SMALL-SCALE POSTURES

小架式拳
SMALL-SCALE POSTURES BOXING SET
順德黃漢勛編述
by Huang Hanxun [Wong Honfan] of Shunde
山東蓬萊羅師光玉授
as taught by Luo Guangyu of Penglai, Shandong
攝影者:黃子英
photographed by Huang Ziying
校對者:黃翔
text proofread by Huang Xiang
[published 36th year of the cycle, 3rd month, 24th day (May 1, 1959)]

[translation by Paul Brennan, July, 2019]

小架式拳
Small-Scale Postures Boxing Set
陳劍科題
– calligraphy by Chen Jianke

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

螳螂拳傳自北方,是以稱謂上每多北方之習慣,卽如架式二字乃粵人所稱之姿勢耳!螳螂拳中有大小架式之分,大架式者採取開盡拳腿之勢,小架式則較柔活而側重於腿,與他拳乃別開風格者,且簡短淸晣為難得而可愛也。
拙著首先完成三花手,而後再編斯大小架式,再欲編者厥惟各路「摘要」與「螳螂出洞」及「螳螂偸桃」矣。余將繼續此精神而先後完成之,俾有好於螳螂拳術者得連續研究之便,抑亦聊盡一份子之責任耳。
己亥初夏 黃漢勛於螳螂樓
The Mantis boxing art was transmitted from the north, and thus it is well-known north of Shanghai, but instead of the term for “posture” that is used up there [架式], which indicates more of a sense of shape, Cantonese people tend to use a different term for “posture” [姿勢] that indicates more of a sense of energy.
  In these Mantis boxing sets, there is a distinction between “large scale” and “small scale”: the “large scale” fully expresses with both punches and kicks, whereas the “small scale” is more supple and lively, giving more emphasis to kicking. [Therefore this distinction has nothing do with the size or reach of the postures, just a matter of a comprehensive variety of postures versus some emphasis on particular kinds of postures.] Mantis is distinct in style compared to other boxing arts, so terse and clear that it can be appreciated as something rare indeed.
  After I completed the books for the three Plum Blossom sets [volumes 16, 20, 21 in Huang’s Mantis Boxing Series], I then set to work making these books on the Large-Scale and Small-Scale sets. I later hope to write books about each of the Picked Essentials sets, as well as Mantis Leaves the Cave and Mantis Steals a Peach. I will continue with these plans until this project is completed, so that those who love the Mantis boxing art may continue to study it. It is simply my duty to do so.
  - written by Huang Hanxun at the Mantis School, early summer, 36th year of the cycle [i.e. May, 1959]

目錄
CONTENTS

背轉雙蓄勢
[1] STANDING WITH YOUR BACK TURNED, BOTH HANDS STORING POWER
入環右滾手
[2] KNEELING STANCE, RIGHT ROLLING HANDS
進式右漏手
[3] ADVANCE, RIGHT SLIPPING HANDS
入環右腰斬
[4] KNEELING STANCE, RIGHT SLICING THROUGH THE WAIST
登山左圈捶
[5] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT SWINGING PUNCH
登山左崩捶
[6] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT AVALANCHE PUNCH
七星左刁手
[7] BIG-DIPPER STANCE, LEFT HOOKING HAND
七星右補捶
[8] BIG-DIPPER STANCE, RIGHT FILLING PUNCH
雙封手扑腿
[9] DOUBLE SEALING HANDS, REACHING LEG
右前掃膛腿
[10] RIGHT FRONT SWEEP
左後掃膛腿
[11] LEFT BACK SWEEP
右前掃膛腿
[12] RIGHT FRONT SWEEP
七星雙刁手
[13] BIG-DIPPER STANCE, DOUBLE HOOKING HANDS
入環雙屯掌
[14] KNEELING STANCE, DOUBLE BRACING PALMS
登山左揷掌
[15] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT CHARGING PALM
登山右補捶
[16] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, RIGHT FILLING PUNCH
蹤跳穿心腿
[17] LEAP, THROUGH-THE-CENTER KICK
跌勢右叠肘
[18] FALLING INTO PLACE, RIGHT PILING ELBOW
七星雙擊掌
[19] BIG-DIPPER STANCE, PALMS STRIKING EACH OTHER
進式反衝爪
[20] ADVANCE, REVERSE THRUSTING CLAW
馬式反捕蟬
[21] HORSE-RIDING STANCE, TURNING AROUND TO CATCH A CICADA
橫圈大擺蓮
[22] SWINGING PUNCH, LARGE SWINGING LOTUS KICK
登山掛統捶
[23] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, HANG & THRUST PUNCH
登山封統捶
[24] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, SEAL & THRUST PUNCH
穿劈右軋脚
[25] THREAD & CHOP, RIGHT CRUSHING KICK
登山左統捶
[26] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT THRUST PUNCH
劈軋右撩腿
[27] CRUSHING CHOP, RIGHT RAISING KICK
撤步右反掌
[28] WITHDRAWING STEP, RIGHT BACKHANDED PALM STRIKE
中式右叫圈
[29] CENTERING STANCE, RIGHTWARD DRAMATIC CIRCLE
登山上圈捶
[30] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, SWINGING PUNCH
右抅摟採手
[31] RIGHT GRAB-PULL-TAKE
撤式左統捶
[32] WITHDRAWING STEP, LEFT THRUST PUNCH
馬式右補捶
[33] HORSE-RIDING STANCE, RIGHT FILLING PUNCH
右掠翅踢腿
[34] RIGHT SWATTING WINGS, KICK
登山左直統
[35] MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT STRAIGHT THRUST PUNCH
跨虎單鞭式
[36] SITTING-TIGER STANCE, SINGLE-WHIP POSTURE
雙封手圈脚
[37] DOUBLE SEALING HANDS, SWINGING KICK
跨虎右挑掌
[38] SITTING-TIGER STANCE, RIGHT [LEFT] CARRYING PALMS

