CONSTITUTION OF THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION

課卷彙刊 補編
EXTRA JINGWU COMPOSITIONS, SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS [including the Jingwu Constitution and the details of the Jingwu Movie]
[Appendices to 精武本紀 The Annals of Jingwu, published Dec, 1919]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Dec, 2019]

課卷彙刊
[APPENDIX ONE] A COLLECTION OF WRITING EXERCISES

☉女子與技擊之關係 黃畹香
[1] THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WOMEN & MARTIAL ARTS by Huang Wanxiang

界男女性之國民而為二。吾女界占二萬萬焉。兩其手足。兩其耳目。非與男子有殊也。閉關時代。腐儒自便私圖。而不平等之曲說。變本加厲。吾女子於人間世。遂如棲塵之弱草焉。不知彼自命昂藏七尺之丈夫子。孰非根本於母體而來。根本旣弱。枝葉不榮。吾謂中國之不振。皆由於壓制女子。使之朿手纏足。奄奄無生氣。乃產生此二萬萬甘戴老大病夫崇銜之沒臉兒郎耳。光復以還。此理漸顯。邦人君子。頗有注意於女子體育者。若柔軟體操。若器械體操。日見完備然此皆枝節耳。大本所在必以技擊為先。技擊能使氣血同長。四肢百體。同時運動。不犯偏枯之病。本會諸先達。早已發明透切。今第就其關於女界者。比較而詳論之。上海某女校。平日注重技擊。得體育界之盛名者也。前年。某外國女教員。授諸生以一種新式之外國運動。不數月而諸生咸感受生理上之痛苦。校長知之。因詢諸生。曰汝日習拳術曾患此否。諸生咸言得未曾有。不逾月而女教員亦罹此病矣。校長亟命停之。諸生之病迺霍然若失。夫各種運動之有益於體育者。則亦何限。豈以一節之不善。遂令因噎廢食耶。吾特以此等量齊觀證明技擊術之有百利而無一害耳。願吾女界分其餘暇精研技擊。使吾二萬萬善女人。反弱為強。無再種禍於家國也。
The citizenry has two parts: men and women. The female population of our nation amounts to about two hundred million, just like the male population. Women have hands and feet, ears and eyes, no different from men. During our previous era of isolationism, corrupt gentlemen became ever more selfish, and so inequality intensified. We women dwelt in society like pliant grass perched in the dirt, and we did not understand that the men thought of themselves as being more imposing and taller than actually they were.
  Although everyone emerges from a mother’s body, a weak root will give rise to unimpressive branches and leaves. I say that the reason China is in such a depressed state is entirely due to the suppression of women. With the tying of hands and binding of feet, they were rendered feeble and robbed of their vitality, and so naturally the other half of the population that they gave birth to turned into pathetic old sick men who have lost all face.
  Since we have recovered our land [i.e. 1911 Revolution], this fact has become increasingly apparent, and so our male compatriots have given a lot of attention to the physical education of women, offering options such as calisthenics, gymnastics, and more with each passing day. But the primary choice ought to be martial arts, for these arts can develop both energy and blood, work all of the parts of the body at the same time, and do not have the error of overworking one area and neglecting another. The elders of the Jingwu Association have already explained this thoroughly, but here I am specifically discussing this issue in regard to women.
  Certain girls’ schools in Shanghai give attention every day to martial arts and have earned great reputation in physical education circles for doing so. In the year before last, a certain foreign female teacher taught the students a new kind of foreign exercise. After a few months, the students all experienced physiological pain. Upon hearing about this, the principal asked the students whether or not they had experienced such pain when they had been practicing boxing arts every day, to which they responded that they had not. Within another month, the female teachers also suffered from the same affliction. The principal urgently ordered that the foreign exercises be discontinued, and then all of the students’ pains suddenly faded away.
  Many exercises are beneficial, and so we should not become restrictive. Just because one form of exercise is not good, there is no reason to abandon exercise altogether. However, I look upon this in particular as unbiased evidence that martial arts is a form of exercise that has countless benefits and not one harm. I hope that the two hundred million women of our nation will devote their free time to an intensive study of martial arts, turning their weakness to strength, and thereby preventing the nation from falling again into calamity.

☉論體育與人生之關係 簡玉鵬偉卿
[2] DISCUSSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION & HUMAN LIFE by Jian Yupeng, called Weiqing

吾中國素稱文墨之邦。而文弱之風亦最甚。推其原因。蓋由於重文輕武。夙不講求體育而已。夫體育者。為人生健全身心之良劑。鍛鍊體魄之要素。無論世界文化如何進步。科學如何昌明。人生之境遇如何變遷。而吾人立身要道。惟在有健全之身心。然後方可有為。蓋體強神始充。心壯氣乃雄。西諺云。健康之精神。必寓於健康之身體。反之則體質孱弱。精神委靡。雖具淵博之學識。偉大之意志。勢不至同歸於盡不止。尚安望其有施展之餘地哉。然則體育關係於人生。詎不大耶。然此猶為狹義之關係。推而廣之。一國之中。皆為強健國民。捍衞國家。抵禦外侮。則老大病夫之譏。可消滅於無形。精武體育會之提倡國粹體育。其亦本夫斯旨乎。願吾國民亟起而研究之。
China is usually considered to be a cultured nation, but is just as commonly looked upon as a weak one. The reason for this stems from our old habit of treating literary pursuits as more important than martial affairs, which over a long period has left us giving no attention to physical education. Exercise is an excellent means of strengthening both body and mind, and an essential factor in training the physique.
  Regardless of the world’s cultural advances, scientific developments, or humanity’s changing circumstances, the key to our functioning in society is entirely a matter of having strong bodies and minds, and only then can we be productive. With a strong body and a fullness of spirit comes a powerful mind and heroic energy. Westerners have a saying: “Mens sana in corpore sano.” [“A healthy mind in a healthy body.”] But if instead one has a frail constitution and a listless spirit, then even with profound learning and great willpower, situations will constantly end in ruin with no hope of escaping it. How then could physical education not be of enormous relevance to human life?
  However, this only addresses the issue on the smaller scale. To take the point further, it is always the case in any nation that strengthening the people is the key to defending the nation and resisting foreign aggression. If only we would do it, then the slander of our people being “old” and “sick” could finally be made to disappear. The Jingwu Athletic Association’s promoting of the physical education that forms our cultural essence is based in this very idea. I hope our people will urgently get up and start training.

☉論暑症 薛鞏初
[3] DISCUSSING SUMMER-HEAT DISEASE by Xue Gongchu

春温夏暑。秋燥冬寒。乃四時之氣。皆能感人而成病。而夏月則更多。因夏時天之熱氣下降。地之濕氣上騰。人居蒸熱之中。感受其氣。卽成暑病。古人有陰暑陽暑之分。大槪亦因症之偏於熱者為陽。偏於濕者為陰也。其病之來。多從口鼻吸入。初客於上焦氣分。以次傳於中下二焦。其見症。發熱。胸痞。面垢。心煩。溺短赤。蒸蒸自汗。或無汗。口渴。或渴不喜飲。或嘔悶泄瀉。舌胎黃白混雜等。論治之法。前賢主以辛香散邪。苦温行濕。而更於三焦分別投劑。在上。則主以輕揚淸解。在中。則主以苦辛開泄。在下。則主以温行寒性。質重開下。此其大略也。然暑之為病最多。有中暑暑風暑厥暑瘵伏暑等病。又如霍亂痢瘧等類。亦每因暑而成。暑之病人。可謂酷矣。雖然。苟暑月能於飲食起居。順時自保。調懾得宜。則暑又焉能侮我哉。
Spring is warm and summer is hot. Fall is dry and winter is cold. All of the four seasons can cause a person illness, but summer most of all [in the context of living in Shanghai]. This is because during the summer, hot air descends and moisture rises, and a person is then dwelling in humid heat. He thus becomes overwhelmed by this air and succumbs to “summer-heat disease”. Ancient people divided summer heat into “active heat” and “passive heat”. Basically, illness was caused when there was an excess of both, the hot air actively overheating the environment and the humidity passively making it that much worse.
  The illness usually starts from inhalations through the nose or mouth affecting first the energy of the “upper torso cavity” [containing the heart and lungs], then progressing into the “middle torso cavity” [containing the stomach and spleen] and “lower torso cavity” [containing the kidneys, bladder, and intestines]. Its symptoms include: fever, feeling of stuffiness in the chest, unhealthy complexion, irritability, dark urine, and excessive sweating. Sometimes there is no sweating but great thirst, or great thirst but no appetite, or vomiting and diarrhea, or the tongue develops yellow and white blotches.
  Among the treatments, ancient worthies used pungent incense to disperse vapors and bitter warming herbs to get moisture to flow away. They also used medicines for each of the three body cavities: for the upper cavity – medicines that induced the effect of “gently rise” to cool and release; for the middle cavity – “bitter hardship” to open and drain; for the lower cavity – “warm flow” to cool the temperature; the general idea being to address where there is an excess and reduce it.
  The most common summer-heat illnesses are heatstroke, wind-exposure heat, heat fainting, tuberculosis, and heat exhaustion, but there are also other diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and malaria, which are also brought on by summer heat. Therefore summer-heat illnesses can be classified as “cruel”. However, if we can adjust our daily lifestyle [being mindful of what we eat, what we drink, where we go, and so on] to accommodate the season, then the summer heat will not be able to bully us.

☉辨女子為弱質說 蔡梓栴
[4] ON DISMISSING WOMEN AS WEAK by Cai Zizhan

同是圓顱方趾。稟賦之厚薄。豈有男女之殊。其以女子為弱質者。大抵帝制之世。男重女輕。而在民主時期。則今非昔比。男女平等。皆可出而肩任事業。有可斷言者。雖然。欲任大事先強體魄。欲強體魄先明體育衞生。女子體育學所以不容緩圖也。况來日方長。後患正亟。遍地荊棘。四鄰虎狼。弱肉強呑。識時務者。大有其亡之懼。吾女界亦國民一份子。賦質非弱。豈可不速求自立哉。
We are all the same in being a bunch of “round-headed square-toes” [i.e. human beings] and we all have a natural disposition to being either fat or thin, so why should we care whether people are men or women? It is a general rule in the world that women are weaker, and so men have been considered more important. But in this era of democracy, the past no longer resembles the present, there is now equality between men and women, and it can be asserted that both are just as capable of holding professional positions. However, in order to assume responsibility over great undertakings, it is first necessary to strengthen the body, and in order to strengthen the body, it is first necessary to understand physical health. We can therefore tolerate no delay in establishing physical education studies for women.
  Furthermore, time is running out [“the days are lengthening” – a phrase usually meaning that there is plenty of time, in this case being used to mean the opposite] and the troubles ahead are becoming more urgent, with domestic strife occurring throughout the land while neighboring countries are eyeing us like tigers and wolves, ready to gulp down our nation’s tender flesh. Those who truly recognize the situation that we are in fear for our destruction. We women play a part in the fate of our people and are endowed with bodies that need not be weak. Therefore we must immediately strive to stand up for ourselves!

