out, you have correspondingly exhaled enough and your abdomen below the navel has slightly bulged [i.e. filled]. When a hand’s movement switches from full to empty, inhale with the same intention and speed, and then as the movement finishes, you have correspondingly inhaled enough and your abdomen above the navel has slightly withdrawn [i.e. emptied].
  This bulging and withdrawing of your abdomen is Taiji Boxing’s principle of “movement coordinated with abdominal breathing”, or what Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise means by “your energy should be roused”. So long as you are practicing in this way, there is no need to force anything to happen, and after a long time you will naturally be able to gain the skill of sinking energy to your elixir field (which lies below your navel).
  Regulating the breath in this way is indeed quite difficult to do. Therefore in the beginning, there will only be a few postures throughout the set that will work like this with any naturalness. But as time passes, testing it with maybe just one movement at a time, you will be able to gradually progress at this. All that matters is that every time you go through the set, you are able to make this work with a third or even just a quarter of the postures, and then you will be able to receive excellent results from the exercise. It is not necessary to expect to be able to do this with every single posture. If at certain times the breathing does not make sense, you should nevertheless not force it to happen in a particular way, thereby keeping the exercise from having an adverse effect upon your natural breathing.

三、用意識:
3. Using intention

在學習拳式的時候,雖然我們也是用意識去完成動作,但那時所用的意識,只能注重在動作的正確與否上,不可能有更多的注意力把我們的動作加以運用。因此,現在所提出的“用意識”,當然要求較高,它主要在根據太極拳“用意不用力”的法則,把我們的想象作用運用到動作中去;其次,也給我們練習平淡無奇的拳術動作,增加許多趣味。下面分做兩點來說明它的要求:①在運動時,應當用意越多而用力越少,使動作的意味更加濃厚,譬如動作要輕靈。我們的一舉手或者一投足,都應當把動作的過程看做無數的一舉,處處用意識緊密引導,即使是極輕微的一動一靜也不能例外。照這樣繼續不斷的利用想象力,使動作越練越細緻,自然能夠提高我們的輕靈功夫。如要練沉著功夫,我們也應當在運勁上作“使勁沉著”的想象,不是用更多的力氣去增加手臂的力量。其他動作可以照此類推。②我們對於每一個動作的一虛一實或者一張一弛,都需要把它的技擊作用或者健身作用,用意識去想象它,甚至在想象中加以誇大。由於我們的肌肉活動經常在這種心理作用的影響下,根據心理作用能夠支配生理作用的理論,我們的運動效果,也自然能夠在無形中有所提高。這一理論,作者已經在第二章有專文介紹,是供研究,此處不再多說。
When learning the postures in the set, although you are using intention to do the movements, the intention you use at that time can only be focused on whether or not you are doing the movements correctly, and so there is no extra intention that can be put into how the movements are to be applied. The use of intention in this new stage is therefore of a higher quality, mainly based in the Taiji Boxing principle of “use intention rather than exertion”, in which you will imagine the movements being applied as you are doing them. This will furthermore give you a boost of fascination when practicing these otherwise unremarkable martial movements. Below are a couple of points that explain this concept:
  1. When moving, you should use intention more and exertion less, thereby enriching the meaningfulness of the movement, enhancing aspects of it such as its lightness and nimbleness. Throughout the course of a movement, every action of hand or foot should always be regarded as countless little movements, always using intention to deliberately guide them, causing even the slightest instances of movement or stillness to not get ignored. Such a constant use of your imagination will cause your movement to become ever more refined, and you will naturally be able to heighten your skills of lightness and nimbleness. For example, if you wish to train sinking, you should visualize the sinking of energy while you are moving energy around, rather than simply adding more arm strength. By analogy, this principle can then be extended to any of the movements.
  2. In every movement’s emptying or filling, expressing or relaxing, you have to use intention to visualize either its martial function or its health-building effects, so much so that your visualization should be exaggerated. Because our kinesthetic awareness constantly influences our psychological functioning, which can in turn govern our physiological functioning, the effect on our quality of movement is that it can be heightened without our even noticing. As I already presented this concept in Chapter Two, it is there for you to study and does not need to be elaborated upon here.

四、求虛靜:
4. Seeking emptiness and stillness

這是實中求虛、動中求靜的練法,所以叫做“求虛靜”,是太極拳中較為難練的一種功夫。在上一個法則裡,我們的運動,雖然以運用意識為主,但我們所作的想象,完全在發揮動作的作用,在動作的本質上,還是以能動為主,不是以能靜為主。拿技擊功夫來說,仍是動中求勝,不是靜中求勝,這對於太極拳的“以靜禦動”和“雖動猶靜”的最高階段還有一定距離,所以在技擊上和修煉上都把“求虛靜”作為最後的一個法則。求虛靜雖然也要用意識,但由於要求的不同,它首先就把各種想象歸納為一個想象,也就是把各式各樣的動作,不管它的形象和內容都只看作是一動和一靜的現象,然後根據這個現象,在專心一意的作由動而靜或者由實而虛(動為實,靜為虛)的想象,使我們的意志集中在求靜的一點上,去影響所做的動作。那麼,我們就能夠在動作上越練越純靜(即是在意不在形的景象),同時,我們的精神,也自然能夠在這樣的運動中,得到更為寧靜的養息。這種練法,對治療神經衰弱和高血壓最為相宜,但在練習時除摒除雜念以外,最後能選擇一個清靜的環境獨自用功,以避免打擾。又,上面所說的分虛實、調呼吸以及其他想象等等,在練習求虛靜的法則時,都應當拋開不管,不要再去注意,以免分心。
This art is a training method for seeking emptiness within fullness and of seeking stillness with movement, hence “seeking emptiness and stillness”, which is one of the more difficult skills to develop in Taiji Boxing. Although the previous principle focused on using intention in your movements, the imagination was occupied with their applications. Thus the essence of the movement in that case was only on movement, not on a quality of stillness. Such descriptions of fighting skills are based on trying to win by way of movement, not by way of stillness. This is a far cry from Taiji Boxing’s highest level of “using stillness to await movement” and “although in motion seeming yet to be in stillness”, and therefore the art’s martial aspect and cultivation aspect both adopt “seek emptiness and stillness” as the ultimate principle.
  Although seeking emptiness and stillness also requires using intention, it is for a different purpose. First consolidate all thoughts into a single thought, and all movements, no matter what they are or what they are for, into a condition of there being only a question of a sense of movement or a sense of stillness. Then on the basis of this condition, focus on going from movement to stillness, i.e. from fullness to emptiness (movement having to do with fullness, stillness having to do with emptiness), causing your intention to be focused only on seeking stillness, unaffected by changes of movement. In this way, you can train your movement to have more and more a quality of pure stillness (which is a matter of intention rather than shape), and your spirit at the same time will naturally achieve a greater sense of serenity through the exercise. This kind of training method is thus an excellent means of treating nervous tension and high blood pressure.
  However, apart from ridding yourself of distracting thoughts, you also have to be able to find a quiet place to train your solo exercise so that you will not be disturbed by anything while you are practicing. Furthermore, as for the principles explained above – “distinguishing between emptiness and stillness”, “regulating the breath”, and all the rest of them – once you are training to seek emptiness and stillness, you should ignore all of them and not let them draw your attention, keeping your focus from being pulled away.

以上所列舉的各項練法,只是根據個人的學習和經驗作了簡單的介紹,很可能有許多地方與別人的途徑不盡相同,同時,也很可能有許多地方還没有說清。例如:練習輕靈,不可能在同一個動作裡兼作沉著的想象,我們可以在一趟架子裡專練輕靈或者專練沉著,最好是在由實而虛的動作裡注意輕靈,在由虛而實的動作裡注意沉著,這一點在上面就没有說到。另外,對於握拳應當隨著動作的虛實而鬆緊一點,也只是舉了伸拳的例子,没有把“撇身捶”在屈臂時微微握緊拳頭的例子(因為“撇身捶”是用弓步的)附帶說明。諸如此類,雖然都是不夠詳盡的地方,但在讀者仔細研究之下,還是不難舉一反三的。
The explanations above are merely a simple introduction to these principles based on my own studies and experience, and so it is very possible that there are many points on which other people may have rather different interpretations, as well as many points that were not addressed at all.
  For example, when training lightness and nimbleness, you cannot simultaneously be focusing on developing heaviness within a single movement, but as you go through the whole set, the focus is sometimes on training lightness and sometimes on heaviness, ideally focusing on lightness during movements that go from fullness to emptiness, and focusing on heaviness during movements that go from emptiness to fullness. This is a point that I did not touch on above.
  There was also no mention that when the hand grasps into a fist, it should do so in the context of the emptiness and fullness of the movement, and only the action of extending the fist was discussed. Nor was there any mention that when bending the arm in the TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH, the fist is slightly grasping (while going into the bow stance).
  Examples such as these reveal that some things here have not exactly been discussed in exhaustive detail, but if you carefully study the material in the following chapters, you will be able to flesh out such details based on your own intuitions.

第六章 練習推手時應當注意的法則
CHAPTER SIX: PRINCIPLES TO BE GIVEN ATTENTION WHEN PRACTICING PUSHING HANDS

推手是兩人對練的方法,也叫做打手,附錄的打手歌就是推手時的要訣。這種對練方法,雖然以研究技擊為主,但是練拳人,如果把它當作游戲來做,不但越味濃厚,而且是強弱皆宜的一種體育運動。它在練習上,比盤架子更容易學會,在不動大步的條件下,有五尺見方的空地,就足夠兩人使用了。這對推廣來說,也是很大的優點。過去只把推手當作技擊方法,而沒有重視它的體育效用,在今天,應當扭轉這個看法。
在早先,初學推手時,先要經過單搭手的連續用伸,目的在於活動膀子,化除僵勁,實際上,不過是一種補助運動。推手也有各種形式,主要是在步法上有所區別,最通行的有定步推手、動步推手、大捋、爛踩花等等名目。動步推手只有簡單動步,是初學動步的形式;大捋雖然是較高的形式,但是動步時仍要按照一定規矩。只有爛踩花步法不受拘束,雙方在聽勁中都可以隨意走勁,才是真正的活步推手;如果功夫較高的一方走得太活,另一方就要跟隨不上。這種活步推手,沒有專門練法,只要懂勁功夫到了一定階段,稍稍演習,便能水到渠成,但要增加熟練,仍需經常演習。作者初學推手時,一開始就學定步推手,當時什麼都不懂,只是按式搭好雙手,兩足一虛一實站定步子,兩人如同鋸板一樣,一來一往地轉換雙手。既無變化,也不懂勁,這就是習慣上所說的“畫圈子”,每次總要畫十來分鐘。“畫圈子”雖然沒有什麼趣味可說,但是,作為健身運動來說卻是很舒服的一種運動。在冬天只要畫上三、五分鐘,身體就很暖和了。因此,有許多人到後來已經懂了勁,還是很歡喜畫圈子,就是這個緣故。吳先生教推手的時候,不是很早就給我們說勁,只是要求我們放長身手互相推逼,在被逼時只許擴大“坐身”的式子(即前腳虛步、後腿屈膝作坐勢)以容納對方的推逼,然後順勢化開,不許用力抵抗或者用勁撥開。必須到被逼得實在無法化開的時候,才許被逼者順勢退步,如果半步夠了,只退半步,不許多退,總以退得恰到好處,不與對方離開為主。照這樣練了一個時期,我們的坐身穩而且大,同時在接應上也有了一定的經驗,對於對方的進逼已經看做家常便飯不再害怕,這才算打下了第一步的基礎。這種基礎功夫有許多人都不愛練,總是一開頭就要求說勁,而且稍稍懂勁便想去用,表面看來好象進步很快,其實在化勁方面把功夫下少了,會養成只想發不想化的習慣,到後來仍要受到影響而阻礙進步的。這是吳先生經常指示我們的,也許是吳先生精於化勁,所以才有這樣的體會。
拳論所說的練習方法,分做兩個階段,一個是“由著熟而漸悟懂勁”,一個是“由懂勁而階及神明”,前一階段必須有教師指點,後一階段全靠自己刻苦鑽研,不是教師所能灌輸的,“十三勢歌訣”有“入門引路須口授,功夫無息法自修”兩語,就是指此而言。因此,本章所提出的幾個法則,也只是以前一階段的練法為限,主要有下列五點:
Pushing hands is a method of partner practice, also called “playing hands”. The Playing Hands Song included in the appendix is the secret formula for pushing hands. Although this method of partner practice prioritizes the study of the art’s martial aspect, if practitioners treat it like a game, not only will it be more enjoyable, it will also be an appropriate sport for both strong and weak alike. As for the practice of it, it is easier to learn than the boxing set, as it does not involve moving around in large steps, for it requires only a space of five feet across, which is sufficient for two people to work in. As for popularizing this art, this exercise has enormous advantages. Those who only look at it as a method of martial training miss its effectiveness as physical education. We should nowadays reverse this view.
  Long ago, pushing hands training began with continually reaching out in the single-hand touching-hands posture, the purpose being to liven the arms and eliminate stiffness, although actually this is only a supplementary exercise. Pushing hands has a variety of formal exercises, but they are mainly based on different kinds of footwork, the most common being fixed-step pushing hands, moving-step pushing hands, large rollback, and “flower-trampling” [i.e. free stepping].
  Moving-step pushing hands has only a simple stepping pattern, designed for the beginning stage of learning how to step during pushing hands. Large rollback is a more advanced exercise, but still uses a choreographed pattern. Only the flower-trampling stepping is not restricted to a pattern, with both people moving as they please while still listening to each other. Only at this point is it truly “lively stepping” pushing hands. If one person’s skill is at a higher level, his stepping will be so lively that the other person will not be able to follow along. Because this kind of lively-step pushing hands does not focus on a particular pattern, it should only be practiced once you are at the level of identifying energies. With gradual practice, you will reach the point that you able to make everything go your way, but to increase your skill, you will have to practice every day.
  When I began learning pushing hands, I started with fixed-step pushing hands. At that time, the only thing about it that I understood was the two-handed push posture. With one foot emptying and one foot filling, two people look as though they are sawing a board, going back and forth, trading double-hand pushes. Without changing the activity, there is no identifying of energies, and this was simply the habitual action described as “drawing circles”, which we had to do for ten minutes at a time. Although drawing circles is not very interesting, it is nevertheless a very comfortable exercise that builds one’s health. In the winter, it only takes three to five minutes for this to warm the body up. This is why many people who have already achieved the level of identifying energies are still very fond of drawing circles.
  When Wu Jianquan taught pushing hands, he did not discuss “energy” right away. He only made us reach out with our bodies and hands to push at each other, letting us learn no further than the “sitting body” posture (i.e. front foot emptying, rear knee bending) in order to receive the opponent’s push and then go along with it to neutralize it, but we were not allowed to use strength to resist or even any energy to deflect. We had to wait for the moment when there was no other way to neutralize, and then we were allowed to retreat. If a half step was all that was needed, we only backed off a half step, and were allowed to go no further than that. The retreat always had to be just right, not so much that we disconnected from the opponent.
  After practicing in this way for a while, our motion of sitting back was both stable and large, and the experience of the exercise had made the opponent’s advance into something so routine that we were no longer afraid of it. This then was the first stage of the pushing hands training. Most people are not very fond of this fundamental stage of the training and typically want to discuss energies from the start, hoping to get into identifying energies and putting it to use. They may appear to make rapid progress, but actually their ability to neutralize is very low and they have only developed a habit of issuing without neutralizing, which will end up having an effect on them that hinders further progress. This was always the way that Wu instructed us. Perhaps it was because he was such an expert at neutralizing that he came to this kind of understanding of the material.
  Wang Zongyue’s Treatise describes the practice method as being divided into two stages: 1. “Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies,…” 2. “and then from there you will gradually progress toward something miraculous.” The first stage requires guidance from a teacher. The second stage depends on your own work ethic, which no teacher can instill you with. As is said in the Thirteen Dynamics Song: “Beginning the training requires personal instruction, but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.” Consequently, this chapter addresses several principles that have to do with only the first stage, the main ones being the five points presented below:

一、不頂:
1. Do not crash in.

在動手時,遇到對方用力打來,立即還手抵抗,這是一種本能,舊時的說法叫做“先天自然之能”,並不是學了技擊才有這個本能;不過學好技擊以後,我們的打擊或者還擊能夠更快更準更有力,還是不可否認的。太極拳講究先化後打,而且在打擊之前還要造成“我順人背”的形勢,然後趁勢追擊,用力不多,拳論所謂“四兩撥千斤”就是這種打法的最高效果。因此,我們所要鍛煉的,不是在本能上加工,使它快而有力,而是在本能上加以抑制,使它用得更為適當,而且更為有效。“不頂”就是適應這個要求的一個重要法則。有些人認為:練習“不頂”並不困難,只要手上毫不用力,任憑對方擺布就成功了,這是對的,但是,並不完全對。因為任憑對方擺布是使自己處於被動地位,而“不頂”則是以主動的精神去適應任何動作。所以我們在推手時,能夠接受對方擺布是需要的,但在同時,我們還須用感覺去“聽”清對方的動作(“聽”是術語即是了解的意思),然後以自己的動作去適應它。如果對方只進一寸,我就給他一寸,進一尺,我就給他一尺(切記給時要走弧線),決不少給,也決不多給,少給會犯頂的毛病,多給會犯離的毛病,都沒掌握到恰到好處。可見“不頂”不是單純的少用力,而是用較小的力去引使對方前進而落空,然後變換手法去擺布對方。在推手時,由於雙方都明白這個道理,往往任何一方都不肯冒進。除非是在畫圈子,練習時最好不要這樣保守。須知一方不肯進,另一方如何能夠練出“不頂”的功夫來呢!雙方輪流前進,是比較適當的一個練法。另外還有一個要點,必須記住,就是練習“不頂”,必須同時動腰坐身,不可只是在手上接應,因為手法與身法必須一致,否則,手回而身不回,反要給對方以捨手攻身的機會了。
When moving your hands to meet an opponent’s forceful attack with immediate resistance against it, this is a kind of instinctive response, what was long ago described [in Wang Zongyue’s Treatise] as “a matter of inherent natural ability that bears no relation to skill that is learned”. But after learning the skills well, your attacks or counterattacks can undeniably be faster, more precise, and more powerful. Taiji Boxing pays particular attention to neutralizing first and then attacking. Before attacking, you should also make sure to put yourself in a state of “my energy is smooth while his energy is coarse”, and then you will be able to take advantage of the situation and attack without needing to use much force. The highest level of this method of attack is called “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”.
  Because of this, what you should be training is not to act on instinct, which will only make you speed up and use more force, but to restrain your instinct, which will cause you to act more appropriately and thereby more effectively. To not crash in is an important means of fulfilling this requirement. Some people think that it is not really difficult to train the quality of not crashing in, that it is just a matter of keeping your hands from putting forth any exertion and then you will succeed no matter what the opponent does. This is not entirely true. The opponent’s attack would put you into a disadvantageous position, and so to not be crashing in means that you are deliberately adapting to his movement.
  Therefore when pushing hands, you have to be able to receive the opponent’s attack and at the same time “listen” clearly to his movement (“listen” being a special term in the art meaning “to understand”), and then your own movement will adapt to his. If the opponent advances an inch, give him an inch, or he advances a foot, give him a foot, (always remembering to yield with curving motions rather than straight ones). Never give too little or too much. If too little, you will end up committing the error of crashing in, and if too much, you will commit the error of disconnecting, getting it wrong in both cases.
  It can be seen from this that to not crash in is not simply a matter of using less exertion, but to use a smaller amount of force in order to draw the opponent forward until he loses his balance and then switch to attacking him. During pushing hands, due to both people being aware of this principle, it is often the case that neither one is willing to risk attacking. Apart from the “drawing circles” exercise, you should not be so timid, for it has to be understood that if one person is unwilling to attack, the other person will not be able to train the skill of not crashing in. And so it is better if both people are taking turns attacking.
  An additional point is that while remembering to not be crashing in, you also have to be moving from your waist and not just responding with your hands. Your hands and body have to be functioning as a single unit. If your hand withdraws but your body does not, you will only end up giving the opponent the opportunity to ignore your hand and attack your body.

二、不丟:
2. Do not come away.

不頂是人進我退、人剛我柔的動作,不丟是人走我隨的動作,也是轉化為打的階梯動作。兩者在方向上和作用上雖然相反,但是,作為一個圓形動作來看卻是相反相承、不斷循環的姊妹動作。不丟二字,在字面上,雖然是不要丟掉或者不要離開的意思,但是,在實際上,並不是這樣簡單。上面所說的“不頂”要用感覺,還要有引使對方落空的作用,這裡的不丟也要用感覺去黏住對方的手臂,我的手臂一面跟隨,一面還要微微送勁,驅使對方陷入不利或者不穩的形勢。這時,如果對方已經不能掙扎,便可用勁將對方發出,如果對方硬要掙扎,我就可用欲擒故縱的手法,將對方沾起(沾是術語,即向上吸引之意),然後發之,可將對方發出更遠。這是最簡單的一種方式,我們在推手時,必須隨時隨地去找尋這類的機會。要練到用力很少而能順勢困住對方,才算符合要求。
太極拳的手法雖然變化多端,但是,絕大部分都離不開這兩個動作──不丟不頂的交相為用,“打手歌”裡“引進落空合即出,沾連黏隨不丟頂”兩語,就是運用不丟不頂的重要指示。也有人把“不丟頂”三字作為“不要丟失頂頭懸”來解釋的。在任何地方要保持“頂頭懸”確是一個重要法則,但是,在這裡還是看作不丟不頂更為相宜。因為不丟是“黏”勁,不頂是“走”勁,是打手中最主要的兩個勁,而上半句的“沾連黏隨”四字,也是在著重指出這兩個勁的運用要點。又在拳論中還有“黏即是走,走即是黏,陰不離陽,陽不離陰,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁”等語,從這些語裡我們更可想見這兩個勁的重要性了。
To not crash in has to do with actions such as: “he advances and I retreat”, or “he uses hardness so I use softness”. To not come away has to do with this action: “he yields and I follow him”, as well as the process of going from neutralizing to attacking. Although these two kinds of action are opposite in terms of both direction and function, they make a circular movement, meaning that they are actually both opposite and complementary, a continuous action involving a first part and a second part.
  To “not come away” means to not disconnect, but it is not as simple as that. To not be crashing in requires sensitivity, and it also requires drawing the opponent in to make him lose his balance. To not be coming away requires sticking to the opponent’s arm. Your arm is following his, but is at the same time also slightly sending it away, causing him to fall into a position in which he has neither advantage nor even stability. If he is now already incapable of struggling against you, you can express power and send him away. If he stubbornly tries to struggle against you, you can use the hand method of “loosening the reins in order to tighten them”, sticking to him (“sticking” meaning to draw him upward) and then issuing. In this way, you can send him away even farther. This is a very simple method. When pushing hands, we have to act according to the moment and the position in order to find this kind of opportunity. You should practice to the point that you are hardly using any exertion at all and yet are able to flow into smothering the opponent, and then you will be doing it right.
  Although the techniques in Taiji Boxing are constantly changing, they never depart from these two actions – neither coming away nor crashing in – and the way they reinforce each other. It says in the Playing Hands Song: “Guiding him in to land on nothing, I then close on him and send him away. I stick, connect, adhere, and follow, neither coming away nor crashing in.” This indicates their importance. Some people take 頂 [crashing in] by its other meaning of “headtop” and interpret “neither coming away nor crashing in” as actually meaning “not veering away from the principle of keeping your headtop pulled as if suspended”. While it is indeed important to maintain the principle of your headtop being suspended, the principle of neither coming away nor crashing in is more important in the context of what is being discussed here.
  Because to not come away has to do with “sticking” and to not crash in has to do with “yielding”, they are two very important energies within sparring. The first half of “I stick, connect, adhere, and follow, neither coming away nor crashing in” – the four terms of “stick”, “connect”, “adhere”, and “follow” – points out the keys for applying these two energies. It says in Wang Zongyue’s Treatise: “In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies.” From these words, we can understand even better the importance of these two energies.

三、先求開展:
3. “First strive to open up.”

緊守門戶是指應用時防人進攻而言,但是功夫較高的技擊家,有時還要故意敞開門戶,誘敵深入。如果推手時只在縮小門戶上用功夫,而沒有開放門戶的素養,到應用時,遇到門戶被人打開的情況,便要驚惶失措。所以練功夫總是先求開展,後求緊湊,不但二者不可缺一,而且也不可先後倒置。因為練慣了緊湊,再求開展,是比較困難的。太極拳的推手功夫要求先練開展,主要有兩個目的:一是從大處下功夫可以擴大不丟不頂的限度,到功夫深時,由於感覺更靈敏,聽勁更清楚,進而把這個限度逐漸縮小,這是最自然的緊湊功夫;二則從大處練,雙方空隙都較大,彼此都容易乘隙而動。這樣,可以使雙方都有更多的機會練習攻守的技巧。這是很容易懂的一個法則,只要學習者在初練時不要求勝太切,自然能夠做到的。
To “guard your door” means preventing the opponent from attacking, but a martial artist of higher skill sometimes opens his door to lure the opponent farther in. If when pushing hands you are only able to close your door and lack the skill of opening your door, you will come across a situation in which your door is opened by the opponent, and this will make you panic. Therefore to develop skill, it is always the case that you should “first strive to open up, then strive to close up.” However, these two stages must not lack either one, nor can they be reversed in order, because to train the habit of closing up and then seek to open up is much more difficult. Taiji Boxing’s pushing hands practice requires that you first train to open up, and there are two major reasons for this:
  1. By working from larger movements, you can work on “neither coming away nor crashing in” within a larger range. Once your skill has deepened, your sensitivity will be more acute and your listening energy more keen. The more you progress, the more you can shrink that range. This is the most organic way to train “closing up”.
  2. By practicing larger movements, both partners will reveal larger gaps and will more easily act upon opportunities. In this way, both partners are given more opportunity to practice their skills of attack and defense. This is a method which is very easy to comprehend, and so long as beginners are not overly focused on winning, they will naturally be able to achieve it.

四、勿先動步:
4. Do not start by moving your feet.

太極拳在應用時以不先動勁為主,但是,在練習推手時卻不應當這樣,試想雙方都在以靜待動,那裡還會有手法可練呢!所以在初學時應當相約彼此輪流動勁,到功夫較深時方可隨意動勁。這種性質的動勁,在習慣上叫做“問勁”,能夠做到有問必答而且答得不錯,就是推手功夫到了一定程度了。這裡所提出的“勿先動步”,並不是對問勁的一方而是對答勁的一方說的,因為問勁者弓步進身其勢順,答勁者虛步坐身其勢逆,前者容易站穩,後者不容易站穩往往要犯過早動步的毛病,這樣,不但要影響兩人的合作,而且自己也要陷入能走不能黏的境地。所謂“勿先動步”,只是要求答勁者在遇到問勁時,應當儘可能的先用腰走,不可先用步走,非至萬不得已不要退步,這是教人練好腰部動作的惟一方法。輕於動步,必致不想動腰,腰勁自然無法練出來了。這一練法,在初拳時,雖然是一種負擔,但是,到了練好以後,無形中已經養成“聽勁動步”的習慣,在練習活步推手時,就不必再在步法上多下功夫了。至於“十三勢行功心解”所說的“步隨身換”,是指應用時身步應當一致而言,不可作為練功時隨便動步來解釋的。
When applying Taiji Boxing, the emphasis is on not being the first to act. But when practicing pushing hands, you should not do it in this way, for if both partners are using stillness to await the other’s movement, there would be no way to practice the techniques. Therefore in the beginning of the training, you should agree to take turns initiating, and then once your skill has deepened, you can do whatever you want. This method of taking action is commonly called “asking energy”, in which one can receive a question [as in “what will you do if I attack like this?”] and then give the right answer. This is a means to achieving a standard skill level in pushing hands.
  The call to “not start by moving your feet” is not really just a matter of one person “asking” and the other person “answering”. Because the one provoking a response is moving into a bow stance, his body advancing, and the one responding is moving into an empty stance, his body sitting back, it is therefore easy for the asker to stand stably, whereas it is difficult for the answerer to avoid the temptation to step away [instead of discovering how far back he can go without needing to step]. This means that the exercise not only encourages both people to cooperate with each other, but that it will also keep you from slipping into a condition of being able to yield but not able to stick.
  To “not start by moving your feet” simply means that when it is time to “answer” a “question”, you should do your best to yield by using your waist rather than yielding by stepping. Do not retreat unless it is absolutely necessary. This is a method of teaching people to practice better waist movement. By making stepping a last resort, you will unexpectedly move your waist, and then the skill of your waist will automatically improve.
  This is a training method for beginners. It may be rather tedious, but once you have trained it well, you will have imperceptibly already ingrained the habit of “listening for the need to step”, and then when practicing moving-step pushing hands, you will not have to go through as much footwork training in order to be able to do it. It says in Understanding How to Practice: “Step according to your body’s adjustments.” This means that when applying the art, your body and step should be working in unison, and so you must not step randomly.

五、勁斷意不斷:
5. “The power finishes but the intent of it continues.”

這是說,在推手中間,由於用勁的過與不及,兩人手臂突然離開時,不可採取從新搭手的方法,應當在兩手離開的情況下繼續做著不丟不頂的想象動作,使兩人的手臂由於勁斷意不斷,可以回復原狀,仍舊搭在一起。在推手時,這種機會是很多的,務須認真練習,不可放棄。練好以後,對於打散手(即兩人自由問勁不再預先搭手的練法)或者在應用時,都是極重要的接應手法。因為推手是先搭手後問勁,而散手是不搭手就動勁的,如果不會憑空接勁,往往要受制於人,除非見手就躲,是很難倖免的。有時,一個功深者對一個功淺者故意虛晃一手,後者伸手接應而稍有遲疑,便被前者換手封住而將後者擊出,就是這種功夫練得純熟的效果。盤架子時,在技擊動作上多作勁斷意不斷的想象,也能增長接應功夫和憑空化打的功夫。
This is referring to a moment during pushing hands when, due to power being expressed either too much or not enough, both people’s arms suddenly disconnect. Instead of starting over to reconnect once your hands have disconnected, continue by focusing on the principle of neither coming away nor crashing in, so that the arms of both of you operate from a condition of power finishing but intention continuing, and thereby you can restore your original state of being connected together as before. When pushing hands, this kind of opportunity happens very often. You must practice seriously and never give up.
  After you have trained to a good level, you will move on to sparring (involving two people using “asking” energy without already touching) or to working on applications, both of which are very important skills to develop. Because in pushing hands there is contact first and then use of asking energy, while in sparring there is no contact but already action taking place, if you do not know how to connect to the opponent’s energy without contact, you will often be controlled by him. Only when you see his hand attacking will you be able to evade it, and so it will be very difficult to avoid every attack.
  Sometimes when one who has a deep skill meets one who has a shallow skill, he will use a feint. The latter will reach out a hand to connect only to then be sealed off by the former, who has switched hands and is now attacking with the other one. This is the kind of skillfulness that will result from such training. When practicing the boxing set, its martial movements often use the visualization of power finishing but intention continuing, which can enhance the skill of connecting, as well as the skill of neutralizing and attacking without first being connected.

以上所說都是練習推手時所應當注意的法則,至於推手方法如掤捋擠按等等,與上述法則性質不同,所以放在後面圖解篇裡另作說明。另外,推手時所應當運用的姿勢,如含胸、沉肩、屈腿、坐身等等,和動作上的重要標準如輕鬆、圓活、連貫、完整等等,都與盤架子的法則完全相通,學習者可參閱其他有關各章的說明,此外也從略。又學習推手也有在中間插學“推牛勁”這個方式的。它是雙方都用大力畫圈子並互相問勁(用力不可一大一小,否則力大的一方要站立不穩的),其目的在於健強腰腿功夫,同時可以在手臂上嘗一嘗韌勁的滋味。這一種功夫,是專為應付對方膂力過大而練的,如果自己體力較好也可不練。若要練時,應當在練完以後,接練用輕勁的推手功夫,以消去韌勁的影響,因為太極拳的手法,以柔化為主,所以在動作上也應當以輕靈為主,學習者不可不知。
The principles above are all things to pay attention to when practicing pushing hands. As for the pushing hands techniques, such as warding, rolling back, pressing, pushing, and so on, those are other things that will be explained further below [in Chapter Ten]. During pushing hands, you should also be applying postural principles, such as hollowing the chest, sinking the shoulders, bending the legs, sitting the body, and so on, as well as movement standards, such as lightness, roundness, connectedness, completeness, and so on, all of which are the same as in the boxing set. Further such principles not mentioned here can found in other chapters [Chapters One, Three, Five, and Eight].
  Within the study of pushing hands, there is also the method of “pushing-the-ox” energy. Both people are using a large amount of force in the midst of drawing their circles and are “asking” each other. ([They are both using the same level of force.] It must not be a case of one using a large amount of force and the other using a small amount of force, otherwise the one using more force will end up standing unstably.) The purpose of the exercise is to strengthen the skill of the waist and legs, and also for your arms to experience a sense of firm energy.
  This kind of training is focused on preparing for what it will feel like when encountering opponent’s who are physically much stronger than you. If you are already physically strong yourself, you do not really need to practice it. If you want to practice this exercise, you should follow it by continuing into practicing pushing hands using lightness in order to keep you from forming a habit of using firm energy. Because Taiji Boxing’s techniques emphasize neutralizing, your movements should emphasize nimbleness. This is a point that you need to aware of.