第一式:背轉雙蓄勢
Posture 1: STANDING WITH YOUR BACK TURNED, BOTH FISTS STORING POWER

說明:
Explanation:
假定是由東方作起點者則我應面南,背北,左東,右西而立,目注視西方,雙脚合攏,雙手握拳抽至腰之上為止,如『定式圖』。
Assume this boxing set begins from the eastern part of the practice space and you are standing facing toward the south, the north behind you, the east on your left, the west on your right. With your gaze toward the west and your feet standing together, your hands grasp into fists and draw in until above your waist. See photo 1:

功用:
Application:
雙手握拳者可使臂部緊束而含有雄猛之力道者,抽高則有擴大胸部之作用,固未能使拳脚上有所發揮也。
Although your hands grasping into fists can make your arms firmer, meaning the exercise contains a powerful method of building strength, and pulling your fists up high will have the effect of expanding your chest, this posture does not yet really bring your fists and feet into play.

第二式:入環右滾手
Posture 2: KNEELING STANCE, RIGHT ROLLING HANDS

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,向西推進,先開右脚,繼跟左脚以成為入環步,兩拳同時化掌自腰部向右前方撥去,右長而直,左短而護於右肩之上,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, advance toward the west, first your right foot stepping out, then your left foot following it to make a kneeling stance, as your fists become palms and deflect toward the forward right, your right hand at long range, the arm straightening, left hand at short range, guarding over your right shoulder. See photo 2:

功用:
Application:
彼自我右方擊來,先坐馬低勢以讓之,復以滾手法分長短兩手撥出,長者主攻,短者守護,實寓有旣攻且守之意也。
An opponent attacks from the right, so I first squat down to evade it, then use a rolling-hands technique to deflect it away, one hand positioned at long range, the other at short range, the long-range hand attacking, the short-range hand guarding. This is a technique that actually contains both attack and defense.

第三式:進右漏手式
Posture 3: ADVANCE, RIGHT SLIPPING HANDS

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,雙脚同時溜進仍為入環步,雙掌隨步轉下,反由右外撥返左方(與上式頗類同一姿勢,惟其攻擊目標則成相反。)如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, my feet scoot forward, still making a kneeling stance, as my hands arc downward and then reverse from deflecting outward toward the right to going inward toward the left. (This posture ends up in the same position as in the previous posture, but the target is now on the opposite side.) See photo 3:

功用:
Application:
彼欲卸夫我之滾手,我迅卽改用漏手進擊,使彼無從躱避,滾漏手為螳螂拳慣用手法之一,且是具有連環性之作用,各拳中之有此手法者類皆如是,用此必以輕靈捷疾為可取,倘强作剛手推進,則與原意為大相逕庭矣。
The opponent tries to dispel my rolling-hands technique, so I quickly switch to using slipping hands to attack, causing him to have no way to evade. Rolling & slipping is a common combo in Mantis Boxing. It possesses a quality of continuous action. Each set that contains these techniques has them in this arrangement [rolling to strike across toward the right and then slipping around to strike across toward the left]. For this to work requires nimbleness and quickness. If you instead try to force your way through with hardness, the outcome will be nothing like the original intention.

第四式:入環右腰斬
Posture 4: KNEELING STANCE, RIGHT SLICING THROUGH THE WAIST

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先進左脚,跟進右脚以成左入環步,左手化拳曲肘橫架於頭上,右掌收後再斜斜切出,便成腰斬之勢,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot advances and then your right foot follows to make a left kneeling stance as your left hand becomes a fist and blocks over your head with the fist sideways, the elbow bent, and your right palm withdraws and then diagonally slices out, thus making the posture of “slicing through the waist”. See photo 4:

功用:
Application:
彼避過我滾漏之法,卽自我頭疾劈一捶,我先以左手架掠之,再進馬緊食其步,同時更以右掌切其腰部,使其重心失去平衡,而為我所乘矣。
The opponent evades my rolling & slipping combo and then quickly chops to my head, so I first use my left hand to block it away, then advance to crowd his stance as I use my right palm to cut to his waist area, causing him to lose his balance and putting myself in the advantageous position.

第五式:登山左圈捶
Posture 5: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT SWINGING PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,左脚開前以成左登山步,左拳隨步自左方圈過右方,至中央為定點,左拳與右掌相碰時乃發出「必卜」之聲,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps forward to make a left mountain-climbing stance as your left fist swings across from left to right until directly in front of you, the forearm striking against your right palm with an audible crack. See photo 5:

功用:
Application:
彼側身閃過我之腰斬,我不俟其有時間上之猶豫立卽以上架之捶橫圈其太陽穴或頸項之間焉。
上式為百份之百柔手,此式則為大剛之手,亦卽是由柔變剛之法也,螳螂拳之練習者必先分淸剛柔,然後配合時間,如是則練之者必易得到正確之進步矣。
The opponent turns his body sideways to dodge my slicing to his waist. Without giving him any time to adjust his position, I immediately send my left fist swinging across to his temple or neck. The previous posture is entirely a matter of softness, whereas this posture uses extreme hardness, meaning that this is a method of switching from softness to hardness. Mantis Boxing practitioners first have to distinguish clearly between techniques that use hardness and those that use softness, and then pair them together at the right moment. In this way, you will easily make proper progress.

第六式:登山左崩捶
Posture 6: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT AVALANCHE PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,原步不變,左圈之捶先由上轉下,復由內轉出,反捶自上打落,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your stance not changing, your left fist arcs downward from above and then outward from the inside, striking downward with a backfist. See photo 6:

功用:
Application:
彼坐馬避過我之圈捶,我一擊不中,當卽改用崩打法迎頭劈之,使彼欲再低馬亦無能為矣。圈捶崩捶為順勢,反之則搜遍全部螳螂拳皆無之者,亦屬連環之一,且為持續用剛手之着也,驟視似為短手,但實際使用時則可擊及遙遠距離之敵體也。
The opponent lowers his stance to evade my swinging punch. Once my attack has missed, I switch to using an avalanche punch to do a chopping strike to his face so that ducking lower will not help him get away. The swinging punch flows right into the avalanche punch. If it did not do so, this combo would never appear in the Mantis Boxing curriculum. This forms a continuous action, maintaining hardness from one technique to another. The avalanche punch may look like a short-range technique, but can actually reach an opponent at quite a distance.

