[Part Three of 精武本紀 The Annals of Jingwu, published Dec, 1919]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Dec, 2019]


☉運動會紀 陳鐵生


Every autumn, the Jingwu Association holds a Martial Arts Graduation Ceremony, and for that occasion there are performances given. The 1st Graduation Ceremony was held on Oct 27, 1912, at our second location in the Wang Family Neighborhood. In the middle of the sports ground, we had a stage built on which to perform martial arts. There were several thousand visitors watching from all around it. First there was a speech given by Jingwu Association president Yuan Hengzhi, and then these performances were given by various members and instructors:

[1] Liu Rixuan, Liu Guanshan, Ning Zhuting, and Pu Kuoting: first six lines of Tantui
[2] Xu Renlong: Piercing Fists, first half of Articulated Boxing
[3] Li Guoji & Li Liangyou: a tandem performance of Gongli Boxing
[4] Chen Baoyi: Swinging Kicks
[5] Yuan Sun: Gongli Boxing
[6] Yao Chanbo: Eight-Trigrams Saber, Piercing Fists
[7] Zhou Haoru: second half of Articulated Boxing
[8] Wang Weifan & Li Huisheng: Two-Person Tantui
[9] He Qingtao: Large-Scale Fight
[10] Liu Yichen: Arhat Boxing, Double Sabers
[11] Xu Botang: Shepherd’s Staff, Blue Dragon Boxing
[12] Qiu Liang: Cross-Shaped Fight, Spring & Autumn Halberd
[13] Gao Yaofu & Hu Yunchang: Cooperative Fight
[14] Chen Gongzhe: Articulated Boxing
[15] Li Dichu: Eight-Trigrams Saber, Escaping-Techniques Fight
[16] Lu Weichang: Low-Posture Fight, Fifth Tiger’s Spear
[17] Ping Xueshi: Soft Whip
[18] Li Huisheng: Liuhe Saber
[19] Li Peiran: Swinging Kicks
[20] Qiu Liang & Chen Gongzhe: Tying Boxing
[21] Wang Weifan: Handwork-Training Set
[22] Xu Zhenhan: Piercing Fists
[23] Wang Huanwen: Large-Scale Fight
[24] Li Dichu & Chen Gongzhe: Tying Boxing

There were then more demonstrations given by various instructors, as well as by various masters visiting from Guangdong, Shandong, Zhejiang, and Hunan. The event concluded at 5pm. Whenever we hold such gatherings, there is usually pouring rain, but on that particular occasion there happened to be a clear sky and it was a gratifyingly sunny day.


The 2nd Graduation Ceremony was held on Nov 8, 1914, again at the Wang Family Neighborhood location. For that occasion, the list of performances was printed as a program, listing the performances in this way:

尹鶴林 四潭腿接潭脮 金剛拳
[1] Yin Helin: Four-Line Tantui, Two-Person Tantui, Arhat Boxing
劉扆臣 大刀戰槍 對槍 雙鐧 提爐槍 黑虎拳
[2] Liu Yichen: Large Saber Versus Spear, Two-Person Spear, Double Maces, Furnace-Sparking Spear, Black Tiger Boxing
孫榮軒 四潭脮 八卦刀
[3] Sun Rongxuan: Four-Line Tantui, Eight-Trigrams Saber
浦闊亭 四潭腿 五虎拳
[4] Pu Kuoting: Four-Line Tantui, Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set
陳公哲 太祖拳 方天㦸 三節棍對槍 夜戰槍 對手八卦刀 靑龍拳 合戰下半 大刀戰槍 雙刀串槍 春秋大刀
[5] Chen Gongzhe: Taizu Boxing, Crescent Moons Halberd, Three-Section Staff Versus Spear, Night-Battle Spear, Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber, Blue Dragon Boxing, Second half of Cooperative Fight, Large Saber Versus Spear, Double Sabers Versus Spear, Spring & Autumn Halberd
劉日暄 四潭腿 八卦刀
[6] Liu Rixuan: Four-Line Tantui, Eight-Trigrams Saber
李迪初 脫戰 練手拳
[7] Li Dichu: Escaping-Techniques Fight, Handwork-Training Set
鄭灼辰 四工力拳 露花刀 紥拳 金剛拳 擋步搥 套拳
[8] Zheng Zhuochen: Four-Line Gongli Boxing, Glistening-Flower Saber, Tying Boxing, Arhat Boxing, Advance-Halting Boxing, Trapping Boxing
黎惠生 刀拐戰槍 合戰上半 八折拳 攔門槍 露花刀 對八卦刀
[9] Li Huisheng: Saber & Cane Versus Spear, First half of Cooperative Fight, Eight-Turnings Boxing, Gate-Blocking Spear, Glistening-Flower Saber, Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
馮蘭皋 四工力拳 雙刀 紥拳 大戰上半
[10] Feng Lan’gao: Four-Line Gongli Boxing, Double Sabers, Tying Boxing, first half of Large-Scale Fight
黃漢佳 四工力拳 套拳
[11] Huang Hanjia: Gongli Boxing, Trapping Boxing
馮鐵魂 四工力拳
[12] Feng Tiehun: Four-Line Gongli Boxing
陳洪鈞 羣羊棍 節拳 穿拳 二關西拳 紥拳
[13] Chen Jongjun: Shepherd’s Staff, Articulated Boxing, Piercing Fists, Second set of Western-Pass Boxing, Tying Boxing,
盧煒昌 大戰下半 春秋大刀 刀拐戰槍 合戰下半 大刀戰槍 雙刀串槍 五虎槍 雙鈎 節拳
[14] Lu Weichang: second half of Large-Scale Fight, Spring & Autumn Halberd, Saber & Cane Versus Spear, Second half of Cooperative Fight, Large Saber Versus Spear, Double Sabers Versus Spear, Fifth Tiger’s Spear, Double Hooks, Articulated Boxing
徐人龍 穿拳 八卦刀
[15] Xu Renlong: Piercing Fists, Eight-Trigrams Saber
陳善 套拳
[16] Chen Shan: Trapping Boxing
姚蟾伯 軟鞭 五虎架 三節棍對槍 單刀串槍 達摩劍 大刀戰槍 對手八卦刀 空手奪槍 虎頭鈎
[17] Yao Chanbo: Soft Whip, Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set, Three-Section Staff Versus Spear, Single Saber Versus Spear, Damo Sword, Large Saber Versus Spear, Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber, Empty-Hand Versus Spear, Tiger Head Hooks
王麐生 七步短打 硬搥
[18] Wang Linsheng: Seven-Steps Short Fighting, Hard-Hammer Boxing
陳敏 二關西拳 套拳
[19] Chen Min: Second set of Western-Pass Boxing, Trapping Boxing
甯竹亭 對八卦刀 擋步搥 合戰上半 雙刀 紥拳 單刀串槍
[20] Ning Zhuting: Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber, Advance-Halting Boxing, First half of Cooperative Fight, Double Sabers, Tying Boxing, Single Saber Versus Spear
王英章 工力拳
[21] Wang Yingzhang: Gongli Boxing
翁耀衡 溜脚勢
[22] Weng Yaoheng: Swinging Kicks
王寶鏡 套拳
[23] Wang Baojing: Trapping Boxing
周樹聲 節拳
[24] Zhou Shusheng: Articulated Boxing
黃漢昭 工力拳
[25] Huang Hanzhao: Gongli Boxing
邱亮 十字戰 短戰
[26] Qiu Liang: Cross-Shaped Fight, Low-Posture Fight
陳白濤 六合刀 劈山刀
[27] Chen Baitao: Liuhe Saber, Mountain-Chopping Saber
包雲祥 春秋刀
[28] Bao Yunxiang: Spring & Autumn Halberd
周芹如 二路練手拳
[29] Zhou Qinru: Second half of Handwork-Training Set
唐瑞華 小紥拳
[30] Tang Ruihua: Small Tying Boxing


In 1915, because the first two Jingwu Association athletic meets had been held on a sports ground, causing the guests and members to feel uncomfortably crowded, we therefore decided to hire a theater in the French Concession run by the People’s Prosperity New Opera Troupe (having a stage for musical performances) to take the place of the sports ground [thereby enabling spectators to sit evenly spaced in seats]. The 3rd Graduation Ceremony was held on Nov 21 at 1:30pm. The performances for the occasion are listed below.


1. Beginning the event
2. Announcements
3. Speeches
4. Performances
5. Giving diplomas to students
6. Guest performances
7. Performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members
8. Concluding the event

List of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members:

李國荃 雙鐧戰槍 紅字拳 齊眉棍
[1] Li Guoquan: Double Maces Versus Spear, Red-Mark Boxing, Eyebrow-Height Staff
王麐生 燕氏扣 春秋刀 劈面刀
[2] Wang Linsheng: Yan’s Trapping Techniques, Spring & Autumn Halberd, Face-Chopping Saber
金光曜 四工力拳 金剛拳 撩襠拳
[3] Jin Guangyao: Four-Line Gongli Boxing, Arhat Boxing, Uppercuts-to-the-Groin Boxing
劉飛熊 四工力拳 套拳 小紮拳
[4] Liu Feixiong: Four-Line Gongli Boxing, Trapping Boxing, Small Tying Boxing
李迪初 練手拳 齊眉棍 八折
[5] Li Dichu: Handwork-Training Set, Eyebrow-Height Staff, Eight-Turnings Boxing
陳洪鈞 八折拳 羣羊棍 紥拳
[6] Chen Jongjun: Eight-Turnings Boxing, Shepherd’s Staff, Tying Boxing
孫弘 大掃子 提鑪刀 摑耳棍
[7] Sun Hong: Two-Section Staff, Furnace-Sparking Saber, Ear-Slapping Staff
費實秋 套拳 摑耳棍 夜戰解腕刀
[8] Fei Shiqiu: Trapping Boxing, Ear-Slapping Staff, Night-Battle Spear, Wrist-Cutting Saber
黃漢佳 紥拳 穿拳 溜脚式
[9] Huang Hanjia: Tying Boxing, Piercing Fists, Swinging Kicks
徐振漢 三步槍 靑龍拳
[10] Xu Zhenhan: Three-Steps Spear, Blue Dragon Boxing
沈季修 齊眉棍 頭路刀
[11] Shen Jixiu: Eyebrow-Height Staff, Basic Saber Set
林逸雲 八極拳 露花槍
[12] Lin Yiyun: Baji Boxing, Glistening-Flower Spear
陳國衡 雙鐧戰槍 二路拳
[13] Chen Guoheng: Double Maces Versus Spear, Two-Line Boxing Set
葉棣瑄 工力拳 八折
[14] Ye Dixuan: Gongli Boxing, Eight-Turnings Boxing
翁耀衡 羣羊棍 紮拳
[15] Weng Yaoheng: Shepherd’s Staff, Tying Boxing
徐人龍 節拳 八卦刀
[16] Xu Renlong: Articulated Boxing, Eight-Trigrams Saber
徐勁行 練手拳 溜脚勢
[17] Xu Jinxing: Handwork-Training Set, Swinging Kicks
陳漢卿 愛中拳 齊眉棍
[18] Chen Hanqing: Target-Loving Boxing, Eyebrow-Height Staff
張英甫 撲拳 盤花刀
[19] Zhang Yingfu: Pouncing Boxing, Coil & Flourish Saber
陳白濤 六合刀 劈山刀
[20] Chen Baitao: Liuhe Saber, Mountain-Chopping Saber
王寶鏡 關西拳 五虎拳
[21] Wang Baojing: Western-Pass Boxing, Fifth Tiger’s Boxing
包雲祥 春秋刀 靑龍拳
[22] Bao Yunxiang: Spring & Autumn Halberd, Blue Dragon Boxing
秦公望 八卦刀 溜脚式
[23] Qin Gongwang: Eight-Trigrams Saber, Swinging Kicks
過輝 節拳 套拳
[24] Guo Hui: Articulated Boxing, Trapping Boxing
周瀚恩 小紥拳 露花刀
[25] Zhou Han’en: Small Tying Boxing, Glistening-Flower Saber
周芹如 下路練手拳
[26] Zhou Qinru: second half of Handwork-Training Set
吳耀之 上路練手拳
[27] Wu Yaozhi: first half of Handwork-Training Set
劉冠山 工力拳
[28] Liu Guanshan: Gongli Boxing
孫榮軒 金剛拳
[29] Sun Rongxuan: Arhat Boxing
李偉卿 工力拳
[30] Li Weiqing: Gongli Boxing
鄭灼辰 露花刀 二郎拳 五虎槍 擋步搥 對手刀 三節棍 六潭腿
[31] Zheng Zhuochen: Glistening-Flower Saber, Second Son’s Boxing Set, Fifth Tiger’s Spear, Advance-Halting Boxing, Two-Person Saber, Three-Section Staff, Six-Line Tantui
劉扆臣 黑虎拳 雙鐧 大刀戰槍 雙拐戰槍 刀拐戰槍 六潭腿
[32] Liu Yichen: Black Tiger Boxing, Double Maces, Large Saber Versus Spear, Double Canes Versus Spear, Saber & Cane Versus Spear, Six-Line Tantui
孫毓庭 四工力拳 套拳 練手拳 八折
[33] Sun Yuting: Four-Line Gongli Boxing, Trapping Boxing, Handwork-Training Set, Eight-Turnings Boxing
邱亮 短戰 雙刺 十字戰 八折
[34] Qiu Liang: Low-Posture Fight, Double Needles, Cross-Shaped Fight, Eight-Turnings Boxing
馮蘭皋 六合刀 小紥拳 大戰 合戰
[35] Feng Lan’gao: Liuhe Saber, Small Tying Boxing, Large-Scale Fight, Cooperative Fight
甯竹亭 六潭腿 擋步搥 對手刀 三節棍 九節軟鞭 醉八仙 雙刀 虎頭鈎 雙腿插 串子 紥拳
[36] Ning Zhuting: Six-Line Tantui, Advance-Halting Boxing, Two-Person Saber, Three-Section Staff, Nine-Section Soft Whip, Drunken Eight Immortals, Double Sabers, Tiger-Head Hooks, Double-Kicks Charging, “String of Beads” [a two-person set], Tying Boxing
陳公哲 盤龍棍 對大刀 大刀戰槍 掃子戰槍 開門豹 雙刀戰槍 對手槍 六潭腿 太祖拳 方天戟 攔門鈌
[37] Chen Gongzhe: Coiling-Dragon Staff, Two-Person Large Saber, Large Saber Versus Spear, Two-Section Staff Versus Spear, Gate-Opening Leopard, Double Sabers versus Spear, Two-Person Spear, Six-Line Tantui, Taizu Boxing, Crescent Moons Halberd, Gate-Blocking Lance.
姚蟾伯 盤龍棍 對大刀 大刀戰槍 掃子戰槍 開門豹 單刀槍 空手奪槍 少林拳 達摩劍 六潭腿
[38] Yao Chanbo: Coiling-Dragon Staff, Two-Person Large Saber, Large Saber Versus Spear, Two-Section Staff Versus Spear, Gate-Opening Leopard, Single Saber Versus Spear, Empty-Hand Versus Spear, Shaolin Boxing, Damo Sword, Six-Line Tantui
盧煒昌 大刀槍 雙拐戰槍 拐刀戰槍 串子 大刀 雙刀戰槍 槍戰槍 六潭腿 夜戰槍
[39] Lu Weichang: Large Saber Versus Spear, Double Canes Versus Spear, Saber & Cane Versus Spear, String of Beads, Large Saber, Double Sabers versus Spear, Spear Versus Spear, Six-Line Tantui, Night-Battle Spear
浦闊亭 四工力拳 雙腿插 合戰 脫戰 燕氏刀 抱月刀 五虎拳
[40] Pu Kuoting: Four-Line Gongli Boxing, Double-Kick Charging, Cooperative Fight, Escaping-Techniques Fight, Yan Qing’s Single Saber, Moon-Embracing Saber, Fifth Tiger’s Boxing
黃天星 工力拳
[41] Huang Tianxing: Gongli Boxing
尹鶴林 大槍
[42] Yin Helin: Large Spear
黃善祥 對齊眉棍
[43] Huang Shanxiang: Two-Person Eyebrow-Height Staff


1. The Jingwu Association holds an athletic meet every year. Due to insufficient seating, there have often been guests who were standing to watch the performances, consequently blocking the view of other guests, which we deeply regret. This year there are more seats provided, therefore please stay seated and do not stand, so as to not interfere with the view of the performances.

2. The Jingwu Association teaches Tantui first of all. It is suitable for everyone, whether taught individually or to groups, or to children. With its many hand techniques and stable footwork, it is very practical. Although comprised of a mere twelve lines, it is capable of fully expressing the three components of essence, energy, and spirit, and does not violate physiological principles in any way. It is truly the stepping stone for beginners, the foundation for learning these arts. It is initially taught by way of verbal commands for the sake of group instruction. It goes from the simple to the complex, the postures gradually becoming more strenuous, until finally its actions are driven entirely by spirit. If beginners do not manage to understand this material, and a half hour of daily practice is all it takes, then they will never be qualified to explain martial applications. This shows just how important it is.

3. Jingwu Association members have stars stitched onto their jackets. Two stars indicates a four-year graduate, one star indicates a two-year graduate, and no star indicates a beginning student. Each performer can only perform at the level he is at, and we hope you will pardon any differences in the quality of the postures.

4. Jingwu Association member Ning Zhuting has gone a full year without asking for a day of leave, truly a man of perseverance and stamina. Many of the older members had been requesting that he be acknowledged for his efforts long before he became an advanced-level graduate. He will receive a specially-made gold medal to serve as a model for other members. Beyond his schoolwork and his job, Ning has still been able to find time to assume the role of martial arts instructor for the Precious-Time Public Association Secondary School. He sets a great example of tireless hard work.

5. After giving the graduates their diplomas, there will be guest performances from various schools in various provinces. This is an opportunity for the Jingwu Association to introduce other styles of martial arts to spectators. Masters are invited to climb onto the stage and perform, washing off the former custom of secrecy in these arts to instead celebrate the achievements of other styles. After the guest performances, there will be performances from Jingwu instructors.