第七章 拳式名稱
CHAPTER SEVEN: ON THE NAMES OF THE BOXING POSTURES

太極拳的拳式名稱,不但在各派之間互有異同,即同一吳式太極拳,雖然各人所說的動作內容和次序並無差別,但是,在名稱上,由於傳授有走後,記錄有詳略,各人之間也不見得一致。其中最容易引起疑問的,如有些拳式究竟是那些動作所組成,在劃分段落上,各人也不盡相同。作者為了下一章的拳式圖解有所依據,不能不先在名稱上作一番整理,並說明其異同所在,以供初學參考。
The names of the Taiji Boxing postures have some variation not only from style to style, but even within Wu Style itself. Although we are all doing the same movements and in the same order, each person’s rendering of the names has not been identical, owing to both the way the art was passed down and how it was recorded. This has easily led to confusion about which movements belong to which postures, and so there is also a lack of consensus about the defining moments of exactly when one posture turns into another. Because I explain each of the postures in a following chapter [Chapter Nine], I have to first make a list of their names and point out where there have been different interpretations, thus supplying beginners with a text to refer to on this subject.

1.預備式:
PREPARATION POSTURE
在早先本無這一式的名稱,作者舊作“太極拳淺說”(後文簡稱“致本”)就未曾列入。吳圖南所作“太極拳”(後文簡稱“圖本”)稱本式為“太極勢”有靜而未動的含義,可以作為本式的一個適當名稱。陳振民、馬岳樑合編的“吳鑑泉氏的太極拳”(後文簡稱振本)稱為“太極起式”是移用了下一式的名稱,而把下一式的名稱改稱為“太極出手”。本書為求通俗起見,所以把這個沒有動作的(指手腳都不動而言)第一式稱為預備式。
This posture was originally not named. When I long ago wrote Simple Introduction to Taiji Boxing (to be referred to for the rest of the chapter simply as the 1927 book), I did not list it as one of the postures. When Wu Tunan wrote his Taiji Boxing [or A More Scientific Martial Art: Taiji Boxing] (to be referred to for the rest of the chapter simply as the 1931 book), he called it BEGINNING POSTURE, giving it a meaning of being in stillness and not yet moving, making it an appropriate name. When Chen Zhenmin and Ma Yueliang wrote their Wu Jianquan Style Taiji Boxing (to be referred to for the rest of the chapter simply as the 1935 book), they called it TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE and had it continue into a posture which they called REACH OUT THE HANDS. In this book, I simply want to find the common ground on the purpose of this posture, and therefore since this posture has no movement (of fingers, hands, or feet), I dub it PREPARATION POSTURE. [It is not clear why Xu did not also include Chu Minyi’s 1929 book and Li Xianwu’s 1933 book in this analysis of the postures names.]

2.太極起式:
TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE
這是原有的名稱,致本未改;圖本略去,但把原有的動作並作下一式“攬雀尾”的第一動作;振本稱為“太極出手”,與“太極起式”一名無甚區別。本書不主張變更,故仍用原有名稱。
I have not changed the name since my 1927 book. The 1931 book leaves it out, but makes its movement the first movement of the following posture – CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL. The 1935 book calls it REACH OUT THE HANDS as well as TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE. I do not advocate changing the original name, and therefore that is what I have used.

3.攬雀尾,
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
4.單鞭,
SINGLE WHIP
5.提手上勢:
RAISE THE HAND
以上三個名稱,各本相同,惟圖本“攬雀尾”有“太極起式”的動作,微有不同。
These three posture names are the same in each of the books, except that the 1931 book includes the movement of TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE as part of CATCH THE SPARROW, and so it is slightly different in that regard.

6.白鶴亮翅:
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
這是原有的名稱,各本相同,惟振本“亮”字改用“晾”字微有不同。亮翅與晾翅都是展翅的動作,可以通用。
This is the original name of the posture. It is the same in each book, except that the 1935 book switches “shows” to “dries”. To show wings or to dry wings involves in either case a movement of spreading wings, so either version is acceptable.

7.摟膝拗步
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
8.手揮琵琶:
PLAY THE LUTE
以上兩個名稱,各本相同,僅圖本的手揮琵琶多一式字。
These two names are the same in each book, except that the 1931 book adds the character for “posture” to PLAY THE LUTE.

9.上步搬攔捶:
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
各本原來都作進步搬攔捶,因本式只上一步,故改進步為上步。本書對連上兩步和兩步以上的式子方用進步二字,以式區別。
Each book calls this ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH, but because this posture goes forward only one step, I have changed it to “step forward”. If I linked this posture’s stepping with the two steps from the previous posture, then it would be an “advance”, and this is what makes the distinction.

10.如封似閉:
SEALING SHUT
各本名稱相同,但在動作上,圖本照片缺少開首的一個小動作;振本把第三個動作移作下式“豹虎推山”的第一個動作;本書下式不用“豹虎推山”的名稱,也不用“抱虎歸山”的原名,本式仍為三個動作,以符合一封一閉的形式。
This name is the same in each book, but is not always applied to the movements in the same way. The 1931 book does not consider its small beginning movement [of the left hand going under the right arm] to be a movement in its own right, and the 1935 book considers its third movement [pushing forward] to be the first movement of LEOPARD PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN. In this book, I do not use the name LEOPARD PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN or call any part of this posture CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN. I keep the posture as three movements in order to more fully express both a sealing off and a closing shut.

11.十字手:
CROSSED HANDS
在上式“如封似閉”之後,早先都用“抱虎歸山”的名稱,致本圖本相同,振本改“抱虎歸山”為“豹虎推山”。本書認為這個式子只有兩個動作,而且從形式上看,稱為“十字手”也比稱為“抱虎歸山”或者“豹虎推山”都更為適當些,因此採取許禹生先生遺著所列次序,把這兩個動作改稱為“十字手”而把下一個式子改稱為“抱虎歸山”。
Long ago, the posture that followed SEALING SHUT was called CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN, as was used in the 1927 and 1931 books. The 1935 book changed CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN to LEOPARD PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN. I feel that this posture is comprised of only two [three] movements, and that considering the shape of the posture, CROSSED HANDS is more fitting than CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN or LEOPARD PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN. Consequently, I follow the sequence of names in Xu Yusheng’s 1921 manual, calling this posture CROSSED HANDS and taking the following posture to be CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN.

12.抱虎歸山:
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
在“十字手”之後,致本原先簡稱“摟膝拗步”;圖本是把“十字手”並入“摟膝拗步”統稱為“抱虎歸山”;振本是根據正反兩個動作稱為“斜摟膝拗步”和“翻身斜摟膝拗步”兩個名稱。本書認為:本式正反兩個摟膝拗步連續進行,在形象上,比“十字手”的動作,更接近於“抱虎歸山”的式樣,故根據許著與圖本的圖解,改稱為“抱虎歸山”,但沒有把“十字手”並進去,這是與圖本不同之處。
In my 1927 book, I abbreviated the postures that follow CROSSED HANDS to simply BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE. The 1931 book took both CROSSED HANDS and BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE and called them CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN. The 1935 book acknowledges that this posture will face two opposite directions by breaking it into two postures, called DIAGONAL BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE and TURN AROUND, DIAGONAL BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE. In this book, I feel that these two BRUSH KNEE movements are continuous and also that the look of the movement is closer to “capturing a tiger”, and so I again follow Xu Yusheng’s 1921 sequence and the pattern in the 1931 book, calling it CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN. But I do not absorb CROSSED HANDS into this posture, and in this way it is different from the 1931 book.

13.攬雀尾,
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
14.斜單鞭,
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
15.肘底看捶,
GUARDING FIST UNDER THE ELBOW
16.倒攆猴,
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
17.斜飛勢,
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
18.提手上勢,
RAISE THE HAND
19.白鶴亮翅,
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
20.摟膝拗步,
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
21.海底針,
NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
22.扇通背:
FAN THROUGH THE BACK
以上十個名稱各本相同,僅致、振兩本誤“攆”為“輦”,圖本以“山”代“扇”、以“珍”代“針”,在字面上有些不同,在動作上還是一樣。
These ten names are the same in each book, but the 1927 and 1935 books use a variant character to represent “drive away”, and the 1931 book uses “mountain” instead of “ fan” and “treasure” instead of “needle”. Despite these different wordings, the movements are still the same.

23.撇身捶:
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
這一動作只有九十度的轉身稱為撇身已經足夠,致、振二本均稱為翻身撇身捶,翻身二字是多餘的,故照圖本改正如上。
As this movement turns the body only ninety degrees, I feel that the name said in this way is sufficient, but in the 1927 and 1935 books, the name is TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH. The addition of TURN AROUND is unnecessary, and therefore I have followed the version in the 1931 book.

24.卸步攬搬捶:
WITHDRAWING STEP, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
這是原有名稱,致、振二本相同,圖本稱卸步為退步,比較通俗,但這一步是由前弓步向後撤退,實際上有兩步的距離,而且在動作上,是先向前探身,然後趁勢退步,與一般退步有別,故本書仍用卸步二字。
This is the original name, the same in both the 1927 and 1935 books. The 1931 book uses RETREATING instead of WITHDRAWING, which would seem to be a more common way to describe it, but this posture goes from bending forward to withdrawing to the rear, which would actually make it two steps, the movement being that you are first reaching forward with your body and then retreating, making it different from an ordinary retreat, and therefore in this book I call it WITHDRAWING.

25.上步攬雀尾,
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
26.單鞭,
SINGLE WHIP
27.雲手,
CLOUDING HANDS
28.單鞭:
SINGLE WHIP
以上四個名稱各本相同,僅圖本稱上步為上勢,字面上微有差別。
These four names are the same in each book, although the 1931 book indicates “step” with a different character.

29.高探馬,
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
30.左右分腳:
KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT
以上兩個都是原有名稱,圖本未改。致本改為“左高探馬”、“右分腳”、“右高探馬”、“左分腳”四個名稱,振本改為“左高探馬”、“左披身”、“踢右腳”、“右高探馬”、“右披身”、“踢左腳”六個名稱,都是按照動作分拆為幾個名稱,與按式定名的原則不符,而且在“左右分腳”中間的一個“高探馬”在練熟後還可以簡化為一個小動作,以代替“高探馬”的形式,因此,本書仍用原名,不再分拆。
These are the original names of these postures, maintained in the 1931 book. In my 1927 book, I presented this part as four names: LEFT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE, RIGHT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE. In the 1935 book, it is presented as six names: LEFT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, LEFT DRAPING THE BODY, KICK WITH THE RIGHT FOOT, RIGHT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, RIGHT DRAPING THE BODY, KICK WITH THE LEFT FOOT. In both cases, they are named according to the breakdown of the movements and are inconsistent with the original names. Between the KICK TO THE LEFT and the KICK TO THE RIGHT, there is another REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, but once you have practiced the set to familiarity, you may simplify this by making a smaller movement instead of making the REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE posture. Because of this, I go by the original names in this book instead of naming every part of the movement breakdown.

31.轉身蹬腳:
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
各本相同。
Same in each book.

32.進步裁捶:
ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH
這是原有的名稱,圖本同;致本前加摟膝二字;振本前加一“摟膝拗步”的名稱。但本式在連續進步時,可以按照“摟膝拗步”連續進行,也可以簡化兩手的動作,連摟帶進,把重點放在栽捶上,只顯出進步和栽捶兩個動作的完整形狀,所以本書仍用原名。
This is the original name of the posture, kept the same in the 1931 book. In my 1927 book, I added BRUSH KNEE to the beginning of it, and the 1935 book added BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE as a preceding posture. But they are continuous advancing steps, and so you can advance with continuous BRUSH KNEE postures, or you can simply make the two hand movements of brushing while advancing. The focus is on the planting punch, meaning the advancing steps and the planting punch are two parts of a single technique, and therefore in this book I use the original name.

33.翻身撇身捶:
TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
各本相同。
Same in each book.

34.上步高探馬:
STEP FORWARD, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
原先無上步二字,圖本同;致本加上步二字;振本稱為“進步左高探馬”。本式左腳上步,右腳仍站原地,與進步有別,故加用上步二字。
The name originally did not include STEP FORWARD, as it was in the 1931 book. In my 1927 book, I added the STEP FORWARD. The 1935 book says ADVANCE, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE. In this posture, the left foot steps forward, the right foot staying where it is. This is different from “advancing”, so I call it STEP FORWARD.

35.披身踢腳:
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK
這一式,早先用跳躍動作,叫做“二起腳”,圖本稱為“翻身二起腳”;致本改為“右分腳”;振本改為“左披身”、“踢右腳”兩個名稱。現在跳躍動作已經取消,只有披身踢腳的姿勢,沒有連續踢腳的形象,所以不用“二起腳”原名。
Long ago, this posture involved a jumping action, and hence it was called a DOUBLE-LIFT KICK. The 1931 book calls it a TURNING-BODY DOUBLE KICK. In my 1927 book, I changed it KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE. The 1935 book changed it into two postures: LEFT DRAPING THE BODY and KICK WITH THE RIGHT FOOT. With the jump gone, there is nothing left but a draping movement and a kick. As it no longer a performance of kicks in succession, I therefore do not use the original name of DOUBLE-LIFT KICK.

36.退步打虎:
RETREAT, FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE
致本多一式字;圖本把退步動作並入“翻身二起腳”,故簡稱“打虎勢”,本書照振本,不改。
In my 1927 book, I added a character that explicitly means “posture”. The 1931 book has a retreating step that flows directly from the DOUBLE KICK, therefore it just calls this posture FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE. In this book, I follow the version of the name in 1935 book.

37.二起腳:
SECOND KICK
原先,致本為“披身踢腳”,振本為“右分腳”,圖本的“打虎勢”是左右各一,故把此腳略去。本書認為這一腳與35式“披身踢腳”是遙相呼應的,故採用“二起腳”的原名。
In my 1927 book, I called this posture DRAPING THE BODY, KICK. The 1935 book calls it KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE. The 1931 book has the FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE performed on both sides, and so it does not include this kick at all. In this book, I feel that this is a follow-up of the kick in Posture 35, and so I call it SECOND KICK as an homage to the original DOUBLE-LIFT KICK.

38.雙峯貫耳:
DOUBLE PEAKS THROUGH THE EARS
各本相同。
Same in each book [except that the 1931 book uses “winds” instead of “peaks”].

39.翻身二起腳:
TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK
致本原分為“左分腳”和“轉身蹬腳”兩個名稱,圖本稱為“披身踢腳”和“轉身蹬腳”,本書照振本仍用上名,因為本式有翻身,又有左右腳連續起踢,是名實相符的。
In my 1927 book, I divide this into KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE and TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK, which the 1931 book calls DRAPING THE BODY, KICK and TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK. In this book, I follow the version in the 1935 book because this posture involves turning around and both feet kicking in succession, and thus the name and the action reflect each other.

40.撇身捶:
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
致本同,圖本略去,振本改用高探馬式子,稱為“右高探馬”。本書認為:本式下接“搬攔捶”比較得勁,故仍用原來名稱及原來動作。
This is the same as in my 1927 book. The 1931 book does not include it at all. The 1935 book instead uses RIGHT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE. In this book, I feel that since this posture flows into PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH, I should stick with the original name and movement.

41.上步搬攔捶,
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
42.如封似閉,
SEALING SHUT
43.十字手,
CROSSED HANDS
44.抱虎歸山,
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
45.攬雀尾,
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
46.斜單鞭:
DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
以上六個都是重複式子,各本不同之處,上面已經說明。
These six postures are all repeats and their differences between the books have already been explained.

47.野馬分鬃:
WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE
各本相同。
Same in each book.

48.玉女穿梭:
MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH
這是原名,致圖二本相同,振本把四式中的兩個式子加上轉身字樣,並把中間的“野馬分鬃”式的換手動作也列入名稱。動作內容各本相同,本書仍用原名。
This is the original name, the same as it appears in the 1927 and 1931 books. In the 1935 book, TURN AROUND is added for two of the four actions, and WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE is added as a transition into the first and third of them. The movement is the same in each book. In this book, I maintain the use of the original name.

49.攬雀尾:
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
這是重複式子,致、振二本相同,圖本有上勢二字,本書的式子不上步,故照舊不改。
This posture is a repeat. The name is the same as in the 1927 and 1935 books, but the 1931 book adds STEP FORWARD to the beginning of it. In this book, the posture does not involve stepping forward, therefore I have followed the older version.

50.單鞭,
SINGLE WHIP
51.雲手,
CLOUDING HANDS
52.單鞭,
SINGLE WHIP
53.下勢,
LOW POSTURE
54. 金雞獨立,
GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
55.倒攆猴,
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
56.斜飛勢,
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
57.提手上勢,
RAISE THE HAND
58.白鶴亮翅,
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
59.摟膝拗步,
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
60.海底針,
NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
61.扇通背,
FAN THROUGH THE BACK
62.撇身捶,
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
63.上步搬攔捶,
STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
64.上步攬雀尾,
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
65.單鞭,
SINGLE WHIP
66.雲手,
CLOUDING HANDS
67.單鞭:
SINGLE WHIP
以上十八個式子,除“下勢”、“金雞獨立”兩式外,其餘都是重複式子,各本大致相同,其中不同之處,除致本漏列52式“單鞭”名稱及圖、振二本62式“撇身捶”均多加“翻身”二字外,其餘已在前面作了說明。“下勢”和“金雞獨立”兩名稱,各本完全相同;“撇身捶”只有九十度轉身,稱為“撇身”已經足夠,故不加“翻身”二字。
These eighteen postures, apart from LOW POSTURE and GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG, are all repeats and are mostly the same in each book. The only differences are that the SINGLE WHIP of Posture 52 is absent in my 1927 book, and the TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH of Posture 62 has TURN AROUND added to the beginning of it in the 1931 and 1935 books. The rest of these posture names have already been explained. The posture names of LOW POSTURE and GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG are the same in each book. As the TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH turns only ninety degrees, the name is sufficient as it is, and so I have not added the TURN AROUND to it.

68.撲面掌:
PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE
圖本略去,但保留本式前的“高探馬”一式。致本稱為“撲面掌”,上一式也是“高探馬”;振本稱為“披面掌”,上一式稱為“左高探馬”。本書認為“迎面”二字含有等待之意,更符合太極拳的擊法,所以採用上列名稱(迎面掌這一名稱,早先也是常用的)。至於高探馬的動作,在早先是與迎面掌混合在一起,並不另立一名,故本書也不再保留高探馬的名稱。
The 1931 book does not include this, but it does include the posture of REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE that precedes it. In my 1927 book, I too preceded it with REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE. The 1935 book uses a variant character for “strike” and also precedes it with REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE. I include this name on its own because I feel that the “strike to the face” in this way contains an element of waiting for the opponent to try something, thus better conforming to the fighting tactics of Taiji Boxing. (Also, the technique name PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE was commonly used long ago.) As for the action of REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, long ago it was mixed together with the PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE instead of being named separately, and therefore in this book I have decided to leave out this REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE as a named posture.

69.轉身十字擺蓮:
TURN AROUND, CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK
這一式原名是“十字擺蓮”,圖本同,致本多一腿字,振本加轉身二字,又多一腳字,本書認為本式轉身較大(是180度的轉身)故採用振本所加轉身二字,以免走錯方向。
This posture was originally just called CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK, which is how it is said in the 1931 book. In my 1927 book, I added a character that explicitly means “kick”. The 1935 book adds TURN AROUND, as well the extra “kick” character. In this book, I feel that because the turn is large (turning around a full hundred and eighty degrees), I should follow the example of the 1935 book in order to prevent any mistake about the orientation of the posture.

70.摟膝指襠捶,
BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
71.上步攬雀尾,
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
72.單鞭,
SINGLE WHIP
73.下勢,
LOW POSTURE
74.上步七星,
STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE
75.退步跨虎:
RETREAT, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE
以上六個式子,70、74、75三式各本相同,其餘三個都是重複式子。
Of these six postures, 70, 74, and 75 are named the same way in each book, and the other three are simply repeated postures.

76.轉身迎面掌:
TURN AROUND, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE
圖本略去,致本稱“撲面掌”,振本稱“披面掌”與68式同。本式也是180度的大轉身,故加轉身二字。
The 1931 book does not include this at all. In my 1927 book, I used a variant character to emphasize the striking. The 1935 book uses the same variant character for “strike” as was mentioned above for posture 68. I add TURN AROUND in this book because of the large hundred and eighty degree turn of the body.

77.轉身雙擺蓮:
TURN AROUND, DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK
致振二本均稱為“轉身擺蓮腳”。本式是用雙手拍腳,與“十字擺蓮”單手拍腳不同,故採用圖本名稱,加一雙字,以示區別。
The 1927 and 1935 books both say TURN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK. In this posture, both hands slap the foot, making it different from the single-hand slap in CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK, and therefore I follow the version in the 1931 book, adding DOUBLE-SLAP to make it distinct from the earlier kick.

78.彎弓射虎:
BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER
各本相同。
Same in each book.

79.上步迎面掌,
STEP FORWARD, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE
80.翻身撇身捶,
TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
81.上步高探馬,
STEP FORWARD, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
82.上步攬雀尾,
STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
83.單鞭:
SINGLE WHIP
以上五個式子都是重複式子,圖本完全略去,振、致二本在“迎面掌”之前都有“上步高探馬”,現在略去“高探馬”的名稱(可參考68式“迎面掌”的說明),把“上步”二字加在“迎面掌”上,以免漏去上步的動作。
These five postures are all repeats. They are all left out of the 1931 book [which apparently finishes the set with SHOOT THE TIGER]. In the 1927 and 1935 books, the PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE is preceded by STEP FORWARD, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE. I have now omitted the name REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE for that particular moment (See the explanation for Posture 68.) and put STEP FORWARD at the beginning of PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE in order to avoid leaving out the action of stepping forward that it involves.

84.合太極。
CLOSING POSTURE
各本相同。
Same in each book.

上面所作整理,沒有減少拳式的動作,也沒有改變動作的原有次序,在名稱上雖然有了一些改換,但是仍採取早先有過的名稱,也沒有什麼新創的地方。因此,這一工作只能解決下面的兩點:(1)每一個拳式只給一個名稱,不再在某些式子上按照動作拆成幾個名稱;(2)對少數名實不盡符合的拳式,在名稱上或者在動作的段落上,作了必要的修正。作者很希望練過吳式太極拳的同志們,提出更好的意見,以便日後重作整理。
For this treatment of the posture names, I have not subtracted any of the movements of the postures nor rearranged their sequence. Although some adjustments have been made to the names, I have selected to stick with older versions, warts and all, rather than cavalierly inventing any new ones. Consequently, I have only been able to resolve these two issues about the posture names: 1. For each boxing posture, I have given only one name, not splitting a posture into several names based on the breakdown of its movements. 2. There are a few names that do not entirely conform to the posture, and so I found it necessary to adjust which movements belong to which postures. I hope my fellow practitioners of Wu Style Taiji Boxing will put forth any better ideas they have so that I may further improve this analysis of the posture names in the future.

第八章 基本動作
CHAPTER EIGHT: FUNDAMENTALS OF MOVEMENT

太極拳雖然有“重意不重形”的說法,但是,對初學者來說,還是應當先重形後重意,必須力求姿勢正確並在基本動作上打下鞏固的基礎,切不可在“形似”功夫尚未下夠以前,就先去練習“神似”功夫。本章所列舉的各項基本動作,有一部分是很重要的法則,另一部分不過是動作的式樣,為了避免混淆,分做兩個部分依次扼要說明。第一部分是頭部和身手方面的動作方法;第二部分是拳掌各法和腿步各法的動作式樣;其中第一部分各項法則,大多已經在上篇第三章裡有所說明,為了避免重複,在這裡只能作一些必要的補充,凡是可以省略的地方都不再細說。
Although Taiji Boxing is said to “value intention rather than shape”, I say that beginners should start with emphasizing shape and then later emphasize intention. You have to strive to get the postures to be correct and to solidify the fundamentals of movement, so be sure not to jump ahead to training the spirit before sufficiently training the shape.
  Among the fundamentals of movement listed in this chapter, some are very important principles while others are simply standard types of movement. For the sake of avoiding confusion, I have divided them into two respective sections in order to present them more clearly. Part 1 consists of methods of movement for the head, body, and hands. Part 2 consists of the standard types of movement for the fists, palms, legs, and steps. The various principles within Part 1 were for the most part already explained in Chapter Three, but in order to avoid simply repeating myself, I have here made only a few necessary additions to those explanations rather than going through the details all over again.

第一部分:
Part 1 [important principles]:

1. 懸頂:
Suspend your headtop.

這一姿勢,在初學時,只要記住下面幾點:①頭頂向上,應當聽任自然,不要為符合懸頂而用力伸頸;②除少數斜身的或者需要微微彎腰的式子以外,都要儘可能地保持從頂到臀的一條直線或者從頂到地的一條垂直線;③斜身時不要歪頭,彎腰時不要低頭,④對於“虛領頂勁”的要求暫時可以不管。初學階段首先在防止低頭仰面、左右歪斜的毛病,至於“虛領頂勁”可在日後功夫較深時再用意識去想象,不必著急。其餘可參考上篇第三章的有關說明。
In the beginning of the training, this position only requires attention to these principles:
  1. You should let your headtop go upward naturally and should not be using strength to extend your neck.
  2. Apart from a few postures in which you lean your body or have to slightly bend at the waist,
you should always try to maintain a vertical line from your head to your buttocks, or from your head to the ground.
  3. When leaning your body, you should not tilt your head, and when bending at the waist, you should not lower your head.
  4. As for the requirement that you “forcelessly press up your headtop”, this can be temporarily ignored. In the beginning, you should first guard against the errors of letting your head droop forward, loll back, or tilt to either side. Later, as your skill deepens, you will then be able to use intention to manifest the effect of forcelessly pressing up your headtop and no longer need to worry about such errors.
  (For further explanation, you can refer to Chapter Three [section B, principle 1]).

2. 正容:
Have a normal look.

初學時主要在保持面容正常,聽任面部肌肉自然放鬆,不要故意抖擻精神,神不舒則體也不能靜(神舒體靜語見“十三勢行功心解”)。此外,還須注意下列各事:①眼要平視,不可怒目,運動時,眼睛應當隨著手勢轉動,不可呆視;②口要輕閉,切勿咬牙,舌抵上顎,這樣口腔津液分泌較多,可以隨時潤喉;③用鼻呼吸,要求勻細深長,如感覺呼氣不暢,可以張口徐徐吐氣(吐完隨即閉上),不可彆氣。
In the beginning, you should maintain a normal look on your face, allowing your facial muscles to relax naturally, and should not try to force any expression of spirit. If your spirit is not comfortable, your body will not be at ease. (It says in Understanding How to Practice: “Spirit comfortable, body calm.”) You should also give attention to these points:
  1. Your gaze should be level and must not be an angry glare. While moving, your gaze should follow along with the movements of your hands instead of staring stiffly.
  2. Your mouth should be closed lightly rather than gnashing your teeth. Your tongue touches your upper palate, which will increase the secreting of saliva and thereby keep your throat moistened.
  3. While breathing through your nose, the breath should be even, deep, and long, but if you feel that your exhale is not smooth, you can open your mouth to slowly release the air (followed by closing your mouth to return to breathing through your nose), for you must not be restraining your air.

3.弛項:
Relax your neck.

在運動時,頸部要隨勢左右運動,如果用力做成強項的姿勢,對轉動有一定影響,同時也要阻礙懸頂和正容兩個姿勢的自然。弛項是很容易做好的,只要不用力、不緊張就成。一動手就想用力的人最易犯強項的毛病,因此,這一法則主要是對這些人說的。
While moving, your neck should go along with the movement to the left and right. If you use exertion to make your neck position strong, it will influence your turning actions, and will also prevent the principles of suspending your headtop or keeping your head upright from having a quality of naturalness. Relaxing the neck is easy: all you have to do is not use exertion or tension. If you are tempted to use exertion in any movement, it will be very easy to make the error of tightening your neck. If you have been doing such a thing, this will be a fundamental principle for helping you correct it.

4.含胸:
Hollow your chest.

含胸,不但在健身方面有重要作用,同時也是技擊上的一個重要動作,凡是要運用化勁(即走勁)的手法都離不開含胸的輔助。這是與挺胸相反的動作,初學時大多很不習慣,而且一下子做得含度太大,對於身體較差的人也是不相宜的。所以在初學時不要提出過高的要求,首先只要把挺胸的念頭完全打消,慢慢的可以在坐身的動作裡微微含胸,以適應動作的需要,口久自然會越含越充分的。另外,還應當注意,含胸只是坐身動作的組成部分,並不是任何一個動作都需要涵胸,如果處處都含胸不但沒有必要,而且在生理上反要降低作用。因為“含”與“不含”是應當交相為用的,而且在學好含胸以後,遇到某些姿勢也不妨微微挺胸以助含胸之勢,總之,含胸不是固定不變的一種姿勢,學習者不可纏誤。
To “hollow the chest” not only has an important effect on our health, but is also an important action in fighting. Whenever you do a technique of neutralizing (i.e. yielding), it cannot be done without the aid of hollowing your chest. This action is the opposite of sticking your chest out. Beginners are usually very unaccustomed to it and will hollow the chest too much, which is just as bad for the body as sticking it out. Therefore in the beginning of the training, it should not be overly demanded, and at first the only expectation should be to not stick out the chest, then gradually there can be a slight hollowing to complement the action of sitting back, and then after a long time it will naturally hollow further until it is just right.
  But make sure that hollowing your chest is merely a component of sitting back and does not become a requirement in every movement. If you are always hollowing your chest, it is not only unnecessary, but would also become counterproductive toward proper physiological function. Because hollowing should be alternated with not hollowing, then once you are good at hollowing your chest, you will find that there are some postures in which you might as well slightly stick out your chest to complement the postures that definitely involve hollowing. In short, hollowing the chest is not a strict principle and you should not become obsessed about it.

5.拔背:
Round your back.

含胸時背部不能不弓出,所以在過去一直把含胸拔背連在一起說。其實這一動作對肩背部分的肌肉活動最有關係。不過在初學時不會沉肩,很難使背部肌肉受到伸展,暫時可以緩練。如果用力勉強去做,反要影響動作的其他方面。不如到日後善於沉肩的時候,再去練習拔背,一定要容易得多。也有人在盤架子時練不好,到推手期間懂得在肩背上用勁的時候,方能運用到架子中去,可見這一動作比較難練,還是移後一些較為相宜。
To hollow your chest, your back has to become rounded, therefore hollowing the chest and rounding the back get mentioned together. The actions of the shoulders and upper back are indeed intimately connected. But in the beginning, you will not know how to sink your shoulders, and it will be very difficult to get your back muscles to spread, which may briefly inhibit your practice. If you force it to happen, this will have an adverse influence on other aspects of movement.
  Better to wait until you are good at sinking your shoulders before practicing rounding your back, which will make it much easier. Some people have a hard time with this when practicing the boxing set, but come to understand the operations of the shoulders and back when pushing hands, and are then able to put that experience into the set. Clearly this is a somewhat difficult action to get right, but it will become more correct with time.

6.弓腰:
Flatten your lower back.

練外壯功夫要挺胸不要含胸,既要挺胸就不可能不拔腰,可見胸與腰在動作時是應當一致的。練太極拳要求含胸,所以在含胸時非弓腰不可。弓腰是要求放鬆腰部並向後弓出,使整個背部成為淺度的弧圓形。這一姿勢並不難做。只要在含胸時能夠鬆腰,腰部自然會向後弓出的。初學時不會涵胸,不必勉強去弓腰,可先注意腰部的放鬆,以免引起拔腰的毛病。
If you are training in bodybuilding, you should stick out your chest rather than hollowing it, and to stick out your chest you have to curl your lower back. It can be seen from this that the movement of the chest and lower back should be in unison. Practicing Taiji Boxing requires hollowing the chest, but hollowing the chest will not work without flattening your lower back. To “flatten your lower back” means relaxing your waist and drawing it toward the rear, causing your back as a whole to appear slightly rounded.
  This is an aspect of posture that is not difficult to do. You only have to hollow your chest and then you will be able to loosen your waist, and your waist will naturally be drawn toward the rear. In the beginning, you will not understand how to hollow your chest, but you do not need to force your lower back to flatten and can instead start by paying attention to relaxing your waist in order to avoid making the error of curling your lower back.

7. 收臀:
Tuck in your buttocks.

凡是習慣於拔腰的,往往會把臀部突出,做成腹向前挺臀向後凸的樣子。練太極拳到了能夠弓腰的時候,臀部絕對不會突出,因此這一動作,主要是對練慣突臀姿勢者提出一個相反的要求。收臀,也有叫做斂臀的,原意是要求練拳者在做騎馬式或者虛步坐身式時,應當儘可能地把臀部收斂進去。作者認為這一姿勢,主要關鍵在於弓腰,不能弓腰是無法收臀的,能弓腰則臀部就會自然垂直而不致突出,故作者在早先把它改稱為垂臀,只要求學習者注意弓腰後的臀部自然垂直,不必故意收斂,以免引起一種拘束。現在仍把這個意思,寫在這裡以供初學者參考。
If you have a habit of curling your lower back, your buttocks will often stick out, giving you an appearance of your belly bulging forward. Once you have practiced to the point that you are flattening your lower back sufficiently, your buttocks will never be sticking out. And so the purpose of this action is mainly to help correct those who are habitually sticking out their buttocks. Tucking in the buttocks is also called “gathering the buttocks in”, meaning that in postures of sitting the body, such as the horse-riding stance or empty stance, you should do your best to tuck your buttocks forward.
  I think that this postural principle is the major key to flattening the lower back, because if you cannot flatten your lower back, there is no way for you to tuck in your buttocks, whereas if you are able to flatten your lower back, your buttocks will automatically be hanging vertically. Therefore I used to call this principle “hanging the buttocks”, for you only need to focus on flattening your lower back and then your buttocks will automatically be hanging vertically. It is not necessary to tuck in deliberately, which might lead to a more constricted posture. Because I still use this idea, I also supply you with this other way of saying it.