第七式:七星左刁手
Posture 7: BIG-DIPPER STANCE, LEFT HOOKING HAND

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,右後脚一曲一坐,左前脚趾部一蹺卽成七星步矣,右拳收腰,左手化作刁手,肘部往下一沉,卽成如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg bends and sits, your left foot toes lifting to make a big-dipper stance, as your right fist withdraws to your waist and your left hand becomes a hooking hand, the elbow sinking down. See photo 7:

功用:
Application:
彼招去我之崩捶,更以另一手自我左方反攻,我立卽改前實之步為虛步,求解其勢,同時漏去左手以刁來手。圈捶崩捶俱是向前伸展之勢,此式則為畧退而寓守於攻之法,刁手為螳螂拳常有慣用之法門,亦是柔手之封閉法,許多攻勢皆由此而產生者,勿小覷其柔軟乏力為不足取也。
The opponent blocks away my avalanche punch, then uses his other hand to counterattack from my left side, so I immediately change my front leg to an empty step in order to dispel his force as I send out my left hand to hook away his incoming hand. Both the swinging punch and avalanche punch involve extending forward. This posture is a slight retreat that contains the potential for attack. The hooking hand is a habitual technique in Mantis Boxing, a soft-hand method for sealing off an opponent. Many attacks are able to emerge from this position, therefore do not look down upon its softness as making it powerless or worthless.

第八式:七星右補捶
Posture 8: BIG-DIPPER STANCE, RIGHT FILLING PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,進右脚亦成七星式,右拳自腰部衝出,至中途與左掌相碰發出「必卜」之聲,然後左掌乃貼於右肩之上,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot advances to make another big-dipper stance as your right fist thrusts out from your waist, striking against your left palm midway through to make an audible crack, your left palm then going over your right shoulder. See photo 8:

功用:
Application:
我旣刁得來手當卽進馬以另一手攻彼,使彼無掙脫之機會也。
螳螂拳每於刁手後多以補捶為殿者,查其意是補刁手之不足耳,且刁為柔而僅負責進攻上之橋樑而已!復加一補捶則攻擊之目的由是乃可完成矣。
Once I have hooked the opponent’s incoming hand, I immediately advance and attack him with my other hand, giving him no chance to get away. In Mantis Boxing, a hooking hand is typically followed by a filling punch. Examine the purpose of the filling punch: it is to supplement the incompleteness of the hooking hand, for the hooking hand is a soft action that is merely tasked with making a bridge by way of which you can then advance and attack. Then once you add the filling punch, the goal of your attack has been achievable thanks to the hooking hand.

第九式:雙封手扑腿
Posture 9: DOUBLE SEALING HANDS, REACHING LEG

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先提起右前脚復殿落地,當殿落時左後脚卽自後以扑腿法扑進矣,雙手同時化作封手翻過右方,惟至定點時則已變為雙拳,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right foot lifts and stomps down, and once it comes down, your left foot extends forward from the rear with a reaching-leg technique, your hands at the same time becoming sealing hands and covering your right side, becoming fists by the time they reach their final position. See photo 9:

功用:
Application:
彼擬將我手撥過左方以解我補捶之勢,我卽用先封閉來手,再翻身撲腿以剷其前鋒馬。使彼上下路俱受嚴重之威脅,扑腿乃亦步亦腿之兩用法,旣可減小上路之被擊,又可藉此而制敵於無法抗拒之境者。
The opponent tries to deflect my right hand toward his left to dispel my filling punch, so I first use sealing hands to close off his hand, then turn my body and reach out a leg to shovel away his front leg, causing both his upper body and lower body to be in a perilous position. The reaching leg has the dual function of being both stance and kick. It can duck my upper body away from getting hit and can also control the opponent so that he has no way to maneuver in his own defense.

第十式:右前掃膛腿
Posture 10: RIGHT FRONT SWEEP

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,雙拳化掌由右方轉過左方按地,右後脚由右方直掃過左方,掃時須全脚貼地為合,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists become palms, swing across to the left to push down onto the ground, and your right foot sweeps across to the left. When sweeping, the foot should be flat on the ground. See photo 10:

功用:
Application:
彼擬提腿避我之扑腿,我不待其脚着地,迅卽用右脚自後疾掃之,使避無可避也。
單是看圖片所示則與扑腿無異,惟扑腿是直剷法,此掃膛腿則自斜方橫掃者,其出發點與實際功用上有頗大分野也。
The opponent lifts his leg to evade my reaching leg. Before he has time to put it back down, I immediately send my right foot to sweep out his other leg, rendering him unable to evade me after all. Just judging from the photo, this posture appears to be no different from the reaching-leg technique, but the reaching leg shovels straight out, whereas the “sweep the hall” kick sweeps across from an angle, and so there is a great difference between them in terms of both their starting point and their function.

第十一式:左後掃膛腿
Posture 11: LEFT BACK SWEEP

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,雙手自左後方轉移,左後脚自後方循背後轉掃向前,(此是倒掃,與前後兩式均不同。)如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands shift across to your left from behind you and your left foot sweeps across forward from behind you as you turn around leftward. (This is a reverse sweep, different from the preceding and following postures.) See photo 11:

功用:
Application:
我直掃而前之法為彼躱開,於是我乃改用由後掃出之法,欲使彼不及防也。
凡用掃膛腿者如祗一着則其威脅性不大,但能以連續性使出頗使遇之者每感應付之不易,因此本拳之組成卽具備扑腿及左右前後之掃膛為可取也。
The opponent dodges away from my front sweep, so I switch to sending out a back sweep in hopes of overwhelming him. When applying sweeps, doing just one sweep is not terribly threatening, but continuing into sending out more of them makes it increasingly difficult for the opponent to respond to. This boxing set therefore contains so many reaching-leg positions in order to make these sweeping attacks worthwhile, performing a series of front and back sweeps, attacking with each leg.