6. If guests want tea, they need only tell their waiter, but if the waiter is already busy with another task, they can also tell an usher.


The Jingwu Association held its 4th Graduation Ceremony in an opera theater, borrowing the new-style stage [a curved stage creating a more panoramic view, also involving modern lighting and multi-level seating] of the Shiliupu Theater, at the former address of the Phoenix Cry Theater, for the occasion. Taking place on Nov 5, the 1916 ceremony was the first to include martial arts graduates at the advanced level. Among the guests were Sun Yixian [i.e. “Yat-sen”], who gave a speech full of potent words about how martial arts are good for the body. He also talked about how science is flourishing, and that even though rifles and cannons have now outclassed the old weapons, our countrymen must nevertheless dedicate themselves to training in martial arts. Being a Doctor of Medicine, his words are imbued with a strong scientific awareness. The performances for the 4th Graduation Ceremony are listed below.


1. Music
2. Beginning the event
3. Announcements
4. Speeches
5. First section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members
6. Giving diplomas to students
7. Explanations of martial skills
8. Special performances by children from the Guangdong Primary School of Shanghai & the Chinese Railroad School
9. Second section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members
10. Concluding the event

First section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members:

一 姚蟾伯 陳公哲 鄭灼辰 盧煒昌 四潭腿
1. Yao Chanbo, Chen Gongzhe, Zheng Zhuochen, Lu Weichang: Four-Line Tantui
二 郭建霄 黃鳴岐 吳耀之 周傑生 四工力拳
2. Guo Jianxiao, Huang Mingqi, Wu Yaozhi, Zhou Jiesheng: Four-Line Gongli Boxing
三 黎惠生 溜脚勢
3. Li Huisheng: Swinging Kicks
四 甯竹亭 南派 醉溜膛
4. Ning Zhuting: Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall (a southern style)
五 林逸雲 露花槍
5. Lin Yiyun: Glistening-Flower Spear
六 孫毓庭 金剛耀 接潭腿 上六路
6. Sun Yuting & Jin Guangyao: first six lines of Two-Person Tantui
七 陳漢欽 南派 十八技
Chen Hanqin: Eighteen Techniques (a southern style)
八 費實秋 解腕刀
8. Fei Shiqiu: Wrist-Cutting Saber
九 邱亮 黎惠生 對齊眉
9. Qiu Liang & Li Huisheng: Two-Person Eyebrow-Height Staff
十 姚蟾伯 五虎架
10. Yao Chanbo: Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set
十一 鄭灼辰 露花刀
11. Zheng Zhuochen: Glistening-Flower Saber
十二 劉扆臣 黑虎拳
12. Liu Yichen: Black Tiger Boxing
十三 金光曜 羣羊棍
13. Jin Guangyao: Sheep-Herding Staff
十四 周錫三 翁達方 套拳
14. Zhou Xisan & Weng Dafang: Trapping Boxing
十五 盧煒昌 南派 十八技
15. Lu Weichang: Eighteen Techniques (a southern style)
十六 張勤益 南派 金槍手
16. Zhang Qinyi: Golden-Spear Hands (a southern style)
十七 黎惠生 大刀
17. Li Huisheng: Large Saber
十八 姚蟾伯 南派教員 孫贊軒 南派 紅操
18. Yao Chanbo (a southern styles instructor) & Sun Zanxuan: Hong’s Techniques (a southern style)
十九 張倬卿 脫戰
19. Zhang Zhuoqing: Escaping-Techniques Fight
二十 鄭灼辰 短戰
20. Zheng Zhuochen: Low-Posture Fight
二十一 劉扆臣 提爐鎗
21. Liu Yichen: Furnace-Sparking Spear
二十二 翁耀衡 黃漢佳 擋步搥
22. Weng Yaoheng & Huang Hanjia: Advance-Halting Boxing
二十三 陳公哲 大戰上
23. Chen Gongzhe: first half of Large-Scale Fight
二十四 馮蘭皋 大戰下
24. Feng Lan’gao: second half of Large-Scale Fight
二十五 陳公哲 太祖拳
25. Chen Gongzhe: Taizu Boxing
二十六 黎惠生 雙刺
26. Li Huisheng: Double Needles
二十七 陳國衡 南派 小梅花拳
27. Chen Guoheng: Small Plum-Blossom Boxing (a southern style)
二十八 姚蟾伯 鄭灼辰 空手鎗
28. Yao Chanbo & Zheng Zhuochen: Empty-Hand Versus Spear
二十九 邱亮 撩擋拳
29. Qiu Liang: Uppercuts-to-the-Groin Boxing
三十 盧煒昌 五虎鎗
30. Lu Weichang: Fifth Tiger’s Spear
三十一 費實秋 孫弘 提爐刀
31. Fei Shiqiu & Sun Hong: Furnace-Sparking Spear
三十二 林逸雲 獨臂拳
32. Lin Yiyun: One-Armed Boxing
三十三 甯竹亭 雙刀
33. Ning Zhuting: Double Sabers
三十四 教員李振江 浦闊亭 雙刺戰鎗
34. Instructor Li Zhenjiang [Liancun] & Pu Kuoting: Double Needles Versus Spear
三十五 費實秋 插拳
35. Fei Shiqiu: Charging Punches
三十六 黎惠生 南派 梅花槍
36. Li Huisheng: Plum Blossom Spear (a southern style)
三十七 陳公哲 銅鈌
37. Chen Gongzhe: Bronze Lance
三十八 劉扆臣 盧煒昌 大刀戰鎗
38. Liu Yichen & Lu Weichang: Large Saber Versus Spear
三十九 黃漢佳 五虎拳
39. Huang Hanjia: Fifth Tiger’s Boxing
四十 姚蟾伯 雙座鈎
40. Yao Chanbo: Double Hooks
四十一 沈季修 陳國衡 二郎棍
41. Shen Jixiu & Chen Guoheng: Second Son’s Staff
四十二 浦闊亭 少林拳
42. Pu Kuoting: Shaolin Boxing
四十三 孫毓庭 八卦刀
43. Sun Yuting: Eight-Trigrams Saber
四十四 霍東閣 黎惠生 風雷棍
44. Huo Dongge & Li Huisheng: Wind & Thunder Staff
四十五 李國荃 雄字拳
45. Li Guoquan: Hero Boxing
四十六 張英甫 盤花刀
46. Zhang Yingfu: Coil & Flourish Saber
四十七 鄭灼辰 甯竹亭 三節棍
47. Zheng Zhuochen & Ning Zhuting: Three-Section Staff
四十八 黎惠生 齊眉棍
48. Li Huisheng: Eyebrow-Height Staff
四十九 陳世俊 黑虎拳
49. Chen Shijun: Black Tiger Boxing
五十 劉扆臣 盧煒昌 刀拐串鎗
50. Liu Yichen & Lu Weichang: Saber & Cane Versus Spear
五十一 姚蟾伯 陳公哲 對大刀
51. Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Two-Person Large Saber

第二節教員會員運動表 教員單獨運動未錄
Second section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members (not including extra performances that instructors will add in as they please):

一 甯竹亭 子孫丹
1. Ning Zhuting: Ancestral Elixir
二 盧煒昌 臥地豹
2. Lu Weichang: Crouching Panther
三 姚蟾伯 綈袍劍
3. Yao Chanbo: Silk-Robe Sword
四 翁達方 小紥拳
4. Weng Dafang: Small Tying Boxing
五 黎惠生 達摩劍
5. Li Huisheng: Damo Sword
六 沈季修 練手拳
6. Shen Jixiu: Handwork-Training Set
七 費實秋 孫弘 摑耳棍
7. Fei Shiqiu, Sun Hong: Ear-Slapping Staff
八 盧煒昌 六合刀
8. Lu Weichang: Liuhe Saber
九 周傑生 小紥拳
9. Zhou Jiesheng: Small Tying Boxing
十 馮鐵魂 大戰上
10. Feng Tiehun: first half of Large-Scale Fight
十一 黎惠生 雙鐧
11. Li Huisheng: Double Maces
十二 陳漢欽 兪耀堃 雙工力拳
12. Chen Hanqin & Yu Yaokun: Two-Person Gongli Boxing
十三 陳國衡 南派 中劈刀
13. Chen Guoheng: Center-Chopping Saber (a southern style)
十四 費實秋 孫弘 串子
14. Fei Shiqiu & Sun Hong: String of Beads
十五 周錫三 翁達方 接潭腿下六
15. Zhou Xisan & Weng Dafang: last six lines of Two-Person Tantui
十六 金光曜 金剛拳
16. Jin Guangyao: Arhat Boxing
十七 翁耀衡 劈山刀
17. Weng Yaoheng: Mountain-Chopping Saber
十八 姚蟾伯 陳公哲 大刀串鎗
Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Large Saber Versus Spear
十九 馮蘭皋 擋拳
19. Feng Lan’gao: Blocking Boxing
二十 盧煒昌 南派 金箍棍
20. Lu Weichang: Gold-Banded Staff (a southern style)
二十一 劉扆臣 黎惠生 紥拳
21. Liu Yichen & Li Huisheng: Tying Boxing
二十二 黃善祥 靑龍拳
22. Huang Shanxiang: Blue Dragon Boxing
二十三 孫弘 鴨嘴拐
23. Sun Hong: Duck-Beak Cane
二十四 鄭灼辰 甯竹亭 合戰
24. Zheng Zhuochen & Ning Zhuting: Cooperative Fight
二十五 陳善 金剛拳
25. Chen Shan: Arhat Boxing
二十六 黎惠生 節拳鞭
26. Li Huisheng: Articulated Boxing
二十七 姚蟾伯 教員趙振羣 單刀戰鎗
27. Yao Chanbo & instructor Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe]: Single Saber Versus Spear
二十八 邱亮 粵派 太極拳
28. Qiu Liang: “Taiji” Boxing (a southern style)
二十九 陳公哲 九節鞭
29. Chen Gongzhe: Nine-Section Whip
三十 薛鞏初 南派 小梅花拳
Xue Gongchu: Small Plum-Blossom Boxing (a southern style)
三十一 教員李振江 浦闊亭 雙掃戰鎗
31. Instructor Li Zhenjiang [Liancun] & Pu Kuoting: Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
三十二 翁耀衡 擋拳
32. Weng Yaoheng: Blocking Boxing
三十三 黎惠生 頭路 劈山刀
33. Li Huisheng: first line of Mountain-Chopping Saber
三十四 劉扆臣 盧煒昌 雙拐串鎗
34. Liu Yichen & Lu Weichang: Double Canes Versus Spear
三十五 馮鐵魂 脫戰
35. Feng Tiehun: Escaping-Techniques Fight
三十六 林逸雲 劈山刀
36. Lin Yiyun: Mountain-Chopping Saber
三十七 姚蟾伯 陳公哲 猴拳
37. Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Monkey Boxing
三十八 周燧 八折拳
38. Zhou Sui: Eight-Turnings Boxing
三十九 黎惠生 雙刀
39. Li Huisheng: Double Sabers
四十 甯竹亭 浦闊亭 空手奪雙匕
40. Ning Zhuting & Pu Kuoting: Empty-Hand Versus Double Daggers
四十一 孫毓庭 節拳
41. Sun Yuting: Articulated Boxing
四十二 翁耀衡 羣羊棍
42. Weng Yaoheng: Sheep-Herding Staff
四十三 馮鐵魂 金光曜 套拳
43. Feng Tiehun & Jin Guangyao: Trapping Boxing
四十四 張英甫 撲拳
44. Zhang Yingfu: Pouncing Boxing
四十五 盧煒昌 虎頭鈎
45. Lu Weichang: Tiger Head Hooks
四十六 劉扆臣 黎惠生 對手槍
46. Liu Yichen & Li Huisheng: Two-Person Spear
四十七 陳善 穿拳
47. Chen Shan: Piercing Fists
四十八 浦闊亭 雙八卦
48. Pu Kuoting: Double Eight-Trigrams Sabers
四十九 姚蟾伯 陳公哲 虎頭鈎串槍
49. Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Tiger Head Hooks Versus Spear
五十 林逸雲 醉八仙
50. Lin Yiyun: Drunken Eight Immortals
五十一 黎惠生 方天㦸
51. Li Huisheng: Crescent Moons Halberd
五十二 鄭灼辰 甯竹亭 開門豹
52. Zheng Zhuochen & Ning Zhuting: Gate-Opening Leopard
五十三 黃漢佳 關西拳
53. Huang Hanjia: Western-Pass Boxing
五十四 浦闊亭 燕靑刀
54. Pu Kuoting: Yan Qing’s Single Saber
五十五 盧煒昌 陳公哲 雙刀串鎗
55. Lu Weichang & Chen Gongzhe: Double Sabers Versus Spear
五十六 葉棣瑄 節拳
56. Ye Dixuan: Articulated Boxing
五十七 姚蟾伯 教員趙振羣 空手奪刀
57. Yao Chanbo & instructor Zhao Lianhe: Empty-Hand Versus Saber
五十八 黎惠生 夜戰鎗
58. Li Huisheng: Night-Battle Spear
五十九 孫弘 大掃子
59. Sun Hong: Two-Section Staff
六十 鄭灼辰 甯竹亭 對八卦刀
60. Zheng Zhuochen & Ning Zhuting: Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
六十一 邱亮 春秋刀
61. Qiu Liang: Spring & Autumn Halberd
六十二 姚蟾伯 陳公哲 盤龍棍
62. Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Coiling-Dragon Staff


1. The Jingwu Association teaches Tantui first of all, for it has deep meaning and the experience of learning it brings excellent results. Let us briefly introduce a few of its qualities. The art of Tantui has many hand techniques and stable footwork. Each technique is exquisite and practical. Once it has been trained to the point of skill, not only will all of the techniques learned later make sense, it will also cause spirit and strength to increase each day. It can be drilled movement by movement in groups of over a hundred people. Because it can be taught by way of verbal commands, it is suitable for both large groups or small, and it can be practiced by both young and old alike. If you can find time to practice it for a half hour every day, then both mind and body will obtain endless benefit. Physical education is something relevant in both the home and the nation as a whole. We hope that the masses will give it more attention.

2. During this year’s graduation, there will be a special addition of demonstrations of martial techniques. Having worked on these techniques for so long, they have now blossomed into something impressive indeed. We hope that this variety of maneuvers will fascinate the audience and help our countrymen understand that this is the foundation for strengthening the body and defending the nation. Martial arts practice sets, whether using empty hands or weapons, can often perceived by ordinary people as being just the same kind of movements happening over and over again, making it more difficult to inspire the interest of onlookers by such means. But this year there will be explanations of the practical application of individual techniques, which we hope will do a better job of fulfilling our long-cherished wish of popularizing martial arts, for we are not here simply to entertain you.

3. Jingwu Association members have stars stitched onto their jackets. Three stars indicates a six-year graduate, two stars indicates a four-year graduate, one star indicates a two-year graduate, and no star indicates a beginning student. Each performer can only perform at the level he is at, and we hope you will pardon any differences in the quality of the postures.

3b. The year’s list of martial arts graduates (is shown further below).

4. Members who have gone a full year without asking for a day of leave have shown themselves to have extra perseverance and stamina. The Jingwu Association will award them with gold medals so that they may serve as an example for other members. Among the recipients this year is Shen Jixiu, who is especially hardworking, has made remarkable progress, and has specially written a few words of encouragement for his fellow students. Gold medals will also be presented to: Chen Gongzhe, Zheng Zhuochen, Chen Guoheng, Huang Hanjia, Huang Shanxiang, and Chen Hanqin.

5. Jingwu Association members Chen Gongzhe, Yao Chanbo, Lu Weichang, and Huang Hanjia spent this year’s National Day [Oct 10] driving themselves by car to Suzhou, a journey which took them many hours. As we consider this to be a physically demanding undertaking, we will present them with a silver cup to commemorate their adventure. [It is amusing to us now that a trip like this would be considered to have such a level of ordeal. The notion that someone could be given an award for successfully driving the distance from Chicago to Milwaukee, or London to Brighton, or Paris to Rouen, has become utterly absurd.]

The best part of this year’s graduation turned out to be the demonstrations of martial arts applications, for which the guests gave thunderous applause. Guests who had attended the previous occasions had only seen performances of martial arts sets, and so they had no idea of how our techniques were actually to be applied and the ingenuity of them. But this time there were demonstrations to give the laymen a proper understanding of some of these techniques and to make them aware that what they have witnessed street performers doing or seen performed on stage in Chinese opera are really just tricks for showing off. Lu Weichang was in charge of these demonstrations. Usually very formal, he suddenly became a very casual speaker, so endearing him to the audience that they connected more deeply with the material he was presenting. I felt that these demonstrations inspired many of the guests and left them wanting more, bringing a fantastic energy to the event.
  Children from Guangdong Primary School who had been taught the same material as is used in the Jingwu Association itself performed Tantui, which they did in superb synchronization and also with plenty of spirit. The applause shook the roof tiles and even those in academic circles were greatly impressed. Yao Chanbo, Chen Gongzhe, and Zheng Zhuochen had already gone through the labor of teaching the children, and yet their performance exceeded their expectations.
  The next day, Shanghai’s Chinese and Western newspapers all reviewed the occasion with many encouraging words, judging the whole thing to have been splendidly impressive. The graduating students had started out merely imitating the movements of others, but now that they have graduated, they show a sense of breaking free of such limitations and are expressing more from within themselves.


The 5th Martial Arts Graduation Ceremony was held on Nov 25, 1917. It was even more crowded than the previous graduations. We specially rented a four-thousand seat arena, but it was still absolutely packed. At the start the ceremony, the earliest Association director Yuan Hengzhi made a speech about everything the graduates had gone through to get this point, also explaining that there were now so many schools which Jingwu Association instructors had been teaching at that it would be necessary to cut down the performance times for all members in order for the students of each of the schools to able to demonstrate what they had learned so far, which would consequently also give the higher-level members a slight rest period.
  During this year’s graduation, there was a demonstration of martial arts techniques for army use, performing the most modern iteration of applied martial arts techniques with two-person bayonet fighting and bayonet versus sword. While welcoming guests both domestic and foreign, one of them whispered in my ear: “Why are there no drawings of these techniques in order to share these ideas to our fellow countrymen?” To which I replied: “Why are you being like a neighbor with a secret?”
  The day after the gathering, the Chinese language newspapers noted many instances of loanwords being used during the occasion, such as the Englishmen mentioning “Lin” or the way the Americans were using “continent”, which were both intended in their own way as a means of commiseration. The mentioning of “Lin” had to with praising Dr. Lin Jinhua’s scientific credentials, while “continent” was being used as a metaphor for the scope and detail of Yuan’s speech.