☉健兒團之獲益感言 蔡子榮
[5] MY THOUGHTS ON THE BENEFITS OF THE VALIANT WARRIORS CLUB by Cai Zirong

余生年三十有餘歲矣。戚䣊以余體格尩弱。勸入精武練習技擊。並言其善。余雖聞其善。而頗疑之。比而親嘗試之。方知非讏言也。余年少多病。羸弱異常。苦於勞動。倦於思索。使全國之民而皆如余。國事尚可問哉。余之初入會也。始則憚於動作。繼又慮其過勞。詎知未及兼旬。則覺津津有味。習慣已成自然矣。至其益處。則一年之中。未嘗受病。體益加豐。筋絡肌肉。日漸堅實。步履輕捷。此其益處之彰明較著者也。盧君煒昌。又於會中招集習勞耐苦者。組織健兒團親為教練之。訓示以獨學不如羣習之益。施以循循善誘之方。不特此也。講武而外。復有文事焉。示之以社會上之種種應用常識。使無缺憾。經文緯武。此之謂歟。茲屆十週紀念。謹泐數言。聊申獲益之感。
I was born more than thirty years ago. My family felt that I had a weak physique and encouraged me to join the Jingwu Association and train in martial arts. Although I knew their words were coming from compassion, I doubted that they were true, and I would have to test them for myself to find out that they were not exaggerations. When I was young, I was often ill and was unusually frail. Any manual work was just too hard for me, and even thinking about it made me exhausted. I figured that if the people of our nation were anything like me, the state of our nation would be laughable, so I decided to join the Jingwu Association.
  In the beginning, I feared the exercise. As I continued, I still found it to be too hard. Then unexpectedly after just a few weeks, I felt full of gusto. I had gotten used to it. It had become natural. As to its benefits, over the course of this year, I have stopped falling ill, my body has at last fleshed out, sinew and muscle gradually becoming more substantial, and I walk with a lighter gait. These are the obvious benefits.
  Lu Weichang then assembled practitioners who are able to stand hard training and formed the Valiant Warriors Club, for which he himself serves as instructor. Criticizing the benefits of solo study as being inferior to those of group practice, he teaches us methodically. More than this, he takes us beyond training in martial arts to also address civil matters, expressing the need in society for a wide variety of practical knowledge in order to be without shortcomings. When one is able to tackle both civil and military affairs, then one is complete.
  As this year marks the tenth anniversary of the Jingwu Association, I sincerely write these few words to express how moved I am by how much I have benefited.

☉惟一之運動術 鄧文獻
[6] THE ONLY FORM OF EXERCISE by Deng Wenxian

本會之有今日。不知已費多少經營。十年前。武術一途。無人過問。霍先生元甲。提倡武學。拳術復興。經十載之艱辛。庶有成績之可觀。惜多祗知其為摶人取敵之用。未知其與體育上有至大之效果。試以西式體操而論。非無微效。究其結果。則偏注於一方。若習拳術則內而氣血。外而肌肉。無不強健。精神亦且加倍。故拳術可稱為體育中最良之運動。光復以來國人有見及此。於體育中已改變其方針。趨重拳術。視為必要。一時公私學校。咸以此技列入體操一門。異日繼此奮興者尚不知凡幾。此吾國復強之朕兆也。
New members to the Jingwu Association are not aware of how much it has been through. Ten years ago, martial arts were a path that nobody cared to take. Then Huo Yuanjia promoted martial studies, rejuvenating these arts, and after ten years of difficulties, numerous results can be seen. Previously, it was usually only known that these arts were used for fighting against opponents, and it was not understood that they are in fact the most effective form of physical education.
  Looking at Western calisthenics, it is not without some worth, but examining its effects shows that it emphasizes one area of the body at a time. However, practicing boxing arts strengthens everything, working internally with the energy and blood, externally with the muscles, and also boosts the spirit. Therefore boxing arts can be deemed the finest form of physical exercise.
  Since recovering our lost land [i.e. the 1911 Revolution], our countrymen have found this to be so, and hence there has been a change of policy within physical education: an urgent emphasis on boxing arts. These arts are now considered to be indispensable and have quickly been absorbed into the physical exercise curriculum in every school, public or private. If they continue to be on the rise in this way, there is no knowing how far they may go in the future. This is a sign that our nation is recovering its strength.

☉健康之由來 何善祥
[7] THE SOURCE OF MY HEALTH by He Shanxiang

鄙人乃新進之會員。亦健兒團團員之一。入會僅五閱月。而身體先後判若兩人。未入會之前。素患脚筋攣縮。(據醫者云血不養筋故也)及頭暈。睡至中夜。脚筋攣縮。痛苦異常。頭部每一俯視。眼邊卽起金星。眼花頭眩。每自苦之。入會以來。病從此失。不但食量頓增。腿臂堅韌。效果之速。竟出於預料之外。亦由健兒團中得之。爰誌數語。以告同人。
I am a recent member of both the Jingwu Association itself as well as the Valiant warriors Club, having joined only five months ago [joined in April, 1916, therefore dating this piece at Sep, 1916] and have since become like a different person. Before joining the Jingwu Association, I constantly suffered from plantar fasciitis (which the doctors said was caused by insufficient blood flow to the tissues) and dizziness. While I was sleeping in the middle of the night, my feet would cramp up and the pain was extraordinary. Whenever I would lower my head, I would see stars peripherally, my vision would blur, and my head would spin, always causing me hardship. But since joining the Jingwu Association, these afflictions have ceased, my appetite has also increased, and my limbs have firmed up. These are results which came quickly and unexpectedly, gains from being in the Valiant warriors Club. Therefore I have written a few words to let my comrades know.

☉義丐傳 陳國衡
[8] THE STORY OF THE RIGHTEOUS BEGGAR by Chen Guoheng

義丐不知何許人也。亦不詳其姓字。白髮毿毿。雙目有紫稜。具大力。舉百斤之鼎如拾草芥。夜宿古廟中。喃喃自語。聲浪悽咽。不知云何。好事者從門𨻶窺之。但見反覆誦一亡國史之草稿。翌晨遂發現其人於市廛。手持破卷。形如學堂之課文。然汚垢不堪。似拾學生所棄者。至書肆侃侃而言曰。野心國謀我久矣。所以不敢首先發難者。均勢之局使然。今乘列強無暇東顧。得寸進尺。國亡無日矣。而吾國人多醉生夢死。懵然無自覺心。寧不為之痛心。今貢此亡國史。以警告國人。使讀此無異經嘗亡國之滋味。願以乞取所得養生之資三圓。備付梓之費。將伯有能助予者乎。語聲激楚。聞者泣下。爭投以金。雖未足其數。而肆主亦有心人。慨然自任為刋印。而卒處於外國勢力範圍之下。指為有礙治安。封店拿人。而亡國痛史。遂不傳於世。惜哉。肆主人旣被逮捕。丐聞之曰。士為知己死。吾以事累人。而不能為之拯救。非丈夫也。俟於途。與捕役鬭。捕役辟易。遂挾主人與俱奔。投身暹邏。及登埠。丐復隻身他遁。不復見。主人固工於營業者。在暹數年。獲資鉅萬。比歸。而述其事。幷物色丐者終不可得。嗟夫。使義丐尚存。則今日之日。其救國熱誠。當更有能為人所不能為者。故泚筆記之。
No one knows who he was, not even a name. He had long wispy gray hair and a violet tint in his eyes. He possessed great strength, able to lift a hundred-pound cauldron with the same ease as picking weeds. He spent his nights in an old temple, mumbling to himself in sad sounds. No one knew why, and so busybodies peeped at him through a crack in the door and saw him reciting from a manuscript about our nation being conquered. The next morning, he was found in the business district holding a ruined book. It looked like a school textbook, but was covered in dirt, as though he had picked up a book that some student had thrown away. He went to a bookstore and confidently announced:
  “The ambition of nations has been on my mind for a long time. Those who are not willing to resist will only get trapped in the balance of power. We are now in a moment in which the great powers are ceaselessly and insatiably eyeing the East, and the destruction of our nation is coming soon! Our countrymen are all living in a drunken dream, ignorant and unaware, and they would rather not face up to the coming heartache. I now contribute this History of a Conquered Nation, which serves as a warning to my countrymen by giving them a taste of what it would be like to experience our nation getting conquered. All I seek is 3 yuan from each of you to pay for publication expenses, though anything you can give would be a great help.”
  These were sounds to stir the soul, making some tears well up in the eyes of listeners, who then eagerly tossed him some money. As it was not quite enough for the man’s needs, the shopkeeper then generously decided to fund the publishing of the book himself. But suddenly he fell under foreign censure for this and was accused of being a threat to public order. His shop was closed down and he was arrested, and so the man’s angst-ridden history of a conquered nation unfortunately did not get passed down to the world.
  Upon hearing the shopkeeper had been arrested, the beggar said: “A warrior is always ready for death, and so I will dive in and cause trouble. A man unable to save another is no man at all.” He waited along the route that the shopkeeper was being escorted and then got into a tussle with the policemen, making them back off, then grabbed the shopkeeper and they fled together. The shopkeeper decided they should hide in Thailand, but once they had made it down the pier to the boat, the beggar ran off alone and was never seen again.
  The shopkeeper was a good businessman. While in Thailand for several years, he made lots of money, and when he finally returned, he told me this tale. He looked for the beggar but never found him, alas. But the righteous beggar remains with us to this day, through his zeal for saving the nation and his attitude of being able to do what most people could not. Thus I have made this record of him in writing.

☉精武十週紀念詩 梁少田
[9] A POEM TO COMMEMORATE THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION by Liang Shaotian

教育須從體育先。十週紀念又編年。技宗元甲紛傳鉢。社組春申猛著鞭。
天演競爭看世界。國維支拄賴仔肩。燕然碑勒尋常事。立馬吳山奮欲前。
欲強中國效非遙。尚武精神息浩潮。逐日有戈光閃目。倚天長劍壯橫腰。
盤龍棍起搖山岳。伏虎拳開懾魍魈。造就健兒好身手。功名肯讓漢嫖姚。
多壘時方徧四郊。匹夫有責救同胞。中原莽芥頻驚鶴。陸海沉沉孰斬蛟。
愧乏經綸匡大局。敢誇鐵血列前茅。鑄成十萬橫磨劍。待到風雲願執枹。
十年教訓育羣曹。有勇知方膽氣豪。襟綴三星欣卒業。軀昂七尺勵前途。
長空萬里鷹修翮。燕市斜陽馬嘯槽。我亦同門一健者。喜逢盛會疾揮毫。
Education has to start somewhere: it has to start with physical education!
To commemorate the tenth anniversary, The Annals of Jingwu has been compiled.
The skillful master Huo Yuanjia passed down all he knew.
His Jingwu Association took form one spring in Shanghai with a proud string of firecrackers.
Evolution through competition is seen all over the world.
The nation is carried on our shoulders.
Deeds worthy of being engraved on stone, like those on Delgerkhangai Mountains, should be something we do every day.
Let us rein in our horses atop Mt. Wu [near West Lake] after racing to be the first to get there.
  If we want to strengthen our nation, the key to it is not far away.
Martial spirit will grow to become a mighty tide.
Every day there are more weapons shining and gleaming.
The Heaven-Powered Long Sword slashes across the waist.
The Coiling-Dragon Staff rises up to shake the lofty mountains.
The Taming-Tiger Boxing lashes out to subdue demons and monsters.
Let us train valiant warriors, making them experts with their bodies and hands.
Through their accomplishments, we will indeed be able to believe that Chinamen are full of vigor.
  Ramparts have been built to defend in all directions.
Everyone is expected to do his duty and rescue his compatriots.
Among the wild grass and mustard greens of the central plains, one is often startled by the cries of cranes,
but when the land and sea are full of gloom, someone has to slay the flood dragon.
We should be ashamed to have lacked the statesmanship to prevent our great troubles,
presuming arrogantly that our iron and blood would be enough to shield us.
But we have cast a hundred thousand finely polished swords,
and once danger arises, we are ready to grab our armor.
  There have now been ten years of lessons, of teaching large groups.
Honorable and courageous heroes have been produced.
With their three-star emblems stitched to their jackets, their graduation is a joyous occasion.
Standing proud, as though seven feet tall, they give hope for the future.
They are like the far-reaching sky, which eagles are decorating with their wings [i.e. the sight of many hands clapping].
They are like the sun setting on one side, making horses whinny on the other [i.e. the sound of the audience cheering].
I stand among my fellow students as one who also has been strengthened,
and I am delighted to give this distinguished gathering these quick strokes of my pen.