第十二式:右前掃膛腿
Posture 12: RIGHT FRONT SWEEP

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,雙手先轉過左方,再用右後脚循面前掃過前方(與第十式同),如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands swing across to the left and your right foot sweeps across forward (same as in Posture 14). See photo 12:

功用:
Application:
雖與第十式相同,惟合此方足發揮全拳之精華也。
凡練習掃膛腿首先須練之至精純快捷為初步基礎,再進則需練腿勁,腿勁之練成比拳勁為難,必先具腿部柔活,進而自硬掃入手轉為柔勁,雖遇落地生根之步馬,吾亦可稍着勁卽能撲跌之為功之上乘也。
Although this is merely a repeat of Posture 10, these three sweeps in combination express the theme of this entire boxing set [i.e. emphasizing leg techniques over hand techniques in contrast to the Large-Scale set]. When practicing sweeps, first train for speed, then power. It is more difficult to develop kicking power than punching power [even though legs are inherently more powerful than arms], for it is first necessary to develop flexibility in order to then progress from sweeping with stiffness to delivering soft power. Then even if an opponent is lowered into a rooted stance, I can use minimal power and still be able to drop him by means of this superb technique.

第十三式:七星雙刁手
Posture 13: BIG-DIPPER STANCE, DOUBLE HOOKING HANDS

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,踏實右脚,拉起左脚以成左七星步,雙手化為刁手從下提起至與耳部看齊為合,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, go onto your right foot and pull back your left foot to make a left big-dipper stance as your hands become hooking hands and lift up until at ear level. See photo 13:

功用:
Application:
彼為避開我連續之前後掃膛法乃疾走我後方,或有另一人自我後方攻來,我迅卽轉身易馬,同時更以雙刁手法以迎拒兇猛之勢。
吾人練螳螂拳之單刁手則夥矣,惟雙刁手實小之又小,設遇對方雙捶揮擊我左右太陽穴,而我又必須招迎者,則此手乃大派用場矣。
The opponent avoids my continuous front and back sweeps and then quickly slips around behind me, or another opponent comes to attack me from behind, so I quickly turn around, changing my stance, and use double hooking hands to block his fierce attack. When we practice Mantis Boxing, the single hooking hand is very common, but the use of double hooking hands is comparatively rare. If an opponent swings both fists to strike to my temples and I am in a position in which I have to block them, this technique is particularly suited for such a situation.

第十四式:入環雙屯掌
Posture 14: KNEELING STANCE, DOUBLE BRACING PALMS

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,左前脚往前踏進半步,後脚跟入以成入環之勢,雙刁手同時化掌自胸前直出,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot advances a half step and your rear foot follows it to make a kneeling stance as your double hooking hands become palms and go straight out from your chest. See photo 14:

功用:
Application:
彼雙手已為我雙刁手所封閉,其胸脯部份必暴露無遺,我乃緊食其弱點,立卽進馬以雙掌直屯其胸部。
我雙刁手是全身畧向後移者,此式則步隨手進而標入,勢順力强為其特優之點也。
Once the opponent’s hands have been sealed off by my hooking hands, his chest area will be completely exposed, so I urgently take advantage of this vulnerable area by immediately advancing and sending double bracing palms to his chest. With my double hooking hands, my whole body slightly shifted to the rear, but this posture involves my feet going along with my hands by darting forward, adding to the power enormously.

第十五式:登山左揷掌
Posture 15: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT CHARGING PALM

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,踏右脚,進左脚以成登山步,左掌先收腰部然後直揷而出,右拳收腰部不動,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down and your left foot advances to make a mountain-climbing stance as your left palm first withdraws to your waist and then charges straight out, your right palm also withdrawing to your waist but then staying there. See photo 15:

功用:
Application:
彼退馬以避我之雙屯掌,我卽用踏步法跟進一步,再以左揷掌進擊之。
雙屯掌是採取正面直擊法,單揷掌是徧身側馬而溜步者,前者為合掌分力,此則分掌集勁,正是各有千秋也。
The opponent retreats to evade my double bracing palms, so I step to follow him forward, then send my left palm charging out to strike him. The technique of double bracing palms is a method of attacking with the body facing squarely, whereas the single charging palm involves the body turning sideways and the foot sliding out. The previous technique uses the combined power of both palms, whereas this technique uses the concentrated power of a single palm. Both techniques have their own timeless value.

第十六式:登山右補捶
Posture 16: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, RIGHT FILLING PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,進右脚以成右登山式,右拳自腰部直出,至中途與左掌相碰,而發出「必卜」之聲,便成如『定式圖』
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot advances to make a right mountain-climbing stance as your right fist thrusts out from your waist, striking against your left palm midway through, making an audible crack. See photo 16:

功用:
Application:
彼退馬避過我左掌,我卽以右拳塡補右方之空虛。
揷掌是集中力道進攻左方者,彼此必感右方為空虛無疑,我若不再由彼方右進攻實無異給予機會使彼由我右方攻來耳!因此我必須把握機會,毋蹈「一朝縱敵數世之患」之惡果也。
The opponent retreats to evade my left palm, so I send my right fist to fill the gap on the right side. The charging palm concentrated power in an attack on the left side. He will surely notice in that moment that my right side is consequently open, and so if I do not then attack him from my right side, it would be the same as giving him the chance to attack my right side. Because of this, I have to seize the opportunity and not make this classic mistake [quoting from Master Lü’s Commentary to the Spring & Autumn Annals, Duke of Xi, year 33]: “If you ever let the enemy get away, he will only cause suffering forever”.