1. Music is playing (by the Jingwu Association’s own music department)
2. Beginning the event
3. Speeches
4. Performances
5. Giving diplomas to students
6. Group performances of Jingwu material by various schools:
a. Fudan Public School
b. Chinese Railroad School
c. Enduring Abundance Cotton Mill
d. Virtuous Greatness Cotton Mill
e. Competition-for-Survival Secondary School
f. Developing Virtue Primary School
g. Patriotic Girls’ School
h. Guangdong Primary School
i. Chengzhong Secondary School
j. Warehouse-of-Wisdom College
k. Lingnan Secondary School
l. The Jingwu Exemplary Women Team
7. Demonstration of effective applications of martial arts
8. Demonstration of the physiological principles of martial arts
9. Performances
10. Concluding the event

First section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members:

一 操脫戰 黃癡 黃蔭生 潘文植 黎永錦 黃鳴岐 梁少田 鄭禮卿
1. Escaping-Techniques Fight: Huang Chi, Huang Yinsheng, Pan Wenzhi, Li Yongjin, Huang Mingqi, Liang Shaotian, Zheng Liqing
二 伏虎拳 呂啓明
2. Taming-Tiger Boxing: Lü Qiming
三 操五虎槍 姚蟾伯 盧煒昌 陳公哲 鄭灼辰
3. Fifth Tiger’s Spear: Yao Chanbo, Lu Weichang, Chen Gongzhe, Zheng Zhuochen
四 天罡手 沈金泰
4. Big-Dipper Hands: Shen Jintai
五 露花槍 周燧
5. Glistening-Flower Spear: Zhou Sui
六 插拳 翁耀衡
6. Charging Punches: Weng Yaoheng
七 二郎刀 劉日暄
7. Second Son’s Saber: Liu Rixuan
八 套拳 周錫三 翁達方
8. Trapping Boxing: Zhou Xisan & Weng Dafang
九 溜脚勢 潘文植
9. Swinging Kicks: Pan Wenzhi
十 八卦刀 王松齡
10. Eight-Trigrams Saber: Wang Songling
十一 接潭腿 甯竹亭 黎惠生
11. Two-Person Tantui: Ning Zhuting & Li Huisheng
十二 雙刺 薛鞏初
12. Double Needles: Xue Gongchu
十三 練手拳 李維新
13. Handwork-Training Set: Li Weixin
十四 脫銬 盧煒昌
14. Breaking Manacles: Lu Weichang
十五 對手齊眉棍 邱亮 沈季修
15. Two-Person Eyebrow-Height Staff: Qiu Liang & Shen Jixiu
十六 臥地豹 陳世俊
16. Crouching Panther: Chen Shijun
十七 縱撲刀 張勤益
17. Leap & Pounce Halberd: Zhang Qinyi
十八 踴步捶 教員葉鳳墀 浦闊亭
18. Leaping-Steps Boxing: instructor Ye Fengchi & Pu Kuoting
十九 雙鐧 劉扆臣
19. Double Maces: Liu Yichen
二十 醉溜膛 寗竹亭
20. Ning Zhuting: Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall
二十一 刀拐串槍 沈季修 陳國衡
21. Saber & Cane Versus Spear: Shen Jixiu & Chen Guoheng
二十二 靑龍拳 黃善祥
22. Blue Dragon Boxing: Huang Shanxiang
二十三 板櫈 翁達方
23. Wooden Bench: Weng Dafang
二十四 虎頭鈎串槍 鄭灼辰 陳世俊
24. Tiger Head Hooks Versus Spear: Zheng Zhuochen & Chen Shijun
二十五 十八技 陳公哲
25. Eighteen Techniques: Chen Gongzhe
二十六 達摩劍 姚蟾伯
26. Damo Sword: Yao Chanbo
二十七 串子 盧煒昌 甯竹亭
27. String of Beads: Lu Weichang & Ning Zhuting
二十八 五虎架 黃漢佳
28. Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set: Huang Hanjia
二十九 春秋刀 陳善
29. Spring & Autumn Halberd: Chen Shan
三十 雙刀串槍 沈季修 陳鐵生
30. Double Sabers Versus Spear: Shen Jixiu & Chen Tiesheng
三十一 子孫丹 馮鐵魂
31. Ancestral Elixir: Feng Tiehun
三十二 雙掃子串槍 教員李蓮村 浦闊亭
32. Two-Section Staff Versus Spear: instructor Li Liancun & Pu Kuoting
三十三 梅花雙舌槍 曾啟文
33. Plum Blossom Double-Tongued Spear: Zeng Qiwen
三十四 雙斧 盧煒昌
34. Double Axes: Lu Weichang
三十五 猴拳 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
35. Monkey Boxing: Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe
三十六 空手奪槍 教員趙振羣 鄭灼辰
36. Empty-Hand Versus Spear: instructor Zhao Lianhe & Zheng Zhuochen

Second section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members:

一 工力拳 李逢生
1. Gongli Boxing: Li Fengsheng
二 八寶刀 黃鳴岐
2. Eight Treasures Saber: Huang Mingqi
三 蔣手 黃蔭生
3. Jiang’s Hand Techniques: Huang Yinsheng
四 羣羊棍 李國荃
4. Sheep-Herding Staff: Li Guoquan
五 小紥拳 王漢禮
5. Small Tying Boxing: Wang Hanli
六 太極大刀 黎惠生
6. Taiji Halberd: Li Huisheng
七 攔門鈌 曾啟文
7. Gate-Blocking Lance: Zeng Qiwen
八 擋步埵 黃維慶 陳敬讓
8. Advance-Halting Boxing: Huang Weiqing & Chen Jingrang
九 露花刀 黃漢佳
9. Glistening-Flower Saber: Huang Hanjia
十 八極拳 周燧
10. Baji Boxing: Zhou Sui
十一 雙拐串槍 沈季修 陳國衡
11. Double Canes Versus Spear: Shen Jixiu & Chen Guoheng
十二 蛾眉刺 姚蟾伯
12. Emei Needle: Yao Chanbo
十三 關西拳 周俊生
13. Western-Pass Boxing: Zhou Junsheng
十四 戰槍 甯竹亭 鄭灼辰
14. Two-Person Spear: Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
十五 穿拳 陳善
15. Piercing Fists: Chen Shan
十六 抱月刀 翁耀衡
16. Moon-Embracing Saber: Weng Yaoheng
十七 合戰 金光耀 馮鐵魂
17. Cooperative Fight: Jin Guangyao & Feng Tiehun
十八 提爐刀 費實秋
18. Furnace-Sparking Spear: Fei Shiqiu
十九 金剛拳 郭健霄
19. Arhat Boxing: Guo Jianxiao
二十 黃操 教員孫贊軒 陳世俊
20. Huang’s Techniques: instructor Sun Zanxuan & Chen Shijun
二十一 五郎棍 盧煒昌
21. Fifth Son’s Staff: Lu Weichang
二十二 金翦槍及空手奪刀 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
22. Golden-Scissors Spear, Empty-Hand Versus Saber: Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe
二十三 二郎拳 馮蘭皋
23. Second Son’s Boxing Set: Feng Lan’gao
二十四 綈袍劍 黎惠生
24. Silk-Robe Sword: Li Huisheng
二十五 對手八卦刀 甯竹亭 鄭灼辰
25. Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber: Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
二十六 節拳 葉衍鴻
26. Articulated Boxing: Ye Yanhong
二十七 提爐槍 劉扆臣
27. Furnace-Sparking Spear: Liu Yichen
二十八 玄靈杖串槍 姚蟾伯 盧煒昌
28. Dark-Magic Cane Versus Spear: Yao Chanbo & Lu Weichang
二十九 太極拳 邱亮
29. Taiji Boxing: Qiu Liang
三十 九節鞭 陳公哲
30. Nine-Section Whip: Chen Gongzhe
三十一 紥拳 葉子華 葉衍鴻
31. Tying Boxing: Ye Zihua & Ye Yanhong
三十二 對手五郎棍 費實秋 翁耀衡
32. Two-Person Fifth Son’s Staff: Fei Shiqiu & Weng Yaoheng
三十三 四六拳 葉棣瑄
33. Four-Six Boxing: Ye Dixuan
三十四 對槍 黎惠生 劉扆辰
34. Two-Person Spear: Li Huisheng & Liu Yichen
三十五 開門豹 甯竹亭 鄭灼辰
35. Gate-Opening Leopard: Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
三十六 盤龍棍 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
36. Coiling-Dragon Staff: Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe


1. In order to rouse the martial spirit of our countrymen, the Jingwu Association aims to reform their physique. What is taught and practiced is selected for its practical accessibility, ensuring that it is suitable for both young and old alike. One day’s practice gets you one day’s progress. Training one skill will bring you the enjoyment of that one skill. For the many now coming to this venue, we have specially added a demonstration of martial techniques, explaining various applications of techniques within the martial arts sets, including both empty-hand sets and weapon sets. Furthermore, our nation’s old teachings of spear methods and saber methods have been converted into the army’s use of bayonet and officer’s saber, making it clear that the skills of martial arts are still relevant. There will also be a demonstration highlighting physiology from the standpoint of medicine, showing the main reasons why a person is strong or weak, such information being pertinent to the rise or fall of the nation.
  To save the nation, we must first strengthen the masses. But the best method of strengthening the masses has not yet been fully accepted. Since the Jingwu Association opened, there have been members who were ill and frail but became healthy and strong after practicing for not even a year, as well as weary old men who became robust again, likewise after barely a year of practice. It has often been seen that certain members who are already middle aged and have never practiced martial arts before regain youthful bodies, going from being too weak to hardly even bear the weight of their own clothes to having a youthful vigor due to a few years of practice. Members have gone through various such experiences, but have all come to the same conclusion. To strengthen the masses, getting everyone in the nation to practice martial arts is the first step.
  Our colleagues feel that seeking fame and wealth are paths of very little interest, for the dignified and enlightened Chinese people have long endured the reputation of being “sick men”, so long that it has festered into a humiliation that we must rip out and throw away. That is why our colleagues incessantly chatter about physical education. Among the guests too, let the fathers command the sons and let the elder brothers encourage the younger brothers. If a half hour of one’s spare time every day can be spent practicing martial arts, then China will already be imperceptibly transforming its weakness into strength, the nation receiving the greatest gift from its gentlemen that it can ever get. There is a common saying [paraphrased from Guanzi, chapter 3]: “It takes a decade to grow a tree, a century to cultivate a people.” Our colleagues have burned incense and made their best wishes, and now we eagerly await today’s guests.

2. The Jingwu Association trains practical skills and is not interested in simply making pretty patterns to dazzle the eyes and ears. We especially hope that guests will pay attention to the solo sets. It is much easier to exhibit skill through two-person sets, whether they be empty-hand sets or weapon sets, and therefore it is only through demonstrating solo sets that one displays true ability.

3. The performers do not intend to perform the same set as each other, but since they have all learned from the same source, some repetitions are bound to occur. This can be treated as an opportunity to learn from and raise the level of each other’s performance.


The 6th Graduation Ceremony was again held on a large stage. This time there was music from the military band, including bugle solos, and a performance of Western stringed instruments, including violin solos, as well as a demonstration of bodybuilding. Therefore the title on the program for this occasion was “The 6th Graduation Ceremony & Entertainment”. Because the Jingwu Association has constantly been adding courses, these events will henceforth no longer be limited to only martial arts performances, and thus the title has been changed to also include “entertainment”.
  Bodybuilding is a demonstration of training the muscles, to make people aware that the body does not get developed naturally, but requires training in order to become stronger. Look around at all the rich fat people. Although they are huge, they are unusually weak and fragile. It is impossible to show the muscles without exposing certain areas of the body, and thus we wear tailored leopard skins in order to cover the body as little as possible [although surely just going shirtless in shorts would have shown the muscles even better]. Chen Gongzhe and the others considered the physique I had developed while past the age of forty to be worthy of this new physiology-revealing apparel, and I became entangled in the “leopard-skin team” to be exhibited as a specimen. The team also performed full two-person sets while wearing the skins: 1. Zheng Zhuochen & Ning Zhuting, 2. Huang Hanjia & myself, 3. Chen Gongzhe & Lu Weichang, and 4. Yao Chanbo & Zhao Lianhe. [These particular sets are not listed with the rest below.]
  There were also more performances from students, as well as music performances, and the presenting of photography diplomas. Therefore there were only sixty-eight martial arts performances from the members. A section of martial arts techniques for army use [i.e. bayonet and saber] was added demonstrating a variety of methods for one person to combat against many. The standard of the members continues to grow higher and higher. The program for the first time had the shield insignia on it, and henceforth we will always use this symbol to let everyone know right away what they are looking at.


1. Beginning the event
2. Military music (performed by the Jingwu military band)
3. Announcements
4. Speeches
5. Bugle solos (performed by the Jingwu military band instructors)
6. First section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members
7. Demonstration of martial arts techniques for army use
8. Giving diplomas to students in the Martial Arts Department and the Photography Department
9. Group performance of Western stringed instruments (performed by the Jingwu music department)
10. Performances by the instructors for various organizations:
a. Fudan University
b. Chinese Industry Technical School
c. East Asia Athletic School
d. Chengzhong Secondary School
e. Lingnan Secondary School
f. Rousing Asia Secondary School
g. Enduring Abundance Cotton Mill
h. Virtuous Greatness Cotton Mill
i. Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association of the Commercial Press
j. Shanghai Youth Club
k. Guangdong Primary School
l. Developing Virtue Primary School
m. Developing Fundamentals Primary School
n. Xun Guang Secondary School
o. Peerless Primary School
p. Cultivating Virtue Primary School
q. Patriotic Girls’ School
r. The Jingwu Exemplary Women Team
11. Performances by these small citizens:
Li Shusen (age six),
Liu Yibi (age seven),
Zheng Qiguang (age eight),
Jian Guanchang (age twelve).
12. Solos with Western stringed instruments (performed by the Jingwu Association’s instructors of stringed instruments)
13. Demonstration of bodybuilding (for wrestling skills)
14. Second section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members
15. Military music (again performed by the Jingwu military band)
16. Concluding the event

First section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members:

一 那咤式 金光曜
1. Nezha Postures: Jin Guangyao
二 八折拳 容麟生
2. Eight-Turnings Boxing: Rong Lisheng
三 紅操 教員孫贊軒 彭幼典
3. Hong’s Techniques: instructor Sun Zanxuan & Peng Youdian
四 八卦刀 梁少田
4. Eight-Trigrams Saber: Liang Shaotian
五 四六拳 余文厚
5. Four-Six Boxing: Yu Wenhou
六 溜脚式 李少棠
6. Swinging Kicks: Li Shaotang
七 雙拐串槍 沈季修 陳國衡
7. Double Canes Versus Spear: Shen Jixiu & Chen Guoheng
八 工力拳 程仙洲
8. Gongli Boxing: Cheng Xianzhou
九 露花槍 周杏生
9. Glistening-Flower Saber: Zhou Xingsheng
十 五虎拳 原樂岩
10. Fifth Tiger’s Boxing: Yuan Leyan
十一 套拳 教員趙振羣 周錫三
11. Trapping Boxing: instructor Zhao Lianhe & Zhou Xisan
十二 縱撲刀 朱勉仙
12. Leap & Pounce Halberd: Zhu Mianxian
十三 擋拳 劉冠山
13. Blocking Boxing: Liu Guanshan
十四 春秋刀 沈金泰
14. Spring & Autumn Halberd: Shen Jintai
十五 刀拐串槍 李維新 劉日暄
15. Saber & Cane Versus Spear: Li Weixin & Liu Rixuan
十六 雙龍拳 黃鳴岐
16. Double-Dragon Boxing: Huang Mingqi
十七 方天戟 薛鞏初
17. Crescent Moons Halberd: Xue Gongchu
十八 少林拳 葛榮先
18. Shaolin Boxing: Ge Rongxian
十九 虎頭鈎串槍 沈季修 陳國衡
19. Tiger Head Hooks Versus Spear: Shen Jixiu & Chen Guoheng
二十 步戰刀 何其森
20. Infantry Saber: He Qisen
二十一 十八技 温朝書
21. Eighteen Techniques: Wen Chaoshu
二十二 文操 教員孫贊軒 馮廷芳
22. Wen’s Techniques: instructor Sun Zanxuan & Feng Tingfang
二十三 板櫈 徐雲岳
23. Wooden Bench: Xu Yunyue
二十四 大戰 鄭福良
24. Large-Scale Fight: Zheng Fuliang
二十五 達摩劍 何瑞生
25. Damo Sword: He Ruisheng
二十六 合戰 黎惠生 王松齡
26. Cooperative Fight: Li Huisheng & Wang Songling
二十七 脫銬 裘松泉
27. Breaking Manacles: Qiu Songquan
二十八 臥地豹 劉扆臣
28. Crouching Panther: Liu Yichen
二十九 梅花大刀串槍 教員孫玉峯 劉日暄
29. Plum Blossom Large Saber Versus Spear: instructor Sun Yufeng & Liu Rixuan
三十 雙掃子串槍 教員葉鳳池 浦闊亭
30. Two-Section Staff Versus Spear: instructor Ye Fengchi & Pu Kuoting

Second section of performances by Jingwu Association instructors & members:

一 靑龍拳 費肇昌
1. Blue Dragon Boxing: Fei Zhaochang
二 五虎槍 羅克己
2. Fifth Tiger’s Spear: Luo Keji
三 脫戰 黎永錦
3. Escaping-Techniques Fight: Li Yongjin
四 少林棍 卓德
4. Shaolin Staff: Zhuo De
五 飛虎拳 教員霍東閣 周俊生
5. Flying-Tiger Boxing: instructor Huo Dongge & Zhou Junsheng
六 散拳 劉伯言
6. Miscellaneous Boxing: Liu Boyan
七 羣羊棍 陳子學
7. Sheep-Herding Staff: Chen Zixue
八 金剛拳 盧頌虔
8. Arhat Boxing: Lu Songqian
九 串子 裘國樑 朱棟君
9. String of Beads: Qiu Guoliang & Zhu Dongjun
十 太極大刀 張勤益
10. Taiji Halberd: Zhang Qinyi
十一 攔門槍 馮廷芳
11. Gate-Blocking Spear: Feng Tingfang
十二 單刀及軟鞭 承鑫培
12. Single Saber & Soft Whip: Cheng Xinpei
十三 串拳 教員孫玉峯 劉蘭坡
13. Threading Boxing: instructor Sun Yufeng & Liu Lanpo
十四 醉溜膛 寧竹亭
14. Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall: Ning Zhuting
十五 劈山刀 翁耀衡
15. Mountain-Chopping Saber: Weng Yaoheng
十六 黑虎拳 黃漢佳
16. Black Tiger Boxing: Huang Hanjia
十七 空手奪刀 金光曜 呂啟明
17. Empty-Hand Versus Saber: Jin Guangyao & Lü Qiming
十八 粵派雙龍拳 馬湘
18. Double-Dragon Boxing (a southern style): Ma Xiang
十九 峨嵋槍 陳鐵生
19. Emei Spear: Chen Tiesheng
二十 開門豹 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
20. Gate-Opening Leopard: Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe
二十一 梅花雙舌槍 盧煒昌
21. Plum Blossom Double-Tongued Spear: Lu Weichang
二十二 猴拳 浦闊亭
22. Monkey Boxing: Pu Kuoting
二十三 對槍 教員霍東閣 教員趙連城
23. Two-Person Spear: instructors Huo Dongge & Zhao Liancheng
二十四 四門重手 教員孫贊軒
24. Heavy Hands in All Directions: instructor Sun Zanxuan
二十五 梅花大刀 教員孫玉峯
25. Plum Blossom Large Saber: instructor Sun Yufeng
二十六 孫臏拳 鄭灼辰
26. Sun Bin Boxing: Zheng Zhuochen
二十七 紥拳 教員趙振羣 教員張富猷
27. Tying Boxing: instructors Zhao Lianhe & Zhang Fuyou
二十八 伏虎拳 楊琛倫
28. Taming-Tiger Boxing: Yang Chenlun
二十九 五虎棍 費肇昌 翁耀衡
29. Fifth Tiger’s Staff: Fei Zhaochang & Weng Yaoheng
三十 節拳 盧煒昌
30. Articulated Boxing: Lu Weichang
三十一 抱月刀 教員趙連城
31. Moon-Embracing Saber: instructor Zhao Liancheng
三十二 斷門刀 教員葉鳳池 黎惠生
32. Gate-Breaking Saber: instructor Ye Fengchi & Li Huisheng
三十三 樂俠拳 教員陳維賢
33. Joyous-Hero Boxing: instructor Chen Weixian
三十四 雙鐧 教員趙振羣
34. Double Maces: instructor Zhao Lianhe
三十五 醉酒刀 教員葉鳳池
35: Drunken Saber: instructor Ye Fengchi
三十六 單刀對三節棍 寧竹亭 浦闊亭
36: Single Saber Versus Three-Section Staff: Ning Zhuting & Pu Kuoting
三十七 大刀對槍 劉扆臣 盧煒昌
37. Large Saber Versus Spear: Liu Yichen & Lu Weichang
三十八 盤龍棍 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
38. Coiling-Dragon Staff: Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe


1. The Jingwu Association has established that every fall it will hold an athletic meet. One purpose of this is to make an impression upon society and revive the faded glory of our martial arts, and another is to encourage students to progress further rather than let their skills degrade. For more than nine years now, the martial arts renaissance has fortunately been expanding further with each day. Though we have no lack of comrades from both business and academic circles, an athletic meet is comprised mainly of athletes from the Jingwu Association. Our ambition of spreading martial arts has not yet been fully realized, and since martial arts can be used to train whole groups, future Far Eastern Championship Games [the next one to be held in the Philippines the following year, the one after that to be held in Shanghai in 1921] ought to keep a place for group demonstrations. The glory of our nation depends on the enthusiasm of people like us.

2. The Jingwu Association trains practical skills and is not interested in simply making pretty patterns to dazzle the eyes and ears. We especially hope that guests will pay attention to the solo sets. It is much easier to exhibit skill through two-person sets, whether they be empty-hand sets or weapon sets, and therefore it is only through demonstrating solo sets that one displays true ability.

3. The performers do not intend to perform the same set as each other, but since they have all learned from the same source, some repetitions are bound to occur. This can be treated as an opportunity to learn from and raise the level of each other’s performance.

4. Jingwu Association members have stars stitched onto their jackets. Three stars indicates a six-year graduate, two stars indicates a four-year graduate, one star indicates a two-year graduate, and no star indicates a beginning student. Each performer can only perform at the level he is at, and we hope you will pardon any differences in the quality of the postures.

5. The Jingwu Association is now holding its 6th Graduation Ceremony. This is not meant to be solely an athletic meet, and so the guests hopefully will not be expecting a constantly exciting martial arts exhibition, for we have also filled the schedule with a variety of many other kinds of events.

6. Martial arts techniques for army use [i.e. bayonet and saber] are auxiliary military skills for attack. Their effectiveness depends on basic training, otherwise you will not be able to carry them out with ease. It if is very difficult to skip steps and yet expect to be skillful. Examine for example the recent American book Hand-to-Hand Fighting [by A. E. Marriott], which prioritizes its attention upon the training of unarmed techniques. Our nation’s scholars may moan about these techniques being a foreign import, but when we think about how widely this material has been taught throughout the country already, we cannot help but look forward to taking a closer look at it. During this year’s graduation, there will be a demonstration of martial arts techniques for army use, performed by Huo Dongge, Zheng Zhuochen, Ning Zhuting, and Lu Weichang.

7. Bodybuilding for developing wrestling skills is based on methods for displaying muscles as demonstrated by modern educators, which have inspired the interest of athletes but give the impression that such exercises are simply a means of enhancing muscular development. Bodybuilding is so tightly related to physical education that Westerners have written many specialized books on the subject. But we hope you will not mistake it for the exhibitions of European and American strongmen, who are merely intent on showing off their bulging muscles.

8. The list of this year’s graduates at all levels (is shown further below).

9. Members of the martial arts department who for two or three or more years have had perfect attendance, or have never asked for a period of leave, have proved their mettle and will thus be presented with a gold or silver medal as further encouragement. For going three years without asking for leave, a silver medal inscribed with “willpower” has been given to Huang Hanjia and Chen Guoheng. For going two years without asking for leave, a silver medal inscribed with “struggle” has been given to Huang Mingqi. For going a full year without ever missing a class, a gold medal inscribed with “hardworking” has been given to Yang Chenlun.

10. The Jingwu Association has established a photography department, turning toward a couple of graduates of photographic studies in America, Ye Xiangrong and Chen Gongzhe, to be the instructors. This year’s graduates in our photographic course are: Jin Guangyao, Chen Shouzhi, Chen Yannian, Liang Shaotian, Zhou Xisan, Tang Wenqi, Nie Yuntai, Yang Shenzhuo, and Chen Guoheng.


List of Performances for the 1919 Graduation Ceremony:

Solo sets:

伏虎拳 安佩文
Taming-Tiger Boxing: An Peiwen
節拳 容麟生
Articulated Boxing: Rong Lisheng
小紮拳 鄭啟光
Small Tying Boxing: Zheng Qiguang
短戰 陳善
Low-Posture Fight: Chen Shan
少林拳 葛榮先
Shaolin Boxing: Ge Rongxian
子孫丹 朱穰丞
Ancestral Elixir: Zhu Rangcheng
崩步 張言珍
Avalanche Steps: Zhang Yanzhen
金剛拳 勞錫藩
Arhat Boxing: Lao Xifan
硬搥 蔡子榮
Hard-Hammer Boxing: Cai Zirong
四六拳 程仙洲
Four-Six Boxing: Cheng Xianzhou
大戰上 盧獻輝
First half of Large-Scale Fight: Lu Xianhui
大戰下 李志羲
Second half of Large-Scale Fight: Li Zhixi
工力拳 陳啟英
Gongli Boxing: Chen Qiying
脫戰 黎永錦
Escaping-Techniques Fight: Li Yongjin
二郎拳 馮蘭皋
Second Son’s Boxing Set: Feng Lan’gao
十字戰 陳鐵生
Cross-Shaped Fight: Chen Tiesheng
五虎拳 黃漢佳
Fifth Tiger’s Boxing: Huang Hanjia
五虎架 黃漢佳
Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set: Huang Hanjia
黑虎拳 劉扆臣
Black Tiger Boxing: Liu Yichen
臥地豹 劉扆臣
Crouching Panther: Liu Yichen
孫臏拳 鄭灼辰
Sun Bin Boxing: Zheng Zhuochen
粵派伏虎拳 卓德
Taming-Tiger Boxing (a southern style): Zhuo De
粵派雙龍拳 馬湘
Double-Dragon Boxing (a southern style): Ma Xiang
四門重手 何勉之
Heavy Hands in All Directions: He Mianzhi
大雄拳 張勤益
Great Hero Boxing: Zhang Qinyi
林氏下山拳 張勤益
Master Lin’s Mountain-Descending Boxing: Zhang Qinyi
黃氏下山拳 寧竹亭
Master Huang’s Mountain-Descending Boxing: Ning Zhuting
醉溜膛 寧竹亭
Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall: Ning Zhuting
金槍手 謝名成
Golden-Spear Hands: Xie Mingcheng
羅漢拳 朱勉仙
Luohan Boxing: Zhu Mianxian
哪叱勢 金光曜
Nezha Postures: Jin Guangyao
十八技 譚瑞和
Eighteen Techniques: Tan Ruihe
小梅花拳 徐雲岳
Small Plum-Blossom Boxing: Xu Yunyue
天罡手 樂致遠
Big-Dipper Hands: Le Zhiyuan
燕氏插拳 劉日暄
Yan Qing’s Charging Punches: Liu Rixuan
馬武拳 黃善祥
Ma Wu’s Boxing Set: Huang Shanxiang
跳地龍 原樂岩
Leaping Ground-Dragon: Yuan Leyan
奇門拳 黃鳴岐
Qimen Boxing: Huang Mingqi
插拳 翁耀衡
Charging Punches: Weng Yaoheng
穿拳 翁耀衡
Piercing Fists: Weng Yaoheng
八折拳 容麟生
Eight-Turnings Boxing: Rong Lisheng
五躺查拳 程鏡川
Five-Rolls Cha Boxing: Cheng Jingchuan
二𨌩串拳 朱穰丞
2nd line of Threading Boxing: Zhu Rangcheng
反車 陳壽之
Wheeling Boxing: Chen Shouzhi
擋拳 陳壽之
Blocking Boxing: Chen Shouzhi
練手拳 李維新
Handwork-Training Set: Li Weixin
溜脚勢 黃維慶
Swinging Kicks: Huang Weiqing

Two-person sets:

捻手拳上路 孫玉峯 劉日暄
First half of Hand-Twisting Boxing: Sun Yufeng & Liu Rixuan
捻手拳下路 孫玉峯 徐雲岳
Second half of Hand-Twisting Boxing: Sun Yufeng & Xu Yunyue
擋步捶 程鏡川 蔡景麟
Advance-Halting Boxing: Cheng Jingchuan & Cai Jinglin
接潭腿 何瑞生 霍東閣
Two-Person Tantui: Huo Dongge & He Ruisheng
文操 陳海澄 薛鞏初
Wen’s Techniques: Chen Haideng & Xue Gongchu
黃操 楊仲綽 孫贊軒
Huang’s Techniques: Yang Zhongchuo & Sun Zanxuan
花鮑操 彭幼典 孫贊軒
Colorful-Shell Techniques: Peng Youdian & Sun Zanxuan
合戰 盧煒昌 陳公哲
Cooperative Fight: Lu Weichang & Chen Gongzhe
猴拳 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
Monkey Boxing: Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe
開門豹 寧竹亭 鄭灼辰
Gate-Opening Leopard: Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
紥拳 劉扆臣 黎惠生
Tying Boxing: Liu Yichen & Li Huisheng
串子 寧竹亭 盧煒昌
String of Beads: Ning Zhuting & Lu Weichang
短打 陳鐵生 趙連和
Short Fighting: Chen Tiesheng & Zhao Lianhe
飛虎拳 寧竹亭 霍東閣
Flying-Tiger Boxing: Ning Zhuting & Huo Dongge
八極搥 葉書田 鄭福良
Baji Boxing: Ye Shutian & Zheng Fuliang
桃花珊 楊學南 傅蓮芳
Peach Blossom Parasols: Yang Xuenan & Fu Lianfang
拍暗手 羅光玉 馬丞鑫
Slapping & Pressing Hands: Luo Guangyu & Ma Chengxin
燕氏對子 羅光玉 馬丞鑫
Two-Person Yan Qing Boxing: Luo Guangyu & Ma Chengxin
套拳 卓德 鄭福良
Trapping Boxing: Zhuo De & Zheng Fuliang
步戰五虎拳 黃癡 李匯亭
Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set for the Infantry: Huang Chi & Li Huiting

Weapon sets:

少林棍 陳子學
Shaolin Staff: Chen Zixue
板櫈 周錫三
Wooden Bench: Zhou Xisan
長棍 黃惠龍
Long Staff: Huang Huilong
盤龍雙刀 彭幼典
Coiling-Dragon Double Sabers: Peng Youdian
攔門鈌 曾啓文
Gate-Blocking Lance: Zeng Qiwen
雙舌槍 羅克己
Double-Tongued Spear: Luo Keji
混成槍 羅克己
Multi-Style Spear: Luo Keji
夜戰槍 黎惠生
Night-Battle Spear: Li Huisheng
羣羊棍 陳兆珽
Sheep-Herding Staff: Chen Zhaoting
抱月刀 簡偉卿
Moon-Embracing Saber: Jian Weiqing
雙刀 陳士超
Double Sabers: Chen Shichao
五虎槍 王漢禮
Fifth Tiger’s Spear: Wang Hanli
露花刀 葛榮先
Glistening-Flower Saber: Ge Rongxian
八卦刀 梁少田
Eight-Trigrams Saber: Liang Shaotian
地蹚刀 鄭福良
Ground-Rolling Saber: Zheng Fuliang
步戰刀 蔡景麟
Infantry Saber: Cai Jinglin
梅花大刀 劉日暄
Plum Blossom Large Saber: Liu Rixuan
方天戟 薛鞏初
Crescent Moons Halberd: Xue Gongchu
大掃子 陳公哲
Two-Section Staff: Chen Gongzhe
軟鞭 陳公哲
Soft Whip: Chen Gongzhe
雙座鈎 寧竹亭
Double Hooks: Ning Zhuting
雙斧 黃惠龍
Double Axes: Huang Huilong
綈袍劍 姚蟾伯
Silk-Robe Sword: Yao Chanbo
達摩劍 何瑞生
Damo Sword: He Ruisheng
二郎刀 賀日三
Second Son’s Saber: He Risan
蛾眉刺 姚蟾伯
Emei Needle: Yao Chanbo
銅錘 薛鞏初
Bronze Hammer: Xue Gongchu
鈀 黃惠龍
Rake: Huang Huilong
春秋大刀 邱亮
Spring & Autumn Halberd: Qiu Liang
劈山刀 翁耀衡
Mountain-Chopping Saber: Weng Yaoheng
雪片刀 翁耀衡
Snowflake Saber: Weng Yaoheng
棋盤刀 何其森
Chessboard Saber: He Qisen
雙刺 樂致遠
Double Needles: Le Zhiyuan
八寶刀 黃鳴岐
Eight Treasures Saber: Huang Mingqi
三面兩刃刀 卓德
Triple-Tip Double-Edged Halberd: Zhuo De
六合四門封刀 原樂巖
Sealing-All-Directions Saber: Yuan Leyan
太極大刀 張勤益
Taiji Halberd: Zhang Qinyi
雙鐧 劉扆臣
Double Maces: Liu Yichen
峨嵋槍 陳鐵生
Emei Spear: Chen Tiesheng

Weapon against empty-hand:

盤子對刀 金光曜 馬承鑫
Tray Versus Saber: Jin Guangyao & Ma Chengxin
降龍棒 鄭灼辰 羅克己
Descending-Dragon Cudgel: Zheng Zhuochen & Luo Keji
棍對槍 鄭灼辰 黃漢佳
Staff Versus Spear: Zheng Zhuochen & Huang Hanjia
刀拐串槍 劉日暄 孫玉峯
Saber & Cane Versus Spear: Liu Rixuan & Sun Yufeng
大刀對方天㦸 劉日暄 孫玉峯
Large Saber Versus Crescent Moons Halberd: Liu Rixuan & Sun Yufeng
大刀槍 黎永錦 程鏞
Large Saber Versus Spear: Li Yongjin & Cheng Yong
七十二棍 卓德 陳子學
Seventy-Two Techniques Staff: Zhuo De & Chen Zixue
板橙戰雙刀 黃惠龍 霍東閣
Wooden Bench Versus Double Sabers: Huang Huilong & Huo Dongge
空手奪單刀 呂啓明 霍東閣
Empty-Hand Versus Single Saber: Lü Qiming & Huo Dongge
雙拐串槍 陳國衡 楊其森
Double Canes Versus Spear: Chen Guoheng & Yang Qisen
盤龍棍對槍 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
Coiling-Dragon Staff versus Spear: Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe
單刀槍 姚蟾伯 趙連和
Single Saber Versus Spear: Yao Chanbo & Zhao Lianhe
對手大刀 盧煒昌 趙連和
Two-Person Large Saber: Lu Weichang & Zhao Lianhe
對手八卦刀 寧竹亭 鄭灼辰
Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber: Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
空手奪雙插 浦闊亭 寧竹亭
Empty-Hang Versus Double Forks: Pu Kuoting & Ning Zhuting
空手奪槍 鄭灼辰 趙連和
Empty-Hand Versus Spear: Zheng Zhuochen & Zhao Lianhe
龍虎鬭 黎惠生 劉扆臣
Battle Between Dragon & Tiger: Li Huisheng & Liu Yichen
空手奪雙刀 陳公哲 姚蟾伯
Empty-Hand versus Double Sabers: Chen Gongzhe & Yao Chanbo
對手雙刀 裘松泉 葉書田
Empty-Hand versus Double Sabers: Qiu Songquan & Ye Shutian
單刀戰大刀 陳鐵生 趙連和
Single Saber Versus Large Saber: Chen Tiesheng & Zhao Lianhe
龍翔鳳舞(卽劍對槍) 浦闊亭 羅光玉
Dragon Soaring & Phoenix Dancing (a sword versus spear set): Pu Kuoting & Luo Guangyu
三節棍對手 寧竹亭 鄭灼辰
Three-Section Staff Versus Empty-Hand: Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
雙刀串槍 陳公哲 盧煒昌
Double Sabers Versus Spears: Chen Gongzhe & Lu Weichang
雙刀對棍 黃惠龍 彭幼典
Double Sabers Versus Staff: Huang Huilong & Peng Youdian
風雷棍 程鏞 霍東閣
Wind & Thunder Staff: Cheng Yong & Huo Dongge
三節棍對槍 呂啟明 霍東閣
Three-Section Staff Versus Spear: Lü Qiming & Huo Dongge
空手奪匕 黃惠龍 霍東閣
Empty-Hand Versus Daggers: Huang Huilong & Huo Dongge
梅花槍對手 馬湘 孫玉峯
Plum Blossom Spear Versus Empty Hand: Ma Xiang & Sun Yufeng
對手單刀 翁耀衡 葉書田
Two-Person Single Saber: Weng Yaoheng & Ye Shutian
對雙舌槍 翁耀衡 何其森
Two-Person Double-Tongue Spear: Weng Yaoheng & He Qisen
左門棍戰槍 黃癡 李匯亭
Zuo Style Staff Versus Spear: Huang Chi & Li Huiting
刀拐槍 黃維慶 陳善
Saber Versus Spear: Huang Weiqing & Chen Shan

(Additional solo performances by instructors have not been listed here.)