8. 尾閭中正:
Your tailbone is centered.

這是應當注意的一個姿勢,不是一個動作。前人深怕學者在運動時期胡亂扭臀或者臀部不正使整個身體都受到不良影響,所以提出尾閭中正的要求。同時還須想到尾閭與頭頂是遙相呼應的,在運動時,一面做好“頂頭懸”,一面又能顧到尾閭中正,整個身體也自然能夠保持一定的端正了。
This is something to take note of as a postural principle rather than a movement principle. Previous generations worried that students would twist their buttocks off center and end up corrupting their whole body structure, and therefore they put forward the requirement that the tailbone should be centered. At the same time, there still has to be alignment between the tailbone and the headtop. While moving, it is necessary that “your headtop be pulled up as if suspended”, and so you also have to be able to give attention to centering your tailbone. Your whole body will thus naturally be able to maintain a stable uprightness.

9. 沉肩:
Sink your shoulders.

沉肩是舒展肩部肌肉和韌帶的一個動作,凡是在伸臂的動作中,都可以微微用活勁使肩部肌肉伸長,以牽引背部兩側的肌肉。但在屈臂時應當以鬆肩為主,倘要沉肩,也應當多用意少用力,因為在屈臂墜肘後再向前伸臂時,肩部在向下向後再向上向前的過程中,就包含著一個自然沉肩的環形動作,因此,沒有特意沉肩的必要。至於推手時,運用肘部去牽引對方手臂,時常要沉肩,那是用勁的方法,在盤架子時仍以自然鬆沉為宜,不要過分用力。
To “sink your shoulders” is an action of extending the muscles and ligaments of the shoulders, in which you can slightly add some lively energy, causing the muscles in your shoulders to stretch and thereby tug on the muscles at the sides of your back [i.e. latissimus dorsi]. However, when bending your arms, you should focus on loosening the shoulders. If you want to sink your shoulders, you should also use more intention than exertion.
  But when you bend your arms and drop your elbows and then extend your arms forward, the process of the shoulders going downward and to the rear and then upward and forward contains a circular movement in which there is a natural sinking of the shoulders, and thus there is no need to even put that much intention into sinking your shoulders. During pushing hands, using your elbows to draw in the opponent’s arms often requires sinking your shoulders to then have a means to express power. When going through the boxing set, you should be naturally loosening and sinking, not using excessive exertion.

10. 墜肘:
Drop your elbows.

在胸前屈臂時,除非是肘部與肩頭相平或者高於肩頭的動作,一般都應當把肘尖朝向下方,不可向左右抬起。這一姿勢對盤架子和推手都有很重要的作用。兩肘向上抬起,不但妨礙沉肩,同時也要影響沉氣,而兩脅暴露太多,兩肘又容易被人托住,在技擊上更多不宜。所以在初學時就應當養成墜肘的習慣。沉肩與墜肘相配合是推手時常常要用到的肘法,這去以技擊為重,都把沉肩墜肘聯在一起,就是因為它們在運用上有不可分離的關係。
When bending your arms in front of your chest, unless you are doing a movement that brings your elbows to shoulder level or higher, generally your elbows should be pointing downward, and they must never be lifting to the sides. This position is crucial in both the boxing set and pushing hands. If your elbows are lifting up, not only will it hinder you from sinking your shoulders, it will also affect your ability to sink your energy, your ribs will be overly exposed, and it will be easy for your elbows to get propped up by your opponent, making it too impractical to try to perform any techniques against him. Therefore in the beginning of the training, you should cultivate the habit of dropping your elbows. The principles of sinking your shoulders and dropping your elbows reinforce each other. During pushing hands, if you often use the elbowing technique, these principles are crucial for it to be effective. Always use them together, for throughout the exercise they must never be separated.

11.轉腕旋膀:
Rotate the wrist and forearm.

這是要求手臂的一伸一屈都不可平出平入,應當儘量把腕和小臂的旋轉動作表演出來。例如伸掌向前,在開頭時總是先用掌心朝面頰的“側掌”,在前伸的過程中徐徐旋轉,到終點時才成為掌心向前的“立掌”,可見它的前進是帶著旋轉形的。現在有一些教師為了遷就初學先從平出平入教起,它的好處是容易學會,可是在學會以後還是應當把它改正過來,以提高手臂動作的運動效果。
This is the requirement that the hand must not stay in the same position as it extends and retracts, but instead the wrist and forearm should exhibit a rotation as it moves. For example, when extending your palm forward [such as in BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE], this begins with the palm facing your cheek, making a “sideways palm” position. Then it slowly rotates as it extends, until it finishes with the palm facing forward, making a “standing palm” position. Thus while it goes forward, it rotates its position. Some teachers nowadays accommodate beginners by having them keep their hand in the same position as it extends and retracts, the advantage being that it is easier to learn it this way. However, these beginners would need to be corrected later in order for their hand movement to improve.

12. 展指凸掌:
Extend the fingers and stick out the palm.

練太極拳大多是在功夫較深時開始注意動作的虛實,其實在初學時,如果一點虛實都不懂,也是不應當的。由於太極拳的動作以用掌為多,故在這裡只提出一個“展指凸掌”的要求,希望初學者在伸臂時的“實掌”動作中認真運用,以提高動作的質量。另外,在練熟這一動作以後,將來在其他拳掌動作上要分清由虛而實和由實而虛,也可以格外容易些。關於這一動作的做法在生理作用一章的同一項目和本篇第二章的“分虛實”裡都另有說明,這裡不再重複。
When your skill in the art has deepened, you will start to pay more attention to emptiness and fullness within the movements. However, even in the beginning of the training, if there is ever a moment in which emptiness and fullness are not clear, this is not actually acceptable. Taiji Boxing’s movements mostly involve using palms, and therefore I point out the requirement of “extend the fingers and stick out the palms”, hoping that when beginners perform movements of extending their arms until their palms are “full”, they will take this principle seriously in order to heighten the quality of the movement.
  Additionally, once you have become skillful at doing the movement in this way, it will be much easier in the rest of the fist and palm movements to clearly distinguish when you are going from emptiness to fullness or from fullness to emptiness. The way to perform this action [of extending the fingers and sticking out the palm] has already been described in a section in Chapter Three [Part 2, principle 4], and in the section called “Distinguishing between emptiness and fullness” [3rd stage, principle 1] in Chapter Two [Chapter Five], and so does not need to be repeated here.

第二部分
Part 2 [standard movements]:

1.拳法:
Fist methods:

太極拳的握拳在式子上,同一般武術並無差别。初學時應當握實拳,但不要握得太緊,到功夫較深時,動作要分虛實,握拳也有虛實可分,虛拳要比實拳握得鬆些。由掌變拳,或者由實拳鬆為虛拳,都要做慢動作,不要握得太快,也不要鬆得太快,這樣,才能與整個動作的慢度相適應。有些人在盤架子時常常握虛拳而不握實拳,甚至有握得太鬆而失去拳形的,這是用意不用力的練法,非有真功夫不可,初學時還是以多握實拳為宜。又,在太極拳裡用拳打擊的動作只有五個,早先叫做太極五捶,下面所列舉的各拳式,是根據全部握拳的動作,按照方位或者式樣而歸納為幾個名稱,並不是以五捶為限,也不是固有的名稱,所作說明只求分清各拳的不同方向,以供參考。
Taiji Boxing’s fist positions are really no different from those in ordinary martial arts. In the beginning of the training, the fist should grasp fully but not too tightly. Once your skill has deepened, you should distinguish between an empty grip and a full one. Emptiness and fullness can be distinguished even in the way you make a fist. The empty grip is looser than the full one. When changing a palm into a fist, or loosening a full fist into an empty fist, the action should be slow, neither grasping too quickly nor loosening too quickly. In this way, you will be able to do the entire movement at the proper speed.
  Some people constantly make empty fists instead of full ones while practicing the set, so much so that they end up with a grip that is too loose and loses the appearance of making a fist at all. Although this is the practice of using intention rather than exertion, it will not mean anything unless there is some actual skill. Thus in the beginning of the training, it is more appropriate to always make full fists.
  Additionally, in Taiji Boxing there are only five ways of striking with the fist, what have previously been called the “five punches of Taiji”. The various fist usages listed below are based on all of the fist movements in the set, producing a number of terms having to do with the position or appearance of the fist that is not actually limited to five types of punches. These are not standardized terms. I have sought only to spell out the different fist orientations for your reference.

(甲)正拳:
A. UPRIGHT FIST

向前伸出或者向裡收回,所握之拳虎口朝上的都為正拳。用拳時很少用轉腕旋膀的動作,正拳是惟一沒有旋轉動作的拳式。
The fist extends forward or withdraws inward with the tiger’s mouth facing upward. The upright fist rarely uses rotations of the wrist or forearm, and is the only fist position that does not involve such rotations.

(乙)反拳:
B. OVERTURNED FIST

這是虎口朝下的一種式子,以高舉在頭前者為限。
This is a forward position in which the tiger’s mouth is facing downward with the fist at head level.

(丙)立拳:
C. STANDING FIST

凡是拳頂向上或者斜向上方而虎口朝前、後或者左、右的都為立拳。
The knuckles are facing upward or diagonally upward, the tiger’s mouth facing forward or to the rear, or to either side.

(丁)栽拳:
D. PLANTING FIST

虎口朝前而拳頂偏向下方的都為栽拳,它與立拳的方向相反,也可叫做倒拳,只有在向前向下打擊時才用這個拳式。
The tiger’s mouth is facing forward, the knuckles facing downward. As it is pointing in the opposite direction to the standing fist, it could also be called an “inverted fist”. This fist is only used when striking forward and downward.

(戊)仰拳:
E. UPWARD-FACING FIST

拳心向上拳背向下的都為仰拳。
The center of the fist is facing upward, the back of the fist facing downward.

(己)俯拳:
F. DOWNWARD-FACING FIST

與仰拳的方向相反,拳心向下拳背向上的都為俯拳。
The opposite of the upward-facing fist, the center of the fist is facing downward, the back of the fist facing upward.

(庚)抓拳:
G. CLAW-FIST

這與一般握拳不同,它是五指撮在一起,手指向下的一種式子,原先叫做抓子,也有叫做鉤子或鉤手的,因為它是在落掌後(掌是立掌)用手背(近腕處)擊人的一種拳法,所以列入拳法以內。
This is different from an ordinary fist, using all five fingers to pinch together to make a position of the fingers pointing downward. Originally simply called a “claw”, it is also called a “hook” or “hooking hand”. After the palm lowers (from being a standing palm), the back of the hand (near the wrist area) is used to strike an opponent, and this is why it is included in the list of fist methods.

2.掌法:
Palm methods:

初學時,出掌和收掌都以自然舒展為主:手指不要用力並緊或者用力張開,掌心也不要做成窩形。到功夫較深時,已經懂得動作的虛實,在掌上也應當有所表示,例如:向前伸手,在未伸時,手掌微帶窩形,蓄而不張,這是虛掌;在前伸的過程中逐漸舒展,即逐漸減少窩形,這叫做由虛而實,到終點時,窩形完全消失,微微展指凸掌以助前伸之勢,這時是實掌;將掌收回時,手掌逐漸由舒展而復歸於含蓄,仍成微窩形,這叫做由實而虛。掌的動作是整體動作的一部分,所以掌的虛實應當與整體動作的虛實相配合,如果不打算在整體動作上分出虛實,那麼,在掌上也只要用自然掌,無須在動作上做出窩掌或者凸掌的形狀。拳論所說“其根在腳,發於腿,主宰於腰,行於手指”等語,就含有手的表示應當與腰腿腳的完整動作相適應的意義在內。各種掌法,根據手掌的方向和形象,列舉如下:
In the beginning of the training, you should be extending and withdrawing your palms with naturalness, meaning that the fingers should not be using strength to either squeeze together or spread apart, but also that the palm should not be caving in. Once your skill has deepened, you will already have an understanding of emptiness and fullness, which should then be expressed in the palms.
  For example, when your hand extends forward but is not yet fully extended, the palm has a slightly hollow shape, a look of storing up rather than spreading out. This is an “empty palm”. As the hand gradually extends more and more forward, the look of hollowness gradually reduces. This is called “going from emptiness to fullness”. When the hand reaches its final destination, its hollowness vanishes, the fingers slightly extending, the palm slightly sticking out, thereby enhancing the action of extending forward. It is now a “full palm”. When withdrawing the palm, as it gradually returns from extending to storing, it again makes a slightly hollow shape. This is called “going from fullness to emptiness”.
  The movement of a palm is just a part of a larger movement, therefore the emptiness and fullness of the palm should be coordinated with the emptiness and fullness of the movement as a whole. But when a movement is not distinctly divided into moments of emptiness and fullness, it is only necessary to move the palm with naturalness, and then you will not need to make the shapes of the palm being hollow or sticking out. It says in Wu Yuxiang’s Treatise: “Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it from your waist, and expressing it at your fingers.” This statement contains the sense of the hand working together with the waist, leg, and foot to perform an integrated movement. The various palm methods, according to the direction the palm is facing and its shape, are described below:

(甲)正掌:
A. UPRIGHT PALM

指尖向上,掌心向前方,腕部形成九十度左右的直角,都為正掌。
The fingertips are pointing upward and the palm is facing forward, the wrist making a ninety degree angle.

(乙)立掌:
B. STANDING PALM

指尖向上或者偏向上方,掌心不向前方而向其他方向的,都為立掌。
The fingertips are pointing upward, or are angled upward, and the palm is facing any direction other than forward.

(丙)垂掌:
C. HANGING PALM

指尖向下或者偏向下方者,不問掌心向著何方,都為垂掌。
The fingertips are pointing downward, or are angled downward. It does not matter which direction the palm is facing.

(丁)仰掌:
D. UPWARD-FACING PALM

掌心向上或者偏向上方者,不問指尖向著何方,都為仰掌。
The palm is facing upward, or is angled upward. It does not matter which direction the fingertips are pointing.

(戊)側掌:
E. SIDEWAYS PALM

拇指指尖向上,手掌側立者,不問掌心向著何方,都為側掌。
The palm is standing sideways with the thumb pointing downward. It does not matter which direction the palm is facing.

(己)俯掌:
F. DOWNWARD-FACING PALM

掌心向下或者偏向下方的,不問指尖向著何方,都為俯掌。
The palm is facing downward, or is angled downward. It does not matter which direction the fingertips are pointing.

(庚)反掌:
G. OVERTURNED PALM

手掌側立而拇指在下的,都為反掌。
The palm stands sideways with the thumb pointing downward.

3.腿法:
Leg methods:

太極拳的立身姿勢,除做騎馬勢兩腿都要負擔體重以外,其餘的都完全是把體重放在一條腿上為主。它在運動時,不是用兩腿的支撐力去鍛煉腿肌,而是用屈腿負重的動作去鍛煉腿肌。如果蹲腿較低、屈膝較大,便會增加腿部的運動量而感到吃力。所以初學者或者身體較弱的人都應當立身較高,不宜過矮,以免腿部太吃力。下列各種腿法,都有一定標準,不是短期所能學好的,初學時,也可以根據各人體力,降低要求,不要勉強。
Beyond the horse-riding stance, in which the weight is on both legs, Taiji Boxing’s methods of standing also involve having the weight on one leg or the other. During the exercise, train your legs by bending them to shift the weight rather than using strength to brace with the legs. The lower the leg squats, the greater the knee bends, increasing the strain of the exercise. Therefore beginners or those with weak bodies should all stand taller rather than trying to go overly low, in order to avoid wearing our their legs. Explained below are the various leg methods, each of which have their specific criteria and cannot be learned well in a short time. In the beginning of the training, you may perform them according to your own ability and should not be forcing yourself to go lower.

(甲)提腿:
A. LIFTING THE LEG

站著(承擔體重)的一腿應當微微屈膝,不要挺直;提起的一腿,應當使膝部高於胯部,小腿要微向前伸,腳尖要向上翹起。另外,全身要鬆,不要使勁過多;這一點是各種腿法裡都要注意的。
Stand with the weight on one leg, which should be slightly bent rather than straight. Lift the other leg until the knee is at hip level, the lower leg slightly reaching forward, toes lifting up. Additionally, your whole body should loosen rather than use too much strength, which will remain true throughout the rest of the leg methods.

(乙)踢腿:
B. KICKING

這是提腿後將小腿向前方(偏右或偏左)踢出的動作。踢腿時,要全腿伸直,高與胯平;用腳尖向前方踢出的叫做踢腿,也叫踢腳;用腳跟向前方蹬出的,叫做蹬腿,也叫蹬腳。落腳時要落在左前方或者右前方。
After lifting your leg, the lower leg kicks out forward (performed to either the left or right). When kicking, the leg should straighten at hip level. When kicking with the toes, it is called a “snapping kick”. When kicking with the heel, it is called a “pressing kick”. When the foot then comes down, it should come down to the forward left [in the case of the left leg] or forward right [in the case of the right leg].

(丙)擺蓮腿:
C. SWINGING LOTUS KICK

此腿只用右腿,不用左腿。起踢時無須先提腿,可在原地直接舉起,腳尖向上,用腳的外側循弧線向右前方踹出,高與胯平,落地時即落在右前方。
This leg technique will be performed only with the right leg and not the left leg. When the kick begins, it is not necessary to first lift the leg, you can simply go right into the kick. With the toes pointing upward, draw an arc with the outside edge of the foot, kicking out to the forward right at hip level. When the foot comes down, it also comes down to the forward right.

(丁)弓腿:
D. BOW STANCE

這是實步的腿法。弓出的一腿,大腿斜度根據各人體力可大可小,無須做到大腿全部放平,但膝頭應當與腳尖相齊。在後面的一腿要自然伸直,不要太用力,腳跟不離地。全身重量應當壓在弓腿上,伸直的一腿不要使勁支撐。
This is a method of filling. The front leg bends to bring the thigh to an angle that depends on your own strength and does not need to become entirely flattened out, though the knee should be aligned with the toes. The rear leg should be naturally rather than forcefully straightened, and the heel should not come off the ground. When the weight goes onto the bent leg, the straightening rear leg should not be using strength to brace you forward.

(戊)坐腿:
E. SITTING STANCE

這是虛步的腿法。弓出的一腿收回半步變為虛步時,全身重量移於另一腿上,應當趁勢屈膝下坐,所以叫做坐腿。坐腿的斜度也可隨人而定,初學時宜於斜度陡些,不要屈膝太大,因為這是比較吃力的一個動作。
This is a method of emptying. The front leg of your bow stance withdraws a half step, switching you to an empty stance, the weight shifting onto your other leg, which should correspondingly be bending as you sit onto it, hence “sitting”. The extent to which you sit should be in accordance with your own body. In the beginning, you should stand taller rather than bend your knee too much, because that would make the movement more strenuous than it needs to be.

(己)蹲腿:
F. SQUATTING POSITIONS

蹲腿有兩種式子。一是“騎馬勢”──兩腳成倒八字式分開,腳尖向外,膝頭與腳尖同一方向,不要扣𦡁,兩腳距離少則二尺,多則二尺半,不要太開,腿的高矮與弓腿相仿,最好能同時含胸和弓腰。一是“下勢”──兩腿比騎馬勢要開些,兩腳腳尖都與身體同向,向下蹲身要蹲到底,左腿伸直,右腿要彎到大腿與小腿相接觸,身體要豎直,全身重量壓在右腿上。下勢的蹲身太低,患高血壓者不宜練,可以隨便些,不要蹲下去。
There are two kinds of squatting positions:
  1. The “horse-riding stance”: your feet are spread apart, making a ninety-degree shape by pointing the toes outward. Your knees are pointing to the same direction as the toes rather than trying to cover your crotch. The distance between your feet is two to two and a half feet, and should not be too wide. The height of your thighs is similar to the bow stance. To get the best results, you should also hollow your chest and flatten your lower back.
  2. The “lowering stance”: Your legs should open wider than for the horse-riding stance, the toes pointing toward the same direction as your torso. Your body should squat down low, your left leg straightening, your right leg bending until the upper leg and lower leg are touching. Your torso should be upright, the weight pressing down onto your right leg. Because the lowering stance squats down so low, those with high blood pressure are exempt and do not need to squat so deeply.

4.腳法:
Foot methods:

腳的動作是腿部動作的一部分,本可在腿法內附帶說明,為了容易查考,所以另列一項。
Foot movements are movements of a part of the leg, so these could be included among the leg methods, but for the sake of easy reference, I have put them in their own category.

(甲)踢腳:
A. SNAPPING KICK

先提腿,立穩,然後用腳尖徐徐踢出,腳背要平。踢的方向,總是右腳踢向右前方,左腳踢向左前方。
First lift your leg and stand stably, then slowly kick out with the toes. The back of the foot should be flattened. The direction of the kick is to the forward right in the case of the right foot and to the forward left in the case of the left foot.

(乙)蹬腳:
B. PRESSING KICK

先提腿,立穩,然後用腳跟徐徐向前方蹬出,腳尖上翹向裡鉤,使腳跟容易出勁。
First lift your leg and stand stably, then slowly press out forward with the heel. The toes are raised, hooking inward, causing the heel to easily express power.

(丙)分腳:
C. KICKING TO THE SIDE

分腳就是踢腳的姿勢。在“左右分腳”的式子裡,如果著重在連續分腳的姿勢上,可以把踢的動作做得隨便些。
To “kick to the side” is the posture name for the snapping kick in the posture of KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT. If you emphasize flowing from kicking to one side into kicking to the other, the kicking movement can feel more natural.

(丁)轉腳:
D. TURNING AROUND ON THE FEET

要轉動身體必須先轉腳。轉左腳,大都用腳跟,腳的其他部分可以稍稍離地,轉右腳,大都用腳尖部分,腳的其他部分可以稍稍離地;如果兩腳同時轉,轉畢至少應當有一腳踏實步,不可兩腳全用虛步。
To turn your body around, you must first turn your feet. When turning around [the turn around in Posture 69 being a good example of the kind of pivoting footwork being described here], your left foot usually pivots on the heel, the rest of the foot slightly coming away from the ground, and your right foot usually pivots on the ball, the rest of the foot slightly coming away from the ground. If turning both feet at the same time, one foot [the left foot in this case] should be full by the end of the turn, for you must not end up empty in both feet.

(戊)落腳:
E. BRINGING THE FOOT DOWN

向前落腳應當腳跟先著地,向後落腳應當腳尖先著地,然後徐徐踏實。在虛步中也有少數式子是用前腳腳尖著地的,這是動作時的進步勢或者退步勢有所不同的緣故。
When stepping forward, you should first touch down with the heel, and when stepping back, you should first touch down with the toes. The rest of the foot will then come down fully. There are a few occasions in which an empty stance will be touching down with the toes of the front foot, depending on the position you are in when advancing or retreating.

(己)換腳:
F. SWITCHING TO THE OTHER FOOT

換腳時,應當先把身體放穩在不動步的一腿上,同時要屈腿,然後提起另一腳向前、向後或者向其他方向徐徐邁步落腳,不可貪圖簡便,直接邁步。
When switching to the other foot, first settle your body onto one leg, the knee bending, then lift the other foot and slowly step it forward, back, or in whatever direction. You must not try to simply go right into the step.

5.步法:
Stances:

太極拳有幾種架子,而且式子有大有小,所以在步法上也無法一致,下面所作的說明,都是以吳先生的拳式為根據,對其他架子難免有不盡合用的地方。
Taiji Boxing has several types of stances. Because there is variation in the size of the postures [from one style to another], there is therefore no unanimous agreement about how to perform the stances. The explanations below are all based on Wu Jianquan’s postures, and so it is difficult to avoid having some points of difference from other versions of the boxing set.

(甲)實步:
A. FILLING STANCE

在前的一腿彎屈,在後的一腿伸直,兩腳都踏實,這就是實步,因為有一腿弓出(參閱弓腿的說明),所以又叫做弓步。兩腳的前後距離可以根據各人的身材和體力而放大些或縮小些,一般以前腳跟與後腳尖直量相距一尺許、斜量相距一尺半許為適當。兩腳的左右相距以不超過一尺半為標準,兩腳腳尖儘可能地朝向前方。在運動時,遇到實步必須嚴格保持兩腳前後左右的適當距離,要同踏在川字的兩端一樣,如上圖甲的兩圈所示兩腳位置,所謂川字步即指此而言。
Your front leg is bent, rear leg straight, both feet flat on the ground. Because one leg bulges out, it is also called a “bow stance”. (See the bow stance explanation above [in Leg Methods].) The distance between the front foot and rear foot can be enlarged or shrunken to suit your own stature and strength, but generally the proper distance between the heel of the front foot and toes of the rear foot is about a foot directly forward and about a foot and a half along a diagonal line between the two points. The sideways distance between your feet should not go beyond a foot and a half, and you should try to get the toes of both feet to be pointing forward.
  Whenever you get to a filling stance while practicing the set, you must strictly maintain the proper distance between your feet both forward and sideways. You should step to the two outer ends of the 川 “river” character, and thus the stance is also called the “river-character stance”. [Within the movement descriptions below, this stance is never actually referred to as a “filling stance” nor a “river-character stance”, only as the more universal “bow stance”.] The two circles in the drawing below indicating the foot position [demonstrating the position with the left foot forward]:

(乙)虛步:
B. EMPTYING STANCE

虛步,大多是從實步收回半步而形成的,在前的一腿大都是由屈腿向前弓出的樣子,變為直腿向前伸出的樣子,腳跟著地,腳尖向上翹起;在後的一腿應當微微彎屈載著全身重量(參閱坐腿的說明),身體應當含胸而豎直,不要向前俯身。兩腳前後左右的距離以實步的一半為標準,如右圖乙的兩圈。
The emptying stance usually occurs as a moment of withdrawing a half step from the full stance,
your front leg going from being a bent in front to being a straightened leg extended forward, with the heel touching down, toes raised. Your rear leg should slightly bend to carry the weight of your whole body. (See the sitting stance explanation above [in Leg Methods].) You should hollow your chest but stand upright, not bending over forward. The distance between your feet both forward and sideways is half that of the filling stance. The two circles in the drawing below indicating the foot position [again demonstrating the position with the left foot forward]:

另外還有一種虛步是用腳尖著地的,在後的一腿可以比較站直些,兩腳的距離很近,前後左右都相距不過一、二寸光景。腳跟著地或者腳尖著地的一腳都要虛放,不要用力踏地,以符虛步的要求。又,兩腳腳尖也都要儘可能地指向前方,不可一正一歪過於懸殊。
There is also a version of the empty stance that touches down with the toes, in which the rear leg stands a little taller and the feet are closer together, the distance between them forward and sideways shrinking to just a couple inches. Whether touching down with the heel or the toes, the foot is touching down emptily and should not be forcefully pressing the ground, and it will thus be fulfilling the “empty” part of “empty stance”. Additionally, the toes of both feet should be striving to be pointing forward, rather than forming overly distinct angles of one being straight and the other being diagonal.

(丙)平行步:
C. PARALLEL STANCE

兩腳並立,腳尖均向前,中間距離以五、六寸為度,可以並得更近些,但不要站得太開,這種步法並不重要,只要記住這些就夠了。
Your feet stand next to each other, toes pointing forward. The distance between your feet is just over half a foot apart, or they can be nearer, but they should not be too far apart. This type of stance is not truly important and you only really need to make a note of it [considering it is not properly a stance at all, but simply a position of ordinary standing].

(丁)騎馬式步:
D. HORSE-RIDING STANCE

簡稱馬步,也叫樁步。這一步法,即前面蹲腿裡所說的騎馬勢,式樣已經在前面說明,這裡不再重複。有的人認為兩腳都要用力是雙重,其實雙重所指的並不是這種地方,而且在運動中加一些騎馬勢,對增長腿力和幫助沉氣,也都有一定的好處。
Sometimes abbreviated to “horse stance”, it also called “standing like posts”. This stance was already explained above, within the description of squatting positions [in Leg Methods], and so does not need to be repeated here. Some people think that in this stance there should be equal pressure on each foot, but the concept of “double pressure” actually has nothing to do with this position. Furthermore, the addition of some horse-riding stances to the exercise does increase leg strength and aids in the sinking of energy, both definite advantages.

(戊)下勢步:
E. LOWERING STANCE

這一步法的說明,也可從前面的蹲腿裡去找到,此處從略。初學者如果身體較差切勿勉強練習,可先用微微蹲腿的動作代替,日久有可能時,再慢慢的多蹲下一些;患嚴重高血壓者,更要注意。
This stance was also already explained above within the description of squatting positions, and that explanation does not need to be repeated here. If a beginner has a relatively weak body, he should not force himself to practice this and can at first substitute it with a movement of only slightly squatting his leg. After a long time, he will then have more ability, and can gradually be squatting down a little more. Those with high blood pressure should especially be mindful of this point.

(己)丁字步:
F. T-SHAPED STANCE

這在吳氏太極拳中是很少用的一種步子。它是在轉身時,左腳已經轉動,右腳尚未移位的過渡步子(因此,在後面圖解裡看不到這種步子),在形狀上,是右腳腳尖對著左腳內側,如同丁字樣子,所以叫做丁字步。
This stance occurs very rarely in the Wu Style Taiji boxing set. It involves turning the body, your left foot turning along with it, and your right foot not yet shifting from its position (this being the reason why it is hardly found within the movement descriptions below [getting mentioned only once, as a transitional position in movement 1 of Posture 3]) so that your right toes are pointing toward the inner edge of your left foot, thus making a shape like a T, hence “T-shaped stance”.

(庚)交叉步:
G. OVERLAP STANCE

這是右腿前弓的式子,向右轉身兩腳不離原地而形成的。蹲腿時,右腳腳尖向前,左腳腳尖向右腳外側成丁字形;兩膝是右膝在上,左膝在下,均向前方。這種式子在吳式太極拳裡只有一個,為避免身體起落過大影響調息,也可以在盤架子時儘量減少蹲度或者兩腿伸直改做丁字式的步子。
This is a stance involving your right leg bending in front, your torso turning to the right, and your feet not leaving their original location. When squatting your legs, your right toes are pointing forward [to the right], your left toes are thus pointing toward the outer edge of your right foot [with your left heel raised off the ground], your feet making a T shape [with one foot twisted outward rather than the toes of both feet pointing toward each other as in the actual T-shaped stance], and your right knee is on top, left knee underneath, both knees still in front of you. This stance occurs only once in the Wu Style Taiji boxing set [Posture 39, although it can also be used as an alternate stance in Posture 36, in which the left leg is forward instead] in order to keep you from forming a habit of raising and lowering your body too dramatically. When practicing the set, you can also go so far as to reduce the squat to the point that your legs are almost straightened, emphasizing only the T shape of your feet.

以上所列舉的基本動作,只作了很簡單的說明,又沒有附圖,對初學者來說,是不容易一目了然的。但在下一章拳式圖解裡都要提到這些基本動作,希望初學者把兩面的說明相互參閱,也許可以在了解上得到較多的幫助。
Because the movement fundamentals listed above are only very simple explanations, and also do not have clarifying photographs included alongside them, they will not be easy for beginners to understand right away. However, the posture explanations in the following chapter each make mention of a number of these fundamentals of movement, and so I hope that beginners will refer back and forth between both of these chapters, which will perhaps aid them in understanding these explanations better.