☉精武行 李志羲
[10] WHAT THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION IS FOR by Li Zhixi

君不見異邦譏我同病夫。任他笑駡胡為乎。睡獅喚醒賴斯語。湔滌國恥吾等圖。
精武發起團體固。男女赴會人無數。大家振刷好精神。十年淬勵今養到。
陶公甓。祖生鞭。致力圖強貴向前。因循苟安負天職。忍棄責任息仔肩。
天地之間旣有我。退步讓人却何可。况為皇帝之子孫。四千餘年業不墮。
體育重。魄力充。寄語同胞好身手。矢志當為萬夫雄。
Have you not noticed the way foreign countries mock us as the “sick men”?
Why do we let them taunt us so?
This sleeping lion will awaken, depend on it.
To wash away our national humiliation is our plan.
  For this, the Jingwu Association was formed, and has become a solid organization.
Countless men and women have joined,
and all have exerted themselves and shown great spirit.
Ten years of encouragement has brought us this far.
  Like Tao Kan and Zu Ti [two Jin Dynasty generals], Tao carrying a hundred bricks a day to keep fit for whatever might arise, Zu cracking his whip to get things done,
we will devote ourselves to the project and strive to push ahead the rest of the way.
With complacency and idleness, we would fail in our duty,
abandoning our responsibility, giving up on our burden.
  In between our sky and our ground, there is us.
If we step back to admit others into our realm, what can we do then?
We are the descendants of emperors!
For more than four thousand years, our task has not changed.
  When physical education is emphasized, our people will be full of boldness.
The message to our compatriots is to build up your bodies.
Pledge yourselves to stand among myriad heroes.

☉神簫 盧獻輝
[11] MAGIC FLUTE by Lu Xianhui

精武有神簫。振響裂金石。羣樂叶奏者。銅琶與鐵笛。
有人拔劍歌。其聲益淸越。沉夜萬籟空。吹起關山月。
At the Jingwu Association, we have a magic flute.
Its sound shivers through metal and stone.
They are to be played together in harmony:
bronze lute and iron flute.
  Someone draws his sword and sings,
his voice resounding clear and far.
When night descends, other sounds disappear,
and so the flute’s notes rise all the way through the valley to the moon.

☉粵樂 黃畹香
[12] CANTONESE MUSIC by Huang Wanxiang

燈光如雪酒如河。豔說新聲粵樂多。玉琯銀箏珠海調。銅琶鐵笛越台歌。
三絃輕撥留淸韻。一曲徐翻記大羅。別有好音娛耳鼓。洋琴譜出協中和。
The lamplight looks like snow and the wine flows like a river.
Beautiful words and rejuvenating voices fill Cantonese music.
There are jade pipes and silver zithers, involving sounds from Zhuhai [near Macao].
There are bronze lutes and iron flutes, evoking songs from Yuexiu [district in Guangzhou].
  Sanxian lutes lightly plucked keep a clear tone.
A song slowly turns toward different directions, bringing to mind a grand panorama.
Other wonderful sounds delight the eardrums
as a dulcimer emerges to add to the harmony.

☉相見歡 琴心 馮琼珊
[13] HOPING FOR JOY (A SONG FOR THE ZITHER) by Feng Qiongshan

無聊獨倚樓東。月玲瓏。不盡悲懷。都付與絲桐。
賣國孼。幾時滅。悵臨風。屢撥七絃。低唱滿江紅。
Depressed, alone,
I lean against the east wall
and gaze at the gleaming moon.
My endless sorrow
I give to my zither.
  A traitor to my nation, a monster,
and will someday have to pay for it,
but for now I throw my sadness against the wind.
I repeatedly pluck my seven strings
and in a low voice sing my classical strains.

▲此類本當刋入文事欄中因排印急促徵集過遲祇得附載於此 鐵生誌
(Note by Chen Tiesheng: These [thirteen] pieces were originally meant to be part of the Literary Studies section [Part Five], but due to the haste to get the book to the printers, they were gathered up too late, and so they have been included in this final section as a last-minute addition.)

補篇
[APPENDIX TWO] SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS

☉組織全國精武體育協會芻言 陳公哲
MY VIEW THAT WE SHOULD PERHAPS FORM A NATIONAL JINGWU ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION by Chen Gongzhe

精武會成立以來。已逾十載。經三次之遷移。幾度之改革。始具雛形。近數來年。會員日衆。會務日繁。以上海一隅言之。各學堂各學會各團體由本會擔任教授者。已不下二十餘處。此外各外埠函請派員。復紛至沓來。求過於供。勢難應命。加以漢口廣東兩處精武會。次第成立。會務雖由當地士紳分任。而教員一項。須得暢曉本會宗旨兼能執行職務者。方堪勝任。此項人才。已不敷派遣。若協助提攜。槪責諸申會。縱無軒前輊後之見。難免顧此失彼之虞。况各省精武會之尚待籌辦者。正復不少。範圍旣廣。事務日繁。兼容倂包。勢必騖廣而荒。精神不能貫注。鄙意以為宜另設專部。定名全國精武體育協會。凡關於提倡及協助諸事宜。歸全國精武協會任之。其隸於上海範圍內者。歸上海精武會任之。名稱旣定。責任自專。將來各省精武會。不名上海為總會。上海亦不以各省為分會。彼此平等。不相統屬。其維持各省各縣數十百精武會者。乃全國精武協會之責任。辦法悉照開始中國精武體育會(卽母會)組織。完全獨立。設董事部。舉正副會長各一人。設幹事部。推舉正副幹事各一人。惟是籌辦伊始。須資熟手。且精武會原有董事部。多為母會之發起人。故協會董事部。應由精武原有之董事組織之。惟正副會長。不得兼任。幹事部事務較繁。亦難兼顧。其會員槪稱名譽會員。以贊助協會者任之。或推舉有道德有聲望者。亦無不可。會員無論本外埠。不納常年會費。倘遇特别事故。由各會員出而輔助之。其進行方法。謹條舉於左。其進行方法。謹條舉於左。
The Jingwu Association was founded just over ten years ago, during which time it has moved three times and gone through many changes. Since its innocent beginnings, the last few years have seen membership increasing by the day and meetings become more complex. Starting from a single corner of Shanghai, there are now Jingwu instructors in more than twenty schools and organizations. Beyond this, letters of invitation from other cities keep pouring in. With demand exceeding supply, it is difficult to agree to every request.
  We have added distant Jingwu branches, such as the Hankou location and the Guangdong location. Although administrative positions are appointed from among the local gentry, instructors still have to gain a fluent understanding of the Jingwu purpose, as well an ability to perform their jobs, in order to be qualified. There are just not enough of these talented people to send everywhere. In order to give helpful guidance, there is a variety of responsibilities that have to be fulfilled, and unless there is good judgment about the quality of an instructor, it will difficult for that person to avoid the predicament of having too much to handle at once. Furthermore, making arrangements to have a Jingwu Association in various provinces is a lot or work, broad in scope, involving an ever-increasing number of tasks, and bringing everything together is such a mess that the mind cannot keep a consistent focus.
  In my opinion, it is best to set up special department. A designated “National Jingwu Athletic Association” would be concerned with promoting the Jingwu Association and assisting with the arrangements for doing so, which would all be under its own purview. Within the Shanghai area, everything is under the purview of the Shanghai Jingwu Association, implicit in the name, and that location is run independently. But in the future, the Jingwu Association of each province need not be answerable to the originally Shanghai location, and likewise the Shanghai location would not be considered a branch of the province locations. They would be equal to each other and not in subordinate roles. Maintaining the dozens or even hundreds of Jingwu Associations in the various provinces and counties would be the responsibility of a National Jingwu Association. Once the way ahead is clear, the China Jingwu Athletic Association can stand on its own simply as the mother of the other branches.
  A special administrative department would be established, with both a president and vice president appointed. Then a managerial department would be established, with both a secretary-in-charge and a vice secretary appointed. However, the making of arrangements is best carried out by experienced people, which is why the Jingwu Association’s original administrative department is usually drawn from the sponsors of the mother location. Therefore the new administrative department ought to also be formed by those who run the original location. The president and vice president should not at the same time have positions in the managerial department, for then they would have too much to do and nothing would get done.
  (Those Jingwu members who are called “honorary members” are those who have done selfless work to support the Jingwu Association. They are selected on the basis of their moral integrity and prestige. Regardless of which distant branch these members are in, they will not be required to pay yearly tuition, and if they meet with any accident, other members will give assistance.)
  I offer a few ways forward:
(一)設專修學校以培植教授武術兵操文事游藝兼能辦理會務之人材
– Set up a specialized school for talented people to give instruction in martial arts, army drill, literature, and recreational activities, and also be able to conduct meetings.
(一)設通訊機關以期流通消息
– Set up a newsletter office to circulate information.
(一)聘請專員分往各處演講提倡幷擔任協助事宜
– Invite a senior official from any given area to make a speech promoting the Jingwu Association and to be given a role in assisting matters.
(一)協會事務所曁專修學校課堂均設倍開爾路七十五號
– The main Jingwu headquarters and classrooms for specialized study are to be located at 75 [73] Baikal Road.
以上辦法。倘董事會員諸先生以為可行。請各抒所見。以備採擇。如果多數贊成。當報告董事部。開會研究。事關精武前途。凡我同人。必能共同考慮。以匡不逮。
If the methods above are all considered to be feasible by the members of the administrative department, I invite you all to express your own views on them in order to choose what is best. If a majority approves of these ideas, let the administrative department then hold a meeting to discuss the matter. Concerning the future of the Jingwu Association, we colleagues have to be able to consider things together in order to make up for the shortcomings of any individual.
提議人陳公哲
  - a proposal from Chen Gongzhe

☉聖約翰大學紀 陳鐵生
MARTIAL ARTS AT ST. JOHN’S UNIVERSITY by Chen Tiesheng

上海有大學。以聖約翰為最先。本美利堅人所組織。內容頗完備。人才輩出。良有以也。八年秋。剏技擊團。倩吾會派員教練。今任教員者。霍元甲先生之哲嗣東閣氏也。
St. John’s is the premier university in Shanghai. Founded [1879] by American missionaries, it offers a comprehensive curriculum and produces vast numbers of talented individuals. In the autumn of 1919, they started a Martial Arts Society and asked the Jingwu Association to send an instructor. We have recently appointed Huo Yuanjia’s son Huo Dongge to the position.