☉技擊之三級畢業記名 陳鐵生

Completing two years makes a student a graduate at the beginner level. The student is given a beginner-level diploma and a yellow star to attach to the uniform jacket.
Completing four years makes a student a graduate at the intermediate level. The student is given an intermediate-level diploma and a two-star design of yellow and blue to attach to the uniform jacket. (The blue star before 1918 was a green star. It was later changed to conform to the science of primary colors, combinations of red, yellow, and blue being the basis of all further colors.)
Completing six years makes a student an advanced-level graduate. The student is given an advanced-level diploma and a three-star design of yellow, blue, and red to attach to the uniform jacket.
To graduate at any of these levels also requires the approval of the director of the martial arts apartment.

Graduates of 1912 at the beginner level:

徐振漢 浙江 Xu Zhenhan of Zhejiang
徐柏堂 浙江 Xu Botang of Zhejiang
平雪士 浙江 Ping Xueshi of Zhejiang
黎惠生 廣東 Li Huisheng of Guangdong
盧煒昌 廣東 Lu Weichang of Guangdong
陳公哲 廣東 Chen Gongzhe of Guangdong
劉扆臣 廣東 Liu Yichen of Guangdong
邱亮 廣東 Qiu Liang of Guangdong
李迪初 廣東 Li Dichu of Guangdong
李佩然 廣東 Li Peiran of Guangdong
王煥文 江蘇 Wang Huanwen of Jiangsu
高堯夫 江蘇 Gao Yaofu of Jiangsu
王維潘 江蘇 Wang Weipan of Jiangsu

Members of the first graduates in the martial arts program, at the beginner level, 1912:

Commemorative photo of the first graduates, beginner level, of the Chinese Jingwu Calisthenics Association
[Written on the banners surrounding the altar honoring Huo Yuanjia:]
All those here are persons of virtue
cultured and refined,…
possessing both the martial and civil qualities.

The first martial arts graduates at the advanced level, 1916:

Photo of the Jingwu Athletic Association’s graduates at the advanced level, 1916

Example of the diploma for the Jingwu Association’s martial arts program:

Jingwu Athletic Association diploma for:
Huang Hanjia of Xinhui County, Guangdong,
who has now studied martial arts at the Jingwu Association for four years, learning empty-hand sets, two-person sets, and weapon sets, obtaining an exquisite skillfulness in all of them. For this achievement, we hereby give him this diploma to verify that he has fulfilled the course requirements at the intermediate level [the beginner level being a two-year study, the advanced level being a six-year study, making this particular diploma the equivalent of completing a bachelor program at a university].
[Signed and stamped by:]
會長 王閣臣
Association President Wang Gechen
副會長 陳止瀾
Vice President Chen Zhilan
教員趙振群 李占風
Instructors Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe] & Li Zhanfeng
教員張富猷 孫賛軒
Instructors Zhang Fuyou & Sun Zanxuan
教員李健民 李振江
Instructors Li Jianmin & Li Zhenjiang [Liancun]
教員葉鳳岐 陳維賢
Instructors Ye Fengqi & Chen Weixian
Nov 25, 1917
(stamp of the Jingwu Athletic Association of China)

三年中級畢業會員 (姚甯兩員經會議特許超級畢業)
Graduates of 1914 at the intermediate level (with special permission given to Yao Chanbo and Ning Zhuting to be accelerated into this level after a conference on the decision):

黎惠生 廣東 Li Huisheng of Guangdong
盧煒昌 廣東 Lu Weichang of Guangdong
陳公哲 廣東 Chen Gongzhe of Guangdong
劉扆臣 廣東 Liu Yichen of Guangdong
邱亮 廣東 Qiu Liang of Guangdong
李迪初 廣東 Li Dichu of Guangdong
姚蟾伯 江蘇 Yao Chanbo of Jiangsu
寧竹亭 山東 Ning Zhuting of Shandong

Graduates of 1914 at the beginner level:

徐人龍 江蘇 Xu Renlong of Jiangsu
陳白濤 浙江 Chen Baitao of Zhejiang
王麐生 山東 Wang Linsheng of Shandong
浦闊亭 山東 Pu Kuoting of Shandong
劉日暄 山東 Liu Rixuan of Shandong
陳善 廣東 Chen Shan of Guangdong
陳洪鈞 廣東 Chen Jongjun of Guangdong
鄭灼辰 廣東 Zheng Zhuochen of Guangdong
周樹聲 廣東 Zhou Shusheng of Guangdong
周芹如 廣東 Zhou Qinru of Guangdong
馮蘭皋 廣東 Feng Lan’gao of Guangdong
唐瑞華 廣東 Tang Ruihua of Guangdong

Graduates of 1915 at the intermediate level:

徐振漢 浙江 Xu Zhenhan of Zhejiang

Graduates of 1915 at the beginner level:

包雲祥 山東 Bao Yunxiang of Shandong
尹鶴林 浙江 Yin Helin of Zhejiang
劉飛熊 浙江 Liu Feixiong of Zhejiang
翁耀衡 廣東 Weng Yaoheng of Guangdong
黃漢佳 廣東 Huang Hanjia of Guangdong
馮鐵魂 廣東 Feng Tiehun of Guangdong
容受之 廣東 Rong Shouzhi of Guangdong
王懷琪 江蘇 Wang Huaiqi of Jiangsu
秦公望 江蘇 Qin Gongwang of Jiangsu
王寶鏡 江蘇 Wang Baojing of Jiangsu

Graduates of 1916 at the advanced level:

姚蟾伯 江蘇 Yao Chanbo of Jiangsu
寧竹亭 山東 Ning Zhuting of Shandong
劉扆臣 廣東 Liu Yichen of Guangdong
邱亮 廣東 Qiu Liang of Guangdong
黎惠生 廣東 Li Huisheng of Guangdong
陳公哲 廣東 Chen Gongzhe of Guangdong
盧煒昌 廣東 Lu Weichang of Guangdong

Graduates of 1916 at the intermediate level:

浦闊亭 山東 Pu Kuoting of Shandong
鄭灼辰 廣東 Zheng Zhuochen of Guangdong
馮蘭皋 廣東 Feng Lan’gao of Guangdong
陳善 廣東 Chen Shan of Guangdong

Graduates of 1916 at the beginner level:

沈季修 廣東 Shen Jixiu of Guangdong
葉槺瑄 廣東 Ye Kangxuan of Guangdong
李國荃 廣東 Li Guoquan of Guangdong
陳漢欽 廣東 Chen Hanqin of Guangdong
陳國衡 廣東 Chen Guoheng of Guangdong
吳耀之 廣東 Wu Yaozhi of Guangdong
孫弘 安徽 Sun Hong of Anhui
費實秋 直隸 Fei Shiqiu of Hebei
孫毓庭 浙江 Sun Yuting of Zhejiang
林逸雲 浙江 Lin Yiyun of Zhejiang
金光曜 浙江 Jin Guangyao of Zhejiang
張英甫 山東 Zhang Yingfu of Shandong

Graduates of 1917 at the intermediate level:

翁耀衡 廣東 Weng Yaoheng of Guangdong
馮鐵魂 廣東 Feng Tiehun of Guangdong
黃漢佳 廣東 Huang Hanjia of Guangdong
劉日暄 山東 Liu Rixuan of Shandong

Graduates of 1917 at the beginner level:

呂啟明 山東 Lü Qiming of Shandong
李維新 直𨽹 Li Weixin of Hebei
張勤益 江蘇 Zhang Qinyi of Jiangsu
周杏生 江蘇 Zhou Xingsheng of Jiangsu
周俊生 江蘇 Zhou Junsheng of Jiangsu
王漢禮 浙江 Wang Hanli of Zhejiang
陳世俊 浙江 Chen Shijun of Zhejiang
葉衍鴻 廣東 Ye Yanhong of Guangdong
葉子華 廣東 Ye Zihua of Guangdong
黃維慶 廣東 Huang Weiqing of Guangdong
曾啟文 廣東 Zeng Qiwen of Guangdong
翁達方 廣東 Weng Dafang of Guangdong
周錫三 廣東 Zhou Xisan of Guangdong
薛鞏初 廣東 Xue Gongchu of Guangdong
黃善祥 廣東 Huang Shanxiang of Guangdong
郭健霄 廣東 Guo Jianxiao of Guangdong
黃鳴岐 廣東 Huang Mingqi of Guangdong

Graduates of 1918 at the advanced level:

鄭灼辰 廣東 Zheng Zhuochen of Guangdong
翁耀衡 廣東 Weng Yaoheng of Guangdong
馮蘭皋 廣東 Feng Lan’gao of Guangdong
浦闊亭 山東 Pu Kuoting of Shandong
劉日暄 山東 Liu Rixuan of Shandong

Graduates of 1918 at the intermediate level:

沈季修 廣東 Shen Jixiu of Guangdong
金光曜 浙江 Jin Guangyao of Zhejiang
呂啟明 山東 Lü Qiming of Shandong
李維新 直隸 Li Weixin of Hebei

Graduates of 1918 at the beginner level:

聶光堃 湖南 Nie Guangkun of Hunan
劉冠山 山東 Liu Guanshan of Shandong
劉蘭坡 奉天 Liu Lanpo of Fengtian
王松齡 浙江 Wang Songling of Zhejiang
馬承鑫 江蘇 Ma Chengxin of Jiangsu
沈余泰 江蘇 Shen Yutai of Jiangsu
楊琛倫 廣東 Yang Chenlun of Guangdong
羅克己 廣東 Luo Keji of Guangdong
黎永錦 廣東 Li Yongjin of Guangdong
盧頌虔 廣東 Lu Songqian of Guangdong
余文厚 廣東 Yu Wenhou of Guangdong
梁少田 廣東 Liang Shaotian of Guangdong
鄭福良 廣東 Zheng Fuliang of Guangdong
温朝書 廣東 Wen Chaoshu of Guangdong
陳士超 廣東 Chen Shichao of Guangdong
簡貽孫 廣東 Jian Yisun of Guangdong
簡觀昌 廣東 Jian Guanchang of Guangdong
黎耀文 廣東 Li Yaowen of Guangdong
陸象賢 廣東 Lu Xiangxian of Guangdong
簡世樞 廣東 Jian Shishu of Guangdong
程子英 廣東 Cheng Ziying of Guangdong
何杰卿 廣東 He Jieqing of Guangdong
黎湛泉 廣東 Li Zhanquan of Guangdong
陳杰珊 廣東 Chen Jieshan of Guangdong
鄭炳麟 廣東 Zheng Binglin of Guangdong

Graduates of 1919 at the advanced level:

黃漢佳 廣東 Huang Hanjia of Guangdong
金光曜 浙江 Jin Guangyao of Zhejiang

Graduates of 1919 at the intermediate level:

王漢禮 浙江 Wang Hanli of Zhejiang
黃維慶 廣東 Huang Weiqing of Guangdong
薛鞏初 廣東 Xue Gongchu of Guangdong
曾啓文 廣東 Zeng Qiwen of Guangdong
羅克己 廣東 Luo Keji of Guangdong
葉子華 廣東 Ye Zihua of Guangdong

Graduates of 1919 at the beginner level:

安佩文 山東 An Peiwen of Shandong
朱勉仙 廣東 Zhu Mianxian of Guangdong
朱穰丞 江蘇 Zhu Rangcheng of Jiangsu
余煥培 廣東 Yu Huanpei of Guangdong
毛瑞卿 山東 Mao Ruiqing of Shandong
程仙洲 山東 Cheng Xianzhou of Shandong
譚瑞銘 廣東 Tan Ruiming of Guangdong
葛榮先 山東 Ge Rongxian of Shandong
劉德臣 山東 Liu Dechen of Shandong
馬湘 廣東 Ma Xiang of Guangdong
黃惠龍 廣東 Huang Huilong of Guangdong
楊學南 山東 Yang Xuenan of Shandong
張言珍 山東 Zhang Yanzhen of Shandong
傅蓮舫 山東 Fu Lianfang of Shandong
謝振聲 山東 Xie Zhensheng of Shandong
張葵五 山東 Zhang Kuiwu of Shandong
劉子鴻 山東 Liu Zihong of Shandong
程鏡川 廣東 Cheng Jingchuan of Guangdong
陳忠五 山東 Chen Zhongwu of Shandong
徐憲堂 山東 Xu Xiantang of Shandong
林煥廷 廣東 Lin Huanting of Guangdong
張尊五 山東 Zhang Zunwu of Shandong
陳壽之 江蘇 Chen Shouzhi of Jiangsu
何瑞生 廣東 He Ruisheng of Guangdong
陳子學 廣東 Chen Zixue of Guangdong
蔡景麟 廣東 Cai Jinglin of Guangdong
彭幼典 廣東 Peng Youdian of Guangdong
勞錫藩 廣東 Lao Xifan of Guangdong
簡偉卿 廣東 Jian Weiqing of Guangdong
容麟生 廣東 Rong Lisheng of Guangdong
賀日三 山東 He Risan of Shandong
樂致遠 浙江 Le Zhiyuan of Zhejiang
裘松泉 浙江 Qiu Songquan of Zhejiang
原樂岩 山東 Yuan Leyan of Shandong
何其森 浙江 He Qisen of Zhejiang
卓德 廣東 Zhuo De of Guangdong
姚貴源 江蘇 Yao Guiyuan of Jiangsu
陳仁齋 廣東 Chen Renzhai of Guangdong
陳貴立 廣東 Chen Guili of Guangdong
黃癡 江蘇 Huang Chi of Jiangsu
程鏞 廣東 Cheng Yong of Guangdong
唐琼永 廣東 Tang Qiongyong of Guangdong
李少林 廣東 Li Shaolin of Guangdong
馮瑞廷 廣東 Feng Ruiting of Guangdong
曾玉書 廣東 Zeng Yushu of Guangdong
唐壽英 廣東 Tang Shouying of Guangdong
鄭啟光 廣東 Zheng Qiguang of Guangdong
張瑞圖 廣東 Zhang Ruitu of Guangdong
張俊廷 廣東 Zhang Junting of Guangdong
徐雲岳 江蘇 Xu Yunyue of Jiangsu
梁子鵬 廣東 Liang Zipeng of Guangdong

☉技擊大會操記 劉扆臣

The Jingwu Association sends instructors to various organizations in Shanghai, such as Fudan University, Chinese Industry Technical School, East Asia Athletic School, Shanghai YMCA, Chengzhong Secondary School, Lingnan Secondary School, Boy Scouts 13th Troop, Patriotic Girls’ School, Chinese Women’s Calisthenics School, Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association of the Commercial Press, Guangdong Primary School, Developing Virtue Primary School, Shanghai Youth Club, Developing Fundamentals Primary School, Guangzhou-Guangdong Girls’ School, Chongde Girls’ School, and so on.
  During the fourth week of every month, these classes are called together to the Jingwu Association’s sports ground to do group practice of martial arts sets. Even in groups of hundreds or a thousand, they are guided smoothly by the vocal commands of their instructors. The instructors of the Jingwu Association give attention to group practice in order to cultivate a kind of communal spirit. The four photos below give a genuine view of gathering for group practice and later dispersing:

Martial arts group practice (photo 1):

Martial arts group practice (photo 2):

Martial arts group practice (photo 3):

Photo 4 – dispersing after group practice:

☉健兒團記 盧煒昌

“Be lenient toward other people, strict toward yourself.” This saying [aphorism 168 from Hong Zicheng’s Vegetable Roots Discourse] is something I have harvested much from. I spent half my life looking everywhere for self-disciplined comrades, but they are as rare as phoenix feathers and unicorn horns, never mind those who are strict about it. All my life I have been strict toward myself, and it has given me self-confidence, but I have often found myself in situations that presented me with tremendous obstacles and felt like shifting the blame for my circumstances onto others, unconsciously becoming lost in frustration. It is said that the Buddha had self-control throughout any situation and had the ability to accept all blame onto himself, but even the wisest of men are sometimes negligent about guarding against their emotions. The Valiant Warriors Club was formed with this very idea in mind.
  Jingwu Association members are self-disciplined all day long. No one would dare to mock them as being lazy. Desires and hunger do not distract them from their spirit of struggle. Rain or snow filling the road only increases their mentality of endurance. They have practiced their skills year after year, the years going by in a flash, and any weariness continues to be pushed aside. Therefore practitioners have now formed a special group to diligently do extra training, intent on obtain even greater benefits from “studying old ways to understand new ways” [Lun Yu, 2.11], and to bear the burdens together of doing hard work.
  Every day, they hear the bell and gather to line up and form a parade. Over the course of just a couple of weeks, the number of people constantly increased. Day after day, they practice in the hot sunshine, paying no attention to the sweat dripping down their backs, nor fretting about the soreness and ache building up in their bodies. After looking for half my life for any self-disciplined comrades, in one day I unexpectedly found dozens of them. I am delighted and inspired by their hard work, and due to their perfectionism [“not lacking a single bucket of dirt”], the benefits they receive will surpass those of all of their colleagues.
  Furthermore, the practicing of boxing arts is profound without end, something to be done for a lifetime. Get a taste for its mysteries, but then reach for its essentials, intent only upon that fixed goal. If you do not go through the hard work of training the essentials, then even after a lifetime of practice, you would get no results at all. When the Jingwu Association began, Huo Yuanjia personally designed the curriculum. He often said: “Without first devoting yourself to Tantui for building a foundation, you’ll not only not see any deeper into the art, a case of adoring the pretty and ignoring the reality, it’ll also be hard for you to learn to accept that it takes ceaseless hard work to get there.” Although students have sometimes been in denial about this message, they know in their hearts that it is true. Ultimately the majority has argued against such denial and adopted Huo’s teaching method, his influence still permeating the classes. The high-level graduates who started ten years ago remain members who love to learn and to this day comply with Huo’s teachings, being members who are fully steeped in Tantui.
  Up to this day, the true effectiveness of training in boxing arts is apparent. Just take a look at the sincerity of the Jingwu Association’s valiant warriors, how they force away the error of adoring what is pretty and ignoring what is real. I hope that these arts will have a continued impact upon popular feeling, for they have the marvelous effects of boosting the spirit and bringing greater longevity to individuals and to the people. So thoroughly does Huo’s influence affect the classes that after ten years, Jingwu Association members still do not know what the highest peak is, nor exactly how to reach it. Nevertheless, valiant warriors, though the current success of the Jingwu Association is due to Huo Yuanjia, future success is our own responsibility. To get things done requires perseverance and determination. I hope you will all take this point seriously.

Photo of the Valiant Warriors Club during a class:

☉勵志團緣起 起草者 鄭灼辰 馮蘭皋
ORIGIN OF THE ENCOURAGEMENT CLUB by Zheng Zhuochen & Feng Lan’gao

The Encouragement Club was formed by colleagues in the martial arts department to be bound together in a vowed agreement in order to better encourage each other to learn. Established in 1912, the first member was a certain Mr. Huang, who said he was irritated at receiving insults from foreigners and wanted to wash off the humiliation of us being the “sick men of Asia”. He also specially invited us, his friends Feng Lan’gao and Zheng Yili [Zhuochen], to join the Jingwu Association and learn boxing arts. But soon after, having only learned as far as the eighth line of Tantui, Mr. Huang himself decided to quit. Many asked him why, to which he said: “I’m completely exhausted. Now I know that the insult of ‘sick men of Asia’ is not so easy to get rid of.” Those who heard him talk this way gave snorts of contempt for the idea. Chen Gongzhe said: “Feng and Zheng don’t agree with you and are embarrassed to hear your words.” We then made a pact to encourage each other, hoping to never follow Mr. Huang’s defeatist attitude.
  Whenever we missed a single class, we paid a fine. In every class, we practiced at least thirteen sets. Any less and we considered it the same as missing a class, then called upon Chen Gongzhe to make a record of it and accept the same fine. Once our fines had accumulated to a certain amount, we put it toward a dinner party to acknowledge the hard work of our supervisor [Chen]. But after the next several months of getting the very best out of each other, our fines did not amount to more than 3 gold yuan, so we invited Chen Gongzhe for a late meal at a delicious local eatery in order to fulfill the previous promise of another dinner party. Since everyone admires him as much as we do, we thereupon formed the Encouragement Club. Here are the current rules of the club:
  [1] Anyone who misses a class will pay a fine. If there is a reason for the absence, it has to be given before 9am. Missing the deadline is treated as the same as missing a class.
  [2] To ask for leave, you must pay 1 jiao in advance. If you ask for leave by phone, then you must pay half a jiao [generously allowing for the expense of the phone call]. Fines will fund the club dinner parties.
  [3] If you cannot make it to a dinner party, you must ask for leave in advance, otherwise there will be the same penalty as for missing a class.
  [4] Since alcohol can ruin your training, as well as shorten your life, physical education teachers find it to be particularly inappropriate, and therefore it is on our list of things that are forbidden. Those who succumb to temptation will be fined.
  [5] Club members who for an entire year have never asked for leave or been fined will be presented with a silver medal with the club name on it. The most valiant member who attends class, being generally recognized by the other members as being so, will be presented with a gold medal for inspiring self-discipline in others in order to rouse their spirit to bear future burdens.
  [6] To join the club, you not only need a recommendation, you must also first review the club charter and spend three days considering its contents. If after that time you truly feel you can abide by the rules, then you will be allowed to join. Dozens of people have signed up to the club.

Group photo of the Encouragement Club:

After announcing the founding of the club, we appointed Chen Gongzhe as the club director and Ning Zhuting as the club accountant. At that time, the two of us in our little “club” had in our minds the same purpose for it as each other. But once Chen had been made our director, he suggested that we add more members, that the two of us be the harbinger for a larger club. We then became extremely welcoming to others and absorbed all the members of the music department into the club. We therefore added to the rules that when music was to be played at the dinner parties, the musicians had to bring their own instruments. Having at first thought that simply playing at the banquets exempted them from fines, they now knew that not bringing their own instruments was treated the same as not coming to the banquet at all.
  There are many school students who use their spare time outside of their schoolwork to come to the Jingwu Association to practice martial arts, and are thus eminently eligible to join this club. Indeed we feel that such students are qualified for special consideration and should not be fined to the same degree as the rest of us, and so we decided to divide members into two types: ordinary members and student members. Fines for ordinary members are the same as above, whereas student members only pay half. Student members joining the club have consequently become especially numerous, now numbering already more than thirty.
  Every year there will be several dinner parties, each at a famous restaurant. Everyone will know it is a Jingwu affair, because the Jingwu Association brings its rules along instead of leaving them behind, and so there is no alcohol served during the banquet, not to defy common custom, but to show our sincerity. We eat with gusto, but once we have eaten our fill, we depart, and it is not because we are being miserly [about the money that would otherwise be spent on the customary alcohol].
  In the autumn of 1915, there was a strong typhoon in Shanghai that sent rocks and dirt hurtling through the air. There was a tremendous amount of damage, involving trees getting snapped in half and buildings being smashed. At that time, the Jingwu Association was still located by the railroad overpass in the Wang Family Neighborhood, where there was a path that members had to walk along. Beside this path was a stretch of iron fencing, the tips of which had been twisted by wind pressure, creating a protruding wall of spikes crowding over the path, making it excessively hazardous for anyone to try to walk past them. There were also many ruined old buildings near the north ramp of the bridge, lead plates having been thrown onto the roofs. With so much debris being cast up and dropping down, every pedestrian around ran away to get safely under cover. But the spirit of those in our club was not affected by any of this, earning us many jibes later, for not one of us had become absent throughout, a bit of rain on a hot day not being enough to scare us off.
  During the spring of 1914, the Jingwu Association had held a competition to assess every member’s physical strength. Over the course of two hours, every member was told to perform their martial arts skills to the very best of their ability. Each set they performed was scrutinized by instructors, who made a tally of the number of sets performed, including a judgment of the quality of performance. They determined that the best performances were all by members within this club, who were able to perform more than fifty sets within those two hours, whereas members who were not in the club were not able to perform more than ten sets and were gasping for breath after even that much and had to lie down and rest. Because club members had put more effort into training hard, their physical strength had progressed faster.
  Each member also has the appetite of two people. In the autumn of 1916, all club members went to Suzhou to participate in the Canglang Pavilion Western Medical School Athletic Meet. After our performance, we went to have lunch at the Golden Lane Tavern, where we showed what hearty eaters we all are, devouring eight bowls of rice apiece, and being mocked for having such slim bellies while a mountain of bowls piled up on the table, the other customers all staring at us. After finishing, we asked the price. The restaurant owner said: “There’s a rule in my restaurant that when a meal goes beyond the bounds of a banquet, you each get thirty percent off everything.” We all thanked him and then he said: “In all the decades I’ve been in this business, I’ve never seen anyone as good at eating as you guys. But if all my customers were like you, I’d go bankrupt. For such powerful appetites, I declare you all honorary generals.”

Photo at Tiger Hill after the athletic meet at Canglang Pavilion in Suzhou [Tiger Hill being about four miles to the northwest of the pavilion]:

Club members also have a reputation for a constant competitive attitude, and therefore they have been receiving fewer and fewer fines while medals are being awarded more and more. In 1914, Ning Zhuting was the first to receive the gold medal. Over the course of the next three years, 1916–1918, the silver medal was awarded to ten people, the gold medal was awarded to four people, and a special award for going three whole years without ever missing a single class was awarded to two people. The club now has more than fifty members, and yet the fines that have accumulated over the course of this last year are not enough to cover the cost of making the next medal, so great has the determination and willpower of all the members become. Due to the self-discipline of each individual, there is no lack of champions in this club.
  For the last ten years, the members of the Jingwu Association have all exhibited self-control and self-respect, never rude or insulting toward others, and this is in large part due to the influence of the Encouragement Club. It is clear therefore that this club has deeply affected people. Someday its practices will become the prevailing custom, causing cowards to stand tall and turning corrupt people honest, and will thus benefit more than just our colleagues.

☉紀安步團 金光曜
WALKING CLUB by Jin Guangyao

It says in the Book of Changes [hexagram 1]: “Just as Nature acts with vigor, a gentleman ceaselessly improves himself.” Our club was formed out of inspiration from this ancient maxim, started in the winter of 1916 by Zheng Zhuochen. At first there were only two members, Li Huisheng and myself, but now there are more than ten. Members must gather every morning at 6:30am at the Hongkou Steel Bridge, where we line up and walk straight to the Jingwu Association (which takes about three thousand nine hundred paces and requires about thirty minutes), except on Sundays and in cases of unforeseen emergency.
  If someone wishes to cancel in advance but misses the deadline at the end of the month, he then has to pay a fee to the whole group, 6 jiao per person, so that on heavily rainy days the whole group will have the fare to ride the tramcar to the Tilanqiao Neighborhood (the remaining distance then taking about one thousand three hundred paces and requiring about ten minutes).
  Therefore even during the harshest days of winter, when everything is covered in snow and ice, and bitter wind penetrates right to the bone, members must still be punctual. In the winter of 1917, the temperature dropped to 12°F, and yet we never dare to miss a day. Even Huang Shanxiang, who is still virtually just a boy, has never missed a day since joining the club [and also received a perfect attendance medal in the 1917 Jingwu Graduation Ceremony]. Consistency is a matter of determination, of steadfast willpower. Everyone has more than enough because this club offers encouragement by way of reward. Those who go a whole year without missing a day will win a prize, as many of us have already done.

List of club members:
鄭灼辰 黎惠生 金光曜 黃善祥 黃漢佳 李國荃 陳仁齋 陳善 譚瑞和 蔡景麟 勞錫藩 程鏡川
Zheng Zhuochen, Li Huisheng, Jin Guangyao, Huang Shanxiang, Huang Hanjia, Li Guoquan, Chen Renzhai, Chen Shan, Tan Ruihe, Cai Jinglin, Lao Xifan, Cheng Jingchuan

(Note by Chen Tiesheng: These are the formal members of the Walking Club. However, there are plenty of people who walk to and from the Jingwu Association who are not in the club, a prime example being Ge Rongxian. Ge has lived within the French Concession area for more than forty years. Regardless of winter cold or summer heat, he is to be found at 5:30am practicing his boxing sets at the front of the martial practice hall. The distance he covers each day in going to and from the Jingwu Association on foot adds up to altogether about eight miles. He has never taken the tram and is resolute that he never will. Therefore it is surely he who sets the standard for self-discipline in this regard.)

☉惜陰團紀 陳士超

Members usually congregate at the Jingwu Association members usually congregate at the school at the same time, flooding into the martial arts practice hall like carp. But Shen Jixiu is a businessman. At 9am, he has to go run his business, and from that point on he unfortunately has little free time. While the sun sets, he walks to the Jingwu Association to practice, hoping to use the emptied space while everyone else was on their way home to bed. It went on in that way for him for a few years. Then Chen Tiesheng started meeting with Shen Jixiu to practice two-person sets together [such as Two-Person Sword and Double Sabers Versus Spear]. Since they had similar schedules, it seemed appropriate to come to the school at the same time.
  I later found out about their opportunistic monopolizing of the space and the results they were achieving together. This became the origin of the “Precious-Time Club”. There is now not a single moment, whether in winter or summer, in which the martial arts practice hall is unoccupied between daybreak and nightfall. Chen was annoyed with Shen for divulging their secret, for they were no longer able to have the space all to themselves during that time. With the club now growing by the day, he has sardonically remarked to him: “Well, instead of meeting after sunset, should we start meeting before dawn?”

☉精武女子模範團紀略 陳士超

The aim of establishing the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team was to promote exercise among women. We women are people too. Our heads are just as round and our feet are just as square. But to hold positions that are available to men, we have to be willing to acknowledge that we are physically weaker and not shy away from exercise. In 1917, I, together with Zhang Xiangwen, Huang Wanxiang, Zhou Sujun, Zhang Xiangsu, Lu Xueying (wife of Chen Gongzhe), started this team, and bolstered by “6th brother” Chen Gongzhe, we started giving instruction.
  After not even half a year, the physical strength of our students dramatically increased and they subsequently joined the team as well. Then in June of 1918, there was a meeting of all Jingwu Association members, involving the drafting of a Jingwu constitution and an election of staff members. Now officially a part of the established guidelines, team members trained even more enthusiastically. Regardless of wind or rain, we progressed until we had convinced the men towering over us that we were no longer weak.
  I had previously gained some knowledge of medicine. In 1908, I was often inflicted with heart palpitations. I applied my own medicines, but they had no effect at all. I then called upon noteworthy Western physicians, but there was nothing they could do either. Then 6th brother taught me martial arts for just over sixth months and my chronic illness subsequently vanished.
  Huang Wanxiang had made herself exhausted from schoolwork, becoming so physically weakened that she would not dare go out in the wind. Nowadays [after likewise going through martial arts training] she is tough enough to resist the bitterest cold and is like a completely different person. These are examples of the extraordinary effectiveness of such training and show that we do not need to be resigned to our natural weakness. Why not give a try?

The Exemplary Women Team:

☉體育相眞 陳鐵生

In the photo below, I was forty-four years old [1917]. I spent my youth living a life of giddy dissipation and excess. Before I was even forty, I needed a cane in order to stand up. When I was forty-three [1916], Lu Weichang invited me to join the Jingwu Association and help write a series of martial arts books. At first I thought that these exercises for the hands and feet looked too intense, but then the experience of them revealed to me that I was completely mistaken in this notion. Observing myself suddenly developing strength, I decided no longer let myself be held back by such an idea and then worked hard at the movements I was taught. After not even a year since I had been using a cane to stand, I was now jumping, swinging weapons around, and wrestling with young men.
  When the Jingwu Association opened, the oldest student was only thirty-five, but nowadays the record has long since been broken. During the last couple of years, members in their forties have all received the same unlimited benefit. Let this photo serve as proof of such results so that newcomers who have interest but are already middle-aged need not be discouraged.
  - written by Chen Tiesheng, called Zhuomei, of Xinhui, in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Shanghai Jingwu Athletic Association, 1919 (and in thanks that I have now made it to forty-six years old)

Chen Tiesheng at age 44:

Members of the Shanghai Jingwu Association in group practice (practicing Tantui):

合戰 盧煒昌 陳公哲
Cooperative Fight (performed by Lu Weichang [left] & Chen Gongzhe [right]):

短戰 鄭灼辰
Performing a posture from Low-Posture Fight (performed by Zheng Zhuochen):

套拳對手 左鄭灼辰 右甯竹亭
Trapping Boxing (performed by Zheng Zhuochen on the left & Ning Zhuting on the right):

陳公哲 五金業經理
Chen Gongzhe (a hardware-store owner):

勇猛精進 鐵生題
“Gongzhe is bold and enterprising!” – Chen Tiesheng

姚蟾伯 顏料業
Yao Chanbo (a figure in the pigment industry):

跋姚君像 邵廷玉

Yao Chanbo is a Wu person [a term for people from the area of southern Jiangsu / northern Zhejiang, which was part of the Kingdom of Wu in the age of the Three Kingdoms]. Everyone says he is enthusiastic about promoting the public good. But I say not really. People sometimes say he is a good student and loves learning. But I say not really. People also say he is highly skilled at martial arts. But I say not really. Sure there are people who care about the public good, love to learn, and are highly skilled at martial arts, but do any of these things really describe Yao? Well, sort of. If you meet Yao, you are bound to come to these conclusions and feel that they show how much he is not a typical kid from Shanghai. But it is precisely because of how much he is not at all a typical kid from Shanghai that I bow down in admiration. [In other words, these descriptions do not do him justice. He is more than just “cares” about the public good, more than just “loves” learning, and is higher than merely “highly” skilled at martial arts.]