第九章 拳式圖解
CHAPTER NINE: EXPLANATIONS FOR THE BOXING POSTURES

根據拳式名稱一章,吳式太極拳的全套拳式,雖然有八十四個,但是,除去無動作的預備式和一起一收(即“太極起式”及“合太極”)兩個簡單動作向來不算拳式以外,實在只有八十一個拳式,再除去重複式子四十五個,可以稱為基本拳式的也只有如下三十六個:
According to the list of postures in Chapter Seven, the Wu Style Taiji boxing set has eighty-four postures. However, leaving aside the motionless PREPARATION POSTURE, and the beginning and finishing postures (TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE and CLOSING POSTURE), both of which are simple movements that do not count as boxing postures, there are really only eighty-one. And since forty-five of those are repeated postures, we can say that there are only thirty-six essential postures:

(1)攬雀尾8式、
CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (which occurs eight times)
(2)單鞭11式、
SINGLE WHIP (eleven times)
(3)提手上勢3式、
RAISE THE HAND (three times)
(4)白鶴亮翅3式、
WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (three times)
(5)摟膝拗步3式、
BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (three times)
(6)手揮琵琶1式、
PLAY THE LUTE (once)
(7)搬攔捶4式、
PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (four times)
(8)如封似閉2式、
SEALING SHUT (twice)
(9)十字手2式、
CROSSED HANDS (twice)
(10)抱虎歸山2式、
CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (twice)
(11)肘底看捶1式、
GUARDING FIST UNDER THE ELBOW (once)
(12)倒攆猴2式、
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (twice)
(13)斜飛勢2式、
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (twice)
(14)海底針2式、
NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (twice)
(15)扇通背2式、
FAN THROUGH THE BACK (twice)
(16)撇身捶5式、
TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (five times)
(17)雲手3式、
CLOUDING HANDS (three times)
(18)高探馬3式、
RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (three times)
(19)左右分腳1式、
KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT (once)
(20)轉身蹬腳1式、
TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (once)
(21)進步栽捶1式、
ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH (once)
(22)披身踢腳1式、
DRAPING THE BODY, KICK (once)
(23)退步打虎1式、
RETREAT, FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE (once)
(24)二起腳2式、
DOUBLE KICK (twice)
(25)雙峯貫耳1式、
DOUBLE PEAKS THROUGH THE EARS (once)
(26)野馬分鬃1式、
WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (once)
(27)玉女穿梭1式、
MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (once)
(28)下勢2式、
LOW POSTURE (twice)
(29)金雞獨立1式、
GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (once)
(30)迎面掌3式、
PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (three times)
(31)十字擺蓮1式、
CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK (once)
(32)摟膝指襠捶1式、
BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (once)
(33)上步七星1式、
STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE (once)
(34)退步跨虎1式、
RETREAT, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE (once)
(35)轉身雙擺蓮1式、
TURN AROUND, DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK (once)
(36)彎弓射虎1式。
BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER (once)

以上三十六式中,有十九式是有重複式子的;還有退步打虎一式有連續做左右式的,本書只列左式;金雞獨立一式,可以作為左右二式,也可以把左式含混過去的,在圖解中另有說明;此外,摟膝拗步、雲手、野馬分鬃、玉女穿梭四個式子都是左右手連續做三次或者四次,也可以說是一個名稱裡面包含了幾個重複式子,總之,把基本拳式肯定為三十六個,是比較適當的。因此,本章所作圖解,主要在說明上述三十六式的動作,對其餘重複式子,除非在接合上有不同的地方必須加以補充以外,只是按照次序排列名稱,不再重複說明,以節省篇幅。另外,還有幾點意見,也得附帶說明一下:
Nineteen of these thirty-six postures get repeated. There are versions of RETREAT, FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE in which it is performed on both sides, but in this book it is performed only on the left side. GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG is a posture that could be considered two postures since it is performed on each side, or the version on the left side can be blurred through to the point that it is effectively skipped [with the left leg rising only to step back right away into DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY]. The four postures of BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE, CLOUDING HANDS, WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE, and MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH are each performed on both sides in a continuous series of three or four times, or it could be said that the posture is repeated several times under a single use of the posture name.
  In short, it seems appropriate to declare that there are thirty-six essential postures. Consequently, the explanations in this chapter primarily address the movements of these thirty-six. When postures are repeated, unless there are some differences from the original explanation which require additional comments, only the name appears so as to mark the posture’s place in the sequence rather than repeating the whole explanation, thereby cutting down on the length of the book. Below are a few extra points that I feel I should mention:

1.下面所作圖解,以說明拳式的動作為主,並不涉及動作的用法。因為太極拳是重勁不重著的,講著法必須同時講勁,這對尚未懂勁的初學者來說,是很有困難的,而且每一個拳式,從著法來說,雖然都有一定的用法,但是,在應用時,在任何一個環形動作裡處處都有變化可說,若要解釋清楚,不但作者限於水平,即本書也限於篇幅,只好略而不談。
The explanations below focus only on describing the movements of these boxing postures and do not touch upon their applications. Because Taiji Boxing prioritizes energy over technique, any discussion of technique must also discuss energy. This would be too difficult for beginners because they do not yet have any understanding of energy. Furthermore, although each posture has a specific application, within every angle of movement there is also some variation to be explained as well. If I want to fully explain such things, not only am I limited by my own skill level, but this volume is also limited in terms of length, and so it is better for me to leave out such discussion altogether.

2.學太極拳應當先從拳式入手,這是毫無疑義的,但是,要練好太極拳,以提高這一項運動的健身效果,還要從理論上和法則上去弄清它的關鍵所在,如果只學會一套空架子,雖然也有一定的好處,但是在收獲上卻要差得多了。
To learn Taiji Boxing, you should undoubtedly start with the boxing postures. However, you also have to practice it well in order to bring its effectiveness as a health-building exercise to its full potential. This means you have to study its theory and principles until you clearly understand what makes it tick. If you only learn the empty shell of the set, it would certainly still be beneficial, but not nearly as much as practicing properly.

3.圖解裡所補充的拳照和吳先生的拳照,由於師生功夫有深淺,難免有不少大同小異的地方。學拳者在圖解裡遇到動作上或者方向上有不盡相同的拳照,應當以文字說明為主,補充拳照只可作為參考之用。
Among the movement explanations below are supplementary photos in addition to the photos of Wu Jianquan. Because of the difference in skill level between him and his students [Zhao Shoucun appearing in fifty of the supplementary photos (such as photo 2a), Xu Zhiyi appearing in an additional eight (such as photo 33)], it is difficult to avoid there being some small inconsistencies. Within the explanations, you will also encounter movements and orientations that do not entirely match the photos. Thus you should give priority to the text and treat the supplementary photos only as additional items of reference.

4.各式的順序和動作的進退轉折方位,請參閱插頁“太極拳拳式方向圖”。
For a view of directions of advance, retreat, and turning of the movements in sequence, you may consult the “Directional Chart of the Taiji Boxing Postures” [included at the end of the book].

方向圖
Orientation Key:

N

NW 西北  東北 NE
↖↑↗
W 西 ← → 東 E
↙↓↘
SW 西南  東南 SE

S

第一式 預備式(圖1)
Posture 1: PREPARATION POSTURE (photo 1)

本式並無動作,只要靜心站著,身體正直,勿挺胸,眼向前平視,兩肩放鬆,兩臂自然垂直,指尖向下,手背向前(用垂掌不用俯掌,是吳先生晚年的姿勢),兩腳平行步,兩腿直立,膝彎不要挺出,其餘可參考基本動作章的有關說明。又,練拳時的方向,本可隨場地形狀而定,在這裡為便利讀者查對拳式方向,不能不把圖照的方向假定如下:圖照向前等於向南、向後等於向北、向左等於向東、向右等於向西,其餘可查閱方向圖照上所加實線是指示下一圖右手右腳的動向,虛線是指示下一圖左手左腳的動向。
This posture involves no movement and is merely a position of standing calmly with your body upright. Your chest should not be sticking out. Your gaze goes straight ahead. Your shoulders loosen and your arms hang naturally. Your fingertips are pointing downward, the backs of the hands facing forward. (The hand position uses hanging palms rather than downward-facing palms, for this is how Wu Jianquan performed this posture in his later years. [Wu’s earlier performance of this posture, using downward-facing palms can be seen in photo 1 of Chu Minyi’s 1929 manual.]) Your feet are a making a parallel stance, legs straightened, knees bent but not sticking out. The explanation for this stance can be found in Chapter Seven.
  When practicing the set, the orientations of the postures will depend on your position in the practice space, but to make it easier for readers to know which direction to face, the photos in this book have to have a standard of orientation: in the photo below, Wu is facing to the “south” with his back toward the “north”, to his left is the “east”, and to his right is the “west”. Additionally there are movement lines added: solid lines to indicate the direction of movement for the right hand and right foot, dotted lines to indicate the direction of movement for the left hand and left foot. [See photo 1:]

第二式 太極起式(圖2)
Posture 2: TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE (photo 2)

從上式(圖1)兩手同時提起置於胸前,左外右內,左高右低,左手為側掌,掌心向裡,拇指尖與鼻尖正對並要一般高,右手為立掌,掌心向外,指尖在左腕之下,同時,左腳踏出半步,成為虛步,腳跟著地,腳尖上翹,右腿趁勢微屈,承擔體重,面仍向南,如圖2(附側視圖)。又,左腳尖上翹的多少是與屈右腿的高矮有關,在側視圖裡左腳尖上翹不多,就是右腿屈腿(即坐腿)較高的緣故。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands lift in unison to be placed in front of your chest, left hand on the outside, right hand on the inside, left hand higher, right hand lower, left hand as a sideways palm facing inward, the tip of the thumb at nose height, right hand as a standing palm facing outward, the fingertips below your left wrist. At the same time, your left foot goes out a half step, making an empty stance, heel touching down, toes lifted, as your right leg slightly bends to bear the weight. You are facing to the south. How high your left toes lift has to do with how much your right leg bends. In this side view, the left toes are not lifted very high, and this is because the right leg, the bending leg (or “sitting leg”) is not bending very much. See photo 2a (and 2b below it for a side view):

第三式 攬雀尾(圖3–圖6)
Posture 3: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (photos 3–6)

本式分作四個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into four movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖2)在原地向右轉身,先轉左腳與右腳成丁字式,踏實後,腳尖向西,隨即微微屈腿,承擔體重,同時提右腳落在左腳的右前方,變為腳跟著地的虛步,兩腳相距半步,在轉腳的同時,右手循弧線,由下而上,經過左手掌心,向前伸出,成為立掌,拇指尖與鼻尖相對看齊,左手也同時向裡往下微微收回,至指尖接近右手腕旁時也變為立掌,兩肘下墜,眼視正西,如圖3。
Continuing from the previous posture, staying where you are, your body turns to the right as your left foot turns inward to make a T-shaped position with your right foot, coming down fully with its toes pointing toward the west, then the leg slightly bends the weight going onto it, and your right foot lifts, coming down to the forward right of your left foot to make an empty stance with the heel touching down, your feet a half step apart. While your left foot turns, your right hand arcs upward from below, passing your left palm, and reaching out forward as a standing palm, the tip of the thumb at nose level, your left hand at the same time slightly withdrawing inward and downward until the fingertips are close beside your right wrist, the hand also becoming a standing palm, both elbows hanging down. Your gaze is to the west. See photo 3:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖3)步法不變,兩肘同時下沉,左肘接近脅部,兩手在沉肘的同時徐徐轉向,右手轉為仰掌,左手轉為俯掌,指尖偏向上方,在沉肘轉掌的同時,微微含胸坐左腿,右手作舀水狀,預為下一式的伸掌蓄勢,方向正西不變,如圖4。
Continuing from the previous posture, your stance does not change as your elbows sink down, your left elbow approaching the ribs. As your elbows sink, your hands slowly rotate, your right hand rotating for the palm to be facing upward, your left hand rotating for the palm to be facing downward, the fingertips angled slightly upward. As you sink your elbows and rotate your palms, slightly hollow your chest and sit back further onto your left leg. Your right hand mimics a shape of a ladle scooping water, storing power in preparation for extending the palm in the next movement. The direction you are facing is still to the west. See photo 4:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖4)兩手趁勢向前伸出,右臂不要太直,同時右腳踏出半步變為弓步,體重在右腿,左腿伸直,方向不變,如圖5。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands then extend forward, but your right arm should not overly straighten. At the same time, your right foot goes out a half step and switches to a bow stance, the weight going onto your right leg, your left leg straightening. The direction you are facing has not changed. See photo 5:

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(圖5)仍為弓步,右手循自然弧線向右方平移,左手指尖搭右腕上隨同移轉,同時向右旋腰,身體和兩手手指均轉向西北方,如圖6甲。
Continuing from the previous posture, still in a bow stance, your right hand smoothly arcs across to the right, your left hand going along with it, its fingertips touching your right wrist. At the same time, your waist turns to the right, so that both your torso and fingers are turning toward the northwest. See photo 6a:

此時,腰已不能再向右旋,即趁勢徐徐坐左腿,變弓步為虛步,同時右手屈臂垂肘收小弧圈,轉至右肩前方時指尖已漸漸轉向上方,即徐徐轉腕向正西方推出變為正掌,左手跟在右腕之下,由俯掌轉為仰掌,兩肘微屈,身向正西,眼視前方,如圖6乙。攬雀尾總是與下一式單鞭緊接在一起,在連續運動時原難看出圖6乙與圖7兩動作間的段落,本書為適應初學要求,故把圖6乙作為本式的末一動作。
Once your waist can turn no further to the right, slowly sit onto your left leg, switching from a bow stance to an empty stance, your right hand at the same time withdrawing in a small circle, the arm bending, elbow hanging, arcing until in front of your right shoulder, the fingertips gradually arcing upward, the wrist slowly rotating to make an upright palm, which then pushes out, your left hand following along below your right wrist, turning to go from being a downward-facing palm to an upward-facing palm, both elbows slightly bending. Your torso is facing to the west and your gaze is forward. (CATCH THE SPARROW is always followed by SINGLE WHIP, and so it can be difficult to decide whether photo 6b or photo 7 distinguishes the shift from one posture to another. Because this book is intended to suit the needs of beginners, I take 6b to be the concluding movement for this posture [as does the 1935 book].) See photo 6b:

本式是動腰最多的一個式子:第一動作要向右動腰;第二動作要向左動腰;第三動作在伸手時要長腰;第四動作從坐腿到向前伸掌,腰部要做全圓形的旋轉動作,這些腰的動作都是與手的動作密切相結合的。初學者如能把這一式子的動腰學會,對其他式子的動腰就比較容易了。
This posture involves many waist actions: In movement 1, your waist should turn to the right. In movement 2, your waist should turn to the left. In movement 3, when your hands extend, you reach with your waist. In movement 4, when you sit back and then extend your palms forward, your waist should be driving the entire circular motion. These waist movements are all closely integrated with the hand movements. If in the beginning you can learn to move from your waist in this posture, moving from the waist throughout the rest of the postures will be easier.

第四式 單鞭(圖7–圖8)
Posture 4: SINGLE WHIP (photos 7 & 8)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖6乙)屈右膝變虛步為弓步,變步時,右腳尖微向左轉,使身體從正西略偏向西南,同時兩臂也向西南方伸出,不要伸直,右掌照原狀向前推出,微微凸掌,掌心偏向西南,左手仰掌照原狀仍在右腕之下,眼視右手前方,如圖7。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right knee bends to make a bow stance with your right toes slightly turned to the left, causing your torso to slightly go from facing to the west to facing to the southwest. At the same time, your arms extend to the southwest, but should not straighten, your right palm maintaining its position and pushing out forward, the palm slightly sticking out toward the southwest, your left palm still below your right wrist as an upward-facing palm. Your gaze is forward toward your right hand. See photo 7:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖7)右掌輕輕落下,指尖向下,撮五指變為抓拳,此時體重已經放右腿之上,趁勢提左腳循弧線向左後方邁步,腳尖轉向東南,右腳尖亦趁勢向南轉動,隨即屈腿作騎馬式,兩膝與兩腳尖同一方向,身體略偏向東南;在左腳邁步的同時,左手離開右腕,掌心向裡,變仰掌為立掌,隨即向左方移動,移至左頰前方時,即將掌心轉向外面,繼續移動,向東方(略偏南)推出,仍為立掌,頭部也隨著左掌向左轉動,眼視東南,如圖8。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm gently lowers, fingertips pointing downward and pinching together to make a claw-fist. As the weight is already on your right leg, your left foot steps to the left rear, turning outward so the toes are pointing toward the southeast, your right toes also turning inward so the toes are pointing toward the south, your knees bending to make a horse-riding stance, each knee pointing toward the same direction as its toes, your torso slightly turning to be facing to the southeast. While your left foot steps out, your left hand comes away from your right wrist with the palm facing inward and switches from an upward-facing palm to a standing palm as it shifts across to the left, the palm rotating to be facing outward once it has passed your left cheek, and continuing by pushing out to the east (and slightly to the south), still making a standing palm. Your head follows your left hand, turning to the left, your gaze going to the southeast. See photo 8:

第五式 提手上勢(圖9–圖10)
Posture 5: RAISE THE HAND (photos 9 & 10)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖8)左腳尖轉向正南,隨即坐左腿承受全身重量,並將右腳移置於左腳的右前方半步變為虛步,腳跟著地,腳尖上翹與左腳同向;在變換步法的同時,右手抓拳放開,落向胸前變為側掌,掌心向裡,全臂成環抱形,同時將左手移置於右手裡面近腕處,仍為立掌,掌心向前,身體微向前傾,眼視前方(正南),如圖9(此圖是表示右手已在上提的姿勢,故向前傾身較側視圖的姿勢為小)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left toes are turned toward the south, then you sit onto your left leg, which supports your weight, and shift your right foot a half step to the forward right of your left foot, making an empty stance, heel touching down, toes lifted and pointing toward the same direction as your left foot. At the same time, your right hand opens its claw-fist and lowers in front of your chest, becoming a sideways palm, the palm facing inward, the whole arm making an encircling shape, as your left hand shifts to the inside of your right hand, nearing the wrist area, remaining a standing palm, the palm facing forward. Your body is slightly leaning forward, your gaze forward (to the south). See photo 9a (which shows the right hand already lifted up, and therefore the forward lean of the body is not as discernible as in the side view in photo 9b below it):

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖9)右腳尖落地踏實,左腳趁勢上步與右腳成為平行步,兩腿微彎,在並步的同時,右手趁勢徐徐向上提起,並轉動小臂一直提到額前一、二寸許轉為仰掌,左手同時下按,置於胯旁,臂部伸直,但不要太直,指尖微向上翹,掌心微向下按,身體方向不變,眼仍前視,如圖10。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down fully, then your left foot steps forward to make a parallel stance, both legs slightly bending. While your feet are being placed to stand next to each other, your right hand slowly lifts up, the forearm rotating so that once the hand has lifted an inch or two above your forehead it has become an upward-facing palm. Your left hand at the same time pushes down to be placed beside the hip, the arm straightening but must not overly straighten, the fingertips slightly raising, the palm slightly pushing down. The direction your torso is facing has not changed, your gaze still forward. See photo 10:

第六式 白鶴亮翅(圖11–圖12)
Posture 6: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (photos 11 & 12)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖10)不動步,向左轉腰,使身體轉向東南方,兩手仍照原壯不變,視線與身體同向,如圖11。
Continuing from the previous posture, without moving your feet, your waist turns to the left, causing your torso to be facing to the southeast, your hands remaining in the same position. Your gaze goes toward the same direction as your torso. See photo 11:

這一式子,原先在轉腰前,要先將上身向前略俯,有時俯身太過,常被做成低頭的樣子,吳先生在晚年已把它略去,僅在轉腰的同時微微傾身,以助其勢。
Originally in this posture, before turning the waist it was necessary to first bend the body slightly forward. But sometimes the body was bent forward too far, often causing the head to be lowered, and so Wu Jianquan in his later years omitted this action, keeping only the slightest lean of the body while turning the waist in order to assist the posture.

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖11)左臂趁轉腰的餘勢從左後方直臂向上舉起(待臂與肩平時再屈肘),同時將身體轉向正南,此時左手已舉到左額的左上方與右手同在額上成為立掌,掌心向前,再沉肩使大臂稍稍下降,兩手距離與肩寬相彷彿,眼視正南,兩腿仍微彎,如圖12。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left arm has gone along with the turning of your waist and now raises up from the left rear (the arm bending once it is at shoulder level), then turn your torso to be facing to the south, your left hand now raising until above and to the left of the left side of your forehead, at the same height as your right hand, both hands making standing palms, the palms facing forward. Then sink your shoulders, causing your upper arms to slightly lower. Your hands are shoulder width apart. Your gaze is to the south. Your legs remain slightly bent. See photo 12:

第七式 摟膝拗步(圖13–圖19)
Posture 7: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (photos 13–19)

本式分作十個動作說明如下:
This posture is divided into ten movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖12)兩腳同時向左轉,腳尖向東,左腳成為腳跟著地的虛步,右腿微彎,在轉腳的同時,左手向身前落下成為俯掌,指尖偏東南,右手轉為側掌,置於右頰之旁,大臂與肩相平,眼視東方,如圖13。
Continuing from the previous posture, your feet turn to the left in unison so the toes are pointing to the east, your foot making an empty stance with the heel touching down, your right leg slightly bent. As your feet turn, your left hand lowers in front of your body, the palm facing downward, fingertips inclining toward the southeast, your right hand rotating to be a sideways palm, placed beside your right cheek, the upper arm at shoulder level. Your gaze is to the east. See photo 13:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖13)屈右腿,左腳移前半步,腳跟先著地,徐徐踏實,變為弓步,右腿趁勢伸直,改為左腿承擔體重,在左腳提腿上步的同時,左手趁勢向下摟膝,移置於左腿膝旁,仍為俯掌,指尖朝前,在左手摟膝的同時,右手(側掌,指尖朝前)從頰旁徐徐前伸,邊伸邊轉小臂,至臂直時成為正掌,身體和視線均向東方,如圖14。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your right leg bent, your left foot shifts forward a half step, heel touching down first, then the foot slowly comes down fully as you make a bow stance, your right leg straightening, the weight going onto your left leg. As your left leg lifts and steps forward, your left hand lowers to brush past the knee and be placed to the side of your left leg, the palm facing downward, fingertips pointing forward. As your left hand brushes past your knee, your right hand (as a sideways palm, fingers pointing forward), slowly extends forward from beside your cheek, the forearm rotating while extending so that by the time the arm is straight, the palm is upright. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. See photo 14:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖14)趁右臂伸直時微微突掌的餘勢,將右手收回胸前變為立掌,掌心向左,同時,左手亦自下而上置於右手指尖之上,作成立掌,掌心向右,在收回右手的同時,趁勢收腰坐身,並將左腳收回半步變為虛步,使右腿承擔體重,身體和視線的方向均不變,如圖15。
Continuing from the previous posture, as your right arm extends, the palm sticks out a little bit more, then your right hand withdraws in front of your chest, becoming a standing palm, the center of the palm facing to the left, your left hand at the same time going upward from below to be placed above your right fingertips, making a standing palm, the center of the palm facing to the right. As your right hand withdraws, withdraw your waist and sit your body back, your left foot withdrawing a half step to make an empty stance, the weight shifting onto your right leg. The direction your torso is facing has not changed, nor the direction of your gaze. See photo 15:

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(圖15)左手落下,右手提到右頰之旁,回復到圖13的式樣。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lowers and your right hand lifts to be beside your right cheek, same as in photo 13.

動作五:
Movement 5:
從上式(圖13)把圖14的式樣重復一次,如圖16。
Continuing from the previous posture, repeat the posture in photo 14. See photo 16:

動作六:
Movement 6:
從上式(圖16)右手落下變為俯掌,指尖偏向東北,左手上提置於左頰之旁,變為側掌,同時,右腳自後面上前一步半,置於左腳前東南角,變為虛步,身體和視線仍向東方,如圖17。圖17與圖13實在是同樣的式子,不過在手腳的左右上恰恰相反,請對照圖13的圖解。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand lowers, becoming a downward-facing palm, the fingertips inclined toward the northeast, your left hand lifting up to be placed beside your left cheek, becoming a sideways palm. At the same time, your right foot takes a half step forward from the rear to be placed in front of your left foot to the southeast corner, changing to an empty stance. Your torso is still facing to the east, your gaze still to the east. See photo 17 (the same posture as in photo 13, but with left and right reversed):

動作七:
Movement 7:
從上式(圖17)提右腳移前半步變為弓步,左腿趁勢伸直,同時右手摟右膝後置於右膝旁,仍為俯掌,左手從頰旁朝前伸出,轉小臂,變為正掌,身體和視線的方向均不變,如圖18。圖18與圖14實在是同樣的式子,不過在手腳的左右上恰恰相反,請對照圖14的圖解。
Continuing from the previous posture, lift your right foot and shift it forward a half step, making a bow stance, your left leg straightening. At the same time, your right hand brushes past your right knee to be placed beside it, the palm still facing downward, as your left hand extends forward from beside the cheek, the forearm rotating to make it an upright palm. The direction your torso is facing has not changed, nor the direction of your gaze. See photo 18 (the same posture as in photo 14, but with left and right reversed):

動作八:
Movement 8:
從上式(圖18)左手落下,右手提到右頰之旁,再回復到圖13的式樣,與動作四相同,圖解從略。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lowers as your right hand lifts until beside your right cheek, then repeat the posture in photo 14. The movement is the same as in movement 4, and so the explanation is not repeated here.

動作九:
Movement 9:
從上式(圖13)把圖14的式樣再重復一次,與動作二或者五的動作相同,圖解從略。
Continuing from the previous posture, repeat the posture in photo 14. The movement is the same as in movement 2 or movement 5, and so the explanation is not repeated here.

動作十:
Movement 10:
從上式(圖14)把圖15的式樣重複一次,與動作三的動作相同,如圖19。
Continuing from the previous posture, repeat the posture in photo 15, the movement the same as in movement 3. See photo 19:

這一式子還有兩個要點,在這裡作一個總的說明:(1)在左手摟左膝之前,先要朝右面撇身(即不動步而轉腰)隨著右手的前伸再徐徐轉正;右手摟右膝時也要先朝左面撇身,然後隨著左手的前伸,再徐徐轉正;(2)作正掌(如圖14和圖18)到達終點時,拇指尖要正對鼻尖;收掌式(如圖15)左手拇指尖也要正對鼻尖。目前有一些教師為了遷就初學,對上述要求都不夠嚴格,以致學者在動作的圓活上和姿勢的平正上,也不免有一些欠缺的地方,特地指出,以備參考。
There are two further requirements to this posture that need to be explained:
  1. When your left hand brushes past your left knee, it should first swing across to the right side of your body (your feet not moving, only your waist turning), then as your right hand reaches forward, it slowly rotates to be an upright palm. When your right hand brushes past your right knee, it should first swing across to the left side of your body then as your left hand reaches forward, it slowly rotates to be an upright palm.
  2. When making an upright palm (as in photo 14 or photo 18) upon reaching the final position of the movement, the tip of the thumb should be at nose level, and when the palm withdraws (in photo 15), the tip of your left thumb should again be at nose level.
  There are currently some teachers who are very lax toward beginners about these requirements, with the result that students become unavoidably deficient when it comes to the roundness of the movement and the evenness of the posture. I am specifically drawing attention to these things in order to make you mindful of them.

第八式 手揮琵琶(圖20–圖21)
Posture 8: PLAY THE LUTE (photos 20 & 21)

本式分作兩個動作說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖19)左腳上前半步變為弓步,右腿趁勢伸直,同時兩手手掌變換方向,左手轉為掌心朝外,右手轉為掌心朝里,仍為立掌式,轉掌後,兩手隨即循弧線朝前上方徐徐伸出,左臂較上式(圖19)為直,右臂較上式更屈,身體和視線仍向正東,如圖20。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot goes forward a half step to make a bow stance, your right leg straightening. At the same time, your palms change their direction, your left hand rotating so the palm is facing outward, right hand rotating so the palm is facing inward, both remaining standing palms, and then after they have rotated, your hands slowly reach out, arcing forward and upward, your left arm becoming straighter than in photo 19, your right arm becoming more bent. Your torso is still facing to the east, your gaze still to the east. See photo 20:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖20)右腳朝前並步,與左腳成為平行式,兩膝微屈,同時兩手循弧線趁勢從上方向胸前微微收回,屈臂垂肘,作手揮琵琶的形狀,方向不變,如圖21。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot goes forward to make a parallel stance with your left foot, both knees slightly bent. At the same time, your hands arc upward and slightly withdraw toward your chest, arms bending, elbows hanging, positioned similar to the PLAY THE LUTE posture. The direction you are facing does not change. See photo 21:

這一式子,動作雖然簡單,但在初學時,一般都不易做好,因為兩手的伸出和收回均走弧線,在連續動作中有一個橢圓形,如果腰部不能做出同方向的圖動作與它相適應,在姿勢上是無法做到全身和諧的。
Although the movement in this posture is simple, it is usually not easy for beginners to perform well. This is because there is an arcing motion involved in both the extending and withdrawing of the hands, making a continuous elliptical shape. If your waist cannot make a corresponding motion, there will be no way for your whole body to achieve harmonious movement in this posture.

第九式 上步搬攔捶(圖22–圖24)
Posture 9: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (photos 22–24)

本式分作三個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into three movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖21)左腳上前一步成為弓步,同時兩臂先微屈手再循右面弧線朝前伸出,並轉變手掌,成為左掌心向南,右掌心向北,均為立掌,身體和視線的方向均不變,如圖22。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot takes a step forward to make a bow stance, your arms at the same time first slightly bending and then arcing to the right and extending forward, both rotating so that your left palm is facing to the south and your right palm is facing to the north, both as standing palms. The direction your torso is facing has not changed, nor the direction of your gaze. See photo 22:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖22)將身體收回坐在右腿上,左腳微微抽回變為虛步,同時,兩手趁勢循左面弧線一起收回,左手只收回一、二寸仍停在前面,右手邊收邊握拳(正拳)直收回到胯旁為止,方向不變,如圖23。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body withdraws to sit onto your right leg, your left foot slightly withdrawing to make an empty stance. At the same time, your hands go along with the movement by arcing to the left, performing a curved withdraw in unison, your left hand withdrawing only an inch or two to finish still in front of your chest, your right hand withdrawing beside you, grasping into an upright fist, withdrawing until beside your hip. The direction you are facing has not changed. See photo 23:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖23)隨即將右拳從胯旁直接朝前方正中伸出,臂直,拳與肩平,仍為正拳,一面將左手徐徐收回置於右臂肘旁,仍為立掌,同時,左腳微微前移趁勢回復為原先的弓步,方向不變,如圖24。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist extends straight forward from beside your hip, the arm straightening, the fist at shoulder level, still as an upright fist, while your left hand slowly withdraws to be placed beside your right elbow, still making a standing palm. At the same time, your left foot slightly shifts forward, going along with the movement by returning to the previous bow stance. The direction you are facing has not changed. See photo 24:

第十式 如封似閉(圖25–圖27)
Posture 10: SEALING SHUT (photos 25–27)

本式分作三個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into three movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖24)右臂微微抬起並向左面微微彎屈,仍為正拳,同時,左手從右臂下面轉向右臂外側,仍為立掌,但掌心方向與前相反,身體和步法均與上式相同,如圖25。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right arm slightly lifts and slightly bends toward the left, still as an upright fist, as your left hand arcs under your right arm to the outside of the arm, still making a standing palm, but with the center of the palm now facing the opposite direction. Your body and stance remain the same as before. See photo 25:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖25)右臂繼續向左面彎屈,右拳隨勢放開,變為斜形立掌,指尖向北,左手沿右臂前移亦變為斜形立掌,指尖向南,此時兩手小臂已成為交叉形(如×),隨即向左右分開,兩小臂向上豎直成平行式,兩肘下墜,兩手斜形立掌變為正形立掌,手指向上,掌心朝里,在變換手法的同時,趁勢將身體坐於右腿,左腳微微收回,變為虛步,身體和視線仍向正東,如圖26(該圖為了看清兩手故攝影時微帶側形)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right arm continues to bend to the left, your right fist opening and becoming a standing palm, fingertips pointing to the north, as your left hand goes along the front of your right arm and also becomes a standing palm, fingertips pointing to the south, your forearms now crossed (making an X shape). Your hands then spread apart to the left and right, your forearms vertical and parallel, elbows dropped down, your hands becoming diagonal standing palms, fingers pointing upward, palms facing inward. As your hands switch positions, your body sits onto your right leg and your left foot slightly withdraws, switching to an empty stance. Your torso is still facing to the east, your gaze still to the east. See photo 26 (photographed as a slightly diagonal view to show both hands more clearly):

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖26)兩手轉為掌心相對,再轉為掌心向外,然後徐徐朝前方平行推出(突掌),兩臂伸直仍為立掌,掌心向東,在兩掌前推的同時,趁勢上步,回復原先的弓步式,方向仍為正東,如圖27(該圖仍微帶側形,原因同上)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands rotate so the palms are facing each other and then facing outward, then they slowly do a level push forward (energy expressing at the palms), your arms straightening, your hands still positioned as standing palms, now facing to the east. As your palms push forward, step forward and return to the previous bow stance. The direction you are facing is still to the east. See photo 27 (again a slightly angled view, in keeping with the previous photo):

第十一式 十字手(圖28–圖30)
Posture 11: CROSSED HANDS (photos 28–30)

本式分作三個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into three movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖27)兩臂仍伸直向下落,兩掌先抹後按,到兩臂垂直時置於左膝前面變為俯掌,指尖朝前,步法與上式相同,方向仍為正東,如圖28。
Continuing from the previous posture, your arms lower, staying straight, your palms at first wiping downward and ending up pushing downward, and once your arms are hanging straight down, your hands are placed in front of your left knee as downward-facing palms, fingertips pointing forward. Your stance remains the same as in the previous posture and the direction you are facing is still to the east. See photo 28:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖28)兩手向左膝兩旁徐徐分開,同時,兩腳尖轉向正南(左腳尖也可不轉,因為是連續動作,隨勢就要並步的),屈右腿,變為弓步,左腿伸直,身體轉向正南,此時,兩手仍在繼續分開,徐徐由下而上,與肩相平,右手略高,左手略低,均為側掌,掌心向前,眼視左前方,如圖29。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands spread apart to the sides of your left knee as both feet turn to point their toes toward the south (though the left toes do not actually need to be turned to point anywhere since this movement flows right into the next one anyway, the foot about to step next to your right foot), your right knee bending to make a bow stance, your left leg straightening, your torso turning to be facing to the south. Your hands at this time are continuing to spread apart, now slowly going upward from below until at shoulder level, your right hand slightly higher, left hand slightly lower, both as sideways palms, the palms facing forward. Your gaze is to the forward left. See photo 29:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖29)兩手上舉過頭,再自上而下向裡合龍成交叉狀,右手在外,左手在裡,均為立掌,掌心分向左右,同時,左腳上步與右腳平行,身體和視線均向正南,如圖30。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands raise beyond head level, then go downward from above, coming together inward to make a crossed shape, your right hand on the outside, left hand on the inside, both as standing palms, the palms facing to opposite directions, to the left and right, your left foot at the same time stepping forward to make a parallel stance with your right foot. Your torso is facing to the south, your gaze also to the south. See photo 30:

第十二式 抱虎歸山(圖31–圖32)
Posture 12: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (photos 31 & 32)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖30)向右微微撇身,將體重置於右腿,左腳隨即向左前方邁出一步,兩腳腳尖均轉向東南,左腿成為弓步,右腿伸直,同時,左手落下摟左膝,置於左胯之旁,成為俯掌,指尖朝前,右手趁勢向東南方推出,轉為正掌,身體和視線均向東南,如圖31。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body slightly shifts to the right, the weight going onto your right leg, then your left foot takes a step out to the forward left, the toes of both feet turned to point toward the southeast, your left leg making a bow stance, your right leg straightening. At the same time, your left hand lowers to brush past your left knee and is placed beside your left hip as a downward-facing palm, the fingertips pointing forward, while your right hand pushes out to the southeast, rotating to become an upright palm. Your torso is facing to the southeast, your gaze also to the southeast. See photo 31:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖31)向左微微撇身,使左腿承擔體重,隨即將腳尖轉向西北,同時提右腿轉身向西北,落腳於左腳的東北方,腳尖向西北,成為弓步,左腿趁勢伸直,在轉身的同時,右手落下,摟右膝後置於右胯之旁,變為俯掌,指尖向西北,左手自下而上置於左頰之旁成為側掌,指尖向西北,轉小臂,徐徐向前(西北)推出,臂伸直時變為正掌,掌心向西北,身體和視線與左掌同向,如圖32。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body shifts slightly farther to the left so that your left leg is supporting your weight, the foot turning so that its toes are pointing toward the northwest, and then your right leg lifts as your torso turns to be facing to the northwest, the foot coming down to the northeast [northwest], toes pointing to the northwest, making a bow stance, your left leg straightening. As your body turns, your right hand lowers to brush past your right knee and is placed beside your right hip as a downward-facing palm, the fingertips pointing to the northwest, while your left hand goes upward from below to be placed beside your left cheek as a sideways palm, the fingertips pointing to the northwest, and then the forearm rotates and the hand slowly pushes out (to the northwest), becoming an upright palm as the arm straightens, the palm facing to the northwest. Your torso is facing to the same direction as your left palm, your gaze also going to the same direction. See photo 32:

這一式子,早先是作為正反摟膝拗步來稱呼的,現在作為一個連續動作稱做抱虎歸山(請參閱拳式名稱章)。又上面所用方向,動作一為東南向,動作二為西北向,在早先也用正南向和正北向,可由學者自便。
This posture was previously called BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE TO THE FRONT & REAR, but now it is single continuous movement called CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN. (See the chapter on the boxing posture names [Chapter Seven].) Furthermore, the orientations of the movements are first to the southeast and then to the northwest, but were previously done as first to the south and then to the north. You may perform it either way, up to you.