上海梵王渡聖約翰大學技擊團 教員霍東閣
The Martial Arts Society of St. John’s University on King-of-Heaven Crossing Road [now Kaixuan Road] in Shanghai (Huo Dongge instructing):

上海中國女子體操學校攝影 教員盧煒昌
Photo from the Chinese Women’s Calisthenics School of Shanghai (Lu Weichang instructing):

☉上海精武第一分會紀 陳啟英
ON THE FIRST SHANGHAI JINGWU BRANCH by Chen Qiying

北四川路。為虹口商塲之中心點。吾會會員多稅居焉。乃咸要求設立分會於此。八年覓得橫濱橋橋畔福德里房屋一幢(前擬設於崇明路。)以為第一分會。此後會員又多一演武塲。不特卜晝。更堪卜夜。且總會各教員。及高級畢業會員。分班到此教授。其進步當不可限量矣。
This branch of the Jingwu Association is on North Sichuan Road, at the center of the Hongkou Market District. Because many of the Jingwu Association members live in that area, they requested that we establish a local branch nearer to them. In 1919, we found a building past the Hengbin Bridge in the Fude Neighborhood in which to place this branch (after initially planning to put it on Chongming Road). Many of the members also wanted to have the grounds outside the building so that they can practice not only during daytime hours, but also at night. Now that instructors and advanced-level graduates have congregated there to divide up the lessons, there is sure to be boundless progress at this new location.

上海北四川路福德里內之精武第一分會
The first Shanghai Jingwu branch, located on North Sichuan Road, Fude Neighborhood:

上海中國公學技擊班攝影 教授者羅克己劉致祥
Photo of the martial arts class of the China Public School of Shanghai (Luo Keji & Liu Zhixiang instructing):

上海晏摩氏女學技擊班攝影 教授者陳士超簡偉卿
Photo of the martial arts class at the Elize Bates Girls’ School in Shanghai (Chen Shichao [left] & Jian Weiqing [right] instructing):

上海廣肇女學技擊班攝影 教授者簡偉卿陳士超
Photo of the martial arts class at the Guangzhou-Guangdong Girls’ School in Shanghai (Jian Weiqing [left] & Chen Shichao [right] instructing):

上海精武會建築中之雨操場
Construction of the Shanghai Jingwu Association practice ground for rainy days [i.e. covered]:

建築中之上海精武公園大門之攝影
Photo of the construction of the large gate to the “Jingwu Public Gardens” in Shanghai:

建築中之上海精武村攝影
Photo of the construction of the “Jingwu Village” in Shanghai:

☉對於國技之疑點 中國女子體操學校王元輝等
CONCERNING SOME DOUBTS ABOUT MARTIAL ARTS by Wang Yuanhui of the Chinese Women’s Calisthenics School

上海精武體育會。自創辦以來。於茲十稔。平時專以提倡國技。矯正社會柔弱積弊。並將各種武器方法傳布為職志。故從學研究者如雲。懿歟盛哉。謂非有益於身心。烏能舉國信仰若是。蓋精武體育會者。雖名為體育會。要非若普通體育會之僅以提倡體育為事而已也。並含有智育德育性質。而實行斯賓塞爾三育並重之教育主義者也。
我中國女子體操學校。成立於前淸光緒己酉年。於第一期時。卽已有國技一科。當時精武體育會尚未舉辦。此科教師。殊不易得。於是聘請寶山朱阜山先生主教焉。朱先生研究國技有年。心得不鮮。奈社會狃於積習。致學者對於國技之信仰。不能若今日之堅深。故雖有國技。成績未著也。至第四期時。方為全盛時代。主教者為吳興徐一冰先生。所授各種。完全以精武體育會之教材為歸。自潭腿以及武器。莫不從事揣摩。是以第四期各同學。幾無一人不擅長國技焉。民國七年秋。更請盧煒昌先生來校主教。元輝等忝列門牆。得親聆盧先生之言論。何幸如之。元輝等自經盧先生教誨以來。對於國技。大有進益。惟當練習之餘。欲於國技有所研究。是亦愚者千慮或有一得之意也。
The Shanghai Jingwu Athletic Association was established ten years ago. Focusing primarily on promoting Chinese martial arts, its mission is to rectify our society’s long-standing feebleness. Since they are also intent upon passing down various weapon arts, interested researchers have become as numerous as clouds, and it is now an admirable and powerful force.
  What it is doing is beneficial to both body and mind. How could anyone in the nation believe otherwise? Although the Jingwu Athletic Association is called an “athletic association”, it is not like ordinary athletic associations which only promote physical education, instead addressing also intellectual education and moral education, implementing Herbert Spencer’s doctrine of education [from his book Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical (published 1860)] in which he places equal importance on all three parts.
  Our Chinese Women’s Calisthenics School was founded in the 46th year of the cycle during the reign of Emperor Guangxu [Xuantong] of the Qing Dynasty [i.e. 1909]. At that time, we already had a martial arts class and the Jingwu Athletic Association had not yet emerged. Teachers of science education were particularly difficult to obtain, and thus we engaged the services of Zhu Fushan of Baoshan Village [who was a physician] to be the head instructor. Zhu had studied martial arts for years, but what he had learned was nothing remarkable, just very conventional material, and so the confidence of the students toward martial arts during that time was not at as strong as it is now. Therefore although there was a martial arts class in the school, there was not yet a sense of achievement from having it.
  But then during our fourth term, we entered a golden age. Xu Yibing of Wuxing County [now Wuxing District, in Huzhou] became the head instructor, who taught us a wide variety of things, entirely based on the Jingwu Association’s curriculum. From Tantui to weapon sets, he was thoroughly experienced in all of it, and consequently all of our fellow students that year excelled at martial arts.
  In the autumn of 1918, we then invited Lu Weichang to come to the school to serve as head instructor. In learning from this great teacher, we all felt very fortunate to receive personal instruction from him. Ever since he came to teach us, we have made much better progress in martial arts, so much so that we then wanted to go beyond the standard training and make a deeper study of these arts, having a mentality of [quoting from Historical Records, chapter 92, bio of Han Xin]: “When the ignorant think through a thousand things, something is bound to sink in.”

(一)女子國技與男子所習者應否有相異之處
1. Should women practice martial arts differently from the way men practice?

縱觀現今所練習之國技。其最初步。皆自潭腿。漸進而至工力拳等。再進則為武器。各校莫不如是。此固為有系統之辦法。但男子與女子。與教授上應否略為區別。
Observing martial arts training nowadays, the first stage is usually Tantui, after which the student will gradually progress to Gongli Boxing and other boxing sets, then move on to weapon sets. It is now the same in every school. This has become the systematic method. However, should men and women be taught in a different way?
就身體言。女子類多柔弱。男子皆剛勁。凡男子所優為者。女子常多困難。此其一。
i. Physically, women tend to be weaker and men tend to be stronger, and so it is generally the case that men tend to be more proficient at the training and women tend to have more difficulty.
就性質言。男子常活潑。女子多沉靜。以活潑而練習國技者易。以沉靜而練習國技者難。此其二。
ii. In terms of their character, men are usually more boisterous and women are usually more reserved. It is easier for those with a livelier demeanor to practice martial arts, whereas practice is more difficult for those with a quieter disposition.
就習慣言。男子歷練事務之時機多。女子所處理之事務。恆皆輕易者。用力之時少。強之用力。其奈心餘力絀何。此其三。
iii. In terms of what is customary, men have had more opportunity to do work and women have been busy taking care of the home. By being constantly in a state of doing lighter tasks, women have had fewer chances to exert themselves, and so for them to suddenly be expected to exert themselves vigorously ends up being a case of “one’s mind wants to do more, but one’s strength is insufficient” [an English equivalent of this idiom being “to bite off more than you can chew”].
就生理言。男子與女子。亦有異同之點。有利於男子生理者。未必盡有利於女子。此其四。
iv. Physiologically speaking, men and women have both similarities and differences. Things that are beneficial for the male physiology are not necessarily beneficial for the female physiology.
故國技之舉動。男子與女子。似有研究之道。設謂潭腿以及種種。男女皆堪適用。則潭腿等各動作。是否一一皆合男女之生理。其所得之結果。又屬若何。是不能不令人懷疑者也。
Therefore there seems to be one way of studying martial arts movements for men and another for women. If we say that Tantui and various other boxing sets are suitable for both men and women, then whether or not the movements of Tantui indeed all conform to both male and female physiology, there may yet be different results. This is therefore an issue that is bound to cause people to have some doubts.

(二)武器是否適合於女子之練習
2. Is it appropriate for women to train with weapons?

拳術之進一步。卽為武器。所謂武器者。種類至多。若鎗若劍若斧若刀。蓋無一不有其精奧之學理。女子之練習國技。其目的究屬若何。以拳術為止境乎。抑可使之續練武器。而武器之中。又以何者為適於女子之性情。練習之後。於女子之生理與應用。又有若何之利益。似皆應有一定之界限。以為標準。若祗仿行。不求實際。是不能不令人懷疑者也。
To progress in a boxing art involves moving on to using weapons. There are many kinds of weapons, such as spear, sword, ax, saber, and so on, each with their own profound principles. When women train in martial arts, how can they reach their goal if they stop at boxing arts? They should be able to continue into training with weapons. But which weapons are most suitable for a woman’s disposition? And after practicing with a weapon, how is a woman physiologically affected by it and what are the benefits? It seems that there ought to be certain parameters in order to establish a reasonable standard. If women are merely imitating patterns of movement, then surely we are not seeking realistic results. This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.

(三)南北派國技必如何始能溝通而統一之
3. How should northern and southern styles of martial arts be properly mixed and integrated with each other?

常聞我國國技有一至大之疆界焉。卽南派與北派是也。南派主守。北派主攻。南派主狹小。北派主闊大。南派祗就小範圍以盤旋。北派常能進退裕如。從心所欲。斯雖謂派別不同。然與社會性情。不能謂全無關係。今旣以提倡國技為當務之急。勢必謀溝通統一為最要。若猶任其南北對峙。則統一之期。待諸何年。謂其派別已深。無術補救乎。則坐失時機。於理似覺未當。若云旣學北派。無須再及南派。斯說亦非完全。豈北派所有者。皆屬優良。南派所有者。竟無一長可取耶。去糟粕。擷精英。實為研究學術之要訣。削足就屨。固非善道。入寶山而空手回。亦非吾人習藝之初意也。且今者於北派南派之外。又有新武術之發明。安知十年之後。接踵而起者。不更有人。是則統一國技。不綦難乎。國技應否統一。為一大問題。統一國技。應如何著手。又為一大問題。此二問題。當如何解決。方為正軌。是又令人懷疑者也。
It is often said that are nation’s martial arts have an extraordinarily large scope, meaning the “southern styles” and “northern styles”. Southern styles are more defensive; northern styles are more offensive. Southern styles are more compact; northern styles are more spread out. Southern styles tend to stay within a short range; northern styles can advance and retreat with ease. Although we can point out such ways in which styles are different, they are nevertheless a product of society, and so we cannot say that they are completely unrelated.
  Nowadays, martial arts are being promoted as a matter of urgency and the integration of styles is felt to be extremely important. But if northern and southern styles remain at odds with each other, how many years is it going to take for them to integrate? There is already such deep factionalizing that there seems to be no hope of ending it, and thus the opportunity may slip away. It therefore could be that the very principle itself might be flawed.
  However, there is also something lacking in the idea that once you learn a northern style, you do not need to learn a southern style, for how can a northern style be considered to be so full of strong points that southern styles have nothing worthwhile in them at all? It is the trimming away of superficialities to get at the essentials [i.e. looking past style into substance] that is the actual key to studying these arts, whereas [from Huainanzi, chapter 17] “whittling the foot to fit the shoe” is really not a good way to go about it. “To go into a mountain full of treasure and come away empty-handed” [from the prologue to Yang Xianzhi’s Bitter Cold Pavilion] is likewise not what we are aiming to do when we practice these arts.
  Furthermore, apart from the northern and southern styles which exist today, new martial arts have also been invented. How can we be sure that in another ten years there will not be more people who have created even more styles? Therefore the integration of martial arts styles seems to be rather difficult. And should martial arts styles be integrated with each other in the first place? This is an important question. And how exactly should martial arts styles be integrated? This is another important question. These two questions need to be resolved in order for us to be on the correct path forward. And so this is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.