盧煒昌 五金業經理
Lu Weichang (a hardware-store owner):

Everyone assumes a physique to be a natural gift and rarely investigate into methods of building strength. Ten years ago [age 24], I was a very thin and weak young man. Then I awakened to the truth of physical education and committed to training my body. After a long period of carving at my form without ever giving up, this is how I look today [age 34], and I make use of photos like this to encourage myself to work harder still.
  - written by Lu Weichang, summer solstice, 1917

Huang Huilong:

黎惠生 (江海關辦事員)
Li Huisheng (an officer at the Shanghai Customs House):

串子 (趙連和本會教員) (鄭灼辰牙科醫生)
“String of Beads” [a two-person set] (performed by Zhao Lianhe [left], a Jingwu instructor, and Zheng Zhuochen [right], a dental surgeon):

較劍 沈季修 陳鐵生
Sword Sparring (performed by Shen Jixiu [left] & Chen Tiesheng [right]):

手足交搏 趙連和 趙連城
Hands Versus Feet (performed by Zhao Lianhe [left] & Zhao Liancheng [right]):

套拳 蔡志栴 黃畹香
Trapping Boxing (performed by Cai Zhizhan [left] & Huang Wanxiang [right]):

龍爭虎鬭 陳士超 簡偉卿
Fight Between Dragon & Tiger [which also happens to be the Chinese title for Enter the Dragon] (performed by Chen Shichao [left] & Jian Weiqing [right]):

[The “Leopard-Skin Team” – photo 1:]
盧煒昌 黃漢佳 趙連和 陳鐵生 陳公哲
[standing] Lu Weichang, Huang Hanjia, Zhao Lianhe, Chen Tiesheng, Chen Gongzhe
鄭灼辰 甯竹亭 姚蟾伯
[floor] Zheng Zhuochen, Ning Zhuting, Yao Chanbo

[The “Leopard-Skin Team” – photo 2:]
黃漢佳 陳鐵生 鄭灼辰
[standing] Huang Hanjia, Chen Tiesheng, Zheng Zhuochen
甯竹亭 盧煒昌 趙連和 姚蟾伯 陳公哲
[floor] Ning Zhuting, Lu Weichang, Zhao Lianhe, Yao Chanbo, Chen Gongzhe

Ning Zhuting:

☉紀袖鑣 程子英
SLEEVE DARTS by Cheng Ziying

Sleeve darts are an ancient hidden weapon. Since the invention of firearms and explosives, this weapon has been pushed out of its place of honor. However, guns at some point run out of bullets, and so it is not wise to abandon this kind of skill.

During a practice session with sleeve darts:

☉論弓矢 鄭憲成

Archery is one of the six classical arts, and was thus something a gentleman could not neglect. The bow is made of supple wood so that the tips can be drawn toward each other, whereas the arrows are made of hard wood. There are two kinds of bows: a light bow for shooting arrows, a heavy bow for developing strength. A heavy shooting bow would not be easy to draw. A light practice bow would not build much strength. An ordinary bow will supply about two or three “efforts”, an “effort” [i.e. the draw weight] being about ten pounds. A practice bow will give a draw weight of about seventy or eighty pounds, or can even go over a hundred. Yue Fei was said to be able to draw three hundred pounds, but such magical arms are not very likely.
  As for the archery method, looking sideways causes the arrow to shoot straight, and the arrow’s feathers cause it to have greater precision. Your feet are separated by a single stride, your knees in line with your toes. Square your waist [to be facing perpendicular to the target] and lower your arms into position. Your left hand holds the bow with the ring finger and little finger gripping more firmly, the thumb supporting the arrowhead with the forefinger near it. Your right hand’s thumb and forefinger pull back the bowstring. Your gaze is directly toward the bull’s eye [the Chinese word for the center of the target being “swan” as classical archery was used for hunting fowl]. As your hand releases toward the rear, the arrow flies forward. Even if it does not hit the center of the target, it will not be far away from it.
  It is especially important that you concentrate your attention upon a single goal [that of hitting the center of the target]. It is said [in the Book of Rites, chapter 46 – “The Meaning of Archery”]: “When internally the archer’s intention was correct, externally his body was then properly positioned… and thus he was able to reach the center. The archery ritual was therefore used as a means of examining one’s character… His mind is calm, his body is poised, he holds the bow and arrow with both delicacy and firmness… If he shoots and misses, he does not blame others for their superior skill, instead he seeks to take the fault entirely upon himself.” Lü Kun similarly said [in Words of Whining, chapter 16]: “When the archer misses, the bow is innocent, the arrow is innocent, and the target is innocent,” for he only has himself to blame. We should value strength, but we should also value virtue, for physical and moral cultivation are both related to each other. The Jingwu Association has a course in archery because it embodies such righteousness.

Practicing archery:

☉復旦公學技擊紀 趙連和

The Fudan Public School has several hundred students, many of whom are learning martial arts. I have received the honor of instructing them, though unworthy of the position, and have been teaching there for several years now. In my humble opinion, as long as people have the perseverance and willpower of the Fudan students, the latent potential of our nation will be something that cannot be sneered at.

上海復旦公學技擊班 教練者趙連和
Martial arts class at the Fudan Public School of Shanghai (Zhao Lianhe instructing):

☉中華工業專門學校技擊紀略 趙連和

Chinese Industry Technical School, originally called Chinese Railroad School, has several hundred students. The school requested a martial arts instructor from the Jingwu Association. The first instructor sent was Li Zhanfeng, but when he was later assigned to a position elsewhere, I was given his place, though quite unworthy to fill his shoes, and have been teaching there for several years now. Though I am ashamed by the low level of my own skill, the students have all been perfect gentlemen to me, performing their movements with boldness and energy, and making great progress [“traveling hundreds of miles in a day”], proving the effects of diligent study. I have had no difficulty in teaching them.

Photos of the lessons at Chinese Industry Technical School (previously called the Chinese Railroad School):

Photo 1 – The entire class performing the second line of Tantui:

Photo 2 – Select students demonstrating the Shaolin Boxing posture of Plucking the Stars:

(三)中華鐵路學校 技擊部撮影 民國五年六月
Photo 3 (Portrait of the martial arts class when the school was still called the Chinese Railroad School – June, 1916):

☉東亞體育學校技擊班 姚蟾伯

In an athletic school, there are many kinds of exercise, but a martial arts class is the most important, for the students may grow up to become teachers themselves in ordinary schools. I have found that all of the students have ability in martial arts. They work hard without giving up, which is an excellent trait to see. Therefore this training is also a means of getting students into a habit of not letting go of their ambitions.

上海東亞體育學校技擊教練 教授者姚蟾伯趙連城葉書田
Martial arts class at the East Asia Athletic School of Shanghai (Yao Chanbo, Zhao Liancheng, and Ye Shutian instructing):

☉松江江蘇省立第三中學校技擊紀 陳鐵生

The first secondary school to have a martial arts class was Jiangsu 3rd Provincial Secondary School, Songjiang District, and the first instructor from the Jingwu Association to guide the class was Zhang Fuyou. He has held the post for several years now and the students in the class pay strong attention to him. More than half of the higher primary schools in Songjiang District now have similar classes, showing how deeply he has affected people.

松江第三中學技擊圖 教員張富猷
Photo of the martial arts class at the 3rd Secondary School, Songjiang District (instructed by Zhang Fuyou):

江蘇省立第三中學校運動會攝影二 潭腿二路
Photo of an athletic meet at the Jiangsu 3rd Provincial Secondary School, performing the 2nd line of Tantui

☉紀澄衷學校技擊課 趙連和

Chengzhong Secondary School is very strict, no frivolity, but the students are nevertheless extremely enthusiastic. When a martial arts class was added to the curriculum, they said it was not enough, and so we went further and established a martial arts team to train additional skills beyond the regular classes. I was already teaching in several schools at the same time, but I forced myself to submit to their ambitions and find the extra time. When I eventually became too busy, I was no longer worthy for the task, and so I gave the responsibility to my brother Zhao Liancheng, who has since never once missed a class. The students of Chengzhong Secondary School have exceeded all expectations with the progress of their team.

澄衷學校之技擊團 教員趙連和
Martial arts team of Chengzhong Secondary School (instructed by Zhao Lianhe):

Group photo of the martial arts team of Chengzhong Secondary School – winter, 1918

☉嶺南中學技擊紀 黃維慶

The Lingnan Secondary School was founded by Zhang Hongxun, who received a degree in farming and forestry in the United States. As the students are mostly Cantonese, they have a particular interest in physical education, and so a martial arts class was added to the curriculum in 1917. At that time, Huang Weiqing, Chen Gongzhe, and Zhao Liancheng taught the class together. Now the instruction is shared between Yao Chanbo, Chen Shan, and Feng Lan’gao. Over these years, the students have all shown great determination for the material, and thus they have had remarkable results.

上海嶺南中學上課圖 教授者姚蟾伯黃維慶陳善馮蘭皋
Photo of the class at the Lingnan Secondary School of Shanghai (instructed by Yao Chanbo, Huang Weiqing, Chen Shan, and Feng Lan’gao):

☉靑年會之技擊班 黃漢佳

Because the YMCA has a gymnasium, their variety of exercise has prepared them for a martial arts class. Jingwu Association members Lu Weichang, Weng Yaoheng, and Huang Hanjia fulfill the teaching duties together. Below is the most recent photo.

上海靑年會技擊班 教授者盧煒昌翁耀衡黃漢佳
Martial arts class of the Shanghai YMCA (instructed by Lu Weichang [front row, center], Weng Yaoheng [right of Lu], Huang Hanjia [left of Lu]):

☉紀工界靑年勵志會 黎惠生

The Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association is for the employees of the Commercial Press of Shanghai. It was founded on April 6, 1913, and there was just over sixty students in the beginning. It is superintended by Bao Xianchang, the president is Shen Yesheng, and the vice president is Chen Chunfu. It is located on the Baoshan Road, in the western part of the Baoxing Neighborhood. By 1918, membership rose to more than four hundred thirty students, and both Chinese and English language night classes were made available.
  This year, Li Huisheng has served as martial arts instructor. He learned the Yangtze River branch of boxing arts from Yu Dingming. In the spring of this year, there was an expansion of the school’s dormitory space, as well as its physical education department, journalism department, calligraphy department, army drill department, library, auditorium, music room, in fact every part of the school. It is said that social education is based in artistic skills. For industry to flourish, here lies the foundation.

Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association of the Commercial Press (photo 1):

Group photo of the martial arts class for the physical education department of the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association

(二)商務印書館工界靑年勵志會團體教練 教授者黎惠生
Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association of the Commercial Press (photo 2) – group practice (instructed by Li Huisheng):

☉愛國女學紀 甯竹亭

The Patriotic Girls’ School specializes in physical education. Lu Weichang and I have served as martial arts instructors there for several years. In the 1916 & 1917 Jiangsu Province All-Schools Athletic Meet, the Patriotic Girls’ School won first place out all of the girls’ schools. In 1918, it was held up as an exemplary school, not just among girls’ schools. All of the girls of this school are able to aim for the highest standards, for which I am very proud of them indeed. I heard that Cai Yuanpei once gave a speech there in which he said that of the many exercise courses to choose from, a course in martial arts was indispensable. To this day, the students of the Patriotic Girls’ School seem to have never forgotten this lesson.

愛國女學學生之攝影(脫戰) 教授者寧竹亭與盧煒昌
Photo of students at the Patriotic Girls’ School (performing Escaping-Techniques Fight) (instructed by Ning Zhuting and Lu Weichang):

☉上海廣東小學記 浦闊亭

The martial arts class at the Guangdong Primary School of Shanghai has been taught by Zheng Zhuochen, Yao Chanbo, and Chen Gongzhe for several years now. They have brought together each of the groups they oversee for a children’s competition, earning the respect of older students. Five champions were chosen from among the kids. Their success has been a great achievement.

Photos of instruction being given at Guangdong Primary School:

Photo 1 – Teaching both boys and girls, ages seven to fifteen, are Jingwu Associations Zheng Zhuochen, Yao Chanbo, Chen Gongzhe:

Photo 2:

廣東小學女生之對手拳術 (三)(左黃振球)(右羅素樞)
Photo 3 – Girls at Guangdong Primary School performing a two-person set (Huang Zhenqiu on the left, Luo Sushu on the right):

(四)上海廣東小學技擊班之得本會獎品者 鄧繼傳 黃振球 郭棣 羅素樞 梁官濂
Photo 4 – Prizewinners of the martial arts club of the Guangdong Primary School of Shanghai ([left to right] Deng Jichuan, Huang Zhenqiu, Guo Di, Luo Sushu, Liang Guanlian):

☉靑年俱樂部誌 姚蟾伯

Young people are full of energy but have short attention spans, and this makes them rather uncontrollable. Some charitable gentlemen thus formed the Shanghai Youth Club. The club offers all sorts of recreational activities, but first priority is given to martial arts. Lu Weichang has been instructing there for several years. Among his students are He Jieqing and Li Zhanquan, who are especially hardworking and enthusiastic, and therefore had a place in the 1918 Jingwu Graduation Ceremony [graduating at the beginner level], equal opportunity being given to members of the Shanghai Youth Club who pass a certain standard. They were awarded with the same Jingwu diplomas that are given to other Jingwu students, thereby setting an example to motivate the other kids at the Youth Club.

☉培德兩等學校紀 霍東閣

The school’s principal Lu Songqian and teacher Yu Wenhou are both skilled at martial arts, and so within the school there is particular importance attached to its martial arts program. The first instructors were Li Liancun and Lu Weichang, but Li was later transferred to Guangdong and I was then sent to fill his place, though Lu is the one who is really in charge. There are more than seventy students and they all dive into the material tirelessly, which is gratifying indeed.

上海培德學校技擊圖 教練者盧煒昌霍東閣
Martial arts team of the Developing Virtue Primary School of Shanghai (instructed by Lu Weichang & Huo Dongge):

培德學校拳術選手 民國七年
Selected students of Developing Virtue Primary School performing boxing arts, 1918

☉紀培本小學 黎惠生

In 1918, the principal of the Developing Fundamentals Primary School decided to add a martial arts class to the curriculum. Though I have been teaching this class, I am really quite unworthy for the task, for there are already others in the Jingwu Association who have been training for years longer than myself, who seem to me to be even more enthusiastic about the material than I am, whose physical strength is years in advance of mine, and whose martial skill is not to be doubted.

培本小學 教授者黎惠生與王松齡
Class at the Developing Fundamentals Primary School (instructed by Li Huisheng and Wang Songling):

Photo of the teachers and students of the martial arts class at the Chinese Developing Fundamentals Primary School – New Year’s Day, 1919

☉崇德女校體育科記 陶志超

Our school was established more than fourteen years ago, but it lacked a physical education course. In the spring of this year, the students all decided it was time to have one. It would have been absurd for me to teach such a course and I feared that someone as ignorant as myself on the subject would fail at it miserably. Therefore I sent for the director of the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team, Chen Shichao, to take charge of martial arts instruction, and a graduate of the Patriotic Girls’ School who specializes in physical education, Jian Yupeng [Weiqing], to teach various other kinds of exercise. Although there has so far only been one semester of these classes, the results have been incredible, and the potential for future success seems boundless.

上海崇德女學技擊班 教授者陳士超
The martial arts class of the Chongde Girls’ School of Shanghai (instructed by Chen Shichao):

中國體操學校授課圖 昔之教授者盧煒昌
Photo of lessons at the Chinese Calisthenics School (instructed by Lu Weichang):

吳淞水產學校教授技擊圖 昔之教員李蓮村
Photo of martial arts lessons at the Wusong Fishery School (instructed by Li Liancun):

Photo of lessons at the Nanyang Women’s Normal School:

吾道其南 劉扆臣教授 攝於蒙自
“Our ways are now in the south.” – instructor Liu Yichen (photo taken in Mengzi, Yunnan):

The Soft Arts Club of Gebi Railroad Company in Mengzi, Yunnan

☉評判松江運動會紀 陳鐵生

In the summer of 1919, I returned from the Pearl River area and was ordered along with Zhao Lianhe to attend the Songjiang Athletic Meet, a county-wide athletic meet involving various schools. At that time, the martial arts instructor at the Jiangsu 3rd Provincial Secondary School was a former instructor for the Jingwu Association, Zhang Fuyou, and therefore we stayed at his home. The next morning at 8am, Zhao and I went to the sports ground. Being a very hot day, the participating students from dozens of schools were all in high spirits, full of energy and enthusiasm.
  There were a great many athletic events on the program, but we held the position of judges for martial arts specifically, and therefore we only focused on those events. Many of these schools offer martial arts courses, most of them practicing material from the Jingwu Association. We determined first place winners in the higher primary school levels [i.e. kids aged roughly 10–12] for both boys divisions and girls divisions. The martial arts instructor representing the boys’ schools was Zhang Fuyou. The martial arts instructor representing the girls’ schools was Zhang Yinggu, a graduate from the 5th year of the Patriotic Girls’ School of Shanghai.
  The boys’ schools were already at a deeper level of training, skillful at everything from saber to spear, sword, and halberd. Added to that is the fact that Zhang Fuyou is himself excellent at martial arts, and so for the boys divisions to be awarded as the overall winners over the girls divisions was not surprising. What did surprise us was the high standard exhibited by the students from the participating girls’ schools, who had so far had only half a year of training. There were only three types of martial arts events [presumably boxing sets, weapons sets, two-person sets], and thus it was only a matter of winning the best of three [the girls’ schools so far having only worked on basic boxing sets]. Due to this situation, I judged that of course the boys divisions would be the overall winners, but if the girls had been trained to an equal level, I truly cannot say who would have won this title.
  When speaking of the innate differences between men and women, it has become fashionable for us men to blush. Lu Weichang once told me: “In the 1917 Provincial Schools Athletic Meet, the Patriotic Girls’ School achieved 1st place out of all of the martial arts programs in girls’ schools. They did so again in 1918. By 1919, they were held up as the model example and were considered unbeatable, which was glorious. But this time in the Songjiang Athletic Meet, the boys and girls divisions were unexpectedly merged together, and thus what the girls of the Patriotic Girls’ School had been taught was completely outclassed by what the boys had learned. So is this a matter of equality or inequality? Well, girls will be the mothers of the people, and a tiger mother will not raise dog sons [a twist on “a tiger father will not raise dog sons” from Romance of the Three Kingdoms, chapter 83]. And so I am delighted that this is how it is being done this time. I’ve heard that Europeans have customarily felt that sword scars make a man more handsome.”
  I chimed in: “We are in agreement. Being able to win martial arts competitions makes a woman more beautiful. But women who are instead only concerned with wearing short skirts, adorning themselves to be as pretty as possible, and looking so delicate that the wind might knock them over are little more than vixens.” Looking back on the Songjiang competition has moved me to write this message down.