第十三式 攬雀尾(圖略)
Posture 13: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photos)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖32)將左手收回胸前,右手自下而上置於左手之上,如圖3,但方向是向西北不是向正西,以下再接做圖4圖5圖6各動作,身體和視線均向西北。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand withdraws in front of your chest and your right hand goes upward from below to be placed above your left hand. It is the same as in photo 3, but in this case facing to the northwest rather than the west. Then continue by repeating the movements in photos 4–6, your torso now facing to the northwest, your gaze also to the northwest.

第十四式 斜單鞭(圖33)
Posture 14: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP (photo 33)

本式也是重複式子,可從圖6接做圖7圖8的式子,但要身向西南,眼視正南,如圖33。
This posture is also a repeat, the same as in photos 6–8, but in this case your torso should be facing to the southwest, your gaze to the south, as in photo 33:

第十五式 肘底看捶(圖34–圖35)
Posture 15: GUARDING FIST UNDER THE ELBOW (photos 34 & 35)

本式分作兩個動作說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(如圖33,身向西南)先向左面撇身,使左腿承擔體重,隨即將左腳尖轉向正東,向前弓腿,同時右腳伸腿,循弧線向南挪動置於左腳後方的西南角,(如圖形),
Continuing from the previous posture, first turn your body to the left, the weight going onto your left leg, then turn the foot so the toes are pointing to the east and bend the leg forward. At the same time your right leg straightens and shifts in an arc toward the south to be placed to the southwest behind your left foot, your footwork resembling this diagram:

使身體轉向正東,在轉身的同時,右手放開抓拳,兩手臂腕伸直朝左面平移,平移時,左手略慢,右手略快,均為俯掌,至手指向東時,兩臂成為平行式,眼視正東,如圖34。
This causes your torso to turn to be facing to the east, your right hand at the same time opening its claw-fist, your arms and wrists straightening and shifting across to the left. As they shift across, your left hand slightly slower, your right hand slightly quicker, both palms are facing downward, finishing with the fingers pointing to the east, your arms making parallel lines. Your gaze is to the east. See photo 34:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖34)趁兩臂剛剛平行隨即抽身坐右腿,並將左腳收回半步變為虛步,同時兩手徐徐握拳,屈左臂墜肘,使拳向上竪立成為立拳,虎口朝裡,一面將右拳攏回胸前置於左肘之下成為正拳,方向不變,如圖35。
Continuing from the previous posture, once your arms are making parallel lines, withdraw your body to be sitting onto your right leg, your left foot withdrawing a half step, switching to an empty stance. At the same time, your hands slowly grasp into fists, your left arm bends, the elbow dropping, the fist pointing upward as a standing fist, the tiger’s mouth facing inward, and your right fist withdraws in front of your chest to be placed below your left elbow as an upright fist. The direction you are facing has not changed. See photo 35:

第十六式 倒攆猴(圖36–圖37)
Posture 16: RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (photos 36 & 37)

本式分作四個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into four movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖35)朝前傾身,左腳趁勢前移半小步,隨即屈腿變為弓步,右腿伸直,同時左拳放開向前微微落下變為仰掌,右拳仍在左肘之下,方向不變,如圖36。
Continuing from the previous posture, lean your body forward as your left foot shifts forward a half step and then the leg bends to make a bow stance, your right leg straightening. At the same time, your left fist opens and slightly lowers forward, becoming an upward-facing palm, your right fist still below your left elbow. The direction you are facing has not changed. See photo 36:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖36)左手循弧線向左後方平移,徐徐屈肘,變仰掌為側掌,置於左頰之旁(如圖17的左手),右拳放開變為俯掌(如圖17的右手),同時屈右腿變左腿弓步為虛步(如圖13的步式),將體重置於右腿之上,然後提左腿後退一步半變為屈右腿的弓步式(原先的弓步是屈左腿的),在退步的同時,右手作下摟勢置於右胯之旁仍成俯掌,左手從左頰旁向前徐徐伸出,隨伸隨轉小臂,至終點時,變為正掌,方向不變,如圖37。這是第一個倒攆猴。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand arcs across to the left rear, the elbow slowly bending, switching from an upward-facing palm to a sideways palm placed beside your left cheek (same as the left hand in photo 17), as your right fist opens and becomes a downward-facing palm (same as the right hand in photo 17). At the same time, your right leg bends, switching you from a left bow stance to an empty stance (same as the leg position in photo 13), the weight going onto your right leg. Then your left leg lifts and retreats a half step, making a bow stance with your right leg bent (as opposed to the bow stance with your left leg bent that you were just in). While you retreat, your right hand brushes downward to be placed beside your left hip, still as a downward-facing palm, and your left hand slowly reaches out forward from beside your left cheek, the forearm rotating to make an upright palm by the time it reaches its final position. The direction you are facing has not changed. This completes the first action of DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY. See photo 37:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖37)屈左腿坐身,右腿由弓步變為虛步(如圖17的步式),同時照圖13的動作,左手落下變為俯掌,右掌提置於右頰之旁,變為側掌,然後提右腿退後一步半,再變為屈左腿的弓步式,一面左手作下摟勢,置於左胯之旁,仍為俯掌,右手從右頰旁向前徐徐伸出,轉小臂變為正掌,方向不變,圖從略(可參閱圖14的姿勢)。這是第二個倒攆猴。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left leg bends and your body sits onto it, your right leg switching from a bow stance to an empty stance (same as the leg position in photo 17). At the same time, perform the hand movement in photo 13, your left hand lowering, becoming a downward-facing palm, as your right palm lifts to be placed beside your right cheek, becoming a sideways palm. Then your right leg lifts and retreats a half step to make a bow stance with the left leg bent, your left hand at the same time brushing downward to be placed beside your left hip, still as a downward-facing palm, and your right hand slowly reaches out forward from beside your right cheek, the forearm rotating to make an upright palm. The direction you are facing has not changed. Although there is no photo supplied here, you may refer to photo 14. This is the second action of DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY.

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(與圖14相同)先照圖17接做落右掌提左掌的動作,再變弓步為虛步,如圖13的步式,然後提左腿後退一步半,再變虛步為弓步,同時兩手則接做圖18的動作,回復到圖37的式子,方向仍為正東。這是第三個倒攆猴。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm lowers and your left palm lifts, the same hand position as in photo 17, as you switch from bow stance to empty stance, the same leg position as in photo 13. Then lift your left leg and retreat a half step, switching from empty stance to bow stance, as your hands repeat the movement for photo 18, returning you to the posture in photo 37. The direction you are facing is still to the east. This is the third action of DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY.

倒攆猴是後退式的摟膝拗步,在倒退前是拗步的虛步式,到倒退後,變為拗步的弓步式,這是與摟膝拗步不同的,其他動作可參考摟膝拗步的圖解。又,他書有把圖36作為肘底看捶的最後動作的,本書仍照舊時傳授作為倒攆猴的第一動作。
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY is a retreating BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE. Before stepping back, you are making a crossed-stance position in an empty stance, then once you have stepped back, you are making a crossed-stance position in a bow stance. This aspect is different from BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE, but the rest of the movement is the same. Additionally, the other books treat the movement in photo 36 as the final movement of GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW, but I follow the older teaching in which it is regarded as the first movement of RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY.

第十七式 斜飛勢(圖38–圖39)
Posture 17: DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (photos 38 & 39)

本式分作兩個動作說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖37)腳步不變,微微向右面側身,同時左手轉膀墜肘,將正掌轉為仰掌,身體趁勢微微前傾,右手仍在胯旁,眼視正東,如圖38。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your stance not changing, your torso faces slightly toward the right, as your left forearm rotates, the elbow dropping, turning your upright palm over to become an upward-facing palm, your body slightly leaning forward, your right hand staying beside your [right] hip. Your gaze is to the east. See photo 38:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖38)左腳自後而前向右腳的左前方踏出一大步,腳尖轉向東南,屈腿成為弓步,右腿趁勢伸直,腳尖轉向正南,同時左手向左方伸出,仍為仰掌,右掌向西南方按下,與左手的伸出相呼應,身體偏向南方,眼視右手手背,如圖39。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot goes forward from the rear, taking a large step to the forward left of your right foot, the toes turned to point toward the southeast, the leg bending to make a bow stance, your right leg straightening, the toes turning to point toward the south. At the same time, your left hand extends to the left, still as an upward-facing palm, and your right palm pushes down to the southwest in concert with the movement of your left hand. Your torso is inclined toward the south, your gaze toward the back of your right hand. See photo 39:

第十八式 提手上勢(圖40)
Posture 18: RAISE THE HAND (photo 40)

本式是重複式子,兩手向胸前合攏與第五式的第一動作相同,但兩腿是由屈左腿的弓步直接變為屈右腿的弓步,與第五式的虛步不同,面向正南,如圖40。
This posture is a repeat. Your hands come together in front of your chest, the same as in movement 1 of Posture 5, but your legs in this case switch from a left bow stance to a right bow stance, different from the empty stance in Posture 5. You are facing to the south. See photo 40:

以下,左腳向前併攏變為平行步,右手上舉,左手下按,均與圖10的動作相同,請參考該圖圖解。
Your left foot will then step forward to stand next to your right foot, making a parallel stance, as your right hand rises up and your left hand pushes down. This is entirely the same as the movement in photo 10, and so its explanation is not fully repeated here.

第十九式 白鶴亮翅(圖略)
Posture 19: WHITE CRANE SHOWS IT WINGS (no photos)

本式是重複式子,可從圖10的式子接做圖11和圖12的兩個動作,圖解圖略。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the posture in photo 10, the movements are the same as in photos 11 and 12, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第二十式 摟膝拗步(圖略)
Posture 20: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (no photos)

本式是重複式子,從圖12的式子,只要接做圖13和圖14的兩個動作,圖解圖略。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the posture in photo 12, the movements are the same as in photos 13 and 14, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第廿一式 海底針(圖41–圖42)
Posture 21: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (photos 41 & 42)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖14)接做圖15的動作,面向正東,如圖41。
Continuing from the previous posture, perform the same movement as in photo 15, your gaze to the east. See photo 41:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖41)右手由立掌落為垂掌(掌心向北)斜向前方插下,左手趁勢下移置於右肘之旁,變為側掌(掌心向南),同時,左腳變為腳尖著地,兩腿趁右手下插之勢稍稍彎下,身體微微前傾(不可低頭),眼向東方平視,如圖42。本式在傾身時最容易低頭,為避免此病,也可採用直身下插的姿勢。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand goes from a standing palm to a hanging palm (the palm facing to the north) and inserts diagonally forward and downward, your left hand shifting downward to be placed beside your right elbow as a sideways palm (the palm facing to the south). At the same time, your left foot switches to touching down with the toes, your legs going along with the downward inserting of your right hand by slightly bending downward. Your body is slightly leaning forward (though you must not droop your head), your gaze level toward the east. (When your body leans in this posture, it is easy to droop your head too. To avoid this error, you may keep your body upright while inserting downward.) See photo 42:

第廿二式 扇通背(圖43–圖44)
Posture 22: FAN THROUGH THE BACK (photos 43 & 44)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖42)左腳向東踏出變為弓步,右腿伸直,同時兩臂照原狀向上抬起,右臂與肩成一直線,左掌仍在右肘之旁,變為立掌,身體方向不變,眼仍東視,如圖43。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps out to the east to make a bow stance, your right leg straightening, as your arms again lift, your right arm making a straight line at shoulder level, your left palm still beside your right elbow, now as a standing palm. The direction your torso is facing has not changed, your gaze still to the east. See photo 43:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖43)右手徐徐收回,左手徐徐伸出,同時左腳轉向東南方,右腳轉向西南方,使身體轉向正南,同時左臂伸直,掌心向外,仍為立掌,右臂彎屈,手掌收至右額旁轉為反掌,隨即趁勢蹲腿做成騎馬式,面向東南,眼視左手手背,如圖44。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand slowly withdraws and your left hand slowly extends as your left foot turns to point toward the southeast and your right foot turns to point toward the southwest, causing your torso to be facing to the south. Then your left arm straightens, the palm facing outward, still as a standing palm, your right arm bending, the palm withdrawing to be near the right side of your forehead, rotating to become an overturned palm, your legs squatting to make a horse-riding stance. You are facing to the southeast, your gaze toward the back of your left hand. See photo 44:

第廿三式 撇身捶(圖45–圖46)
Posture 23: TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (photos 45 & 46)

本式分作兩個動作說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖44)左腳尖轉向西南,身體亦轉向西南,體重加在左腿上,右腿為虛腿,同時兩手落下,在左脅前握拳相對,右拳在上左拳在下,都為俯拳,眼視正南,如圖45。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left toes and your torso turn toward the southwest, the weight going onto your left leg, your right leg emptying. At the same time, your hands lower, grasping into fists that are aligned with each other in front of your left ribs, your right fist on top, left fist underneath, both as downward-facing fists. Your gaze is to the south. See photo 45:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖45)隨即提右腳向西北方落步,變為弓步,腳尖向西,左腿趁勢伸直,腳尖亦向西轉正,使身體轉向正西,同時翻右手俯拳為仰拳,並趁勢抽回置於右脅旁,仍為仰拳,左手在右拳翻轉之前變為仰掌,置於右腕之上,隨即轉腕向前伸出變為立掌,掌心向北,指尖向上,臂部不要伸直。右拳的抽回與左手的伸出要同時到達終點,此時的身體也要由正西微微撇向西北(即向右撇身),視線仍向正西,如圖46。
Continuing from the previous posture, lift your right foot and bring it down to the northwest to make a bow stance, the toes pointing toward the west, your left leg straightening, its toes also turning toward the west, causing your torso to turn to be facing to the west. At the same time, your right hand turns over to go from being a downward-facing fist to being an upward-facing fist and withdraws to be placed beside your right ribs, still as an upward-facing fist, as your left hand arcs forward over your right wrist, becoming an upward-facing [downward-facing] palm, then reaches out forward as a standing palm, the palm facing to the north, fingertips pointing upward, the arm not fully straightening. The withdrawing of your right fist and extending of your left hand should finish at the same time. Your torso in this moment should slightly twist to the northwest (i.e. to the right). Your gaze is again to the west. See photo 46a:

圖46的右拳被身體遮住,不能看見,可參考圖46的正視圖,但方向應為正西,不要誤解。
Because the right fist is obscured by the body in photo 46a, you may refer to 46b to see the posture from more of a forward view (but do not let it confuse you about the orientation of the posture, which is still to the west):

第廿四式 卸步搬攔捶(圖47–圖49)
Posture 24: WITHDRAWING STEP, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (photos 47–49)

本式分作三個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into three movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖46)兩手向前伸出,左手仍為立掌,指尖微向前方,右拳由仰拳伸為正拳,兩手再微微收回,趁勢屈左腿,變弓步式為虛步式,方向仍為正西,如圖47。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands extend forward, your left hand still making a standing palm, the fingertips angled slightly forward, your right fist going from an upward-facing fist to an upright fist. Then both hands slightly withdraw, your left leg going along with the movement by switching from a bow stance to an empty stance. The direction you are facing is still to the west. See photo 47:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖47)趁弓步變為虛步的餘勢,提右腳退後一大步,並趁勢屈右腿,變為左腳在前的虛步式,同時將右拳收回仍置於右脅之旁,為正拳式,方向不變,如圖48。
Continuing from the previous posture, after the bow stance has changed to an empty stance, your right foot lifts and retreats a large step, the leg going along with the posture by bending, switching your left foot in front to an empty stance. At the same time, your right fist withdraws to again be placed beside your right ribs as an upright fist. The direction you are facing has not changed. See photo 48:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖48)右拳自脅旁向前平伸,仍為正拳,左手向裡收回,置於右肘之旁,仍為立掌,在伸拳的同時,身體前移,左腳趁勢上半步,屈左腿,變虛步為弓步,右腿伸直,方向不變,眼視正西,如圖49。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist goes from beside your ribs, extending forward and level, still as an upright fist, as your left hand withdraws inward to be placed beside your right elbow, still making a standing palm. As your fist extends, your body shifts forward and your left foot goes along with the movement by stepping forward a half step, the leg bending, switching from empty stance to bow stance, your right leg straightening. The direction you are facing has not changed, your gaze to the west. See photo 49:

第廿五式 上步攬雀尾(圖50)
Posture 25: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (photo 50)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖49)右拳放開(形狀與圖3相似),兩手接作圖4的動作,趁勢坐右腿,變弓步為虛步,如圖50,
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist opens (to make a position similar to that in photo 3), then your hands repeat the movement in photo 4 as you sit onto your right leg, switching from a bow stance to an empty stance. See photo 50:

再接做圖5的伸臂動作,趁勢提右腿踏前一大步,屈腿變為弓步,與圖5的式子完全相同,這就是本式的“上步”。以下再接做圖6甲和圖6乙的動作,以完成攬雀尾的全式,說明從略。
Then repeat the movement in photo 5 of extending your arms as your right leg goes forward a large step and the knee bends to make a bow stance, the position entirely the same as in photo 5. This is the “step forward” of this posture. The rest of the movements are the same as in photos 6a and 6b, thereby performing all of CATCH THE SPARROW, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第廿六式 單鞭(圖51)
Posture 26: SINGLE WHIP (photo 51)

本式也是重複式子,可從圖6乙接做圖7、圖8的式子,完成時,如圖51(此時身體已偏向東南)。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the posture in photo 6b, the movements are the same as in photos 7 and 8. See photo 51 (your torso facing slightly to the southeast):

第廿七式 雲手(圖52–圖53)
Posture 27: CLOUDING HANDS (photos 52–53)

本式分作四個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into four movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖51)右腳不動,左腳尖轉向南方,趁勢伸左腿,變右腿為弓步,同時,左臂垂直落下,向右方上抄,置於右腕下變為仰掌,右手抓拳放開,手指向上翹起,變為立掌,掌心向西南,身體微向右側,眼視正南,如圖52。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your right foot staying where it is, your left toes turn toward the south, your left leg straightening, switching you to a right bow stance. At the same time, your left arm lowers and scoops up to the right to be placed below your right wrist, changing to an upward-facing palm, as your right hand’s claw-fist opens, the fingers raising to be pointing upward, changing to a standing palm, the palm facing to the southwest. Your torso is slightly leaning to the right, your gaze to the south. See photo 52:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式:(圖52)屈左肘將小臂向上豎起,左手仰掌變為立掌,掌心朝裡向左徐徐移動,轉為掌心朝外時,將臂伸直,掌心向東(轉腰較小者可向東南),同時右臂由垂直落下,轉向左方上抄,置於左腕下,變為仰掌,兩手要同時到達終點;在雲手的同時,兩腳尖均轉向東南(轉腰較小者可單轉左腳尖,如轉腰轉大,左腳尖可偏向東方),趁勢向左轉腰,屈左腿,伸右腿,變左腿為弓步,身體偏向正東,眼視東南,如圖53。這是第一個雲手。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left arm rises, elbow bent, the palm switching from facing upward to being a standing palm facing inward and slowly moves to the left. Once the palm is facing outward, the arm is straightened and the palm is facing to the east. (If the waist turn is small, the palm will be facing to the southeast.) At the same time, your right arm lowers and arcs to the left to scoop up until placed below your left wrist, switching to being an upward-facing palm. Your hands should reach their final position at the same time. When performing clouding hands, the toes of both feet are turned to be pointing toward the southeast, your waist at the same time turning to the left. (If the waist turn is small, the toes will only point to the south, but if the waist turn is large, the toes will point toward the east.) Your left leg straightens, your right leg bending, switching you into a left bow stance. Your torso is inclining toward the east, your gaze to the southeast. This completes the first action of CLOUDING HANDS. See photo 53:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖53)右腳趁勢向東並步,並步後,左臂垂直落下,右臂屈肘豎起,重複圖52的動作,至兩手將達終點身體向西南時,左腳向東踏出一步,左腿伸直,右腿彎屈,仍為弓步式,兩腳尖均轉向西南,形式與圖52相同,身體偏向正西,眼視西南。這是第二個雲手。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot moves to the east to stand next to your left foot, then your left arm lowers and your right arm rises, elbow bent, repeating the movement in photo 52. Once your hands have arrived in the southwest, your left foot steps out to the east, the leg straightening, your right knee bending, returning you to a bow stance, the toes of both feet pointing to the southwest. The posture is the same as in photo 52, your torso inclining toward the west, your gaze to the southwest. This is the second action of CLOUDING HANDS.

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(如圖52)接做圖52轉為圖53的動作(即動作二)再接做“動作三”的全部動作,回復到圖52的形式(如轉腰較大可用“動作三”的方向),如圖54,到這裡已做完第三個雲手了。
Continuing from the previous posture, continue from the movement of photo 52 into the movement of photo 53 (i.e. the same as movement 2). Then continue by repeating movement 3, thereby returning to the posture in photo 52 (but using the larger waist turn of movement 3 [rather than movement 1]), thus completing the third action of CLOUDING HANDS. See photo 54:

第廿八式 單鞭(圖55)
Posture 28: SINGLE WHIP (photo 55)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖54)接做圖8的動作,方向相同,如圖55。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, the movement is the same as for photo 8, the orientation also the same. See photo 55:

第廿九式 高探馬(圖56)
Posture 29: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (photo 56)

本式是從東南轉向正東的式子,從上式(圖55)右腳尖轉向正東,趁勢向左轉身,坐身於右腿之上,隨即將左腳收回大半步,變為腳尖著地的虛步,腳尖也向正東;同時落左臂,屈肘,肘尖貼近左脅,左手與小臂平,變為仰掌,指尖向東;右手抓拳放開,隨著轉身的動作,收回胸前,繼續向左前方伸出,置於左肘之右上方,成為立掌,掌心向北,眼視正東,如圖56。這一式因為兩手偏在左面,有人叫做左高探馬,原先是不加左字的。
This posture goes from facing to the southeast to facing to the east. Continuing from the previous posture, your right toes turn toward the east, your body turning to the left and sitting onto your right leg, and then your left foot withdraws a half step to make an empty stance with the toes touching down, the toes pointing to the east. At the same time, your left arm lowers, the arm bending, until the elbow is near your left ribs, the forearm level, your left hand becoming an upward-facing palm, the fingertips pointing to the east, as your right hand opens its claw-fist and goes along with the turning of your body by withdrawing in front of your chest and reaching out to the forward left until it is placed above and to the right of your left elbow [wrist] as a standing palm, the palm facing to the north. Your gaze is to the east. (Because the hands are moving leftward, some people call this posture LEFT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, but originally there was no “left” in the name.) See photo 56:

第三十式 左右分腳(圖57–圖60)
Posture 30: KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT (photos 57–60)

本式分作五個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into five movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖56)右手向前伸出,至手和臂伸直成為俯掌時,繼續向右方平移,至指尖向東南時,手臂落下再屈肘上抄變為仰掌,置於左腕之下,指尖向東北,左手隨著右手轉動的方向在胸前轉半個圓圈將仰掌變為俯掌(如圖示),置於右腕之上,指尖向東南,兩腕相搭成交叉形;同時左腳踏出大半步變為弓步,趁勢向左面撇身;在撇身的同時,兩手握拳上舉置於左額之前,兩內腕相搭成交叉形,均為立拳,左拳在裡,右拳在外,眼向東視,如圖57。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand reaches out forward until hand and arm are extended straight, the hand becoming a downward-facing palm, which continues to shift across to the right until the fingertips are pointing toward the southeast, then the arm lowers, the elbow bending, and the hand scoops up as an upward-facing palm to be placed below your left wrist, the fingertips pointing to the northeast. Your left hand goes along with the movement of your right hand by drawing a half circle in front of your chest, going from an upward-facing palm to a downward-facing palm (as indicated [by the arrow] in the photo) to be placed above your right wrist, fingertips pointing to the southeast, your wrists touching to make a crossed shape. At the same time, your left foot steps out a large half step to make a bow stance, your torso twisting to the left, as your hands grasp into fists and rise upward to be placed in front of the left side of your forehead, making a crossed shape that is touching at the inside of the wrists, both hands as standing fists, your left fist on the inside, right fist on the outside. Your gaze is to the east. See photo 57:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖57)在兩拳上舉的同時,趁勢提右腿,隨即向東南方踢腳,高與胯齊,腳面與腿相平,左腿伸直,同時,兩拳分開變掌,自上而下,右手落向東南方,左手落在左方,均為側掌,兩臂伸直與肩相平,身向正東,眼視東南,如圖58。(圖中要將左臂照出,故方向略偏)
Continuing from the previous posture, as your fists rise up, your right leg lifts and then kicks out to the southeast at hip height, the foot flattened, the leg level, your left leg straightening. At the same time, your hands spread apart, becoming palms, and go downward from above, your right hand lowering to the southeast, your left hand lowering to the left, both hands as sideways palms, arms straightening at shoulder level. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze to the southeast. See photo 58 (although your left hand should go out farther than appears in the photo, the view being slightly sideways):

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖58)踢腳後隨即向前落步成為弓步,腳尖向東,同時兩手收回,在右胸前作成左手立掌、右手仰掌的形式(即右高探馬的式子),身體與視線均向正東,如圖59。
Continuing from the previous posture, your kicking foot then comes down forward to make a bow stance, the toes pointing toward the east. At the same time, your hands gather in toward the right side of your chest, making a posture of left hand as a standing palm and right hand as an upward-facing palm. (This is RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE on the right side.) Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. See photo 59:

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(圖59)兩手向左面轉圈,轉成左手仰掌(在下)、右手俯掌(在上)、兩腕相搭的交叉形後,隨即握拳上舉,置於右額之前,兩內腕相搭成交叉形,均為立拳,左拳在外,右拳在裡,同時向右面撇身,眼視正東,形狀與圖57相似,但圖57是左撇身式,這是右撇身式,手腳都要左右易位,請參考“動作一”的說明,圖從略。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands rotate leftward so that your left hand (underneath) becomes an upward-facing palm and your right hand (on top) becomes a downward-facing palm, wrists touching to make a crossed shaped. Then your hands grasp into fists and rise upward to be placed in front of the right side of your forehead, still touching at the inside of the wrists, both hands as standing fists, your left fist on the outside, right fist on the inside. At the same time, your torso twists to the right, your gaze going to the east. The posture is the same thing as in photo 57, but in this case your torso is twisting to the right and your hands and feet are reversed left and right. You may refer to the explanation for movement 1. No photo is provided here.

動作五:
Movement 5:
從上式(與圖57相反的右撇身式)在兩拳上舉的同時,趁勢提左腿,隨即向東北方踢腳(右腿由屈變為略直),同時,兩拳分開落下,左手落向東北,右手落向右方,均為側掌,兩臂伸直,與肩相平,身向正東,眼視東北,如圖60(圖58是右分腳,圖60是左分腳)。
Continuing from the previous posture, (with your torso twisting to the right, the opposite of photo 57), as your fists rise up, your left leg lifts and then kicks out to the northeast (with your right leg straightening). At the same time, your fists spread apart, your left hand lowering to the northeast, your right hand lowering to the right, both hands becoming sideways palms, arms straightening at shoulder level. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze to the north. See photo 60 (showing the kick to the left, photo 58 having shown the kick to the right):

本式是左右腳連續起踢的動作,中間的右高探馬,在練熟以後,可以簡化,即從圖58落為弓步後直接握拳相搭,舉至右額之上,接做圖60的動作。如此,可以使左右連續分腳的動作,做得更加緊湊,原先在高探馬之後,只有左右分腳的名稱,也就是以這種做法為根據的。
Between the movements of kicking with your left foot and kicking with your right foot, there is a posture of REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE on the right side. After you have practiced the set to familiarity, you can simplify it by coming down into a bow stance after photo 58, with your hands already making fists, crossing, and rising over the right side of your forehead [in other words, skipping photo 59], and then continue into the movement in photo 60. In this way, you make the movements of kicking to the left and right even more seamless. After the first REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, the only posture named is KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT [rather than this series of postures being LEFT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, KICK TO THE LEFT, RIGHT REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, KICK TO THE RIGHT], and so performing it in this way would be more in accordance with the posture names.

第卅一式 轉身蹬腳(圖61–圖62)
Posture 31: TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK (photos 61 & 62)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖60)兩手屈肘收回,握拳上舉,置於右額前,左拳在外,右拳在里,均為立拳,同時屈左膝成提腿式,小腿下垂,腳尖朝下,隨即將右腳尖轉向西北,身體也轉向西北,眼視正西,如圖61。
Continuing from the previous posture, your elbows bend and your hands gather in, grasping into fists as they rise up to be placed in front of the right side of your forehead, left fist on the outside, right fist on the inside, both as standing fists. At the same time, your left knee bends to make a lifted-leg posture, the lower leg hanging down, toes pointing downward, and then your right foot turns for the toes to be pointing toward the northwest, your torso turning to also be facing to the northwest, your gaze going to the west. Photo 61:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖61)隨即將左腳向正西蹬出,腳尖微向裡翹,兩手動作與方向相反的圖60的動作相同,眼視正西,如圖62。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot presses out to the west, the toes slightly lifted inward. The movement of your hands is the same as in photo 60, though you are facing the opposite direction. Your gaze is to the west. See photo 62:

以上各式,在踢腳或者蹬腳之前,都有握拳上舉的動作,請記住:凡是踢(蹬)左腳總是左拳在外、右拳在裡;踢右腳總是右拳在外、左拳在裡。以後還有踢腳動作,仍要這樣。
Before each of these kicking postures, whether a snapping kick or a pressing kick, there is a movement of making fists and raising them up. Remember this pattern: When kicking with your left foot, your left fist is on the outside, right fist on the inside. When kicking with your right foot, your right fist is on the outside, left fist on the inside. This remains true for all the kicks that follow.