(四)教授國技當用何種教材方易得益
4. What method of teaching martial arts brings the easiest benefit?

學校之教授體操也。常集多數學生於一處。教師以一種方法。使學生同時演習。矯正教授。至為便利。此無他。用團體能行之教材。所以能若是也。國技中除潭腿工力拳數種團體能行者外。其他若對拳。若武器等。必有一攻一禦。二者之間。方法旣不相同。練習所費之時亦多。卽教師之矯正舉動與姿勢。亦不能合多數人。同時施行。其不演習者。必四散塲中。於秩序規律。諸多未洽。教授管理。兩難得其平。教師之矯正稍疎。學生之成績難期。所謂事倍功半。必如何教授。方易得益而無困難。是不能。不令人懷疑者也。
Teaching physical education in schools is typically a matter of gathering many students in one place to teach them one method. This means that they will be exercising together, which at the very least makes it easier to give them corrections, which is the charm of group instruction. But apart from the usual martial arts sets that are appropriate for teaching groups, such as Tantui or Gongli Boxing, there are also two-person boxing sets and weapon sets, in which there are two people, one attacking and one defending, and so the teaching method is not the same at all.
  A two-person set requires a greater amount of practice time in order for teachers to correct all of the movements and postures. It also cannot properly be done by a large number of students in unison, for those who are not practicing the same set have to spread even farther away in the practice space, not to mention that the sequence of movements will often slip out of harmony anyway [because two people need to constantly be moving in synch, and so if one person makes a mistake, both people are affected].
  The teachers that oversee group lessons face the dilemma of finding the right balance, for without sufficient correction from teachers, students will take longer to achieve, having to put in twice the effort to get only half the result. It is necessary to choose the right teaching method, and then there will be no difficulty in gaining benefit from the exercise. This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.

(五)國技若無統系之規定不易傳布
5. It will not be easy to spread martial arts without establishing a systematic curriculum.

國技之方法至多。此盡人知之。其種類之如何。姑不具論。吾人應先考察其性質之難易。程度之淺深。孰可為小學之教材。孰可為中學之教材。提倡國技者。必預有一種系統之規定。方能使教授者得以遵循。而昭畫一。倘盲人瞎馬。任其馳驅。縱不傾躓。亦屬堪危。且學校之所以分小學中學。各種教科。均從其程度。國技似亦須有程度之剖分。若不問其程度之如何。皆用一種教材。則學生升學之後。勢必復習。多一次升學。則多一次復習。雖可別授他種教材。以為目前之救濟。但無系統規定於先。必各貿然從事於後。甲之主張。不能強與乙同。乙之主張。或為甲所反對。各行各政。不至混淆不已。是非就學校性質。學生程度。以定教材。乃以教材而試驗學生之能力。國技之方法繁多。教授之主張紛歧。又將以何種標準。傳布於社會哉。是不能不令人懷疑者也。
Martial arts methods are extremely numerous, as everyone knows, and there is no way to discuss them all. We should first examine how difficult they are and what level they address, which ones are appropriate to teach in primary school and which ones are appropriate to teach in secondary school. Those who promote martial arts have to develop systematic rules, clear standards for teachers to adhere to. If a blind man gallops along on a blind horse, any obstacle they come across is bound to bring them both down.
  The reason why education is divided into courses that are to be taught in primary school and others that are to be taught in secondary school is entirely due to students being at different levels. It seems necessary in martial arts to also divide the curriculum into different levels and to consider what each level entails. With certain things being taught at each level, then once students have moved on to the next level, they will have to go through a period of reviewing the material from the previous level, as is usually the case in education.
  Although different kinds of supplementary material can be used to compensate for any incompleteness in what is currently being taught, a failure to first establish systematic rules of how to structure the curriculum will result in teachers making it up as the go. Step A might then not be relevant to Step B, or Step B might end up contradicting Step A. Every part of the process would only produce confusion. There is a right and a wrong way for a school to function. For whatever level the students are at, there has to be a fixed curriculum. Based on a standard curriculum, the abilities of the students can then be reliably tested. However, since martial arts methods are so numerous and the opinions of teachers are so divided, just what kind of standard curriculum will end up being the presented to the public? This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.

(六)國技無學理之書籍難供參考
6. Martial arts do not have enough scientific literature to refer to.

技術與學理。常互相聯絡。技術足以證學理之精微。學理得以申說技術之功效。故非學理不能使技術昌明。非技術不能使學理益顯也。二者宜兼而有之。方能引起多數人之信仰。關於國技學理之書籍。寥若晨星。世人恆因此鄙視之。蓋因其無學理之研究也。縱其技至精。不能言其理。又與衆何益。且國技之動作。每多變化。卽研究之遠者。常易遺忘。何况初學。嘗見國技之書籍。類皆若歌訣之韻語。其所述者。亦僅方法。並未涉及學理。卽偶有關於呼吸等等。亦多膚泛。不敢信為確當。雖欲以之作為參考。亦苦於塗徑難尋。不求所以然。僅尚外表者。斯卽我國國技所以歷數千百年來不能昌明之一大原因乎。改良之法。何以入手。必如何研究。始能闡發其眞理。是不能不令人懷疑者也。
Skills and scientific principles are usually interrelated. Once the skills can be verified through precise scientific principles, scientific principles can then be used to explain the skills. Therefore the skills cannot flourish without the science and the science cannot be demonstrated without the skills. With both aspects operating at the same time, this can then induce most people to have confidence in the material. Unfortunately, books examining martial arts scientifically are few and far between [“as rare as a sight of Mercury” (which can be glimpsed for only a brief period during a sunrise on certain days or a sunset on certain days)], and so ordinary people tend to look down on these arts as they are apparently devoid of any scientific study.
  To refine the skills but not be able to explain the principles of doing so makes it harder for the masses to benefit from them. Furthermore, martial arts movements are constantly changing from one to another, a factor that often easily slips away from consideration even by those who have studied deeply, much less by beginners. Martial arts books also often seem to be overly comprised of poetry, and what they discuss is only the methods, never any scientific principles. Even when they touch upon breathing or some other physiological process, it is always such a shallow description that it cannot truly be trusted as being accurate.
  Although we would wish to use such books as reference material, it is very difficult to find any that are worthy of being so. However, to not even seek to understand how these arts work leaves us only with the way they look. This is the main reason why our nation’s martial arts throughout our several thousand years of history have been unable to flourish. What methods of reform should we use and what things do we need to study in order to be able to explain the authentic principles of these arts? This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.

所列六端。前三端。係屬於現在之疑點。後三端。乃將來教授時之所需。每欲將斯疑點。就正當世。苦無良善時機。今者適逢精武體育會舉行十週紀念。有徵集各校文稿之盛舉。元輝等智識譾陋。一知半解。安敢有所貢獻。茲承師長之命。特將平時所懷疑諸端。臚列陳述。深願有以指示教誨之。則幸甚矣。
Of these six points, the first three address modern issues and the final three address some requirements of teaching. Whenever I had felt that I should write down these doubts to share them publicly, there was unfortunately not a good opportunity to do so. But now that the Jingwu Athletic Association is commemorating its tenth anniversary, various schools have been called upon to contribute compositions for the event. As my knowledge is shallow and incomplete, it is presumptuous of me to offer any contribution, but my teacher has insisted that I should, so I specially present this list of the doubts that are often on my mind. I sincerely hope for any correction on these issues, for which I would feel fortunate indeed.

新會陳鐵生記
(A comment by Chen Tiesheng of Xinhui:)
精武本紀。旣已付刊。煒昌迺以斯篇畀予。倉卒作答。不能詳也。
The Annals of Jingwu had already been sent to the printers, but Lu Weichang then presented me with this piece of writing, a hurried response to Ms. Wang’s list of doubts that had no time to be more detailed than this:

原本第一條。問「女子國技與男子所習者。應否有異。」
Responding to the first item (on whether or not there should be differences in how men and women train):

此條經本會女子模範團實驗三載。一言以蔽之曰。無男女之判也。惟女子於每月有三數日之停止。則生理上之關係而已。他種運動。如田徑賽之競走高跳等類。每有本人力所不支。而競爭心勝。且在競爭之時。每多旁人鼓掌助興。至使運動員拼命向前。因而害及身體者。惟拳術則本身有一分氣力。乃可用得一分氣力出來。雖旁觀如何鼓動。不能使其勉強增加也。此在能拳術者皆自知之。第說不出口耳。如連環腿旋風腿等。似屬劇烈。然亦只能如上所云。不能增加於原有氣力之外。故於生理上無論男女。皆無障礙。至軀體之強弱。以未經練習技擊者言。則原於先天之賦畀。父母強健。所生之子息亦強健。不以男女性而有所區別也。以曾經練習技擊者言。則弱字不載於拳經。更無男女之一問題也。
This issue has been tested by the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team over the last three years, and they are able to answer the question in one word: nope. (Sure, women will take a few days off each month, but this simply has to do with a certain physiological issue.)
  In other forms of exercise, such as the running races and high jumping of track-and-field events, there are always people who find it to be beyond their strength to endure and yet force themselves due to their competitive spirit. During a competition, there are always spectators applauding to keep the energy of the event rising up, which encourages the athletes to push themselves to an unnecessary level of risk and thus they may end up hurting themselves. However, performances of boxing arts sets express the strength of individuals one at a time, and so despite the applause of spectators, the performers are less prone to overdoing it.
  This is because boxing arts practitioners are in a situation in which they are always aware of their own capacity and thus deprioritize things that they cannot yet do. Actions such as the continuous kick, whirlwind kick, and so on, seem to be in the category of more intense exercise, and yet performers will only do what they can do and will not try to do what they do not yet have the strength to do. In this way, the physiology of the person, regardless of man or woman, is never hindered.
  As for physical strength or weakness, those who have not yet practiced martial arts will rely on their natural endowments. (Healthy parents will raise healthy children, and this has nothing to do with distinctions of male and female qualities.) And for those who have practiced martial arts, the word “weak” does not appear in any of the boxing classics [i.e. the training will “transform weakness into strength” so that there is no weakness to speak of], nor does any question of “male or female”.