第十七式:蹤跳穿心腿
Posture 17: LEAP, THROUGH-THE-CENTER KICK

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將右前拳化為封手,提起左後脚,如「過渡式」。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right fist changes to a sealing hand as your left foot lifts behind. See photo 17a:

再蹤身直前撑出踏地之右脚,左捶同時打出,而右拳則往後拉齊肩為止,如『定圖式』。
Then your body leaps forward [your left foot coming down] and your right foot goes out with a bracing kick as your left fist strikes out and your right fist pulls back beside your right shoulder. See photo 17b:

功用:
Application:
彼擬以手來搭我之右捶,我乃順手封之,蹤身衝前並以撑腿法撑之,右手封而往後力拖,左拳照口面打之。
The opponent tries to send out a hand to block my right fist, so I use my right hand to seal off his hand, then leap forward and send out a bracing kick as my right hand forcefully drags to the rear and my left fist strikes to his mouth.

第十八式:跌勢右叠肘
Posture 18: FALLING INTO PLACE, RIGHT PILING ELBOW

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將全身向上抽起,連踏地之左脚亦使之凌空,再兩脚同時以如跌下之狀而落地,斜線作登山之勢,右手曲肘向前叠出,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your whole body rises up so that even your left foot is off the ground and then your feet come down together as though you are falling, your feet spreading apart into a mountain-climbing stance along a diagonal line, as your right arm piles forward, the elbow bent. See photo 18:

功用:
Application:
彼以我凌空而起乃突然自我中路攻來,我卽採用如醉酒拳中之跌狀落下,旣使步法穩定又可同時以叠肘法橫壓來手。
The opponent makes use of the moment that I am rising up and suddenly attacks to my middle area, so I make use of an action of falling into place that looks as if it would be from Drunken Boxing, which causes me to stabilize into a stance, and at the same time I can send a piling elbow across to press away his incoming hand.

第十九式:七星雙擊掌
Posture 19: BIG-DIPPER STANCE, PALMS STRIKING EACH OTHER

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將右脚移正線以成右七星步之勢,雙手化掌,右者自前反擊,左掌則向前迎之乃成相擊不勢,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot shifts onto the straight line to make a right big-dipper stance as your hands becomes palms and strike against each other, your right hand striking in front with the back of the hand, your left hand going forward to meet it and striking with the palm. See photo 19:

功用:
Application:
我叠肘為彼沉肘消去,彼更乘我一擊不中之後出手由我左上方擊來,我乃用雙擊掌法破之。
The opponent dispels my piling elbow by sinking his elbow onto it, then takes advantage of the position once I have missed by sending out a hand to strike to my upper left, and so I use the technique of striking my palms together to defeat his attack.

第二十式:進式反衝爪
Posture 20: ADVANCE, REVERSE THRUSTING CLAW

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先提起右前脚探進約有半步之遙,再拖進左脚,仍為右七星步,右掌則化作刁手,用反刁法跟步衝出,左掌緊貼右肩之上,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right foot advances another half step, your left foot sliding forward to keep you in a right big-dipper stance, as your right palm becomes a hooking hand and thrusts out using the wrist area, your left palm going over your right shoulder. See photo 20:

功用:
Application:
彼手為我雙擊掌所糾纏,乃欲掙脫之,我隨卽拖步跟進以反爪衝擊其肋內部。
The opponent’s hand has gotten snared between my hands and tries to yank it free, so I immediately slide my feet forward and send out a reverse thrusting claw to strike to his ribs.

第二十一式:馬式反捕蟬
Posture 21: HORSE-RIDING STANCE, TURNING AROUND TO CATCH A CICADA

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將七星之脚往左方踏去,而左脚則向左方移開以成馬式之勢雙手自面前繞過,轉如一圈形之狀,而成為左直右彎之雙刁手,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right foot comes in and stomps down, then your left foot steps out to the left to make a horse-riding stance, your hands arcing in front of your face, drawing a circle that puts your arms in a position of double hooking hands with your left arm straight and your right arm bent. See photo 21:

功用:
Application:
彼忽走我後方,擬自我腦擊來,我卽反身轉勢,先以右手刁去來手,左手轉取其喉部或抓眼睛,此種手法在螳螂中為不多見者,為陰手而具有最迅速之實用攻擊法也。
An opponent suddenly attacks from behind, wanting to strike to the back of my head, so I turn around, first using my right hand to hook aside his incoming hand, then sending my left hand to attack his throat or snatch an eyeball. This kind of technique is often seen within the Mantis art, a subtle action followed by a swift and substantial attack.

第二十二式:橫圈大擺蓮
Posture 22: SWINGING PUNCH, LARGE SWINGING LOTUS KICK

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,右拳以圈捶之狀向前圈去,同時右脚亦以撑腿之法,由後橫掃而出,腿愈高愈妙,惟須手脚合一方可使重心得以穩定,踏地之脚亦隨勢而移動,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist goes forward with a swinging punch as your right foot kicks out from the rear, sweeping across [from right to left], the higher the better. Your punch and kick have to act in unison in order to maintain balance. The foot will follow through to step back down. See photo 22:

功用:
Application:
彼架去我鎖喉之法,我卽改以上圈捶,空中掃腿之法同時進擊,使其無處躱避也。
腿在水平線上橫掃者名曰擺蓮腿,進擊目的是以腰背為蒿矢,發出力道至為强大,但須多練與恰好機會方能致用。
The opponent blocks my attack to his throat, so I switch to attacking above with a swinging punch while also attacking the middle with a sweeping kick, causing him to have nowhere to hide. When a kick sweeps across along a horizontal line, it is called “swinging lotus kick”. The main target of this attack is the lower back and the power is enormous, but you must train it a lot and use it at exactly the right moment in order for it to be effective.