▲十字戰 陳鐵生 演武者趙連和
Cross-Shaped Fight (by Chen Tiesheng, performed by Zhao Lianhe)

☉出版紀略 陳鐵生

I joined the Jingwu Association in [June of] 1916. By August I had written instructive text for the first line of Tantui, which was then published in The Students’ Magazine, run by Commercial Press of Shanghai, in Vol. 3, Issue #8 [Aug, 1916], as part of a series of martial arts articles. The photographs were by Chen Gongzhe, made using a new kind of rapid shutter technique to get a truer image. This was the first time the Jingwu Association composed martial arts material to be shared throughout the nation. We then published further material in successive issues and have continued to do so to this day. These serializations have included Tantui, Damo Sword, Fifth Tiger’s Spear, Cooperative Fight, and Practical Staff Methods for the Boy Scouts. These five series have since been compiled into complete books and published as individual volumes. Two volumes (Tantui and Damo Sword) as well as the Twelve-Line Tantui wall-hanging, were all published by Commercial Press.

本會技擊叢刋之兩種 第一種達摩劍 第二種潭腿
Two volumes from the Jingwu Association’s Martial Arts Collection (Volume 1: Damo Sword / Volume 2: Tantui):

Tantui in a concise series of photographs (one of four parts [showing lines 8–12]):

詳細之潭腿全圖 潭腿十二路全圖
A complete view of Tantui in detail [as drawings rather than photographs] (“A Complete Chart of Twelve-Line Tantui”):

In 1918, Chen Gongzhe then gathered together a variety of images about our history and arranged them into a booklet with “Jingwu” written on the cover. He also made use of his lifelong obsession with photography by writing a booklet called Shortcuts for Calculating Exposure.

Books published by the Jingwu Association itself (Jingwu [1918] and Photography: Shortcuts for Calculating Exposure):

八年春。鐵生與煒昌公哲蟾伯等至粵。開辦廣東精武會。旣返上海。卽以公哲在粵攝得之影片為底本。與煒昌公同起草。撰成報告書一册。此本會出版物之大略也。近有外國人出版物。而言我中華技擊術者三種。一為單行本。其名曰兩手相搏術。西文曰。(Hand-to-Hand Fighting Personal Defense)報紙兩册。是用吾國空手入白刃法。及貫交術。以訓練其軍警。吾道已西。碧眼兒又能識寶。今日不自研究。吾懼卅年而後。我輩子孫。須至歐西聘請中國拳術教員矣。
In the spring of 1919, Lu Weichang, Chen Gongzhe, Yao Chanbo, together with myself and others, went to Guangdong to open the Guangdong Jingwu Association. Upon returning to Shanghai, Chen Gongzhe was then sent back to Guangdong to make film recordings of the Jingwu Association for posterity [which ironically seem to have been lost], and Lu Weichang and I produced a booklet giving a comprehensive report on the whole process [which takes up the bulk of Part Twelve].
  Above is merely a general outline of the publishing endeavors of the Jingwu Association. Recently there have also been three foreign publications that discuss our Chinese martial arts [which do not actually explicitly say any variation of “Chinese martial arts” and only casually mention “jiu-jitsu”], one being an individual volume called Hand-to-Hand Fighting – A System of Personal Defense for the Soldier [by Arthur Elmer Marriott (camp physical director, Army YMCA, Camp Sevier, South Carolina), published by the Macmillan Company of New York, Jan, 1918], and two issues from a magazine [Popular Science Monthly] in which they use our nation’s methods of empty-hand versus bladed weapons, as well as our throwing techniques, for training soldiers and police officers. Our ways are already recognized by the blue-eyed Westerners as being a treasure, but our own people are not studying them. I fear that in a few years our children will have to invite Westerners to teach them Chinese boxing arts.

美國人出版之吾華技擊術書(Hand-to-Hand Fighting Personal Defense)
An American publication based on our Chinese martial arts techniques ([the actual title being] Hand-to-Hand Fighting – A System of Personal Defense for the Soldier):

[The image shows the book open to pages 32 & 33, which are provided below in a closer view:]

Foreigners using our nation’s methods of empty-hand versus bladed weapons for training soldiers:

[This image is of Popular Science Monthly (headquartered at 225 West 39th St, New York City), Vol. 92, Issue #6, June, 1918, open to pages 808 & 809, shown below:]

Foreigners using our Chinese martial arts for training police officers:

[This image is of Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 93, Issue #1, July, 1918, open to pages 14 & 15, shown below:]

Those who describe themselves as China’s most recent opposers of boxing arts have three kinds of false notions:
1. Utterly uninformed, they assume that boxing arts have something to do with the Boxer Rebellion.
2. They assume that the old-fashioned characters of the Mt. Liang marshlands [i.e. the characters of The Water Margin] are the model for modern martial arts masters. I have asked these people if those characters ate food. All I got was: “How dare you suggest that the Mt. Liang characters ate food!” To which I said: “Is it all right if we [modern teachers] eat food?”
3. They feel that the imperiousness of warlords is carried through in the word “martial” and that martial artists are therefore all basically the same as warlords.
But the greatest of their errors is their flippant summation of these arts: “These boxing arts are just the Chinese version of calisthenics.”

本會最初之印刷品 盧煒昌誤為羅煒昌
The Jingwu Association’s first printed material (in which Lu Weichang’s name is mistakenly written as “Luo”):

“The China Jingwu Calisthenics School is Now Seeking Donations”

Sunshu Ao gave all he had, enduring hardship for the sake of the State of Chu [in devoting himself to the task of building a dam that would create a reservoir for agricultural irrigation]. Tao Kan moved bricks [a hundred bricks a day to keep fit], habitually laboring in preparation to retake the Central Plains. Alas, we too live in troubled times. We could make a sacrificial offering of every red sheep and white horse, but fate just keeps coming. Western cultural influence has flooded over us, and now the rise or fall of our nation depends on the ordinary person. We have become too weak to deal with enemies, and so it is time to raise tigers, not sheep. The indifferent need to be made to care. Many Arhats need to be trained.
  Huo Yuanjia wished to eliminate the cause of why we are called the “sick men of Asia”. Therefore he and his colleagues formed the China Jingwu Calisthenics School. Since it opened, membership has constantly increased. We will “take up arms to defend the nation” [quoting from Book of Rites, chapter 4], “then and divert the Sky River [i.e. the Milky Way] to wash off our armor” [paraphrasing from the final lines of “Washing Weapons & Horses” by Du Fu. We will aid the weak and support the weary, because we cannot expect anyone else to do it. We will toughen ourselves for future trials, for if we cannot handle them, then who?
  The path ahead has many demons in the way, with people who really will poison others [subverting the line from Romance of the Three Kingdoms, chapter 120: “Yang Hu would not poison anyone.”] But if we think of giving up, we will all fail, and that would be unbearable. He must honor the teacher and live up to his teaching [“stand in the snow outside of Cheng Yi’s door”]. Our great leader Huo died of illness [in 1910]. However, the Great Wall remained standing because men like Marquis Liu Zhang and General Zhao Chongguo were able to replenish the ramparts with more troops. In order for the great man to produce many other great men, we first need to build a large space for them to grow in. Let us brook no delay in the construction of a new building. [This is presumably referring to the typhoon damage that wrecked the building in the summer of 1915 and the consequent need for a new location, and since the earlier name of the Jingwu Association is being used, not formally changed until the spring of 1916, this likely dates this document at sometime within mid/late 1915].
  A grand carriage begins with a plain frame. We are now as empty-handed as a man without rice for cooking, and therefore we sweat with anxiety, running around madly, hollering for any assistance in pooling resources, relying on compassionate people. We will take anything, from gilded bills to bags of pearls. A lot would help greatly, but even a little would help a lot. Whatever we receive, we will put it to good use right away, for all enthusiastic support will help complete the new building that much sooner, and then our martial arts can flourish once more. Huo now resides in the cemetery. For him we have burned incense, solemnly made ten thousand prays, and are making this small announcement in hopes of great achievement. To help us succeed, we beg your pledge.
  - Sincerely, the members of the China Jingwu Calisthenics Association (Donations can be sent to the Expanding-Ambitions School on Wuchang Road, Hongkou District of Shanghai. The Jingwu Association’s examinations officer, Luo Weichang, will gather the funds and not let any be misspent.) Again we entreat you…

☉武庫 陳鐵生

For the last ten years, martial arts have been getting revived thanks to writings on the subject being increasingly produced. Below is a list of books to be examined, in which I make an occasional comment but for the most part give no opinion on the writings of my contemporaries. This is because this process is currently in its infancy, and so it is too early to make judgments.

1. Authentic Shaolin Methods
Obtained by Lu Weichang from a friend in Shanxi, this [handwritten] manuscript includes a series of [a hundred eighty-one] drawings (and is currently sitting in his suitcase). In 1911, I was appointed as editor of Shanghai’s Heavenly Clarion Newspaper [which had been founded just the year before], where I was producing a volume on the “Iron Luohan Statues”, describing the earliest boxing arts movements. (This was the harbinger of newspapers publishing depictions of boxing arts movements.) Once the Revolution started in Wuhan, I no longer had any extra time to work on this. Lu Weichang then presented me with Authentic Shaolin Methods and suggested it be published alongside the Iron Luohan material. Unfortunately the Heavenly Clarion at that time was beset with difficulties [ceasing operations in 1913], and so we could not publish it within the newspaper.
  Recently, Shanghai’s Zhonghua Book Company [which was founded by a former manager of Commercial Press] published Secrets of the Shaolin Boxing Arts [1915]. This book had only slight differences from ours (such as their publication not containing the drawings) [as well as containing an extra five chapters]. Examining these drawings of techniques, they are entirely comprised of Hong Family Boxing from Guangdong. (There is a saying: “It all comes from Hong Xiguan of the Shaolin Temple.” But whether or not this is true cannot be verified.) Despite having these drawings, they do not really give a coherent pattern of movements anyway, and so they can only be treated as nothing more than “Xia Dynasty cauldrons and Shang Dynasty wine vessels” [objects used in ancient sacrificial rituals with commemorative inscriptions carved onto them, i.e. interesting antiques]. [Authentic Shaolin Methods, with its drawings and eight chapters, would eventually be published in 1923.]

2. Explanations of Authentic Shaolin Staff Methods [by 程宗猷 Cheng Zongyou]
This is a photographic reprint of a Ming Dynasty publication, made by Cherishing Literature Press of Shanghai. It therefore lacks the look or smell of an old book, but the discussion and prefaces crammed within it reveal its age. It is a monument within the martial arts world and I consider it to be the definitive martial arts book.

3. Authentic Sword Methods
Published by the Arts & Benevolence Press of Shanghai [1912], written by Song Zifeng of Sichuan in the last year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu [1908]

4. The Essence of Boxing Arts [by 顏殿雄 Yan Dianxiong]
Published by Hong Kong Physical Education Press [1916]. This book is representative of the Guangdong styles of boxing arts.

5. China’s New Martial Arts [by 馬良 Ma Liang]
Published by Commercial Press. So far there are two volumes, one on boxing, one on wrestling, but the entire set is not yet complete [with staff and sword volumes to come out the following year].

6. Yijinjing [“Sinew Changing Classic”]
There are many different versions of this in bookshops, and so it is hard to distinguish which ones are authentic. They often include medicinal recipes or strange supplementary advice such as: “When people refrain from eating horse liver, it is not because they do not like it.” [This is a quote from Books of Han, volume 88, bio of Yuan Gu, from a time when it was mistakenly thought that horse liver was poisonous.]

7. Sword Classic, Boxing Classic, Long Spear, Rattan Shield & Wolf Rake
These are all chapters from New Book of Effective Methods [chapters 10–12, 14] by that scholarly Ming Dynasty general [Qi Jiquang], who his enemies feared as being like a tiger. He produced extraordinary martial arts materials, but unfortunately his explanations are not very detailed.

8. Boxing Arts [by 向愷然 Xiang Kairan]
Published [Dec, 1916] by Zhonghua Book Company. This book is representative of the Hunan styles of martial arts.

9. A Textbook for the Study of Boxing Arts [by 徐愚忻 Xu Yuxin]
Published by the Chinese Library Foundation [1913, and in its 5th printing by the spring of 1919]. This book is representative of the martial arts styles from the area of the Yangzte River Basin.

10. Ten-Line Tantui
Published within the Nanjing Advanced Normal School’s Physical Education Research Journal, this is a different version of Tantui than what is taught by our Jingwu Association [which taught the twelve-line version].

11. A Combined Volume: Five Elements Manual / Continuous Boxing Manual [by 李存義 Li Cunyi & 杜之堂 Du Zhitang]
Published by the Warriors Association of Tianjin.

12. Western Boxing Arts [a translation by 陳霆銳 Chen Tingrui]
Published [July, 1917] by Zhonghua Book Company. This book is about the boxing arts of the West.

13. Japanese Jujitsu [a translation by 徐卓呆 Xu Zhuodai]
Published by Zhonghua Book Company [May, 1917]. Japanese Jujitsu is simply a remnant of our northern styles of wrestling. So how is it that it can defeat what it comes from?

14. Secrets of the Stone Fist Art [by 郭粹亞 Guo Cuiya & 金一明 Jin Yiming]
Published by Zhonghua Book Company [Feb, 1918].

15. Boxing Methods for Women [by 朱鴻壽 Zhu Hongshou]
Published by Zhonghua Book Company [1917]. This book is representative of the Yangtze River styles of martial arts.

16. Basics of Learning Boxing Arts [by 朱鴻壽 Zhu Hongshou]
Published by Commercial Press [Sep 9, 1912 (and by 1918 had gone through seven printings)]. This book is representative of the Yangtze River styles of martial arts.

17. Next Level of Learning Boxing Arts [by 朱鴻壽 Zhu Hongshou]
Same as above [published 1915].

18. Teaching Materials for Continued Experimentation in Boxing Methods [by 朱鴻壽 Zhu Hongshou]
Published by Zhonghua Book Company [1917], this book is representative of the Yangtze River styles of martial arts.

19. Boxing Arts Study Manual [by 陸師凱 Lu Shikai]
Published by Commercial Press [1917]. It also contains application methods for a variety of weapons, such as the large saber, double sabers, single saber, and wooden bench, and therefore does not focus only on discussing boxing arts. This book is representative of the Yangtze River styles of martial arts.

20. Compilation of Northern Boxing Arts
Published by Commercial Press, this book actually only demonstrates Tantui and Two-Person Tantui.

21. Illustrated Handbook for Tantui [by 胡健 Hu Jian, postures performed by 何光銑 He Guangxian, drawings by 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong]
published by Chinese Library Foundation [May, 1917].

22. Two-Person Tantui [by 吳志青 Wu Zhiqing & 王懷琪 Wang Huaiqi]
Published by Chinese Library Foundation [Sep, 1919]. This book demonstrates an interactive version of Tantui.

23. Damo Sword
This is Vol. 1 of our Martial Arts Collection. Previously published in The Students’ Magazine, run by Commercial Press, it has now been published as a separate volume, again by Commercial Press.

24. Tantui
This is Vol. 2 of our Martial Arts Collection. Published in serialized form several years ago in The Students’ Magazine, it has now been published as a separate volume by Commercial Press, and is in fact in its third printing. The book contains prefaces written by both Wu Zhihui and Wang Jingwei, as well as a postscript by Lu Weichang called “Rambling Discussions on the State of Boxing Arts Over the Last Eight Years” which is filled with pertinent words that the members of our Association should all read.

25. Twelve-Line Tantui wall-hanging
Published by Commercial Press. I felt that since methods of teaching Tantui had not yet been standardized, there ought to be a blueprint to be relied upon which demonstrates the authentic version. After many meetings, we finally settled upon a standard method.

26. Fifth Tiger’s Spear
This will be Vol. 3 of our Martial Arts Collection, already published within The Students’ Magazine (and will soon be published as a separate volume). Fifth Tiger’s Spear is the very best among spear sets. Our members all have to know it.

27. Cooperative Fight
This will be Vol. 4 of our Martial Arts Collection. It was serialized in The Students’ Magazine from Vol. 5, Issue #6 [June, 1918] to Vol. 6, Issue #9 [Sep, 1919]. This set contains the most techniques of our two-person sets, therefore ever since I started presenting the Jingwu Association’s instructions by compiling them into our Martial Arts Collection, I had come to the conclusion that this set deserves the most attention. I can only hope that readers will not find my text to be incapable of conveying the subtleties of the techniques and end up dismissing it altogether. Furthermore, The Students’ Magazine is printed very rapidly, thus the photos were often not as clear as they ought to be. When it is published as a separate volume, we will try to exhibit the photos at a higher quality.

28. Practical Staff Methods for the Boy Scouts
Published in The Students’ Magazine, Vol. 6, Issue #10 [Oct, 1919]. This material will be Vol. 5 of our Martial Arts Collection.

29. Cross-Shaped Fight
This will be Vol. 6 of our Martial Arts Collection. It is already featured within this book.

30. Boxing Arts Correspondence Course Teaching Materials
Published by the “Spying into Boxing Arts” Association, these volumes are a series of handwritten materials about the Yangtze River styles of boxing arts, though the correspondence course itself is no longer operational.

[Continue to Part Four.]

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