第二條問「武器適合於女子否。」
Responding to the second item (on whether or not weapons are appropriate for women):

拳術武器有連帶關係。亦如歐美運動之有徒手器械之分別耳。無問題也。至問女子練習技擊之目的若何。以何為止境。這一條要分甲乙兩種答言。
Boxing arts and weapon arts are unquestionably interrelated, in the same way that the European and America sports are divided into those in which the hands are free and those that involve holding some kind of implement, As for what the goal is and what the limits are for women practicing martial arts, this issue should be addressed in two ways:
甲為普通類。本會第一宗旨為技擊普及。卽以技擊為中國式的體操。欲改造國人及世界人類之軀體。使其一律平等。咸臻健康為目的。故此類為普通科。男女老幼。皆能練習。練一日有一日之利益。決無止境。旣能倣行。卽有實際。
1. Generally:
The first goal of the Jingwu Association is to popularize martial arts, being the Chinese equivalent of calisthenics. If we want to transform the bodies of our countrymen and indeed the people of the whole world, it has to be for everyone, without exception. The aim is for all to achieve a high degree of health, and therefore these kinds of exercise have to suit ordinary people. Man or woman, young or old, all can practice. One day’s practice gives you one day’s benefit, but there is no limit to the number of days you can practice. As long as people have patterns to follow, there will indeed be realistic results.
乙為專門類。一刀一槍。一拳一脚。皆有精義。非一二十年苦練不為功。今日精武會員。有十年未輟課者。卽此類也。
2. Specifically:
Whether saber or spear, punches or kicks, they each have their own essential principles. Without ten or twenty years of hard work, there will be no skill. Members of the Jingwu Association have now been training unceasingly for ten years, proving this point.
惟此等意義。只可於技擊叢刋中發表一二。非此區區小册子所能語其萬一。尤有進者。本會以實在經驗。知擊技術中。男女同一水平線。故原文之分男女為兩途者。此則一以貫之。
These ideas have been given very little attention within martial arts books, and Ms. Wang’s little packet of paper only scratches the surface, but we have learned through experience at the Jingwu Association that men and women have the same capacity to learn martial arts skills. Therefore the issue of whether there should be two paths for men and women shrinks to one path after all.

第三條問。「南派北派。」
Responding to the third item (on “northern styles” and “southern styles”):

此是一時的見象。斷無永遠分立之道理。惟從前拳師。類皆故步自封。是丹非素。今則公之於世。成為科學。無論南北。聚於一堂。卽如吾精武會。南派北派。長拳短拳。(原文所謂新武術。亦北派之一種也。)罔不具備。卽使教師不能溝通南北。而會員多是南北混成。久而久之。自成一種融合南北。取精用弘之技術。凡事必有階級。不能一蹴登天。故此條今日猶在提倡時代。
This is a recent phenomenon. Such categorizations were not always there. Previous boxing arts teachers tended to be obsessed with their own tradition, presenting their art as something mystical rather than something purely utilitarian, but teachers nowadays share their arts publicly and are making them more scientific. Regardless of “northern” or “southern”, all styles can now be gathered together under one roof, such as in the Jingwu Association, where there is everything from northern styles to southern styles (the mention in the original text of “new martial arts” mainly referring to styles that also happen to be northern) and long-boxing styles to short-boxing styles.
  This means that the teachers do not have any connecting to do between northern and southern styles because the members are usually getting a mix of northern and southern anyway. Over the course of time, there will naturally be a blending of northern styles and southern styles, selecting from the best of both. As with all things, a process proceeds as a series of steps, for we cannot climb to the sky in a single bound, and so this third item is simply a current concern that will probably fade away after our own era.

第四條問。「教材。」
Responding to the fourth item (on choosing the right teaching methods):

此條誠為要着。然可以簡單說明。卽本會之技擊術。無論對手單練。武器空手。皆可以團體教練。一二人。千百人。皆可以口令指揮。試觀本紀之技擊術大會操圖象。便能了然。且王君亦懂拳術。如節拳之一套。是拳術中之略為難演者也。本會曾以口令指揮。數百人同演。其整齊活潑。無異於一人也。教師之矯正舉動與姿勢。則亦如普通體操而已。旣能以兵法部勒口令指揮。則同難同易。無所區分。在門外漢或見為難耳。總之普通體操所能施教者。技擊術皆能同樣施教。無疑問也。
This issue is indeed an important one, but it can be explained away quite simply. The martial arts sets of the Jingwu Association, regardless of paired or solo sets, weapons or empty-hand, can all be practiced in groups. Whether there are just a couple people or hundreds, they can all be directed by verbal commands. This is clear simply from taking a look at all the photos in this book that show group practice of martial arts.
  Furthermore, Ms. Wang understands that a boxing arts set like Articulated Boxing is among the boxing sets that are more difficult to perform, but that the Jingwu Association nevertheless once successfully used verbal commands to direct a group of several hundreds practicing it in unison, and that they performed with the same orderliness and liveliness as if it was just one person [though this example fails to address the issue of the difference between directing a group a people doing the same solo set and a group of pairs doing the same two-person set].
  For teachers to correct the movements and postures is just like with ordinary calisthenics. It is no more difficult or different than using verbal commands to direct the training of an army, though it may appear to the layman to be very difficult. In short, if we can teach ordinary calisthenics in this way, we can certainly teach martial arts in the same way.

第五條問。「統系。」
Responding to the fifth item (on a systematic curriculum):

此條為今日最難處決之一問題。然非盡無統系之可言也。本會技擊術。不下四百。餘套。其初等修業者。亦以規定之十套為限。同源之各學校。各團體準此。且目前各校。尚鮮有技擊三四年級之學生。因高級各校之技擊班。多屬新設。猶未感此困難也。本會在三年前。有見及此。故已有所預備。是堪為王君告慰矣。惟潭腿一種如字典。由小學至大學。畢生不可離。
This is currently the most difficult issue to resolve. However, we cannot say that there is a complete absence of a systematic curriculum. The Jingwu Association has no less than four hundred martial arts sets, but the beginning level has been standardized as being a particular group of only ten sets. The courses based on our curriculum that are taught in schools and other organizations are all run in accordance with this standard.
  Furthermore, those schools at the present time still have hardly any martial arts students who have been training for more than three or four years, and this is because the practitioners who are at a high enough level to run martial arts classes in the schools have for the most part established such classes rather recently, and so this issue would not be felt to be a problem yet. Nevertheless, the Jingwu Association foresaw this issue three years ago and consequently made preparations to deal with it, which might perhaps give Ms. Wang some comfort. The solution is Tantui, which functions like a dictionary, something that will be indispensable all the way from kindergarten to college graduation.

第六條問。「書籍難供參考。」
Responding to the sixth item (on the difficulty of finding worthwhile reference books):

技擊為一種科學。一舉一動。皆有精深之數理寓焉。惟以從前文武殊途。所謂士大夫者。又鄙視武夫。不肯與伍。故此種書籍最為難得。如世俗流行之易筋經。又類於太上老君感應篇。此眞技擊界一大憾也。今日物理學多新發明。如透視攝影。皆日漸進步。故技擊界之著述有所藉手。出版書籍日多。蒙謂中國萬事皆退步。惟技擊書籍中之撰著家則進一步。因有攝影。有新式圖畫。則技擊術之眞學理。借此便能發揮之於紙上也。十年而後。殆有光大昌明之日歟。本紀有武庫之一欄。亦就市上所易得者而登記之。以備索取。然如易筋經曁呼吸類書籍。有似迷信。且未經生理學家證明。無寧視作馬肝之為愈乎。况吾輩以普及為主旨。以軀體健康為目的。更無須夫此似是似非。離奇怪異之玄學也。研究技擊學理。則不外乎實習。深造之。自然由熟生悟。此又屬於專門學問。非一二語所能說明矣。
Martial arts are a kind of science. Every movement is full of profound reasoning. In the past, the literary life and the martial life were considered to be completely different paths. Scholars used to despise warriors and were not willing to associate with them, and consequently these kinds of books are very rare. The Yijinjing managed to be popular among ordinary people, but that was only because it fit into a Daoist category. This is a great pity for the martial arts community.
  In modern times, physics has brought about many new inventions, x-ray photography for instance, and new advances are made by the day. The martial arts community makes use of new advances to publish books, books which are constantly increasing in number. Ignorant people say that China is backward in all things, but our martial arts writers are actually a step ahead, and this is because they also include photographs and modern drawings, thereby making the true principles of boxing arts more realizable on paper. After ten years, we now seem to be in a time in which martial arts publishing is flourishing. This very book contains a piece about our martial arts library [at the end of Part Three], which provides easy access to such books, and they can be checked out or requested.
  Books about Yijinjing or breathing exercises have an inherent element of blind faith. Since the worth of these exercises has not yet been proven by proper physiologists, I would rather treat them as little better than their horse liver comment. [“When people refrain from eating horse liver (mistakenly thought to be poisonous), it is not because they do not like it.”] Since our purpose is to popularize these arts in order to strengthen the body, it is not necessary for us to bother with such nonsensical and bizarre ideas of esoteric “knowledge”. The study of martial arts principles is nothing more than a study of practicality. With deeper study, it is natural to go from mere familiarity with the material to full understanding. But of course it is also a specialized field of knowledge and cannot be summed up in just a few words.

☉特別游藝會紀 陳鐵生
A SPECIAL ENTERTAINMENT PARTY by Chen Tiesheng

中華民國八年十二月十九二十二十一之三晚。上海精武會。以補助公園故。在虹口北四川路東之虬江路上海大影戲院。開特別游藝會三夕。除本會技擊選手。及自製之拳術影戲長片五卷外。更有國樂之上海絲竹。廣東音樂。泰西絃樂。軍樂。崇德愛國兩女校之唱歌。本會女子模範團。愛國女校女子體操學校之技擊舞蹈等。三夕計共售券約四千張。影戲院座位。祇有一千二百。故非常擠壅。而秩序整然。一絲不紊。此國人程度日晉之好見象也因將當時秩序表。曁各報紀事。記載於此。以留紀念。
For the three evenings of Dec 19–21, 1919, the Shanghai Jingwu Association rented the large movie theater in the park at the east [southeast] corner of North Sichuan Road and Qiujiang Road in the Hongkou District of Shanghai, where they held a three-evening entertainment party. Apart from martial arts performances by select Jingwu members, as well as a showing of their homemade feature-length five-reel boxing arts film, there was also traditional Chinese music, local Shanghai music, Guangdong folk music, Western stringed music, military music, singing from the Chongde Girls’ School and the Patriotic Girls’ School, and performances of martial arts and dance from the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team, the Patriotic Girls’ School, and the Women’s Calisthenics School.
  For these three evenings, they sold altogether about four thousand tickets. The theater only has twelve hundred seats [meaning that there was over a hundred in the audience each night who were standing], and so it was extraordinarily crowded, and yet the schedule proceeded as smooth as silk and never became disorganized. It is good to see by way of events like these how much progress our countrymen are making. Below is the program and also a chronicle of the event from one of the various newspapers that have reported on it, included here for posterity.