第二十三式:登山掛統捶
Posture 23: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, HANG & THRUST PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將擺出之右脚轉返後方而踏地,兩手仍照原狀垂下,再自左方轉出以成左登山式,左手化拳曲肘橫架於頭上,右拳則自腰部打出,即成如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right swinging foot first spins you around [leftward] to the rear and steps down, your hands coming back down, then you continue the turn [by stepping out with your left foot] and make a left mountain-climbing stance as your left hand becomes a fist and blocks across above your head, the elbow bent, and your right fist strikes out from your waist. See photo 23:

功用:
Application:
當我轉身擺蓮之後,彼必跟入攻擊我後,因此我乃有此着以殿其勢,使彼無害於我也。
Once I am turning around from the swinging lotus kick, the opponent will seize the moment to attack my back, and so I use this technique to deal with his attack, rendering him unable to harm me.

第二十四式:登山封統捶
Posture 24: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, SEAL & THRUST PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,由右方全身轉歸後方,先踏右後脚,再進左脚以成左登山步,兩手同時由上封落,再統出右拳卽成,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your whole body turns around rightward, your right foot first stomping and then your left foot advancing to make a left mountain-climbing stance as your hands seal downward from above and then your right fist thrusts out. See photo 24:

功用:
Application:
彼由我背後突擊一捶,我迅卽殿步轉身易勢,先以封手解去來手,復加一拳卽可化險為夷矣。
敵我對壘中突多一敵人為作戰上之重大打擊,古云:「雙手難敵四拳」今人動輒侈言可敵數十人者是自欺欺人語耳!試思敵我同一技術,同一造詣,亦有此可能否?除非是去醫院去襲擊病重之人耳。
An opponent suddenly attacks from behind me with a punch, so I quickly do a stomp as I turn around to change my position, first using sealing hands to send away his incoming hand and then sending out a punch, thereby transforming a situation of danger into safety. When I am facing an opponent and suddenly there are many other opponents, the fight becomes much more serious. There is an old saying: “Two fists are no match for four hands.” Modern people frequently fall prey to the delusion that a practitioner will be able to defend himself against dozens of attackers. How could that work if his attackers have had the same training and are at the same level as he is? Such a situation would really only increase the likelihood of a visit to the hospital.

第二十五式:穿劈左軋脚
Posture 25: THREAD & CHOP, CRUSHING KICK

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先進右脚仍為登山式,左手自腋下穿出至右拳鋒外,如「過渡式」。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right foot advances to make another mountain-climbing stance as your left hand threads out from your armpit all the way to the outside of your right knuckles. See photo 25a:

再將右拳拉後,左手收回腰部,右拳微曲肘部由前劈返,同時左脚由後橫軋而出,如『定式圖』。
Then your right fist pulls back, your left hand withdrawing to your waist, and your right fist chops out forward, the elbow slightly bent, as your left foot goes out with a crushing kick, the foot angled sideways. See photo 25b:

功用:
Application:
彼以來手握吾手,我卽以左手穿之,先將被捉之手解脫,再伸手往前劈之,更以左脚橫軋其脛如彈腿之第一路焉。
The opponent sends out a hand to grab my right hand, so I send my left hand threading out to first break my right hand free from his grip, then I extend my right hand, chopping forward, as I also send out my left foot with a crushing kick to his shin, same as in Line 1 of Fourteen-Line Tantui.

第二十六式:登山左統捶
Posture 26: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT THRUST PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將軋出之脚往後撤退以成右登山式,右手收腰,左拳則自腰部統出,如「定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot retreats to make a right mountain-climbing stance as your right hand withdraws to your waist and your left fist thrusts out from your waist. See photo 26:

功用:
Application:
彼坐馬分上下兩手以迎解我手脚之齊攻,我卽收拳撤腿使彼無從捉摸,反以左拳直統其面部。拳擊之道是取上打下,打左防右,打右防左,斯為一定之理,至或其眞或假則卽是文字上之所謂是也,孫子兵法云:虛者實之,實者虛之,虛虛實實,實實虛虛有如陰陽之難知也。
The opponent sits into a horse-riding stance and spreads his hands upward and downward to dispel the simultaneous attacks from my hand and foot, so I withdraw my fist and retract my leg before he is able to connect with them, and instead I send out my left fist with a straight thrust punch to his face. This method of switching attacks is the same principle as aiming above but then striking below, or defending to one side but then attacking to the other, using a fake technique and then a real one. It says in the Art of War [it actually does not]: “Follow fake with real, real with fake. Fake and real. Real and fake. Let them be as difficult to comprehend as the passive and active aspects themselves.”

第二十七式:劈軋右撩腿
Posture 27: CRUSHING CHOP, RIGHT RAISING KICK

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,收左拳,右拳自腰部劈去,同時撩出右脚,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left fist withdraws as your right fist chops out from your waist, and then your right foot goes out with a raising kick. See photo 27:

功用:
Application:
我先以右拳劈去來手,再以右脚撩起,彼乃感中下路俱受我威脅矣。本拳第二十五式是劈手而加以軋腿,則畧短而剛。此式亦是先劈手,但捨軋腿而用撩腿,撩腿此軋腿為長,日目的點威脅性更大,兩者同一手法而變換其腿者正是各有所取也。
I first use my right fist to chop away the opponent’s incoming hand, then send out my right foot with a raising kick, making him feel threatened in both his middle area and lower area. Posture 25 of this set involves a chopping hand in tandem with a crushing kick, slightly shortening the range and increasing the hardness. This posture first uses a chopping hand and then sends out a raising kick instead of a crushing kick. The raising kick has more softness and longer range, thus increasing the threat. Both of these postures use the same hand technique, but switch the kicks, and both versions are useful in their own way.