第卅二式 進步栽捶(圖63–圖65)
Posture 32: ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH (photos 63–65)

本式分作三個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into three movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖62)左腳蹬出後隨即落在右腳的左前方一步,屈腿成弓步,右腿伸直,同時左手落下,摟左膝後置於左腿之旁,左臂垂直,掌心向下;右手先收至右頰旁再向前推出,由側掌轉為正掌,身體和視線均向正西,如圖63。這一動作與圖14的動作相同,但方向相反,可參閱圖14的有關說明。
Continuing from the previous posture, after your left foot presses out, it then comes down a step to the forward left of your right foot, the leg bending to make a bow stance, your right leg straightening. At the same time, your left hand lowers and brushes past your left knee to be placed beside your left thigh, the arm straightening, the palm facing downward, as your right hand first draws in until beside your right cheek, then pushes out forward, going from a sideways palm to an upright palm. Your torso is facing to the west, your gaze also to the west. See photo 63 (the same movement as in photo 14, but facing in the opposite direction):

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖63)右腳上前落在左腳的右前方一步,屈腿成弓步,左腿伸直,同時右手摟右膝,放在右腿旁,左手先提至左頰旁再向前推出,均與上式的動作相似,但手腳要左右易位,方向不變,如圖64(可再參閱方向相反的圖18的說明)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot steps forward, coming down a step to the forward right of your left foot, the leg bending to make a bow stance, your left leg straightening. At the same time, your right hand brushes past your right knee to be placed beside your right thigh, as your left hand first lifts until beside your left cheek, then pushes out forward. The movement is the same as in the previous posture, but with left and right reversed. The direction you are facing has not changed. See photo 64 (the same movement as in photo 18, but facing in the opposite direction):

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖64)左腳上前一步,回復圖63的弓步式,同時左手摟左膝後,循弧線從左方向上轉置於右肘之旁,成為斜形立掌,右手握拳提至右頰之旁,隨即向下前方捶下,成為倒拳,要與左手立掌同時完成動作,身體微向前傾,眼視右拳的前方,如圖65。上面一二兩動作,為便利初學,故按照摟膝拗步的式子分別圖解,練熟後,應當作成連續摟膝上步的式子,將左右手的前推動作略去。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot takes a step forward, making another bow stance like the one in photo 63. At the same time, your left hand brushes past your left knee, arcs to the left, upward, and is placed beside your right elbow, becoming a diagonal standing palm, as your right hand grasps into a fist, lifts until beside your right cheek, then punches forward and downward, making an overturned fist, and should finish its movement at the same time as your left hand. Your body slightly leans forward, your gaze toward your right fist. (To make things easier for beginners, the two movements above are broken down as being the same actions as BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE. Once you have practiced the set to familiarity, you should treat this technique as continuous knee-brushing actions as you step forward and leave out the actions of each hand pushing forward.) See photo 65:

第卅三式 翻身撇身捶(圖66)
Posture 33: TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (photo 66)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖65)右拳向上向後翻,變為仰拳,身體亦趁勢向後轉,左腳在原地腳尖轉向正東,右腳從左腳的右後方隨同轉身移至左腳的右前方,相距一步,成為屈右腿的弓步,同時,左手在右拳翻轉時仍搭在右臂肘部一起轉動,先變為俯掌,當右拳從胸前抽回移置於右面脅旁的同時,左手再向前捋出變為立掌,臂微屈,身體由正東微向右撇,眼從左手指尖之上平視前方(正東),如圖66(希參閱方向相反的圖46的動作)。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist goes upward and to the rear, turning over to become an upward-facing fist, your body also turning to the rear, your left foot staying where it is and turning to point its toes toward the east, your right foot going along with the turning of your body by shifting to the forward right of your left foot, your feet a full step apart, making a bow stance with the right leg bent. At the same time, your left hand remains at your right elbow area while your right fist arcs, becoming a downward-facing palm, then as your right fist withdraws in front of your chest to be placed beside your right ribs, your left hand goes forward as a standing palm, the arm slightly bent, your torso going from facing to the east to slightly twisting to the right. Your gaze goes forward (to the east) over your left fingertips. See photo 66 (the direction the reverse of photo 46):

第卅四式 上步高探馬(圖67)
Posture 34: STEP FORWARD, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (photo 67)

本式也是重複式子,上式(圖66)為右腿弓步,現在左腳上步變為左腿弓步,同時左手向左脅收回轉為仰掌,指尖向前,右拳放開向胸前伸出,變為立掌,掌心向北,身體和視線均向東,如圖67。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, in which you were in a right bow stance, your left foot now steps forward and you switch to a left bow stance. At the same time, your left hand withdraws toward your left ribs, rotating to become an upward-facing palm, the fingertips pointing forward, as your right fist opens and the hand extends in front of your chest, changing to a standing palm, the palm facing to the north. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. See photo 67:

第卅五式 披身踢腳(圖68)
Posture 35: DRAPING THE BODY, KICK (photo 68)

本式是圖57和圖58的重複式子,不過在踢腳後身體要微向左後方傾側,使下一式可以趁勢退步,其他說明從略,踢腳的姿勢如圖68。
This posture is a repeat of photos 57 and 58, except that after the kick, your torso should slightly incline toward the left rear so that the following posture can smoothly retreat. The rest of the explanation is not repeated here. For the kicking posture, see photo 68:

第卅六式 退步打虎(圖69–圖73)
Posture 36: RETREAT, FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE (photos 69–73)

本式分作三個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into three movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖68)右腿趁身體向左後方傾側的餘勢向西北方落下伸直,屈左腿為弓步,右臂照原狀伸向東南不變,左手上舉,循拋物線向東南方落下,置於右肘的左下方,均為立掌,身體和視線均向東南,如圖69。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg goes along with the inclining of your body by coming down to the northwest, the leg straight, your left leg bending to make a bow stance, your right arm not changing from its position, still straightened toward the southeast, as your left hand raises up, draws a parabola toward the southeast, and lowers to be placed to the lower left of your right elbow, both hands as standing palms. Your torso is facing to the southeast, your gaze also to the southeast. See photo 69a:

這一動作,最初是用跳躍動作的,即右腿落下時左腳踢起,後來不用跳躍曾改為交叉步式,即右腿跪在左腿的後面,如圖69的參考圖,現在交叉步也好久不用了。
This movement originally used a jumping action, the left foot lifting into a kick as the right foot came down. Later the jump ceased to be used and was substituted with an overlap stance, the right leg kneeling behind the left leg. See photo 69b for a view of the movement performed with an overlap stance, which also stopped being used long ago:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖69)兩手不變,左腳退後一步,屈右腿為弓步,方向仍為東南,如圖70。
Continuing from the previous posture, the position of your hands does not change as your left foot retreats a step, your right leg bending to make a bow stance. The direction you are facing is still to the southeast. See photo 70:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖70)右手自上而下循弧線收回胸前,握成立拳,拳背向外,左手自下而上循左面弧線舉至左額上方,握成虎口向下的反拳,兩拳虎口上下相對,同時,屈左腿,將右腳收回半步,變為腳尖著地的虛步,身體轉向正東,眼視前方,如圖71。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand arcs downward from above, withdrawing in front of your chest, grasping into a standing fist, the back of the fist facing outward, as your left hand arcs upward from below on your left side, raising until above the left side of your forehead, grasping into an overturned fist, the tiger’s mouth facing downward, the tiger’s mouths of both fists facing each other above and below. At the same time, your left leg bends and your right foot withdraws a half step, switching to an empty stance, the toes touching down. Your torso is turned to be facing to the east, your gaze forward. See photo 71a:

這一動作,有抬腿與不抬腿兩種做法,抬腿很不易做,因為本式要連續退步,還沒有站穩就要抬腿,初學都有困難,故此處用虛步式,使身體可以站穩。如要練習抬腿的式子,請參閱圖71的正視圖。
This movement is done in two ways: with the leg lifted or not lifted. Performing the movement with the leg lifted is very difficult because this posture involves a continuous retreat and the leg has to be lifting before the posture has stabilized. Because beginners always have problems with this, the posture is shown here using an empty stance instead, enabling the body to stabilize. If you want to practice the lifted-leg version, see photo 71b, which shows the posture from a front view:

第卅七式 二起腳(圖72)
Posture 37: SECOND KICK (photo 72)

本式有兩種踢法,一種與圖58的踢法完全相同;一種是從上式(圖71)右腿先向正面提起,再順勢用橫掃式向右面踢出,同時,兩手向左右平分,均變為俯掌,右手指尖向東南,左手指尖向東北,身向正東,眼視東南,如圖72。
This kick can be done in two ways. One way is to do it the same way as in photo 51 [if coming from photo 71a]. Or continuing from the previous posture with your right leg already lifted in front of you (i.e. photo 71b), kick out to the right with an action of sweeping across as your hands spread apart to the left and right, both becoming downward-facing palms, your right fingertips pointing to the southeast, your left fingertips pointing to the northeast. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze to the southeast. See photo 72:

第卅八式 雙峯貫耳(圖73、圖74)
Posture 38: DOUBLE PEAKS THROUGH THE EARS (photo 73 & 74)

本式分作兩個動作說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖72)右腿趁勢向前落下成為弓步,同時兩手轉為仰掌向胸前會合,隨即向腹前按下轉為俯掌,指尖相對,兩臂微屈作循抱形,身體和視線均向正東,如圖73(本圖為照象方便,方向略偏東南)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg then comes down forward to make a bow stance as your hands arc toward each other in front of your chest as upward-facing palms and then push down in front of your belly as downward-facing palms, the fingertips pointing toward each other, arms slightly bent, making an encircling shape. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. See photo 73 (which shows the posture facing slightly toward the southeast to make it easier to see):

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖73)步法不變,兩手左右分開向上翻轉,趁勢握拳,分置於兩額前成為立掌,虎口相對,兩臂微屈,仍作環抱形,方向仍為正東,如圖74(該圖的兩拳是兩手由下而上尚未舉到額前時的姿勢,故較正視圖的兩拳為低)。
Continuing from the previous posture, without changing your stance, your hands spread apart to the sides and arc upward, grasping into fists, to each be placed in front of the sides of your forehead as standing palms [fists], the tiger’s mouths facing each other, arms slightly bent, again making an encircling shape. You are still facing to the east. See photo 74a (which shows the fists going upward from below before raising all the way up to forehead level, and are therefore lower than the fists in the front view shown in photo 74b below it):

第卅九式 翻身二起腳(圖75–圖78)
Posture 39: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK (photos 75–78)

本式分作五個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into five movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖74)跪左腿弓右腿,向右轉身,兩腿成交叉步,兩立拳亦趁勢交叉置於右頰前,左拳在外,右拳在裡,兩內腕相交,左拳拳心向裡,右拳拳心向外,身體偏向東南,眼視正東,如圖75。
Continuing from the previous posture, kneel with your left leg as your right leg bends, your body turning to the right, your legs making an overlap stance. At the same time, your standing fists cross, placed in front of your right cheek, your left fist on the outside, right fist on the inside, crossing at the inner side of the wrists, the center of your left fist facing inward, the center of your right fist facing outward. Your torso is facing to the southeast, your gaze to the east. See photo 75:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖75)右腿伸直身體立起,左腳趁勢向東踢出(亦可用蹬腳),兩拳左右分開,左手循拋物線落向正東伸平,右手循拋物線落向南方伸平,均為側掌,與圖60的動作相似,身向不變,眼視東方(略偏北),如圖76。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg straightens, your body standing, and your left foot does a snapping kick to the east (or you can use a pressing kick), as your hands spread apart to the left and right, your left hand drawing a parabola, lowering until extended level toward the east, your right hand also drawing a parabola, lowering until extended level toward the south, both hands as sideways palms. The posture is similar to that in photo 60. The direction your torso is facing has not changed, your gaze to the east (and slightly toward the north). See photo 76:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖76)左腳不落地,右腳尖向右轉向正西,身體亦轉為同一方向,兩掌趁勢握拳,收回胸前,成交叉式,置於右頰前面,均為立拳(左拳在裡,右拳在外),眼視西南,如圖77。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your left foot not yet coming down, your right foot turns to the right to point its toes toward the west, your body turning in the same direction, your palms at the same time grasping into fists, which withdraw in front of your chest and make a crossed shape placed in front of your right cheek, both as standing fists (your left fist on the inside, right fist on the outside). Your gaze is to the southwest. See photo 77:

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(圖77)左腳向前落步成為弓步,隨即將腳尖轉向東北,變為坐腿式,右腳趁勢將腳尖轉向正東,收回大半步,變為腳尖著地的虛步,兩拳不變,但在轉身時趁勢移置於左頰之前,身體偏向東北,眼視正東,如圖78。另附正視圖,以供參考。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down forward to make a bow stance, then the foot turns to point its toes toward the northeast as your sit onto the leg, your right foot at the same time turning to point its toes toward the east, withdrawing a half step to make an empty stance with the toes touching down. Your fists maintain their posture, but shift across to be in front of your left cheek while your body turns around. Your torso is facing to the northeast, your gaze to the east. See photo 78a, (or photo 78b below it, which shows a view from the front):

動作五:
Movement 5:
從上式(圖78)右腳向東踢出(因為是轉身式,也可用蹬腳,但右腳已落地,與前面第卅一式轉身蹬腳的提腿踢出不同,所以還是用踢腳為順,上面“動作二”的踢左腳,因為是蹲身式,用蹬腳是方便的),兩拳變為側掌,與圖58的動作完全相同,方向也同為正東,圖解從略。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot kicks out to the east, your fists becoming sideways palms. (You can also perform this as a pressing kick, but because your right foot is already touching down when you turn, it is not the same as kicking with the leg still lifted as in Posture 31, and thus a snapping kick may be the smoother choice in this case. The left foot doing a snapping kick in movement 2 is coming from a position of the body squatting down, and so a pressing kick might be more convenient in that case.) The movement is the same as in photo 58, again facing to the east, and so the explanation is not repeated here.

這一式子,在圖解裡,雖然分做五個動作,但在連續進行時,實只有轉身踢左腳和翻身踢右腳兩個連續動作,以踢右腳為主,所以叫做翻身二起腳,又,本式是由上一式的向東,在左右踢腳後,仍轉回原方向,初學時很容易弄錯方向,希注意。
Although the explanations for this posture are divided into five movements, they should be performed as a continuous progression. This posture should really only be divided into two movements – turn your body and kick with your left foot, then turn around and kick with your right foot (giving more emphasis to the right kick) – hence the “double” in the name TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK. Furthermore, this posture begins facing to the east, and then after performing both kicks, you should have turned around to be again facing to the east. In the beginning of the training, it is very easy to end up facing in the wrong direction. I hope you will give this point attention.

第四十式 撇身捶(圖略)
Posture 40: TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (no photos)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖58)右腳落地時接做圖45和圖46的動作,但方向恰恰相反,是向東不是向西,圖解從略。這一式子,也有改用“高探馬”的,不如撇身捶為順,故照舊不改。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down and you continue into the movements of photos 45 and 46, but in the reverse direction, now going toward the east instead of the west. The rest of the explanation is not repeated here. This posture can be switched to RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE [as in photo 59], but that does not flow as well in this case as TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH, therefore the older version is presented here unchanged.

第四十一式 上步搬攔捶(圖略)
Posture 41: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (no photos)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(如圖46,但方向相反),左掌右拳一起向前伸出,左腳趁勢上前一步,成為弓步(如圖22),隨即左掌微微收回,右拳抽回到右脅旁,變為立拳,趁勢坐右腿,左腿變為虛步(如圖23),以下接做圖24的動作。這一式子,是上步不是卸步,與廿四式不同,方向也相反,與第九式方向相同,希注意。其餘動作可參考圖47–圖49或者圖22–圖24的有關說明,圖解從略。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture (the same as in photo 46, but in the opposite direction), your left palm and right fist extend forward in unison, your left foot going along with the movement by taking a step forward to make a bow stance (the same as in photo 22). Then your left palm slightly withdraws as your right fist pulls back to be beside your right ribs, switching to a standing fist, and your go along with the movement by sitting onto your right leg, your left leg switching to an empty stance (the same as in photo 23). Then continue into the movement for photo 24. This posture involves a step forward rather than a withdrawing step, and so it is not the same as in Posture 24. The orientation is also different, the same as in Posture 9, which I hope you will give attention. For the rest of the movement, you may refer to the explanations for photos 47–49 or photos 22–24, and so it is not explained again here.

第四十二式 如封似閉(圖略)
Posture 42: SEALING SHUT (no photos)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(如圖24)接做圖25、圖26和圖27的動作,圖解從略。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, perform the movements in photos 25–27, their explanations not repeated here.

第四十三式 十字手(圖略)
Posture 43: CROSSED HANDS (no photos)
第四十四式 抱虎歸山(圖略)
Posture 44: CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (no photos)
第四十五式 攬雀尾(圖略)
Posture 45: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photos)
第四十六式 斜單鞭(圖略)
Posture 46: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP (no photos)

以上四式都是重複式子,從上式(如圖27)接做第十一式一直到第十四式為止,動作與方向完全相同,圖解從略。
These four postures are all repeats. Continuing from the previous posture, perform Postures 11–14, the movements and orientations all the same as before, and so their explanations not repeated here.

第四十七式 野馬分鬃(圖79–圖84)
Posture 47: WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (photos 79–84)

本式分作七個動作說明如下:
This posture is divided into seven movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(如圖33,但不參照原路線)左腳尖轉向西方,右腳收回半步變為虛步,同時兩手攏向胸前變為立掌(如圖79) ;
Continuing from the previous posture (as in photo 33, but disregarding the movement lines on that photo), your left foot turns so that its toes are pointing toward the west and your right foot withdraws a half step to make an empty stance, your hands at the same time coming together in front of your chest as standing palms. See photo 79:

隨即屈左肘,使左掌靠近右肩,右掌趁勢落下,變為垂掌,手臂伸直,斜向身體左面,身體亦微向左轉(腳步不動),眼視西北,如圖80。另附正視圖,供參考。
Then your left elbow bends, causing the palm to go nearer to your right shoulder, your right palm lowering as a hanging palm, the arm straightening and moving diagonally toward your left side, your body also slightly turning to the left (your feet not moving). Your gaze is to the northwest. See photo 80a (and 80b below it for a front view):

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖80)右腳上前半步變為弓步,同時兩手向上下分開,右掌自下而上向西北方伸出,變為仰掌,左掌從右肩落下向東南方掠出,變為俯掌,兩手分向上下時,掌心要相對而過,右手向西北上伸時,右肩隨同側向西北,身體和視線均偏向西南,如圖81。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot goes forward a half step to make a bow stance, your hands at the same time spreading apart above and below, your right palm going upward from below, reaching out to the northwest, becoming an upward-facing palm, your left palm going downward from your right shoulder, sweeping away to the southeast, becoming a downward-facing palm. As your hands spread apart, the centers of the palms should pass each other. As your right hand reaches upward to the northwest, your right shoulder leans to the northwest along with it. Your torso is facing to the southwest, your gaze also to the southwest. See photo 81:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖81)步法不變,身體由側回正,同時,兩手仿照圖80的動作,將右手攏回左肩變為立掌,左手向右方落下變為垂掌,身體微向右轉(腳步不動),眼視西南,如圖82。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your stance not changing, your body straightens back up, your hands at the same time performing as in photo 80, your right hand approaching your left shoulder, becoming a standing palm, your left hand lowering to your right side, becoming a hanging palm, your torso slightly turning to the right (your feet not moving). Your gaze is to the southwest. See photo 82:

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(圖82)左腳上前一步變為弓步,同時,兩手上下分開,左掌自下而上向西南方伸出。變為仰掌,右掌從右肩落下向東北方掠出,變為俯掌;在上下分手時,掌心相對而過,左肩隨同左手的伸出側向西南,身體和視線均偏向西北,如圖83。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot goes forward a full step to make a bow stance, your hands at the same time spreading apart above and below, your left palm going upward from below, reaching out to the southwest, becoming an upward-facing palm, your right palm going downward from your right [left] shoulder, sweeping away to the northeast, becoming a downward-facing palm. As your hands spread apart, the centers of the palms should pass each other. As your left hand reaches out to the southwest, your left shoulder leans along with it. Your torso is facing to the northwest, your gaze also to the northwest. See photo 83:

動作五:
Movement 5:
從上式(圖83)步法不變,身體由側回正,左手攏回右肩,右手落向左方,與圖80的動作相同(但腳步不同),如圖84。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your stance not changing, your body straightens back up as your left hand approaches your right shoulder and your right hand lowers to your left side, the same movement as in photo 80 (though the stance is different). See photo 84:

動作六:
Movement 6:
從上式(圖84)右腳上前一步變為弓步,兩手上下分開,與圖81的動作完全相同,圖解從略。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot goes forward a full step to make a bow stance, your hands spreading apart above and below. It is entirely the same as the movement in photo 81, and so the explanation is not repeated here.

動作七:
Movement 7:
從上式(圖81)右腳收回半步變為虛步,兩手攏回胸前均變為立掌,如圖3,以下照圖80和圖81的動作重複一次做到圖85的式子為止,可參考動作一和動作二的說明,圖解從略。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot withdraws a half step, making an empty stance, as your hands come together in front of your chest, becoming standing palms, same as in photo 3. Then repeat the movements of photos 80 and 81 (their explanations not repeated because the movement is the same) to arrive at photo 85:

第四十八式 玉女穿梭(圖86–圖91)
Posture 48: MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (photos 86–91)

本式分作六個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into six movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖85)左腳移置於右腳前半步變為虛步,同時,左手上抄,屈臂作環抱形,變為仰掌,置於左胸前,高與肩平,右手從右上方循拋物線向左手小臂落下,翻成俯掌,身向正西,眼視西南,如圖86。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot shifts a half step in front of your right foot to make an empty stance, your left hand at the same time scooping up, the arm bending to make a posture of embracing, the hand becoming an upward-facing palm placed in front of the left side of your chest at shoulder level, as your right hand draws a parabola, lowering toward your left forearm, turning over to become a downward-facing palm. Your torso is facing to the west, your gaze to the southwest. See photo 86:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖85)左腳隨即踏出半步變為弓步,兩手照原狀趁勢向西南方送出,邊送邊向外轉左膀,轉至左手掌心向下時,趁勢坐右腿,左腳回復為虛步,左膀繼續向上轉,至左掌掌心轉向西南,將變為反掌時,右手趁勢向南方(微偏西)推出,變為立掌,左腳再回復弓步,身體轉向西南(腳步不動),眼視同一方向,如圖87。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot then goes out a half step to make a bow stance, your hands going out to the southwest along with it, your left forearm rotating. Once your left palm is turned to be facing downward, sit onto your right leg, your left foot returning to the empty stance. Your left forearm continues rotating until your left palm is facing to the southwest as an overturned palm, your right palm pushing out to the south (and slightly to the west) as a standing palm, as your left foot returns to the bow stance. Your torso is turned to be facing to the southwest (without affecting your feet), your gaze also to the southwest. See photo 87:

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖87)右手立掌轉為仰掌,左手隨即收回落在右手小臂上,變為俯掌,同時把向西的左腳尖向右轉向正東,身體隨同向後轉,右腳移至左腳前半步變為虛步,身向正東,眼視東南,如圖88。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand rotates from being a standing palm to an upward-facing palm, your left hand withdrawing and lowering over your right forearm, becoming a downward-facing palm, as your left foot turns rightward to point its toes toward the east, your body turning around to the rear, and your right foot shifts a half step in front of your left foot to make an empty stance. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze to the southeast. See photo 88:

動作四:
Movement 4:
從上式(圖88)右腳踏出變為弓步,兩手向東南方送出,同時轉右膀,至右手掌心向下時,趁勢坐左腿,右腳變為虛步,右膀繼續翻轉至右掌心轉向東南將變為反掌時,左手趁勢向南方(微偏東)推出,變為立掌,右腳回復弓步,身體轉向東南(腳步不動)眼視同向,如圖89。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot steps out to make a bow stance, your hands going out to the southeast along with it, your right forearm rotating. Once your right palm is turned to be facing downward, sit onto your left leg, your right foot returning to the empty stance. Your right forearm continues rotating until your right palm is facing to the southeast as an overturned palm, your left palm pushing out to the south (and slightly to the east) as a standing palm, as your right foot returns to the bow stance. Your torso is turned to be facing to the southeast (without affecting your feet), your gaze also to the southeast. See photo 89:

(附注:圖86和圖87是玉女穿梭的第一個左式,圖88和圖89是轉身後第一個右式,兩式動作相同,但身體的方向和手腳的左右都是相反的。)
(Note: Photos 86 and 87 show the first performance of the posture on the left side. Photos 88 and 89 show the first performance of the posture on the right side. The movements in each case are the same, just with left and right reversed, and your torso facing a different direction.)

動作五:
Movement 5:
從上式(圖89)右手向左落下變為垂掌,左手舉至右肩前變為立掌,同時,右腳收回半步變為虛步,形式和動作與圖80相同,但方向相反(應當是向東),以下接做圖81的動作(方向與圖81相反),以上是野馬分鬃的式子,從此式,左腳上前一步接做圖86和圖87的動作,身體和視線均向東北,如圖90(這是轉身後的第二個左式)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand lowers as a hanging palm and your left hand rises to be in front of your right shoulder as a standing palm, your right foot at the same time withdrawing a half step to make an empty stance. The posture and movement are the same as in photo 80, but in the opposite direction (this time facing to the east). Continue into the movement in photo 81 (again in the opposite direction), performing the posture from WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE. Your left foot then takes a step forward, and you then repeat the movements in photos 86 and 87 [again in the opposite direction], your torso now facing to the northeast, your gaze also to the northeast. (This is the second performance of the posture on the left side.) See photo 90:

動作六:
Movement 6:
從上式(圖90)接做圖88和圖89的動作,身體和視線均向西北(兩手的動作可參考圖88和圖89的說明,但方向是相反的),如圖91(這是轉回原向後的第二個右式)。
Continuing from the previous posture, repeat the movements in photos 88 and 89 (but in the opposite direction), your torso now facing to the northwest, your gaze also to the northwest. (This is the second performance of the posture on the right side.) See photo 91:

第四十九式 攬雀尾(圖略)
Posture 49: CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photos)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖91)接做圖3到圖6乙的連續動作,說明見前,圖解從略。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, the movements are the same as in photos 3–6, and so their explanations not repeated here.

第五十式 單鞭(圖略)
Posture 50: SINGLE WHIP (no photos)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(如圖6乙)接做圖7和圖8的動作,方向相同,圖解從略。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, the movements and orientations are the same as in photos 7 and 8, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第五十一式 雲手(圖略)
Posture 51: CLOUDING HANDS (no photos)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(如圖8)接做第廿七式的各項動作,方向相同,圖解從略。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, the movements and orientations are the same as in Posture 27, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第五十二式 單鞭(圖92)
Posture 52: SINGLE WHIP (photo 92)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(如圖47)接做圖8的動作,成為圖92的式子,圖解從略。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, the movement is the same as in photo 8, and so the explanation is not repeated here. See photo 92:

第五十三式 下勢(圖93)
Posture 53. LOW POSTURE (photo 93)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖92)兩腳尖轉向東,右腿趁勢伸直,使左腿成為弓步,同時,左手屈肘,將掌心轉向南,仍為立掌,右手放開抓拳,循拋物線自後而前落在左腕之下,變為立掌,掌心向北,身體和視線均向正東,形式與圖22相同。
Continuing from the previous posture, the toes of both feet are turned toward the east, your right leg going along with the movement by straightening, causing your left leg to make a bow stance. At the same time, your left elbow bends, causing the palm to be turned to the south, remaining a standing palm, and your right hand releases its claw-fist, draws a parabola forward from the rear, lowering until below your left wrist, switching to a standing palm, the palm facing to the north. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. The posture is the same as in photo 22.

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(如圖22)右腳向西北退後小半步,腳尖向南轉(略偏西),身體趁勢蹲下,體重偏向在右腿方面,左腿伸直,腳尖轉向東南,腳底全部著地,在蹲身的同時,兩手下沉,左臂伸直,指尖接近左腳,變為側掌,右手抽回胸前,指尖接近左臂肘部,亦變為側掌,身體向南(略偏東),勿彎腰低頭,眼視左腳前方,如圖93。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot retreats a half step to the northwest, toes turned toward the south (and slightly to the west), your body going along with the movement by squatting down, the weight going onto your right leg, your left leg straightening, the toes turning toward the southeast, the sole of the foot fully touching the ground. As your body squats down, your hands sink down, your left arm straightening, fingertips going close to your left foot, the hand switching to a sideways palm, your right hand withdrawing in front of your chest, fingertips close to your left elbow, the hand also switching to a sideways palm. Your torso is facing to the south (and slightly toward the east). Do not bend at the waist or droop your head. Your gaze goes in front of your left foot. See photo 93:

第五十四式 金雞獨立(圖94–圖96)
Posture 54: GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (photos 94–96)

本式分作三個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into three movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖93)身體向前直起,右腿趁勢伸直,左腿彎屈變為弓步,兩腳尖轉向正東,兩手隨著身體的直起同時抬起,將右手伸出在左手的前面,仍為側掌,掌心分向左右,身體向東,眼視右手前方,如圖94。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body goes forward, rising up, your right leg straightening, left leg bending, making a bow stance, the toes of both feet pointing toward the east. At the same time, your hands go along with the rising of your body by lifting up, your right hand reaching out in front of your left hand, still as a sideways palm, the palms facing to the sides [right palm facing to the left, left palm facing to the right]. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze forward toward your right hand. See photo 94:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖94)右手繼續向上抬起,轉為反掌(拇指在下)置於額前上方,指尖向北,左手轉為俯掌隨即向下按,指尖向南,微向上翹,在右手抬起的同時,右腿隨同提起,膝高於胯右腳在左膝前,腳尖翹起,左腿直中微屈,身體和視線都向正東,如圖95(所附正視圖兩手距離較近,是比較含蓄的姿勢)。這是右式。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand continues to lift up, rotating to become an overturned palm (the thumb pointing downward), placed in front of and above your forehead, the fingertips pointing to the north, as your left hand turns over to become a downward-facing palm, pushing downward, the fingertips pointing to the south and slightly lifted. While your right hand lifts up, your right leg lifts along with it, the knee at hip height, your right foot in front of your left knee, toes raised, your left leg slightly bent. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. This is the posture on the right side. See photo 95a (95b below it being a front view in which the hands are closer together, showing a posture that expresses more storing):

動作三:
Movement 3:
從上式(圖95)右腳向前落下成為弓步,右手隨同落下轉為俯掌,右腳踏實後,左腿隨即提起,左手同時自下而上穿過右腕向上舉起轉為反掌(拇指在下)置於左額之前,方向不變,如圖96(附正視圖),這是左式。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down forward, making a bow stance, your right hand lowering along with it, turning over as a downward-facing palm. Once your right foot comes down fully, your left leg immediately lifts, your left hand at the same time going upward from below, threading through past your right wrist, rotating to become an overturned palm (the thumb pointing downward) placed in front of the left side of your forehead. The direction you are facing has not changed. This is the posture on the left side. See photo 96a (96b below it being a front view):

第五十五式 倒攆猴(圖略)
Posture 55: RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (no photos)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖96)左手落向前方伸出,轉為立掌,臂伸直,與肩相平,同時右手落下置於右胯之旁,左腿趁勢向後伸出,右腿彎屈成為弓步,方向不變,形式與圖37相同,這是第一個倒攆猴。以下接做第二第三兩個倒攆猴(即第十六式的動作三和動作四),方向不變,圖解從略。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lowers, extending forward, rotating to become a standing palm, the arm straightening, the hand at shoulder level. At the same time, your right hand lowers to be placed beside your right hip, your left leg reaching out behind you, your right leg bending to make a bow stance. The direction you are facing has not changed. The posture is the same as in photo 37. This is the first action of DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY, and is followed by the second and then the third (i.e. movements 3 and 4 of Posture 16), with the direction you are facing still not changing. The explanations for these movements are not repeated here.