秩序表
Program:

▲宣言
Declaration:

有一位隱名氏先生捐了三萬圓與精武體育會精武會就將此三萬圓建築一座公園從今後我中國人在租界裏有自建之公共花園矣惟建築工程浩大經費仍是不敷因此特開一游藝大會籌款補助建築費精武會十年以來為社會服務者不鮮而向未自己籌款此次因公園關係國體故勉一為之各學校得聞莫不爭為襄助(節目詳表內)惟中國人自製之拳術影戲此眞破天荒卽在泰西亦不多覩凡中國人不可不觀
上海精武體育會啟
An anonymous gentleman has donated 30,000 gold yuan to the Jingwu Athletic Association. We have decided to put this money toward the building of a public garden, so that from now on we Chinese have a public flower garden of our own making within the Foreign Concession. However, this is an enormous project and this donation is not quite sufficient to fund it by itself, and so we are holding a grand entertainment party to help raise the remainder of the funds needed.
  The Jingwu Association over the last ten years has done many services to society without seeking donations for itself. This public garden project is a matter of national prestige and therefore has inspired a unified effort. When various schools (listed below throughout the program) heard about it, they all vied for a chance to help out.
  We Chinese have also made our own film, which is about our boxing arts. This is truly unprecedented, showing sights that are not often seen in the West, and is something that every Chinese person needs to watch.
  - Announcement from the Shanghai Jingwu Athletic Association

十二月十九晚秩序表
Program for the evening of Dec 19:

(一)軍樂本會軍樂班
1. Military music by the Jingwu Military Band
(二)演說聶雲台先生
2. Speech given by Nie Yuntai
(三)女子拳術愛國女學
3. Performance of “Boxing Arts for Women” from the Patriotic Girls’ School
(四)美利堅舞女子體操學校
4. Performance of American dance from the Women’s Calisthenics School
(五)選手技擊高級會員全體教員內有
5. Selected performances of martial arts sets from advanced-level members and instructors, including:
甯竹亭之醉溜膛
Ning Zhuting: Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall Boxing
陳公哲姚蟾伯之猴拳
Chen Gongzhe & Yao Chanbo: Monkey Boxing
霍東閣黃惠龍之雙刀板櫈
Huo Dongge & Huang Huilong: Double Sabers Versus Wooden Bench
趙振羣鄭灼辰之空手奪槍
Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe] & Zheng Zhuochen: Empty-Hand Versus Spear
孫玉峯霍東閣之三節棍等
Sun Yufeng & Huo Dongge: Three-Section Staff, and so on.
(六)絲竹工界靑年勵志會
6. Music performed by the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association
(七)軍用實施本會選手
7. Performance of exercises by select Jingwu members
(八)火棍愛國女學
8. Performance of a fire-stick dance from the Patriotic Girls’ School
(九)體育眞相趙振羣姚蟾伯
9. Demonstration of bodybuilding by Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe] &Yao Chanbo
(十)唱歌愛國女學
10. Singing from the Patriotic Girls’ School
(十一)精武活動影戲本會自草創至今十年來之事蹟自製影片價値萬金長五千尺
11. The Jingwu Movie (showing our achievements since the Association was founded ten years ago, a movie made by ourselves, five thousand feet of film in length but worth countless yuan in value)

十二月二十晚秩序表
Program for the evening of Dec 20:

(一)唱歌崇德女學
1. Singing from the Chongde Girls’ School
(二)演說陳錦濤先生
2. Speech given by Chen Jintao
(三)女子拳術本會女子模範團操虎頭鈎工力拳
3. Performance of Boxing Arts for Women, Tiger Head Hooks, and Gongli Boxing from the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team
(四)舞蹈愛國女學
4. Performance of dance from the Patriotic Girls’ School
(五)泰西絃樂本會絃樂班工部局絃樂合奏
5. Performance with Western stringed instruments by an ensemble of the Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class
(六)電棒愛國女學
6. Performance of a flashlight dance from the Patriotic Girls’ School
(七)選手技擊高級會員全體教員內有
7. Performances of martial arts sets from high-level members and instructors, including:
黃惠龍之南派搖旗棍
Huang Huilong: Flag-Waving Staff (a southern set)
姚蟾伯陳公哲之盤龍三節棍
Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Coiling-Dragon Three-Section Staff
葉書田之地躺刀
Ye Shutian: Ground-Rolling Saber
甯竹亭鄭灼辰之對八卦刀
Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen: Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
鄭灼辰羅克己之童子軍實用棍等
Zheng Zhuochen & Luo Keji: Boy Scouts Practical Staff Methods
(八)體育眞相甯竹亭鄭灼辰
8. Demonstration of bodybuilding by Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
(九)泰西絃樂工部局絃樂班
9. Performance with Western stringed instruments performed by the Ministry of Works strings class
(十)精武活動影戲
10. The Jingwu Movie

十二月廿一晚秩序表
Program for the evening of Dec 21:

(一)軍樂本會軍樂班
1. Military music by the Jingwu Military Band
(二)演說袁恆之先生
2. Speech given by Yuan Hengzhi
(三)女子拳術女子體操學校女子模範團
3. Performance of “Boxing Arts for Women” from the Women’s Calisthenics School and the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team
(四)泰西絃樂本會絃樂班工部局絃樂合奏
4. Performance of Western stringed instruments by an ensemble of the Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class
(五)選手技擊高級會員全體教員內有
5. Performances of martial arts sets from high-level members and instructors, including:
黃惠龍之雙斧
Huang Huilong: Double Axes
陳公哲姚蟾伯之開門豹
Chen Gongzhe & Yao Chanbo: Gate-Opening Leopard
陳子正之羅打式
Chen Zizheng: Luo Da’s Postures
霍東閣趙寶城之雙刀對大刀
Huo Dongge & Zhao Baocheng: Double Sabers Versus Large Saber
(六)小朋友舞文雅舞女子體操學校
6. Performance of an elegant dance by young girls from the Women’s Calisthenics School
(七)粵樂本會粵樂班
7. Cantonese music, performed by Jingwu’s Cantonese Music Class
(八)體育眞相陳公哲趙連和
8. Demonstration of bodybuilding by Chen Gongzhe & Zhao Lianhe
(九)泰西絃樂
9. Performance of Western stringed instruments
(十)精武活動影戲
10. The Jingwu Movie

▲上海廣肇週報記載(第三十九期)
From Shanghai’s Guangzhou-Guangdong Weekly News (issue #39):

▲精武體育會游藝大會誌盛
“A Complete Record of the Jingwu Athletic Association’s Grand Entertainment Party”

本埠精武體育會。為籌建設公園不敷經費。定於十二月十九二十二十一之三天。假北四川路虬江路上海大戲院開游藝大會。
The local Jingwu Athletic Association is preparing to construct a public garden, but they do not quite have sufficient funds for it, and so for Dec 19–21, they borrowed the use of the large movie theater at the corner of North Sichuan Road and Qiujiang Road in Shanghai to hold a grand entertainment party.

十九日為開會之第一日。
Day 1 (Dec 19):

下午七時半開幕。
The event began at 7:30 pm.

由周錫三君。致開會詞。略謂本會以犧牲為主義。故十年來從未募捐。今日有隱名氏。助洋三萬元。本會以租界尚無中國公園。故願以此款公之社會。為建設公園之用。但為力求完美。經費尚覺不敷。故舉行游藝會三天云。
Zhou Xisan commenced the event thus: “The Jingwu Association operates from a principle of self-sacrifice. Therefore over the last ten years, we have never sought donations [except for the recovery from the typhoon damage]. Recently, an anonymous person has made a contribution of 30,000 gold yuan. We have noticed that in the Foreign Concession there is still not a Chinese public garden, and so we wish to use this money to benefit society by building one. However, to do it justice, this windfall will not quite cover it. And that is why we are holding this three-day entertainment party.”

次該會軍樂班奏軍樂。
[1] Then there was military music.

次聶雲台君演說。略謂今日之會。應感謝諸君。尤不得不感謝隱名氏。蓋我國人對於公共之事。素少援助。今隱名氏。實足為吾人榜樣。而提起世人之公德心。吾知諸君。今日皆為公德而來。非為取樂而來也。本會取名精武。其意義精為精神上之結合。武以止戈為武。今軍閥為害於世。吾人欲打破之。非臥薪嘗膽。具此精神不可。而要在節省金錢以做公益事。如隱名氏此種之行為。則中國或可挽救於萬一云。
[2] Nie Yuntai followed this with a short speech: “The Jingwu Association owes its thanks to many people, but especially to that anonymous gentleman. When it comes to public service, our countrymen rarely lend a hand, but he sets an example for us all and rouses everyone’s sense of public spirit. I’m sure that you are all here out of a sense of public welfare and not just seeking amusement. The name of this Association is Jingwu, ‘Jing’ short for ‘jingshen’ [spirit] and ‘Wu’ [martial], the character of which [武] breaks down into the components of ‘stop’ [止] and ‘weapons’ [戈]. Modern weapons are doing great harm to the world. We want to stop this. But unless we toughen ourselves for future ordeals, we will not have the spirit to do so. The important thing is that we save our money to do things for the public good. If an anonymous man can commit an act like this, then our whole nation might be able to rescue every one of its people.”

次愛國女學學生演大戰。
[3] The students from the Patriotic Girls’ School performed Large-Scale Fight.

次女子體操學校演美利堅跳舞。
[4] There was a performance of American dance from the Women’s Calisthenics School.

次該會會員及教員。甯竹亭。陳公哲。霍東閣。黃惠龍。鄭灼辰。趙振羣。孫玉峯。姚蟾伯諸君。演各種技擊。或單人。或雙人。或徒手。或器械。無不身手敏捷。精神活潑。足為我國體育生色。而陳公哲君之六歲女公子素貞。演工力拳尤為嫻熟可愛。
[5] Members and instructors (Ning Zhuting, Chen Gongzhe, Huo Dongge, Huang Huilong, Zheng Zhuochen, Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe], Sun Yufeng, and Yao Chanbo) gave performances of martial arts sets: solo sets and two-person sets, empty-hand sets and weapons sets. Each performance was imbued with great physical agility and liveliness of spirit, showing the richness of our nation’s physical education. Chen Gongzhe’s six year-old daughter, Suzhen, also demonstrated Gongli Boxing, and was that much more adorable because of how skillfully she performed it.

次工界靑年勵志會絲竹。
[6] There a performance of music by the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association.

次該會會員選手演軍用技擊。
[7] Select Jingwu performed martial exercises.

次愛國女學之演火棍。
[8] The Patriotic Girls’ School performed a fire-stick dance.

次趙連和姚蟾伯二君演體育眞相。以形容肌肉之發達。與體育之關係。
[9] Zhao Lianhe and Yao Chanbo gave a demonstration of bodybuilding as a means to explain muscular development and its relevance to physical education.

次愛國女學學生唱歌。
[10] There was singing from students from the Patriotic Girls’ School.

次為該會活動影片。
[11] There was a showing of the Jingwu movie.

二十日為開會之第二日。
Day 2 (Dec 20):

下午七時半開幕。
The event began at 7:30 pm.

首為崇德女學學生唱歌。
[1] The evening started this time with singing from students from the Chongde Girls’ School.

次為演說。本為陳錦濤君。因陳君病咳。由公哲君代之。略謂凡人能在體育上做工夫。不特資以鍛煉身體。且可有益身心。緣勤于在體育上做工夫的人。各種嗜慾。皆可藉以無形消滅。矧今日正值國家多事之秋。欲起而為救國事業。尤非具有強健身體。沉毅精神者。不克有所作為。同人等。十年來於體育二字。固不敢須臾或忘。然範圍尚嫌狹小。甚望國人本此意義。廣為提倡。俾吾國人民。大半為身體強健。精神沉毅。有作有為的國民。則吾國庶幾有豸云。
[2] Then a short speech was given (which was originally to have been given by Chen Jintao, who was then stricken with a cough and was replaced by Chen Gongzhe): “Whenever people are able to devote some of their energy into physical education, not only is it a means of training the body, it can also benefit the mind. This is because putting hard work into exercise has the invisible effect of eliminating all sorts of addictions. Furthermore, our nation has been going through troubled times and we want to do something to help save the nation. But without a strong body and a determined spirit, there is nothing that can be done. For the last ten years, my colleagues have not dared for an instant to neglect their own physical training. However, such a mentality is still too narrow in scope, and so we extend this idea to all of our countrymen, promoting physical education widely, so that the majority of our people will have a strong body and a determined spirit. Once we have a very active citizenry, our nation will then be on its way to becoming a force to be reckoned with.”