第二十八式:撤式反右掌
Posture 28: WITHDRAWING STEP, RIGHT BACKHANDED PALM STRIKE

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將踏地之左脚以小跳方式往後退約一步之遠,使踢出之右脚跟住撤退,再成為右登山式,兩掌反手分右長,左短同時自上蓋落,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your standing left foot hops back about a step and then your right foot comes down withdrawing to again make a right mountain-climbing stance as your hands roll over, your right hand going out at long range, your left hand at short range covering downward from above. See photo 28:

功用:
Application:
彼閃開我之撩腿,並擬衝入求反擊,我以其勢速,乃用小跳返身法撤離,並用反掌法迎頭痛擊之。
反掌蓋下驟視之似柔軟無力者,惟久練螳螂拳藝者多知本門拳技中之「大小番天印」常能重創對手,反掌亦斯法之變通而已。
The opponent dodges away from my raising kick and tries to thrust forward to counterattack, so I take his power and speed into account by slightly hopping back and then use a backhanded palm strike to attack his head. A backhanded palm strike looks as though it would be too soft and without power, but those who practice Mantis Boxing for a long time come to understand that the technique of OVERTURNED-SKY STAMP can do serious damage to an opponent, and that the backhanded palm strike is simply a variation of such a technique.

第二十九式:中式右叫圈
Posture 29: CENTERING STANCE, RIGHTWARD DRAMATIC CIRCLE

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,右前脚一拉,左後脚一跟,旣進前又可成為中式步,兩掌化成左陽右陰之封手隨步拖返,迨至定式則變成雙拳矣,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot pulls back and your left foot comes forward to make a centering stance as your hands perform a sealing action, pulling across with the center of the left hand facing upward and the center of the right hand facing downward, becoming fists by the time they reach their final position. See photo 29:

功用:
Application:
彼坐馬以拳攻我中下路,我亦用低馬叫圈法以封閉來手。但凡用封手者首先須分明是全陰手封法抑或是前陽後陰手,全陰手是用全身力道自上壓下如獅子搏兎之勢。陰陽封法則陽者往上抽陰者向下壓,卽是陽者緊握肘部而陰者封腕也,我用力一分乃可斷其臂矣。
The opponents lowers his stance and sends a fist to attack my middle area or lower area, so I too lower my stance and perform a dramatic-circle technique to seal off his incoming hand. When performing any sealing action, it is first necessary to decide whether it will be an entirely one-handed downward-facing sealing or a two-handed sealing with the front hand facing upward and rear hand facing downward. In either case, it involves the power of the whole body going into the rear hand and pressing downward from above, like the action of a lion catching a rabbit. With two-handed sealing, the front hand draws upward and the rear hand presses downward, the front hand gripping his elbow and the rear hand controlling his wrist. If I then apply force in these two directions, I can break his arm.

第三十式:登山上圈捶
Posture 30: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, SWINGING PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,右脚先進前半步,復撑直後脚以成右登山步,右拳自後下方橫圈而前至正中而止,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right foot advances a half step and then your left leg straightens to make a right mountain-climbing stance as your right fist goes from below in the rear and swings across forward until directly in front of you [with your left palm striking against your right forearm]. See photo 30:

功用:
Application:
我旣用呌圈法封閉來手,其上乃感空虛矣,於是我乃用上圈捶襲彼太陽位置矣。
不獨彼給予我以可襲之機,抑且我叫圈法先已牽彼而來,我再乘勢衝前圈擊之,是勢順而力强實無可招禦之着也。
Once I have used the dramatic-circle technique to seal off the opponent’s incoming hand, his upper area is now open, and so I now use a swinging punch to attack his left temple. Not only does the dramatic-circle technique give me an opportunity to attack, it also draws him in so that when I take advantage of the moment to swing forward and strike him, it is too efficient and powerful for him to be able to defend against it.

第三十一式:右抅摟採手
Posture 31: RIGHT GRAB-PULL-TAKE

說明:
Explanation:
循上式:原步標前仍為右登山式,手則用右刁,左封,再出右拳卽成採手之勢,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your feet staying in their position, dart forward, still making a right mountain-climbing stance, as your right hand hooks, your left hand seals, and then your right fist goes out, performing an action of “taking”. See photo 31:

功用:
Application:
初習螳螂者多以為如此繁複雜之手法為難用,迨習之躭久,運用旣純之後便打破最初之觀念矣。
且抅摟採手是包括剛柔,虛實,攻守於一着之內矣,抅是用柔手招去敵來之手也,摟是實着之封閉,虛實已分明矣,復加一拳乃進攻也,於是我先柔後剛,先守後攻俱一一做到矣。
In the beginning of learning the Mantis art, you will often find this kind of technique to be overcomplicated and difficult to perform, but after practicing it for a long time, the movement will have become natural, and will instead be easy to use. The grab-pull-take technique contains hardness and softness, emptiness and fullness, and attack and defense within a single technique. Grabbing uses softness to block away the opponent’s incoming hand and then pulling uses fullness to seal it off. After these distinct empty and full actions, a punch is then added as the attack. Therefore I first use softness and then hardness, first defending and then attacking, one thing following upon another.

第三十二式:撤式左統捶
Posture 32: WITHDRAWING STEP, LEFT THRUST PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,原步往後倒退約半步之遠,收右拳,出左拳卽成,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your feet maintaining their position, retreat about a half step while withdrawing your right fist and sending out your left fist. See photo 32:

功用:
Application:
彼以手來搭我手,我順手封之乘倒退之勢而以左拳衝擊其面部。
本拳之二十六式是先以腿分去敵方注視然後用統捶者,此式則是欲進先退以誘敵躁進彼苦受貽則所受者可增强力道至若干倍?其所以區別其他統捶在斯也。
The opponent sends out a hand to connect with my attacking hand, so I use the same hand to seal off his hand as I retreat, then thrust out my left fist to strike to his face. Posture 26 of this set is preceded by a kick to distract the opponent’s attention, and then the thrust punch is applied. In this posture, I want to advance, but I first retreat to draw him into my attack, thus doubling the force of what he receives from me. This is what distinguishes this particular thrust punch from the rest.