第五十六式 斜飛勢(圖略)
Posture 56: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP (no photos)
第五十七式 提手上勢(圖略)
Posture 57: RAISE THE HAND (no photos)
第五十八式 白鶴亮翅(圖略)
Posture 58: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (no photos)
第五十九式 摟膝拗步(圖略)
Posture 59: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (no photos)
第六十式 海底針(圖略)
Posture 60: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (no photos)
第六十一式 扇通背(圖略)
Posture 61: FAN THROUGH THE BACK (no photos)
第六十二式 撇身捶(圖略)
Posture 62: TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (no photos)
第六十三式 上步搬攔捶(圖略)
Posture 63: STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (no photos)
第六十四式 上步攬雀尾(圖略)
Posture 64: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photos)
第六十五式 單鞭(圖略)
Posture 65: SINGLE WHIP (no photos)
第六十六式 雲手(圖略)
Posture 66: CLOUDING HANDS (no photos)
第六十七式 單鞭(圖略)
Posture 67: SINGLE WHIP (no photos)

以上十二式都是重複式子,可從上式(如圖37)依次接做第十七式到第二十三式的各項動作,再依次接做第四十一式(因六十三式是上步式,故不用二十四式)和第二十五式到第二十八式的各項動作,以做到圖97的式樣為止,圖解從略。
These twelve postures are all repeats. Continuing from the previous posture, repeat the movements from Postures 17–23, then repeat Posture 41. (Posture 24 is not repeated because Posture 63 instead involves stepping forward.) Then repeat the movements from Postures 25–28, finishing as in photo 97:

第六十八式 迎面掌(圖98)
Posture 68: PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (photo 98)

本式從上式(圖97)兩腳腳尖一起轉向正東,趁勢屈左腿伸右腿,變為弓步式,同時,右手放開抓拳,自後而前掠過左手(此時左手亦正在抽回)循左臂下面收回,置於左腋下,變為俯掌;左手原為立掌,趁勢收回轉為仰掌,在右掌下徐徐抽回胸前,再從右掌上面繞過,向前伸出,轉為正掌;身體和視線均向正東,如圖98。
Continuing from the previous posture, the toes of both feet are turned to be pointing toward the east, your left leg bending, your right leg straightening, making a bow stance. At the same time, your right hand opens its claw-fist, sweeps forward past your left hand (which is withdrawing), then withdraws below your left arm to be placed below your left ribs, becoming a downward-facing palm, as your left hand rotates from being a standing palm to become an upward-facing palm while it slowly withdraws below your right palm toward your chest, then arcs over your right palm and reaches out forward, rotating to again be an upright palm. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. See photo 98:

第六十九式 轉身十字擺蓮(圖99–圖100)
Posture 69: TURN AROUND, CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK (photos 99 & 100)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖98)兩腳尖向右轉一起轉向西南,同時右腳腳跟提起變為虛步,在轉身時(即轉腳時),右手趁勢下按,左手趁勢上舉,轉為反掌,掌心向前置於左額上方,身體偏向西南,眼視正西,如圖99。
Continuing from the previous posture, the toes of both feet are turned to be pointing to the southwest, [your left foot pivoting on the heel] your right heel lifting to make an empty stance [the foot pivoting on the ball of the foot]. As your body turns (i.e. as your feet turn), your right hand pushes down and your left hand raises up, rotating to be an overturned palm, the palm facing forward, placed above the left side of your forehead. Your torso is facing to the southwest, your gaze to the west. See photo 99:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖99)左腳趁勢提起高逾左膝,隨即循弧線從左向右橫踢(用腳的外側不用腳尖),同時,左手自上而下從右方掠向左方拍腳而過(拍不到腳的,可以拍腿,),身體轉向正西,右手仍回腋下,眼視西北,在將要拍腿時的形狀,如圖100。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left [right] foot lifts to be higher than your left knee, then arcs from left to right with a sideways kick (using the outer edge of the foot rather than the toes). At the same time, your left hand goes downward from above and sweeps across from right to left, slapping your foot on the way. (If your slap cannot reach your foot, you may slap your leg.) Your torso has turned further to be facing to the west, your right hand staying below your armpit, your gaze going toward the northwest when you slap your foot. See photo 100:

第七十式 摟膝指襠捶(圖101–圖102)
Posture 70: BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH (photos 101 & 102)

本式從上式(圖100)拍右腳後,右腳趁勢落地成為弓步,同時,右手從左腋落向前方摟右膝,
Continuing from the previous posture, after slapping your right foot, the foot then comes down to make a bow stance, your right hand at the same time lowering from your left armpit and going forward to brush past your right knee [as your left hand pushes out]. [See photo 101:]

摟膝後,左腳隨即上步,右手趁勢自上而下摟左膝,摟膝後,右手已握拳置於右脅旁,如圖101,右拳隨即從脅旁斜向前方捶下(拳的虎口向上),左手在摟膝後,隨即由下而上向左方繞一圓圈,落在右臂肘部成為立掌,身向正西,眼視右拳前方,如圖102。(摟膝動作可參閱摟膝拗步的說明)
After brushing past your knee, your left foot then steps forward with your right [left] hand going downward from above to brush past your left knee. By the time you have brushed past your knee, your right hand has grasped into a fist and been placed beside your right ribs. Your right fist then punches forward and downward (the tiger’s mouth facing upward). After your left hand has brushed past your knee, it then arcs to the left and upward from below to make a circle which brings it to your right elbow area as a standing palm. Your torso is facing to the west, your gaze forward toward your right fist. (For the knee-brushing movement, you may consult the explanation for BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSS STANCE.) See photo 102:

第七十一式 上步攬雀尾(圖略)
Posture 71: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photos)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖102)右腳上前一步成為虛步,兩手向上舉起,做成圖3的形式,以下再接做圖4圖5和圖6的動作,圖解從略。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot takes a step forward to make an empty stance, your hands raising up to perform the posture in photo 3, then the rest of the movements are the same as in photos 4–6, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第七十二式 單鞭(圖略)
Posture 72: SINGLE WHIP (no photo)
第七十三式 下勢(圖略)
Posture 73: LOW POSTURE (no photo [photo 103])

以上兩式都是重複式子,可從圖6乙依次接做第五十二式和第五十三式的動作,做到圖93的形式為止,如圖103。
These two postures are both repeats. You may refer to photo 6b and then perform the movements of Postures 52 and 53, finishing in the same position as in photo 93. See photo 103:

第七十四式 上步七星(圖104)
Posture 74: STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE (photo 104)

本式從上式(圖103)身體向前直起,右腿趁勢伸直,左腿彎屈變為弓步,右腳隨即上前一步變為虛步,腳跟著地(也可腳尖著地),此時左腿由弓步轉為微直,同時兩手向胸前會齊,右手繼續上舉,高出左手之上均為立掌,方向仍為正東,如圖104。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body goes forward, lifting to be upright, your right leg going along with the movement by straightening, your left leg bending, switching to a bow stance. Your right foot then goes forward a step, switching to an empty stance, heel touching down (toes touching down is equally acceptable), your left leg going from its bow stance by slightly straightening. At the same time, your hands come together in front of your chest, your right hand continuing to raise up until higher than your left hand, both hands as standing palms. The direction you are facing is still to the east. See photo 104:

第七十五式 退步跨虎(圖105–圖106)
Posture 75: RETREAT, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE (photos 105 & 106)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖104)右腳退後一步,腿伸直,屈左腿為弓步,兩手趁勢落下,微向右偏,變為垂掌,成交叉形,左手在外,右手在裡,兩臂近乎垂直,身體向東,眼視兩手前下方,如圖105。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot retreats a step, the leg straightening, your left leg bending, making a bow stance. At the same time, your hands lower slightly toward the right as hanging palms, the hands crossing so the left hand is on the outside, right hand on the inside, your arms hanging almost straight. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze going forward and downward toward your hands. See photo 105:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖105)向後坐身,右腿直立(膝微屈),左腿隨勢提起,膝高於胯,小腿伸向右方(即南方),腳尖向東南,無需上翹,同時兩手左右分開,左手成為抓拳,臂伸直與肩平,右手成為立掌,臂伸直,較左臂略高,身體仍向東,眼視東方(略偏向東北),如圖106。附正視圖供參考。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body sits back and stands on your right leg (the knee slightly bending), the left leg lifting until the knee is at hip height, the lower leg reaching to the right side (to the south), and though the toes are pointing toward the southeast, it is not necessary for them to be lifted. At the same time, your hands spread apart to the left and right, your left hand as a claw-fist, the arm straightening at shoulder level, and your right hand as a standing palm, the arm straightening slightly higher than your left arm. Your torso is still facing to the east, your gaze to the east (and slightly toward the northeast). See photo 106a (as well as 106b below it for a front view):

第七十六式 轉身迎面掌(圖107)
Posture 76: TURN AROUND, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (photo 107)

本式從上式(圖106)左腳向後落地成為弓步,身體轉向正西,右腳趁勢轉腳尖,兩腳尖均與身體同向,在轉身前,右手攏回左肩前,仍為立掌,左手放開抓拳,趁勢落下,再向上轉至右腕裡面,在右手移置左腋下的同時,趁轉身餘勢向正西伸出,變為正掌,眼視西方,如圖107。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down to the rear, making a bow stance, your body turning toward the west, your right foot going along with the movement by turning around on the ball of the foot, the toes of both feet pointing toward the same direction as your torso. Before your body has turned, your right hand closes in toward your left shoulder, still making a standing palm, and your left hand releases its claw-fist, lowers, arcs upward until to the inside of your right fist, and then as your right hand shifts to be placed below your right armpit, your left hand goes along with the rest of the turning of your body by reaching out to the west as an upright palm. Your gaze is to the west. See photo 107:

第七十七式 轉身雙擺蓮(圖108–圖109)
Posture 77: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK (photos 108 & 109)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖107)兩腳腳尖同時向右轉向正東,左腿微屈,右腳收回少許變為虛步,同時兩手一起向右面平移,右臂伸直,右手變為立掌,掌心向南,左手攏至右胸前變為俯掌,指尖偏向西南,身體轉向東南,眼視右手,如圖108。
Continuing from the previous posture, the toes of both feet are turned to the right [left foot pivoting on the heel, right foot pivoting on the ball of the foot] to be pointing toward the east, your left leg slightly bending, your right foot withdrawing to make an empty stance. At the same time, your hands shift across to the right, your right arm extended, the hand switching to a standing palm, the palm facing to the south, as your left hand gathers in toward the right side of your chest, switching to a downward-facing palm, the fingertips pointing toward the southwest. Your torso is turned to be facing to the southeast, your gaze toward your right hand. See photo 108:

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖108)左腿立直,右腿趁勢提起,膝高於胯,小腿向左面伸出,同時兩手微向上舉,當右腳從左向右橫踢時,兩手隨即自上而下向左方拍右腳(拍不著腳時也可拍腿),左手先拍右手後拍,要依次掠過腳背,身體方向不變,雙手拍腳後,眼視東南,在提腿時的形式如圖109,兩手將要拍下時的姿勢,請閱109的正視圖。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left leg straightens up and your right leg lifts until the knee is at hip height, the lower leg extending to your left, your hands at the same time slightly raising up. Then as your right foot kicks across from left to right, your hands go downward and to the left to slap your right foot. (If you cannot slap the foot, you can slap the leg.) Your left hand slaps first, then your right hand, sweeping in succession across the back of the foot. The direction your torso is facing does not change, but after your hands slap your foot, your gaze goes to the southeast. When your leg lifts, it looks like photo 109a (though your hands being about to slap downward is better expressed in photo 109b below it, showing a front view):

本式與轉身十字擺蓮同,在拍腳後,右腳就立即著地,故未能把拍腳後的形式攝成圖片。
This posture is similar to TURN AROUND, CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK. After slapping your right foot, it immediately comes down, and that is why there is no photo showing the moment after the foot is slapped.

第七十八式 彎弓射虎(圖110–圖112)
Posture 78: BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER (photos 110–112)

本式分作兩個動作,說明如下:
This posture is divided into two movements, explained below:
動作一:
Movement 1:
從上式(圖109)兩手拍右腳後,右腿隨即向左腳的東南方落步成為弓步,左腿伸直,此時兩手已隨著拍腳的餘勢伸向左方成為俯掌,身體向東,眼視東北,如圖110(圖中兩手看不出,可參考圖110的正視圖)
Continuing from the previous posture, after your hands slap your right foot, your right leg then comes down to the southeast of your left foot to make a bow stance, your left leg straightening. At the same time, your hands follow through from slapping your foot by extending to the left as downward-facing palms. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze to the northeast. See photo 110a (in which the hands cannot be seen, hence the accompanying front view in photo 110b below it):

動作二:
Movement 2:
從上式(圖110)腳步不變將兩手從左面落下循弧線經過腹部移到右面,仍為俯掌,身體方向不變,如圖111(附圖111的正視圖),
Continuing from the previous posture, your feet do not change their position as your hands lower from the left side, arc past your belly, and shift to the right side, still as downward-facing palms. The direction your torso is facing has not changed. See photo 111a (and 111b below it for a front view):

隨即趁勢握拳向東方擊出,右拳在上為反拳,左拳在下為正拳,兩拳平行,虎口相對,身體微向東南,眼視正東,如圖112(所附反視圖,兩拳距離較近,也是比較合蓄的姿勢)。
Then your hands grasp into fists and strike out to the east, your right fist above as an overturned fist, your left fist below as an upright fist, the fists moving parallel with each other, the tiger’s mouths facing each other. Your torso is facing slightly to the southeast, your gaze level toward the east. See photo 112a (112b below it showing the opposite view, and with the fists closer together and storing more power):

第七十九式 上步迎面掌(圖113)
Posture 79: STEP FORWARD, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE (photo 113)

本式是重複式子,從上式(圖112)左腳上前一步,右拳變為俯掌,左拳變為仰掌,左掌微微抽回,右掌向左掌前落下,左掌再從右掌上面向前伸出,轉腕變為立掌,身體與視線均向正東,如圖113。也有在本式前先做一“上步高探馬”的式子,再接做迎面掌的,本書認為略去高探馬在動作上比較緊湊,故照舊不改。
This posture is a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot takes a step forward, your right fist becoming a downward-facing palm and your left fist becoming an upward-facing palm, as your left palm slightly withdraws and your right palm lowers in front of your left palm, and then your left palm reaches out over your right palm, the wrist rotating to make the hand a standing palm. Your torso is facing to the east, your gaze also to the east. The previous occurrence of this posture [Posture 68] involved the action of STEP FORWARD, REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE, which then continued right into this technique. I feel that omitting the REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE in this case makes the movement a tighter technique, therefore I have left it out here as I did in that case. See photo 113:

第八十式 翻身撇身捶(圖114)
Posture 80: TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (photo 114)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(圖113)左手收回置於右手下面,隨即向右轉身轉向正西(先轉兩腳腳尖),同時右手握拳上翻置於右脅旁成為仰拳,左手從右拳拳心捋出伸向前方變為立掌,如圖114。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand withdraws to be placed below your right hand, then your body turns around for your torso to be facing to the west (with your feet turning to point their toes toward the same direction). At the same time, your right hand grasps into a fist and arcs upward [and then downward] to be placed beside your right ribs as an upward-facing fist, your left hand reaching out forward over the center of your right fist as a standing palm. See photo 114:

第八十一式 上步高探馬(圖115)
Posture 81: STEP FORWARD, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (photo 115)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(圖114)左腳上前一步成為弓步,左手屈肘變為仰掌,右拳放開,向前伸出置於左掌之上成為立掌,身體仍向正西,眼視右手前方,正準備再上步接做下一式的形狀,如圖115。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot takes a step forward to make a bow stance as your left arm bends, the hand becoming an upward-facing palm, and your right fist opens, the hand reaching forward over your left palm as a standing palm. Your torso is facing to the west, your gaze going forward toward your right hand. Once you are in this posture, continue right into the following posture. See photo 115:

第八十二式 上步攬雀尾(圖略)
Posture 82: STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photos)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(圖115)右腳上前一步,兩手趁勢翻轉接做圖4圖5圖6各動作,說明見前,圖解從略。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot steps forward, your hands rotating, then you repeat the movements in photos 4–6, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第八十三式 單鞭(圖略)
Posture 83: SINGLE WHIP (no photos)

本式也是重複式子,從上式(圖6乙)接做圖7、圖8兩動作,說明見前,圖解從略。
This posture is also a repeat. Continuing from the previous posture, the movements are the same as in photos 7 and 8, and so their explanations are not repeated here.

第八十四式 合太極(圖略)
Posture 84: CLOSING POSTURE (no new photo)

本式是最後一個式子,從上式(如圖8)兩手同時落下置於胯旁,變為垂掌,掌心向後,右腳隨即向左並步與左腳成為平行步,回復第一式的形式,如圖116。
This is the final posture of the set. Continuing from the previous posture, your hands lower in unison to be placed beside your hips, becoming hanging palms, the palms facing to the rear, as your right foot steps toward your left foot to make a parallel stance, returning you to the position in Posture 1. See photo 116 [repeat of photo 1 minus the movement arrows]:

以上所作圖解,主要是把上肢和下肢的動作,分別作了說明。對於很重要的腰部動作,僅僅在第三式(攬雀尾)最後一段的說明裡略為提及,其實,太極拳的每一個式子或者每一個動作都要在動手動腳的同時一起動腰的(參閱盤架子法則裡的“靈活”一點),初學雖然可以不在動腰上下功夫,但動腰是全部動作裡的一個重要部分,所以在開始學習動作時也應當十分注意它。其次,太極拳的動作是要全身同時活動的,在圖解裡,已經在許多動作上加上“同時”字樣,也希望學習者給以注意。至於其他法則,應當根據學習程度而酌分先後,在盤架子的法則裡已經作了總的說明,足供參考研究,而且在圖解裡也無法細說,所以一概不談。
In the explanations above, the movements of the upper limbs and lower limbs are usually described separately. As for the very important waist movements, this is only touched upon in the paragraph at the end of Posture 3 – CATCH THE SPARROW. In fact, every posture and movement in the Taiji boxing set should involve the hands and feet moving in unison with the waist (as per the principle of “nimbleness” in Chapter Five). Although a beginner can get away with not using the waist to specifically drive the upper and lower body, moving the waist is nevertheless an important part of the movement as a whole, and therefore in the beginning of the training it has to be given great attention.
  Furthermore, Taiji Boxing’s movements require that the whole body be moving at the same time. Notice that the phrase “at the same time” occurs frequently throughout these explanations. As for the rest of the principles, the level that a student is at has to be considered. The principles within the exercise have already been explained in previous chapters, which will supply you with adequate study material. As for anything within these explanations that might defy description, I have not tried to describe it at all.

第十章 推手圖解
CHAPTER TEN: PUSHING HANDS EXPLANATIONS

太極拳的推手,雖然是練習技擊功夫的主要方法,但是把它作為一種健身運動來說,也是富有趣味的。因為兩人對練時都是尚巧不尚力,不但變化較多,而且有豐富理論可以研究,更能引人入勝,令人久練不厭。本章就是根據健身運動的要求,為初學者介紹一些入門方法,所以下面所作的圖解以適合一般要求的定步推手和推手的八個基本動作為限:
Although pushing hands is the main method of application training in Taiji Boxing, it is also a very enjoyable type of health-building exercise. This is because when two people are practicing it, they are emphasizing skill rather than strength, for not only is the exercise constantly transforming, it is also filled with principles to study, making it interesting enough that it induces people to practice it for a long time without getting bored. In accordance with the requirements of health-building exercise, this chapter introduces beginners to just a few fundamental methods, and therefore the explanations that follow are confined to the ordinary fixed-step pushing hands and the eight basic pushing hands techniques:

第一,單搭手
Section 1: SINGLE-HAND METHOD

這是初學推手時的動作最為簡單的式子,兩人搭手時只要搭一只手,都用右手或者都用左手,推手時也只用相搭的兩手連續做圓形動作(習慣上叫做畫圈子),沒有其他花樣。畫圈子雖然是很簡單的動作,但要畫得非常自然,而且能夠在“不丟不頂”的分寸上掌握得非常恰當,卻也不是短期練習所能見功的。單搭手,根據出手和出腳的不同,可以分做四種式子:搭右手而右腳在前的叫做順步右搭手式;搭右手而左腳在前的叫做拗步右搭手式;搭左手而左腳在前的叫做順步左搭手式;搭左手而右腳在前的叫做拗步左搭手式。上面的插圖就是順步右搭手式,
In the beginning of learning pushing hands, this is the simplest posture. When two people touch hands, only one hand is needed, whether the right hand or the left. When pushing, these connected hands merely make continuous circular motions (commonly called “drawing a circle”), no other pattern required. Although drawing a circle is a very simple action, it should be drawn very naturally in order to achieve the right degree of “neither coming away nor crashing in”. However, results will not be seen after practicing for only a short time.
  There are four variations of the single-hand touching-hands posture. Right hand and right foot forward is called “straight-stance right touching-hands posture”. Right hand and left foot forward is called “crossed-stance right touching-hands posture”. Left hand and left foot forward is called “straight-stance left touching-hands posture”. Left hand and right foot forward is called “crossed-stance left touching-hands posture”. This photo shows the straight-stance right touching-hands posture:

其他各式,可以按照上面的解釋,由學習者自己去比擬,插圖從略。單搭手的推手方法,以順步右搭手式為例,說明如下:兩人相對立(站在左方者作為甲方,站在右方者作為乙方,以下同)右腳踏出,都為虛步,右手都在腕背處相貼,左手各自放在右肘的左下方,假定由甲方先出手,甲的右手應當微微沉腕,隨即徐徐伸向乙的胸前,同時變虛步為弓步,使身體徐徐前進;乙的右手應當順著甲的手的方向徐徐屈臂墜肘(兩人的腕部不可鬆開)將甲手引向自己的右肩方面去,在引帶的過程中,應當循著⤻形的弧線,同時微微坐身(因為乙方本來站的是虛步,只能微微坐身,如站弓步,必須盡量坐身),以與來勢相適應;到此時,甲的右手不宜再向前伸,應當徐徐收回,而由乙方按照甲方先前的動作將手伸向甲方的胸前;伸手時應當循著⤺形的弧線(使與上面的弧線合成一個圈子),同時變虛步為弓步徐徐向前進身,甲方亦按照乙方先前的動作,趁勢屈臂墜肘將乙手引向自己的右肩方面去,同時變弓步為虛步並盡量坐身。這樣的一來一往就是畫了一個圈子,以後可以照開始時一樣連續做下去,如果覺得肩臂或者後站的一腿乏力了,可以改推順步左搭手或者拗步的左右搭手。上面所說,將右手引向肩旁的動作,可參考雙搭手的圖3;將左手引向肩旁的動作,可參考雙搭手的圖5(這種動作在雙搭手裡都叫做捋)。
單搭手的推手雖然比雙搭手簡單,但在動作上也應當注意下面兩個要求:(1)雙方的進退(包括步法的變換和手臂的屈伸)在動作的速度上應當力求一致,以符合“不丟不頂”的要求;(2)在坐身時,即變弓步為虛步時,應當微微含胸並放鬆腰肢,以符合“氣沉丹田”和“氣宜鼓蕩”的要求。
The other variations can be intuited on the basis of this photo during your own practice, and so further photos of these variations are not needed. The single-hand touching-hands method of pushing hands is explained below using the example of the straight-stance right touching-hands posture:
  Two people stand facing each other (A on the left in the photo, B on the right, which will remain the case throughout the rest of these explanations. [Photo 1 shows Wu Yaozong on the left and Zhao Shoucun on the right. All of the photos below are in consistent in having A on the left and B on right, but these two gentlemen will sometimes switch roles. Be aware of this to keep yourself from getting confused.]), stepping out with their right foot, both making an empty stance, the backs of their right wrists touching each other, their left hand placed to the lower left of their right elbow.
  If A first sends out his hand, his right wrist should slightly sink and then slowly extend his hand toward B’s chest, at the same time switching from an empty stance to a bow stance, causing his body to slowly advance.
  B’s right hand should go along with the direction that A’s right hand is moving by slowly bending his arm and dropping his elbow (Their wrists must not become disconnected.), drawing in A’s hand toward the side of his own right shoulder. This action of drawing in should make this kind of arc shape: ⤻
  At the same time, he slightly sits his body back in order to merge with the incoming force. (Because B is already positioned in an empty stance, he can only slightly sit back. If he is standing in a bow stance, he would be able to sit back fully.)
  At this moment, A’s right hand should not extend any farther forward, but instead should slowly withdraw, and B now imitates A’s initiating forward movement by extending his hand toward A’s chest. This action of extending should make this kind of arc shape: ⤺
  This arc combined with the previous one makes a complete circle. B is at the same time switching from an empty stance to a bow stance, slowly advancing his body. A now imitates B’s original action of going along with the momentum by bending his arm, dropping his elbow, and drawing in B’s hand toward the side of his own right shoulder, at the same time switching from a bow stance to an empty stance and fully sitting his body back.
  Going back and forth in this manner draws a complete circle which can then be repeated over and over. If you then feel your arm or sitting leg is becoming fatigued, you can switch to the straight-stance left touching-hands posture, or crossed-stance touching-hands posture on either side.
  The action of the right hand drawing in beside the shoulder in this exercise can be seen below in photo 3 of the double-hand exercise, the left hand drawing in beside the shoulder in photo 5. (In the double-hand exercise, this is always called “rollback”.)
  Single-hand pushing hands is simpler than double-hand, but attention should be given to these two requirements:
  1. Both people should be advancing and retreating (equally involving switching stances and the bending and extending of the arm) at the same speed, in accordance with the principle of “neither coming away nor crashing in”.
  2. When sitting your body back, switching from a bow stance to an empty stance, you should slightly hollow your chest and loosen your waist, in accordance with the principles of “energy sinks to your elixir field” and “energy should be roused”.

第二、雙搭手
Section 2: DOUBLE-HAND METHOD

雙搭手雖然是研究推手八法的式子,但是,在初學時,一般都是按照畫圈子的方法去進行練習,如同練習單搭手一樣,當然,在動作上是比較難了。它也是以腕部相搭的兩手作為標準,分做順步左、右搭手和拗步左、右搭手四種式子,下面的圖1就是順步右搭手,圖2就是拗步左搭手,其他兩式的插圖從略。
單搭手只要一手相搭,在推手時可以練習較大的畫圈動作,所以兩人的對立不妨離得遠些;雙搭手的圈子比較畫得小,兩人的距離就應當近些,大抵以踏出的一腳互相接近為標準。在推手前,踏出的一腳都用虛步,在推手後,總是進的一方用弓步,退的一方用虛步。現將所附各圖依次說明如下:
The double-hand method is a means of studying the eight pushing hands techniques, but in the beginning it is usually practiced simply as an exercise of drawing circles, similar to the single-hand method, although the movement is of course more difficult. Two hands connecting at the wrists is again the standard, and it is again divided into the four variations of straight-stance touching-hands posture on either side and crossed-stance touching-hands posture on either side. Photo 1 below shows the straight-stance right touching-hands posture, then photo 2 shows the crossed-stance left touching-hands posture. The other versions are not shown.
  Because the single-hand version connects with only one hand, it can be practiced with larger circles, and therefore the two people can get away with being a little bit farther apart, but the double-hand circle is drawn smaller, and so they have to be closer together. Generally the standard is that their feet step out to stand next to each other. Prior to learning pushing hands, people tend to step out into an empty stance, but after learning pushing hands, they always advance with a bow stance and retreat into an empty stance.
  The exercise is explained below together with a sequence of photographs:

圖1兩人右手相搭,右腳踏出,這與單搭手的順步右搭手式是同一模樣的,所不同的是:甲的左手要放在乙的右肘旁;乙的左手要放在甲的右肘旁(圖中放法不同,下面另有說明)。
In photo 1 below, both people touch with their right hands and step out with their right foot. It is the same as the straight-stance right touching-hands posture from the single-hand version, except that A’s left hand is placed at the side of B’s right elbow and B’s left hand is placed at the side of A’s right elbow. (Their method of contact in this photo is different, as will be explained further below.)

圖2,兩人左手相搭,腳步不變,甲的右手放在乙的左肘旁,乙的右手放在甲的左肘旁(圖中放法不同也在下面另作說明)。
In photo 2 below, both people are connecting with their left hands, although without changing their stance. A’s right hand is now placed at the side of B’s left elbow, B’s right hand at the side of A’s left elbow. (Their method of contact in this photo is again different, as will be explained further below.)

圖3,是乙的右手伸向甲的胸前(與單搭手的伸手相同),被甲引向自己的右肩旁,此時,甲的左手仍在乙的右肘旁,而乙的左手已摸不到甲的右肘,只得移到自己的右肘旁去搭住甲的左手(都用手背相貼),這就是從右搭手換到左搭手的第一步。
In photo 3 below, B’s right hand extends toward A’s chest (the same as in the single-hand method) and is drawn in by A to the side of his own right shoulder. At this moment, A’s left hand is still at the side of B’s right elbow, but B’s left hand can no longer reach A’s right elbow, so it shifts to be next to his own right elbow to connect to A’s left hand (both using the back of the hand as the contact point). This is the first step in switching from the right touching-hands posture to the left touching-hands posture.

圖4,從上式(圖3)乙將右手落下,準備由下而上轉到甲的左肘外面,
Photo 4 continues from the previous posture, B lowering his right hand in preparation to arc around upward from below to the outside of A’s left elbow:

甲正在等待乙的右手向上轉,將身體轉正後,便可將右手搭到乙的左肘上,這就是右搭手換到左落的第二步,再下一步就變成圖2的拗步左搭手了。
圖5,是從圖2的式子,甲的左手伸向乙的胸前被乙引向自己的左肩旁,甲趁勢用右手去搭住乙的右手(與圖3用左手相搭的動作相同),
As A waits for B’s right hand to arc upward, he sits back and puts his right hand on B’s left elbow. This is the second step in switching from the right touching-hands posture to the left touching-hands posture, followed by the crossed-stance left touching-hands posture in photo 2.
  Photo 5 below builds on the posture in photo 2. A’s left hand extends toward B’s chest and is drawn in by B to the side of his own left shoulder. A goes along with this action and shifts his right hand to connect to B’s right hand (in the same way that B shifted his left hand to connect to A’s left hand in photo 3).

以下再仿照圖4的動作就能把左搭手仍變為右搭手(如圖1)。
以上從圖1的右搭手式經過圖3、圖4的動作,變為圖2的左搭手式,再由左搭手式經過圖5和圖5以下的動作,又回復到圖1的右搭手式,就是雙搭手畫圈子的方法。這樣的一來一往,已經具有順步右搭手和拗步左搭手兩個式子的推手動作。換步後變成順步左搭手,經過同樣的伸手和引手的動作就會變成拗步右搭手的式子。把四個式子推熟以後,自然能夠引起變化,可以順推、逆推、高推、低推,畫出錯綜復雜的圈子來了,這就是練習定步推手的初步要求。
初學推手時,總是只會用手而不會用手以外的腕肱(即小臂)部分,所以在搭手的式子上,搭在對方肘旁的一手,總是用手掌去搭,如雙搭手圖1,甲方的左手和圖2甲方的右手。但較為進步一些的推手,並不是單純用手去完成動作的。這裡不拿全身來說,只拿上肢的腕和肱來說,凡是推手較久的人,總是用腕或者用肱去搭在對方的臂上;如雙搭手圖1,乙的左手和圖2乙的右手都是用腕肱去搭,這是特意把手空出來留作別用的一種式子。從圖3可以看出,甲方引帶乙的右手是用手的,從圖5可以看出,乙方引帶甲的左手是用腕肱的,試問乙的兩手空著不用是不是比甲的兩手要靈活得多?回答是肯定的。因為乙的兩手可以隨時落下來在甲的左臂上增加新的動作使甲方吃虧。這是推手中很重要的一個方法,所以特地在這裡略為介紹,以備初學推手者日後有所參考。
Then by imitating the movement in photo 4 [reversing A and B, as well as left and right], the left-touching hands posture can be switched back to the right touching-hands posture (returning to the position in photo 1).
  The process described above is: from the right touching-hands posture in photo 1, perform the movements of photos 3 and 4 to switch to the left touching-hands posture in photo 2, then perform the movement of photo 5 [and the reverse of photo 4], returning to the right touching-hands posture in photo 1. This is the double-hand circling method.
  Going back and forth in this way already contains the pushing hands movements of making the straight-stance right touching-hands posture and the crossed-stance left touching-hands posture. Change feet and make the straight-stance left touching-hands posture, then perform the hand movements of extending and drawing in, switching you to the crossed-stance right touching-hands posture. Once you have become skillful at all of these variations, this will naturally lead into further variations, and you will be able to perform pushing while advancing or pushing while retreating, pushing with the hands in a higher position or pushing with the hands in a lower position, and drawing more complex circles. These are the basics of practicing fixed-step pushing hands.
  In the beginning of learning pushing hands, everyone only knows how to use their hands and not how to use their forearms, and therefore in the [double-hand] touching-hands posture, when putting a hand on the side of the opponent’s elbow, they always use their palm to connect, as in A’s left hand in photo 1 or right hand in photo 2. But as they make some progress in pushing hands, they no longer rely on using just their hands to carry out the movements.
  I do not mean here that they have learned to incorporate their whole bodies, only that they have added the use of their wrists or forearms. Those who have practiced pushing hands longer are typically using their wrists or forearms to connect to the opponent’s arm. For example, A’s left hand in photo 1 or right hand in photo 2 are in both cases connecting at the forearm. This is deliberately done to show the other way of doing the posture. It can be seen in photo 3 that A is drawing in B’s right hand using his hand, and in photo 5 that B is drawing in A’s left hand using his forearm.
  We may ask: do B’s hands, by not being used, have more nimbleness than A’s hands? To which the answer is: indeed they do. This is because B’s hands are thereby free at any moment to drop onto A’s left arm [in the case of photo 5] with a new movement, putting A at a disadvantage. This is a very important principle within pushing hands, which I briefly introduce here in order for those who are about to start learning pushing hands to be able to refer to it when the time comes.

第三,八個基本動作
Section 3: EIGHT BASIC MOVEMENTS

這八個基本動作在習慣上叫做推手八法,術語叫做掤、捋、擠、按、採、挒、肘、靠,依次圖解如下:
These eight basic movements, commonly known as the “eight pushing hands techniques”, are warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping, and are explained in this order below:

掤:
[1] WARDING OFF

讀如朋,這是一種向前而又向上用力的斜線動作。如圖1,兩人本來是順步右搭手的式子,由於甲方用右手向前推(即不讓乙方走雙搭手圖3的動作),乙方只得趁勢屈肘,用肱部貼住甲方的肱部,
Pronounced “péng”, this is a kind of diagonal movement, a pressure going forward and upward.
  In photo 1 below, two people have begun in the same-step right touching-hands posture, but A has used his right hand to push forward (thereby not allowing B to perform the movement from photo 3 of the double-hand touching-hands exercise), and so B can only go along with the situation by bending his elbow, using his forearm to stick to A’s forearm.

甲方如繼續用力,乙方在還擊時應當用向前而又向上的掤勁(當然可以用其他化勁,這裡不談),其斜線(如↖)乙方的還擊,如果用只有向前一個方向的直勁(如←)雖然也能把甲方擊出,但是所用的力要比較大些,用掤勁帶有向上的方向,能把甲方的身體掀起,使甲方站立不穩,用小力可以有大力的效果。
If A continues to apply force, B should then counterattack with a forward and upward ward-off. (He can of course use other kinds of neutralizing energy, but that is not what is being discussed here.) The diagonal line of his counterattack looks like this: ↖. He may use an energy that only goes directly forward: ←. But even if he can attack A in this way, he will have to use much more force to do so. Using ward-off energy to lead upward, he can make A’s body rise up, causing his stance to destabilize. Using a small force can thus have the effect of a large force.

捋:
[2] ROLLING BACK

讀如呂,這是順著對方主力前進的方向向自身而又向兩旁(左或右)用力帶引的斜線動作。如圖2,乙方用掤勁還擊,甲方趁勢將兩肱轉為一前一後貼住乙方右臂(即主力所在),用向裡而又向右的捋勁使乙方的掤勁轉變方向,圖中乙的右臂斜向甲的右肩,就是被捋動後的新方向。
Pronounced “lǚ”, this is an action of going along with the opponent’s forward force as it is coming toward your body and then sending it off to either side, leading it away at an angle.
  In photo 2 below, B is counterattacking with a ward-off. A takes advantage of the situation by rotating his forearms, one forward and one to the rear, sticking to B’s right arm (which is where B’s main force lies), using a rollback energy that goes inward and then to the right, causing B’s ward-off to change direction. In the photo, B’s right arm is heading off diagonally toward A’s right shoulder, which is its new direction after having been rolled back.

捋是一種常用的化勁,目的在於使對方的還擊落空,並使對方身體向我身的左方或者右方傾側,然後乘其站立不穩,再加力於對方身上,無需用很多的力量就能使對方受制於我。
Rollback is a frequently used means of neutralizing. The purpose of it is to make the opponent’s counterattack miss and to cause his body to lean away to your left or right, and then you can take advantage of his instability by adding your own force to his body. It is not necessary to use very much force to put him under your control.

擠:
[3] PRESSING

這是一種向前而又向下用力壓迫的斜線動作。如3圖甲的左腕貼在乙的右臂和左手上,甲的右手放在自己的左腕上。
[Pronounced “jǐ”,] this is a kind of diagonal movement, a pressure going forward and downward.
  In photo 3, A’s left wrist sticks to B’s right upper arm and left hand, his right hand placed on his own left wrist:

在這時,甲本可向前發勁將乙發出,但甲是用向前而又向下的壓力,使乙的身體被擠而向後傾側,乙如無法解脫,甲只要在右手上稍稍加力便能將乙推出,乙如勉強向上掙扎希望豎直身體,甲即可撤消向下的壓力而向前發力,乙的身體就要被擊出更遠。擠勁的方向用線表示如↘(甲方),倘由乙方用擠勁則為這樣的↙斜線,它與掤勁的方向恰恰上下相反。
A can now issue energy forward to send B away, but he applies a forward and downward pressure, causing B’s body to lean back. If B has no way to escape from this, A need only add a little bit of power and he will easily be able to push B away. If B uses strength to struggle upward in hopes of getting his body upright again, A can withdraw with a downward pressure and then shoot out forward, knocking B’s body even farther away. The direction of his pressing energy resembles this: ↘. If it was B that was pressing, it would be angled this way: ↙. Pressing is the reverse of warding-off in that it is going downward instead of upward.

按:
[4] PUSHING

這是一種向下而又向自身的方向用力下沉和引帶的斜線動作。如圖4,乙的兩手按在甲的右肱上。
[Pronounced “àn”,] this is a diagonal movement in which you apply force downward and toward your own body, both sinking heavily and drawing in.
  In photo 4, B pushes on A’s right forearm with both hands:

照按字的一般意義來說,應當是向下用力的動作。照圖中的式子來看,乙方也可以用直勁前推或者用擠勁的方向去推。但太極拳的按勁是:乙的雙手一面向下沉勁,一面還要貼住甲的右肱向自身的方向引帶(即是這樣的↘斜線)。乙的兩臂伸直,並不是為了向前推出,而是準備屈肘下按以便將甲的身體向自身的方向引帶。用按勁時應當注意下面兩點:(1)甲的右肱如果毫不用力而沒有向上的頂勁,乙是無法向自身引帶的;(2)乙用按勁向自身沉帶時須防備甲趁勢向前衝撞,因此沉帶時必須偏向自身右方或者左方。按勁是使對方向前俯身的動作,如對方不肯俯身而向後掙扎,用按勁的一方便可趁勢向前發勁將對方推出。
The general idea of this kind of pushing is that it should be an action of applying force downward. In the posture shown in the photo, B can use a straight energy to push forward, or push out using the direction of the pressing energy. But with Taiji Boxing’s “push” energy, B’s hands in one sense have an energy of sinking heavily, but even more are sticking to A’s right forearm and drawing toward his own body (moving diagonally downward and back: ↘). The straightness of B’s arms does not mean that they are pushing forward, but that they are prepared to bend at the elbows and push downward in order to draw in A’s body toward his own body.
  When applying the pushing energy, attention should be given to these two points:
  1. If A’s right forearm is not putting forth any strength to resist upward, B will have no means of drawing in toward his own body.
  2. When B applies the pushing energy to draw in toward his own body, he has to guard against A taking advantage of the opportunity by charging forward. Therefore when sinking and drawing in, he has to direct it slightly toward the right or left side of his own body.
  The “pushing” technique is an action which causes the opponent’s body to lean forward. If the opponent is unwilling to lean forward and instead struggles to go to the rear, the pushing energy can easily be applied to take advantage of this momentum by shooting forward to push the opponent away.

採:
[5] PLUCKING

這是向下沉勁隨即向自身左方或者右方用力提帶的一種動作。如圖5,乙的兩手臂放在甲的兩手臂上,換言之,就是甲的兩手臂托住乙的兩手臂。
[Pronounced “cǎi”, this is a kind of action involving an energy of sinking down and then immediately and forcefully lifting and leading to your own left or right side.
  In photo 5, B’s arms are placed on top of A’s arms, or in other words, A’s arms are propping up B’s arms:

此時,乙如用勁一沉引出甲的向上的托勁,隨即鬆去沉勁用手向自身右方提帶,就能使甲的身體向左方或者左前方傾側而站立不穩。先沉後提的用勁方法,與採物時一落即起的動作相象,所以叫做採勁。用採勁時也要注意對方趁勢衝撞,因此,在提帶時所用的勁必須與對方的托勁相適應。
In this moment, if B uses energy to sink and draw out A’s propping energy, then immediately relaxes his sinking energy and uses his [right] hand to lift and lead toward his own right side, he will then be able to make A’s body move to his left or to lean to his forward left and be standing unstably. This forceful method of first sinking and then lifting is the same as the action of reaching down to pick up an object and then picking it up, and therefore it is called “plucking” [or “picking”] energy. When applying plucking energy, you should also pay attention to the opponent’s impetus to crash into you. Because of this, the energy you use to lift and lead has to match his propping energy.

挒:
[6] RENDING

讀如列,這是順著對方主力的方向循弧線用力使對方身體旋轉的一種動作。如圖6,甲的右手推乙的左肘(是甲的主力所在),
Pronounced “liè”, this is a kind of action in which you apply force that goes along with the direction of the arc of the opponent’s main force, causing his body to rotate.
  In photo 6, A’s right hand pushes on B’s left elbow (which is where A’s main force lies):

乙的左手趁勢在甲的右臂上循弧線(如⤻)用勁捋下,同時,甲的左手正在乙的右臂上加力,乙的右手即趁勢在甲的左胸上循弧線(如⤺)向甲的右下方用力推出。乙的兩種勁同時加在甲的臂上和身上,就能使甲的身體向右方旋轉而傾側。圖中乙的視線所指的方向,就是甲的身體受挒後將要旋轉和傾側的方向。
B puts his left hand on A’s right arm and forcefully does a rollback downward, going along with the direction of its arc: ⤻. At the same time, A’s left hand is in the process of adding force to B’s right arm, so B puts his right hand on the left side of A’s chest and forcefully pushes toward A’s lower right, going along with the direction of the arc there: ⤺. B’s two forces are added simultaneously to A’s arm and body, causing his body to rotate and lean to the right. In the photo, B’s line of vision is in the direction that A will turn and lean once he has received the effect of the rending.

肘:
[7] ELBOWING

這是用肘擊人或者用肘沉帶對方手、臂的動作。如圖7,甲的左手本來是向乙的胸前直伸的,乙在向左捋的時候用左手去推甲的左手,甲即趁勢屈臂用肘尖去追擊乙的胸脯,
[Pronounced “zhǒu”,] this is an action using the elbow to strike the opponent or using the elbow to sink down and guide his hand or arm.
  In photo 7, A’s left hand was extending forward toward B’s chest and B in the rollback moment used his left hand to push away A’s left hand, so A takes advantage of the opportunity by bending his [left] arm and using the tip of the elbow to attack B’s chest:

這是不及換手時趁勢用肘擊人的一種方法(用肘擊人當然不止這樣一個式子)。如果乙的左手不去推甲的左手而是繼續向左捋,甲無屈臂的機會就不能用肘擊乙了。可見用肘擊人先要有趁勢屈臂的機會,如果根本沒有這種機會或者機會已經錯過都是不應當用肘去擊人的。如圖8,是用肘沉帶的一個式子,
This is not quite as effective as capitalizing on the moment of switching hands to use an elbow to attack the opponent’s chest. (Using elbowing to attack an opponent should not be limited to only one posture.) If B’s left hand does not push away A’s left hand and instead continues into a left rollback, then A would not have the opportunity to bend his arm and thus not be able to use his elbow to strike B. It can be seen from this that to use the elbow to strike an opponent first requires an opportunity to bend the arm. If such an opportunity is not there in the first place or the opportunity has already passed, in either case you should not use the elbow to attack.
  Photo 8 instead shows a posture of using the elbow to sink down and draw in:

它比圖7的用途為大。圖中,甲的右手正在托住乙的左肘,乙在此時,如果用左手去推甲的胸脯,他的左臂就要被甲托平,這個形勢對乙是大大不利的,因此,乙應當用肘向下沉並同時向後帶(左手仍貼住甲的胸脯不要離開),便能使甲的身體向右前方傾側而站立不穩,由於乙的左手並未離開甲的胸脯,乙如在此時伸左臂一擊或者用左手向左方用力一抹,就能把甲擊出或者擊倒。
This is more useful than the version in photo 7. Within the photo, A’s right hand is in the process of propping up B’s left elbow. If B at this moment uses his left hand to push out to A’s chest, his left arm will be propped up by A until it is fully straightened, a very unfavorable position for B to be in. Because of this, B should instead use his elbow to sink down, at the same time drawing to the rear (with his left hand still sticking to A’s chest and not coming away), and thus he is able to cause A’s body to lean to the forward right and stand unstably. Due to B’s left hand having not disconnected from A’s chest, if B at this moment extends his left arm to attack or uses his left hand to forcefully wipe to the left, he will thereby be able to strike B away or knock him over.

靠:
[8] BUMPING

這是用肩去靠擊對方的動作,它同肘一樣也是不及換手時趁勢追擊的一種方法。如圖9,甲的左手原來也是向乙的胸前伸去的,被乙用雙手向左面捋,但因為捋勁用得太急,同時,腰又轉得少了,未能及時把甲的身體捋到左邊去,甲在被捋時即趁勢自動轉身,用左肩追擊,乙雖含胸坐身,但胸脯並未側轉(參閱圖2,捋),很容易被甲用肩擊出。
[Pronounced “kào”,] this is an action of using the shoulder to bump against the opponent. Like elbowing, it is a method of charging in and striking when it is too late to use the hands.
  In photo 9 below, A’s left hand was extending toward B’s chest and B has used both hands to roll it back to the left. But B has rolled back too anxiously, thereby turning his waist insufficiently, and thus he is unable to send A’s body off to the left. When A is rolled back, he takes advantage of the opportunity by turning his own body and using his left shoulder to charge in and strike B. Even though B hollows his chest and sits his body back, his chest has not yet turned sideways (as per the rollback in photo 2), and so it is very easy for him to get struck by A’s shoulder.

以上所說的肩擊,在別種武術裡也不是沒有的,不過推手時的用肩,主要在練靠,不是在練擊,因為甲被捋後,趕緊用肩去靠住乙的身體,就是練習“不丟”的功夫,如果立即用肩去撞,不但犯了“頂”的毛病,而且也有被乙變勁擊倒的危險。用靠的好處就在於能進能退,乙如被靠而發生不穩現象,甲於此時用肩撞擊就不會有危險,乙被靠後如仍能站穩,並且在甲的肩臂上變勁,甲亦可趨勢收回肩臂,不致發生冒昧撞擊而無法收回的危險。另外,用肩靠,力的方向是向前而又向下的(與擠勁的方向相同),用肩撞擊,力的方向是只向前而不帶向下,無論撞著或者撞不著,自身也不免有向前傾側的危險。可見用肩靠是比用肩撞更為有利。又,用靠本來應當趁勢進步的,圖9是按照定步推手來說明靠的形式,故在姿勢上有與靠勁不盡符合的地方。
The shoulder striking described above also occurs within other martial arts. But when using the shoulder in pushing hands, it is important to use it for bumping rather than striking. After being rolled back, A quickly uses his shoulder to bump against B’s body. This trains the skill of “not coming away”. But if he were to immediately use his shoulder to collide against A, he would not only be committing the error of “crashing in”, he also runs the risk of B adapting and knocking him over.
  Using bumping to your advantage depends on being able to advance or retreat. If B has been bumped and becomes destabilized, A runs no risk in using his shoulder to strike him. But if B stays stable after being bumped and also adjusts to the position of A’s arm, A should quickly withdraw his arm instead of rashly striking only to have no means of withdrawing.
  Furthermore, when using the shoulder to bump, the direction of force goes forward and downward (same as with pressing), but when using the shoulder to strike, the force only goes forward. Thus whether the strike hits or misses, your body unavoidably risks leaning forward. It can be seen from this that it is more beneficial to use the shoulder to bump than to strike.
  An additional point is that bumping really ought to be taking advantage of an advancing step. Photo 9 shows a fixed-step pushing hands position in order to demonstrate the bumping posture, thus the posture shown does not entirely conform to the bumping technique.

本章是只供初學推手者作為參考之用,故所作圖解僅僅以介紹定步推手的基本動作為限。至於動作上的用勁方法和有關姿勢如含胸、坐身、沉肩、垂肘等等都非初學所能領會,而且說得過於複雜,對初學來說,也並不相宜,因此略而不談。總之,在學推手時,如果只學畫圈子是很容易學會的,不過趣味比較少些,但欲學推手八法,就比較複雜了,而且也很難無師自通,如有機會,還是從師學習為宜。
The function of this chapter is simply to supply reference material for those who are beginning to learn pushing hands, therefore these explanations are only presenting the basic fixed-step pushing hands exercise. As for the ways in which these techniques relate to postural principles – such as hollowing the chest, sitting the body, sinking the shoulders, dropping the elbows, and so on – beginners will not understand and explanations will only be overwhelming, and so it is not really appropriate to try to explain these things to beginners in so much detail.
  Generally when learning pushing hands, if you are only learning to make circles, it is very easy to understand, but it will be less interesting. However, if you want to learn the eight pushing hands techniques, this is more complicated and very difficult to understand on your own, and so if you have the opportunity, it is best to learn this from a teacher.

附錄
APPENDICES

王宗岳的太極拳論
WANG ZONGYUE’S TAIJI BOXING TREATISE

太極者,無極而生,動靜之機、陰陽之母也。動之則分,靜之則合。無過不及,隨曲就伸。人剛我柔謂之走,我順人背謂之黏。動急則急應,動緩則緩隨,雖變化萬端,而理為一貫。由着熟而漸悟懂勁,由懂勁而階及神明,然非用力之久,不能豁然貫通焉。虛領頂勁,氣沉丹田。不偏不倚,忽隱忽現。左重則左虛,右重則右虛。仰之則彌高,俯之則彌深。進之則愈長,退之則愈促,一羽不能加,蠅蟲不能落。人不知我,我獨知人,英雄所向無敵,蓋皆由此而及也。斯技旁門甚多,雖勢有區別,槪不外乎壯欺弱、慢讓快耳。有力打無力,手慢讓手快,是皆先天自然之能,非關學力而有為也。察四兩撥千斤之句,顯非力勝;觀耄耋能禦眾之形,快何能為!立如平準,活如車輪。偏沉則隨,雙重則滯。每見數年純功不能運化者,率皆自為人制,雙重之病未悟耳。欲避此病,須知陰陽。黏即是走,走即是黏。陰不離陽,陽不離陰,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁。懂勁後,愈練愈精,默識揣摩,漸至從心所欲。本是捨己從人,多誤捨近求遠,所謂差之毫釐,謬以千里,學者不可不詳辨焉。
Taiji [“grand polarity”] is born of wuji [“nonpolarity”]. It is the manifestation of movement and stillness, the mother of yin and yang [the passive and active aspects]. When there is movement, passive and active become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable.
  Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend.
He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking. If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow. Although there is an endless variety of possible scenarios, there is only this single principle [of yielding and sticking] throughout. Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will gradually progress toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.
  Forcelessly press up your headtop. Energy sinks to your elixir field. Neither lean nor slant. Suddenly hide and suddenly appear. When there is pressure on the left, the left empties. When there is pressure on the right, the right disappears. When looking up, it is still higher. When looking down, it is still lower. When advancing, it is even farther. When retreating, it is even nearer. A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land. The opponent does not understand me, only I understand him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.
  There are many other schools of boxing arts besides this one. Although the postures are different between them, they never go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast. The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability and bear no relation to skill that is learned. Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.
  Stand like a scale. Move like a wheel. If you drop one side, you can move. If you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck. We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations, always under the opponent’s control, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood. If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active. In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies. Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.
  The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent. We often make the mistake of ignoring what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances. For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” You must understand all this clearly.

長拳者,如長江大海滔滔不絕也。十三勢者:掤、捋、擠、按、採、挒、肘、靠,此八卦也;進步、退步、左顧、右盼、中定,此五行也。掤、捋、擠、按,即乾、坤、坎、離四正方也。採、挒、肘、靠,即巽、震、兌、艮四斜角也。進、退、顧、盼、定,即金、木、水、火、土也。(原註云:此係武當山張三豐老師遺論,欲天下豪傑延年益壽,不徒作技藝之末也。)
Long Boxing: it is like a long river flowing into the wide ocean, on and on ceaselessly…
  The thirteen dynamics are: warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping – which relate to the eight trigrams:

☱ ☰ ☴
☲      ☵
☳ ☷ ☶

and advancing, retreating, stepping to the left, stepping to the right, and staying in the center – which relate to metal, wood, water, fire, and earth: the five elements. Warding off, rolling back, pressing, and pushing correspond to ☰, ☷, ☵, and ☲ in the four principle compass directions [meaning simply that these are the primary techniques]. Plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping correspond to ☴, ☳, ☱, and ☶ in the four corner directions [i.e. are the secondary techniques]. Advancing, retreating, stepping to the left, stepping to the right, and staying in the center correspond to the five elements of metal, wood, water, fire, and earth.
  (A original note says: “This relates to the theory left to us from Zhang Sanfeng of Mt. Wudang. He wanted all the heroes in the world to live long and not merely gain martial skill.”)

武禹襄的太極拳論
WU YUXIANG’S TAIJI BOXING TREATISE

一舉動,周身俱要輕靈,尤須貫串。氣宜鼓盪,神宜內斂。無使有缺陷處,無使有凸凹處,無使有斷續處。其根在腳,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指。由腳而腿而腰,總須完整一氣,向前退後,乃能得機得勢。有不得機得勢處,身便散亂,其病必於腰腿求之。上下前後左右皆然。凡此皆是意,不在外面。有上即有下,有前即有後,有左即有右。如意要向上即庽下意,若將物掀起而加以挫之之意,斯其根自斷,乃壞之速而無疑。虛實宜分清楚,一處自有一處虛實,處處總此一虛實,周身節節貫串,無令絲毫間斷耳。
Once there is any movement, your entire body should have lightness and nimbleness. There especially needs to be connection from movement to movement. Energy should be roused and spirit should be collected within. Do not allow there to be cracks or gaps anywhere, pits or protrusions anywhere, breaks in the flow anywhere.
  Starting from your foot, issue power through your leg, directing it from your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a continuous process, and whether advancing or retreating, you will then catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand. If not and your body easily falls into disorder, the problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there. This is always so, regardless of the direction of the movement, be it up, down, forward, back, left, right. And in all of these cases, the problem is a matter of your intent and does not lie outside of you.
  With an upward comes a downward, with a forward comes a backward, and with a left comes a right. If your intention wants to go upward, then harbor a downward intention, like when you reach down to lift up an object. You thereby add a setback to the opponent’s own intention, thus he cuts his own root and is defeated quickly and certainly. Empty and full must be distinguished clearly. In each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full. Everywhere it is always like this, an emptiness and a fullness. Throughout your body, as the movement goes from one section to another there has to be connection. Do not allow the slightest break in the connection.

十三勢歌訣
THIRTEEN DYNAMICS SONG

十三勢勢莫輕視,命意源頭在腰隙。變轉虛實須留意,氣遍身軀不少滯。靜中觸動動中猶靜,因敵變化示神奇。勢勢存心揆用意,得來不覺費功夫。刻刻留心在腰間,腹內鬆凈氣騰然。尾閭中正神貫頂,滿身輕利頂頭懸。仔細留心向推求,屈伸開合聽自由。入門引路須口授,功夫無息法自修。若言體用何為準,意氣君來骨肉臣。想推用意終何在,益壽延年不老春。歌兮歌兮百四十,字字真切義無遺。若不向此推求去,枉費功夫貽嘆惜。
Do not neglect any of the thirteen dynamics,
their command coming from your lower back.
You must pay attention to the alternation of empty and full,
then energy will flow through your whole body without getting stuck anywhere.
  In stillness, movement stirs, and then in moving, seem yet to be in stillness,
for the magic lies in making adjustments based on being receptive to the opponent.
In every movement, very deliberately control it by the use of intention,
for once you achieve that, it will all be effortless.
  At every moment, pay attention to your waist,
for if there is complete relaxation within your belly, energy is primed.
Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop,
thus your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.
  Pay careful attention in your practice
that you are letting bending and extending, contracting and expanding, happen as the situation requires.
Beginning the training requires personal instruction,
but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.
  Whether we are discussing in terms of theory or function, what is the constant?
It is that mind is sovereign and body is subject.
If you think about it, what is emphasizing the use of intention going to lead you to?
To a longer life and a longer youth.
  Repeatedly recite the words above,
all of which speak clearly and hence their ideas come through without confusion.
If you pay no heed to those ideas, you will go astray in your training,
and you will find you have wasted your time and be left with only sighs of regret.

十三勢行功心解
UNDERSTANDING HOW TO PRACTICE THE THIRTEEN DYNAMICS

以心行氣,務令沉著,乃能收斂入骨。以氣運身,務令順遂,乃能便利從心。精神能提得起,則無遲重之虞,所謂頂頭懸也。意氣須換得靈,乃有圓活之趣,所謂變動虛實也。發勁須沉著鬆凈,專主一方。立身須中正安舒,支撐八面。行氣如九曲珠,無微不到。運勁如百煉鋼,何堅不摧!形如搏兔之鶚,神如捕鼠之貓。靜如山岳,動若江河。蓄勁如開弓,發勁如放箭。曲中求直,蓄而後發。力由脊發,步隨身換。收即是放,斷而復連。往復須有折迭,進退須有轉換。極柔軟然後極堅硬,能呼吸然後能靈活。氣以直養而無害,勁以曲蓄而有餘。心為令,氣為旗,腰為纛。先求開展,後求緊湊,乃可臻於縝密矣。
Use mind to move energy. You must get the energy to sink. It is then able to collect in the bones. Use energy to move your body. You must get the energy to be smooth. Your body can then easily obey your mind.
  If your spirit can be raised up, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song]: “Your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended”.
Your mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the qualities of roundess and liveliness. Thus it is said [also in the Song]: “Pay attention to the alternation of empty and full”.
  When issuing power, you must sink and relax, concentrating it in one direction.
Your posture must be upright and comfortable, bracing in all directions.
  Move energy as though through a winding-path pearl, penetrating even the smallest nook.
Wield power like tempered steel, so strong there is nothing tough enough to stand up against it.
  The shape is like a falcon capturing a rabbit. The spirit is like a cat pouncing on a mouse.
  In stillness, be like a mountain, and in movement, be like a river.
  Store power like drawing a bow. Issue power like loosing an arrow.
  Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue.
  Power comes from your spine. Step according to your body’s adjustments.
  To gather is to release. Disconnect but stay connected.
  In the back and forth [of the arms], there must be folding. In the advance and retreat [of the feet], there must be variation.
  Extreme softness begets extreme hardness. Your ability to be nimble lies in your ability to breathe.
  By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted. By storing power in crooked parts, it will be in abundant supply.
  The mind makes the command, the energy is its flag, and the waist is its banner.
  First strive to open up, then strive to close up, and from there you will be able to attain a refined subtlety.

又曰:先在心,後在身,腹鬆凈,氣斂入骨。神舒體靜,刻刻在心。切記一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜。牽動往來氣貼背,斂入脊骨。內固精神,外示安逸。邁步如貓行,運勁如抽絲。全身意在精神,不在氣,在氣則滯。有氣者無力,無氣者純剛。氣如車輪,腰如車軸。
It is also said:
  First in the mind, then in the body.
  With your abdomen relaxed, energy collects in your bones. Spirit comfortable, body calm – at every moment be mindful of this.
  Always remember: if one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.
  As the movement leads back and forth, energy sticks to and gathers in your spine.
  Inwardly bolster spirit and outwardly show ease.
  Step like a cat and move energy as if drawing silk.
  Throughout your body, your mind should be on the spirit rather than on the energy, for if you are fixated on the energy, your movement will become sluggish. Whenever your mind is on the energy, there will be no power, whereas if you ignore the energy and let it take care of itself, there will be pure strength.
  The energy is like a wheel and the waist is like an axle.

打手歌
PLAYING HANDS SONG

掤捋擠按須認真,上下相隨人難進。任他巨力來打我,牽動四兩撥千斤。引進落空合即出,沾連黏隨不丟頂。
Ward-off, rollback, press, and push must be taken seriously.
With coordination between above and below, the opponent will hardly find a way in.
I will let him attack me with as much power as he likes,
for I will tug with four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds.
Guiding him in to land on nothing, I then close on him and send him away.
I stick, connect, adhere, and follow, neither coming away nor crashing in.

又曰:彼不動,己不動,彼微動,己先動。勁似鬆非鬆,將展未展。勁斷意不斷。
It is also said:
  If he takes no action, I take no action, but once he takes even the slightest action, I have already acted.
  The power seems to relax but [the intent of it] has still not relaxed. The power has expressed but [the intent of it] is not finished expressing. The power finishes but the intent of it continues.

太極拳拳式方向圖
DIRECTIONAL CHART OF THE TAIJI BOXING POSTURES

說明
Explanations:

1.本圖為的是標明整套拳式的進行方向,可能與圖解裡的個別拳式的立身方向有大同小異的地方。
This chart indicates the orientations of the boxing postures throughout the entire set, though there may seem to be some small differences compared to the explanations.

2.拳式從右到左和從左返右,原是在一條路線上來回進行的。又末一式照規矩也應當回到第一式的原位,本圖畫在一張紙上,受了排列方法的限制,無法把上述情況標示出來,這是本圖的缺點,不是在線路上和位置上有所改變。
The boxing postures progress from right to left and then back to the right, proceeding back and forth along a line. The final posture should customarily return to the location of the first posture, but due to the way the chart has been made, it does not really show that. This simply means that the chart is flawed, not that the positioning of the posture has been changed.

3.在長方格內橫寫名稱者,如[1]是標示該式向南;
Horizontal writing in the boxes means the posture faces to the south:

直寫名稱者,如[2]是標示該式向東,
Vertical writing in the boxes means the posture faces to the east:

其餘可根據方向圖類推。
The other directions can be figured out on the basis of this pattern.

4.兩方格相連接,如[1]和[2],以及兩方格有一只角相連接者,都標示後一式是在前一式的原位進行的,其中偶有加箭號者,是標示後一式的轉身方向。
When the preceding posture and following posture occur in the same location, their boxes are linked in these ways, with their corners touching (curved arrows added to them meaning that the body has turned around in the second posture):

後一式在前一式的原位內略有移動者,則以[1]或者[2]等形式標示之。
When there is a slight shift of location from the preceding posture to the following posture, the boxes are shown linked in these ways:

5.拳式的進行方向,除兩方格相連接者外,都用箭號標示。
The directions that the postures proceed are all indicated by arrows, except where boxes are joined.

6.兩方格間有空檔者是標示後一式要上步,空檔較小者,上步亦較小。
When there is space between two boxes [instead of the boxes being joined], it indicates a forward step into the next posture. A smaller space [as between LOW POSTURE and STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE] indicates a smaller step.

7.用虛線畫的方格除“左右分腳”中間的“高探馬”是標示可以簡略以外,其餘都是為了與後一式的適當銜接而添加的,並非重複式子。
The dotted lines framing the REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE that takes place between the two boxes for KICKING TO THE LEFT & RIGHT indicates that the movement can be skipped, but the rest of the dotted-line boxes indicate that the chart is shifting down to a new line, not that the posture is being repeated.

N


W 西 ← → 東 E


S

1 預備式 PREPARATION POSTURE [S]
2 太極起式 TAIJI BEGINNING POSTURE [S]
3 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [W]
4 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
5 提手上勢 RAISE THE HAND [S]
6 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS [S]
7.1 摟膝拗步左 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (left) [E]
7.2 摟膝拗步右 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (right) [E]
7.3 摟膝拗步左 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (left) [E]
8 手揮琵琶 PLAY THE LUTE [E]
9 搬攔捶 [STEP FORWARD,] PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [E]
10 如封似閉 SEALING SHUT [E]
11 十字手 CROSSED HANDS [S]
12.1 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (1) [SE]
12.2 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (2) [NW]
13 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [NW]
14 斜單鞭 DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP [SW]
15 肘底看捶 GUARDING FIST UNDER THE ELBOW [E]
16.1 倒攆猴左 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (left) [E]
16.2 倒攆猴右 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (right) [E]
16.3 倒攆猴左 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (left) [E]
17 斜飛勢 DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE [SE]
18 提手上勢 RAISE THE HAND [S]
19 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS IT WINGS [S]
20 摟膝拗步左 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (left) [E]
21 海底針 NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA [E]
22 扇通背 FAN THROUGH THE BACK [S]
23 撇身捶 TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH [W]
24 卸步搬攔捶 WITHDRAWING STEP, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [W]
25 上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [W]
26 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
27.1 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (1) [S]
27.2 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (2) [S]
27.3 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (3) [S]
28 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
29 高探馬左 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (left) [E]
30.1 左右分腳右 KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT (right) [E]
30.2 高探馬右 RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (right) [E]
30.3 左右分腳左 KICK TO THE LEFT & RIGHT (left) [E]
31 轉身蹬腳 TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK [W]

31 轉身蹬腳 TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK [W]
32.1 摟膝拗步左 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (left) [W]
32.2 摟膝拗步右 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (right) [W]
32.3 進步栽捶 ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH [W]
33 翻身撇身捶 TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH [E]
34 上步高探馬左 STEP FORWARD, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (left) [E]
35 披身踢腳 DRAPING THE BODY, KICK [E]
36 退步打虎 RETREAT, FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE [E]
37 二起腳 SECOND KICK [E]
38 雙峯貫耳 DOUBLE PEAKS THROUGH THE EARS [E]
39.1 翻身二起腳 TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK (1) [S]
39.2 翻身二起腳 TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK (2) [E]
40 撇身捶 TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH [E]
41 上步搬攔捶 STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [E]
42 如封似閉 SEALING SHUT [E]
43 十字手 CROSSED HANDS [S]
44.1 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (1) [SE]
44.2 抱虎歸山 CAPTURE THE TIGER TO SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (2) [NW]
45 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [NW]
46 斜單鞭 DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP [SW]
47.1 野馬分鬃右 WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (right) [W]
47.2 野馬分鬃右 WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (left) [W]
47.3 野馬分鬃右 WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (right) [W]
48.1 玉女穿梭左(一) MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (left – 1) [SW]
48.2 玉女穿梭右(二) MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (right – 2) [SE]
48.3 玉女穿梭左(三) MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (left – 3) [NE]
48.4 玉女穿梭右(四) MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH (right – 4) [NW]
49 攬雀尾 CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [W]
50 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
51.1 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (1) [S]
51.2 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (2) [S]
51.3 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (3) [S]
52 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
53 下勢 LOW POSTURE [S]
54.1 金雞獨立一 GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (1) [E]
54.2 金雞獨立二 GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (2) [E]

54.2 金雞獨立二 GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (2) [E]
55.1 倒攆猴左 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (left) [E]
55.2 倒攆猴右 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (right) [E]
55.3 倒攆猴左 RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (left) [E]
56 斜飛勢 DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE [SE]
57 提手上勢 RAISE THE HAND [S]
58 白鶴亮翅 WHITE CRANE SHOWS IT WINGS [S]
59 摟膝拗步左 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (left) [E]
60 海底針 NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA [E]
61 扇通背 FAN THROUGH THE BACK [S]
62 撇身捶 TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH [W]
63 上步搬攔捶 STEP FORWARD, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH [W]
64 上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [W]
65 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
66.1 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (1) [S]
66.2 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (2) [S]
66.3 雲手 CLOUDING HANDS (3) [S]
67 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
68 迎面掌 PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE [E]
69 轉身十字擺蓮 TURN AROUND, CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK [W]
70.1 摟膝拗步右 BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (right) [W]
70.2 摟膝指襠捶 BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH [W]
71 上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [W]
72 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
73 下勢 LOW POSTURE [S]
74 上步七星 STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE [E]
75 退步跨虎 RETREAT, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE [E]
76 轉身迎面掌 TURN AROUND, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE [W]
77 轉身雙擺蓮 TURN AROUND, DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK [E]
78 彎弓射虎 BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER [E]
79 上步迎面掌 STEP FORWARD, PALM STRIKE TO THE FACE [E]
80 翻身撇身捶 TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH [W]
81 上步高探馬 STEP FORWARD, RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE [W]
82 上步攬雀尾 STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL [W]
83 單鞭 SINGLE WHIP [SE]
84 合太極 CLOSING POSTURE [S]

Advertisements
This entry was posted in Taiji. Bookmark the permalink.