第三十三式:馬式右補捶
Posture 33: HORSE-RIDING STANCE, RIGHT FILLING PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,原步左右不變全身衝前以成騎馬式,同時右拳自腰部衝出,便成補捶之勢,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, with your feet maintaining their position, your whole body darts forward into a horse-riding stance as your right fist thrusts out from your waist, performing a filling punch. See photo 33:

〔功用:〕
[Application:]
彼以手來招我左捶,我卽原馬標前用補捶法以擊其心臟部位。
合三十一式及三十弍式連同本式卽為螳螂拳之「黑虎偸心」法矣,惟三十二之撤式是可以不用而以標前之法者,因勢利導固不可以成法自累也。
The opponent sends out a hand to block my left fist, so I dart forward, maintaining my foot position, and strike to his solar plexus. Combined with Postures 31 and 32, these three postures form the Mantis Boxing technique of BLACK TIGER STEALS THE HEART, although Posture 32 in this case is withdrawing instead of darting forward as usual, an example of how adapting to circumstances cannot work if you get overly attached to particular patterns.

第三十四式:右掠翅踢腿
Posture 34: RIGHT SWATTING WINGS, KICK

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將補捶垂下,然後化成雙掌分右長,左短與右腿同時而出,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your filling punch lowers, then your hands become palms and spread across so that your right hand is at long range and your left hand is at short range, your right leg at the same time kicking out. See photo 34:

功用;
Application:
彼招開我偸心之勢,再由上部襲擊我,我乃以雙掌消解之,續以脚撩其下部。
掠翅之法其佳妙處是用左短之掌撥去來手,再以右長之掌拍擊其臉傍,不論打到與否皆可收到掩蔽敵視線之效,使我撩腿得順利達成使命也。
The opponent blocks away my heart-stealing punch, then suddenly attacks my upper area, so I use both palms to dispel his attack, then continue by sending a raising kick to his lower area. The swatting-wings technique is a wonderful thing. It uses the left short-range palm to deflect the opponent’s incoming hand, then uses the right long-range palm to slap to his face. Even if it does not manage to strike his face, it can always achieve the effect of blocking his view, enabling my raising kick to easily reach its target.

第三十五式:登山左直統
Posture 35: MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING STANCE, LEFT STRAIGHT THRUST PUNCH

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先將踢出之右脚落於面前,再將左脚開出以成左登山式,左拳經過胸前然後直統而出,右拳則斜斜垂於後方,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right foot comes down in front of you and then your left foot steps out to make a left mountain-climbing stance as your left fist passes in front of your chest and then thrusts straight out, your right fist hanging diagonally behind you. See photo 35:

功用:
Application:
彼疾走過我後方,我不俟其手來卽搶先跟其往後之法以直統法攻擊之。
此直統法又與其他之統捶法有別,螳螂拳之統捶多先封得來手始予統出者,惟此式則祗隨步轉移而統出耳,且用力發勁上比較前者為更難,練之者祈注意及之。
The opponent quickly evades around behind me, and so instead of waiting to deal with an incoming hand, I pre-empt him by following him and attacking him with a thrust punch. This particular thrust punch is different to the rest of the thrust punches. The thrust punch in Mantis Boxing usually involves first sealing off an incoming hand and then delivering the punch, but in this case there is only stepping and turning around before punching. It is more difficult to fully express power with this version, a point which I hope practitioners will give attention to.

第三十六式:跨虎單鞭式
Posture 36: SITTING-TIGER STANCE, SINGLE-WHIP POSTURE

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,拉起左脚以成左跨虎步,左拳往後拉成曲肘卽成單鞭式矣,右拳仍舊不變,如『定式圖』。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot pulls back to make a left sitting-tiger stance as your left fist pulls back to the rear to make a “single whip” posture with the elbow bent, the position of your right fist not changing. See photo 36:

功用:
Application:
彼方欲用手來迎我直統,我不俟其手到卽漏手圈其太陽穴。
如以圖形視之似為短手,但其用時乃為極長之手,祗不過由長攻而以定式為短而已,單鞭法為極剛之手,且攻擊處又是最重要之部位,用之受之俱勿輕率出此以也。
The opponent tries to send out a hand to block my thrust punch, but before his hand arrives, I switch to swinging my hand toward his right temple. The image makes this look like a short-range technique, but the function makes it a long-range technique. It simply goes from a long-range attack to a short-range final posture. The “single whip” is a technique of extreme hardness and the target is a very vulnerable area. Do not use it rashly.

第三十七式:雙封手圈脚
Posture 37: DOUBLE SEALING HANDS, SWINGING KICK

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,原步向左一扭,兩手則化作刁手,向右後方抅去,如「過渡式」
Continuing from the previous posture, stay where you are and twist to the left as your hands become hooking hands and hook away to the right rear. See photo 37a:

再踢出右後脚,如『定式圖』。
Then your right foot kicks out. See photo 37b:

功用:
Application:
彼進前擬自我中路攻來,我卽用雙手刁去之,同時用圈脚法以撩其陰。
The opponent advances to attack my middle area, and so I use both hands to hook away his attack, then use a swinging kick to do a raising attack to his groin.

第三十八式:跨虎右挑掌
Posture 38: SITTING-TIGER STANCE, RIGHT [LEFT] CARRYING PALMS

說明:
Explanation:
循上式,先原手不動,踢起之脚自面前經過再轉落於後方,如「過渡式」。
Continuing from the previous posture, with the position of your hands not changing, your right foot comes down to the rear, passing in front of you in an arc. See photo 38a:

再循左轉身,變為左跨虎步,再左,右,左連挑三掌便成為『定式圖』。
Then you turn around to the left, switching to a left sitting-tiger stance, and send out three carrying palms (left, right, left). See photo 38b:

功用:
Application:
彼以手來握我之頭髮,我若被握則全身皆受其危矣,於是我乃用掌分穿來手其險自解矣,仰亦此拳之收式勢也。
The opponent sends out a hand to grab my hair. If my hair gets grabbed, my whole body will be in danger, and so I send my palms threading out one after the other to dispel this threat. This also serves as the closing posture of the set.

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