次該會女子模範團操虎頭鈎。工力拳。
[3] The Jingwu Exemplary Women Team performed Tiger Head Hooks and Gongli Boxing.

次愛國女學學生舞蹈。
[4] Students of the Patriotic Girls’ School performed dancing.

次該會弦樂班。與工部局弦樂班會奏西樂。
[5] The Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class joined together for a performance of Western stringed instruments.

次愛國女學舞電棒。
[6] The Patriotic Girls’ School performed a flashlight dance.

次該會教員會員分演各種技擊。如
[7] Jingwu Instructors and members each performed various martial arts sets, including:
霍東閣之伏虎拳。
Huo Dongge: Taming-Tiger Boxing
浦闊亭之燕氏刀。
Pu Kuoting: Yan Qing’s Single Saber
培德學生之連戰。
Students from the Developing Virtue Primary School: Continuous Fighting
黎惠生之夜戰槍。
Li Huisheng: Night-Battle Spear
金光曜之那咤式。
Jin Guangyao: Nezha Postures
葉書田浦闊亭之雙掃對槍。
Ye Shutian & Pu Kuoting: Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
陳子正之八番式。
Chen Zizheng: Bafan Boxing
鄭灼辰寗竹亭之開門豹。
Zheng Zhuochen & Ning Zhuting: Gate-Opening Leopard
劉致祥之大雄拳。
Liu Zhixiang: Great Hero Boxing
翁耀衡之雪片刀。
Weng Yaoheng: Snowflake Saber
姚蟾伯趙連和之單刀槍。
Yao Chanbo & Zhao Lianhe: Single Saber Versus Spear
鄭灼辰羅克己之童子軍實用棍。
Zheng Zhuochen & Luo Keji: Boy Scouts Practical Staff Methods
黃惠龍之長棍。
Huang Huilong: Long Staff
霍東閣趙寶城之串子。
Huo Dongge & Zhao Baocheng: String of Beads
劉致祥之八步搥。
Liu Zhixiang: Eight-Steps Boxing
趙連和之拋搥。
Zhao Lianhe: Flinging Fists
甯竹亭鄭灼辰之對八卦刀。
Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen: Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
陳子正之羅漢拳。
Chen Zizheng: Luohan Boxing
霍東閣黃惠龍之空手奪匕。
Huo Dongge & Huang Huilong: Empty-Hand Versus Dagger
葉書田之地躺刀。
Ye Shutian: Ground-Rolling Saber
姚蟾伯陳公哲之三節棍。
Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Three-Section Staff
會羣英於一堂。莫不各盡其妙。
This was an ensemble of heroes gathered under one roof, each performing to the utmost of their exquisite ability.

殿以該會活動影戲。
[10] There was another showing of the Jingwu movie.

廿一日為開會之第三日。
Day 3 (Dec 21):

首由該會軍樂班奏樂。
[1] The evening began [at 7:30pm], again with music from the Jingwu Military Band.

次袁恆之君演說。略謂鄙人從前初到上海的時候。看見歐洲美洲的人。體魄雄壯。工藝精巧。個個精神充足。人人俱能當團練兵。眞所謂文武全才。我們同他比。是萬萬不及。我那時候。心中想老天造人。太不公道。為何將頂好的聰明智慧。強壯的體力。都給與外國人。將那人不要的。不完全的小知小識。給我們中國人。我因何有這種思想呢。因為我個人不及他。或者是參差不齊。現在我一羣人。俱不及他。這不是老天造人。太不公道。兩樣看待嗎。現在我看精武體育會一班會友。在十年之前。他們身體同程度。與我不相上下。他們發奮練拳。用了十年苦功。人人俱像生龍活虎一樣。不但體育精進。連德育智育也很驚人。他們國文英文繪圖兵操網球拍照軍樂音樂化學無一不會。無一不精。現在我同他們比。身體程度。萬萬不及了。我現在纔曉得老天造人。是第一公道。何嘗有兩樣看待。乃是我們喜逸惡勞。不肯發憤。自暴自棄。所以一個中華民國。岌岌可危像要亡國了。雖然自己旣然曉得要亡。難道預備棺材。端整壽衣等死嗎。須知我中國地大物博。因為無人實心實力辦。事纔糟到如此地。步請諸位靑年發一個憤速速到精武體育會來報名練拳。體育一好德育智育自然也精進請諸位富翁。解囊幫助這會。多立學堂。多辦實業。百廢並舉。萬衆一心。中國不獨不亡。且可變為頭等強國。精武體育會。就是永遠抱定此種主意。依此進行之計畫。苦同胞呀。被欺的中國人呀。快醒快醒。起來救國。
[2] Then Yuan Hengzhi gave this speech: “When I first came to Shanghai, I saw Europeans and Americans. Their bodies are robust and their technology is exquisite. Every one of them has a burgeoning spirit and they have all been trained for military service. They can truly be said to be equally skilled in both civil and martial matters. Compared to them, we are utterly inferior. At that time, I thought that God had made man unfairly, always giving the best brains and greatest strength to foreigners, while the rest us were unwanted, with incomplete scraps of knowledge being tossed to us lowly Chinese. Why did I have these kind of thoughts? Because it was clear that we really were inferior to them, or at least unequal to them. Even when we grouped together, we still managed to be inferior. Was this not unfair, two different ways, one for them and one for us?
  “But now I look upon the members of the Jingwu Athletic Association, who have for the last ten years been building up their bodies to the same level, so that we are equally matched with the foreigners. These people have been energetically practicing boxing arts, working hard for a full decade, all of them with the vigor of dragons and tigers. Not only have they greatly progressed in physical education, but also very impressively in ethical and intellectual education as well. The Jingwu Association now has courses in everything, such as Chinese and English language, drawing, army drill, tennis, photography, military music, classical music, chemistry, and so on, and they have become experts in all of these fields. When I compare myself to them, my body is completely inferior, but I now understand that God has been fair and that there are not actually two different ways after all.
  “The issue is simply that we love leisure and hate labor, are unwilling to make an effort and too easily give up on ourselves. Therefore this Republic of China is in imminent danger of becoming a conquered nation. Even if we are sure that we are going to die, let’s not prepare our coffins, put on our funeral clothes, and just wait for it to happen. We have to appreciate that our nation is a vast territory and that we have abundant resources, and that it is only due to a lack of people possessing sincerity and strength that we have ended up in this awful state.
  “So I invite all young people to go with impatient haste to the Jingwu Athletic Association and sign up to train in boxing arts. Through physical education, you will naturally make great strides in ethical and intellectual education as well. I likewise invite all wealthy men to donate to the Jingwu Association, those of you who build schools, those of you who run industries, to give a little from your surplus to support this project on the side. We are unanimous in that not only will China not perish, but it will in fact be transformed into one of the most powerful nations. The Jingwu Athletic Association has always held firmly to this idea, and everything they do is done with this in mind. Suffering compatriots, humiliated Chinamen, awaken, arise, and rescue the nation!”

次女子體操學校女子模範團表演女子拳術。
[3] The Women’s Calisthenics School and the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team performed Boxing Arts for Women.

次該會絃樂與工部局絃樂合奏泰西絃樂。
[4] Thee Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class joined together for a performance of Western stringed instruments.

次為該會教員會員選手分演各種拳術。兵器如
[5] Jingwu instructors and members did individual performances of various kinds of boxing sets and weapon sets, including:
姚蟾伯之八卦地躺刀。
Yao Chanbo: Bagua Ground-Rolling Saber
寗竹亭之醉溜膛。
Ning Zhuting: Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall
浦闊亭之雙八卦刀。
Pu Kuoting: Double Eight-Trigrams Sabers
金光曜之崩步。
Jin Guangyao: Avalanche Steps
陳素眞之大戰。
Chen Suzhen’s: Large-Scale Fight
李樹森之工力拳。
Li Shusen: Gongli Boxing
黎惠生之綈袍劍。
Li Huisheng: Silk-Robe Sword
翁耀衡之劈山刀。
Weng Yaoheng: Mountain-Chopping Saber
陳子正之奇門棍。羅打式
Chen Zizheng: Qimen Staff as well as Luo Da’s Postures
劉致祥之虎頭鈎。六合槍。
Liu Zhixiang: Tiger Head Hooks and Liuhe Spear
葉書田之醉八仙。
Ye Shutian: Drunken Eight Immortals
黃惠龍之雙斧。
Huang Huilong: Double Axes
趙連和之雙鈎。
Zhao Lianhe: Double Hooks
尚有二人對打者。
There were also two-person sets, including:
如姚蟾伯陳公哲之開門豹。
Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Gate-Opening Leopard
趙連和鄭灼辰之空手奪鎗。
Zhao Lianhe & Zheng Zhuochen: Empty-Hand Versus Spear
葉書田浦闊亭之雙掃對鎗。
Ye Shutian & Pu Kuoting: Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
霍東閣黃惠龍之雙刀戰板櫈。
Huo Dongge & Huang Huilong: Double Sabers Versus Wooden Bench
趙寶城王逢春之紥拳。
Zhao Baocheng & Wang Fengchun: Tying Boxing
霍東閣趙寶城之雙刀對大刀等。
Huo Dongge & Zhao Baocheng: Double Sabers Versus Large Saber
演來無不各盡其妙。
Each of the performances were without exception amazing to behold.

演畢開演影戲。一連三日座客皆非常擠壅。尤以第三日為最。所演武術。無一不大受歡迎。影戲內分五大集。內容係表演該會種種成績。編排得法。毫不板滯。衡諸歐美名家影片。當不是過。名人到觀者甚多。第二日有孫中山先生。第三日有美領事。其他紀不勝紀。售出之券。湯節之君經手者共一千五百張。當為羣衆之冠。由會員翁耀衡君於第三日。當塲贈一花籃以勞之。誠上海空前盛會也。西人到觀者。莫不異常讚美。多欲邀該會在西人戲院另開會一天。俾飽眼福。聞該會已有首肯之意。大約旬日後當成事實云。
[10] And then once the performances were finished, they once again showed the Jingwu Movie. For three whole days, the guests all crammed into their seats for this, the third day most of all. Of all of the martial arts performances it displayed, not one was unpopular. The film was divided into five reels, the contents of which have to do with performances and all variety of achievements, perfectly arranged so that no part of it is dull. Of course it does not surpass European and American films, but a great many famous people came to see it nevertheless. Sun Yat-sen attended on the second day, the American Consul on the third, and the rest were too numerous to record.
  Tang Jiezhi sold altogether fifteen hundred tickets, quite a crowd. Jingwu Association member Weng Yaoheng on the third day was presented with a flower basket in appreciation for all his hard work for the event. It was truly an unprecedented gathering for Shanghai. The Westerners who came to watch the film all gave it extraordinary praise. Many of them invited the Jingwu Association to someday show the film in a Western theater in order to give even more people a feast for the eyes. The Jingwu Association gave its approval and the film did indeed have a theater showing just over a week later.

游藝會之秩序表。用黃藍紅三色印刷。蓋本於本會標誌黃藍紅三星之意。此次開會。自以影戲為特色。(影戲目錄另詳)技擊術。以第三夕公哲及連和師之體育眞相為最佳。吾人練習單拳。可用全力。若演對手拳。則時有險着。不能不稍自限制。惟此次趙陳兩位。竟用出七分力量來。遂有非常之精彩。盧煒昌因廣東本會有發展計畫。回粵會議。故未預焉。總計此會。影戲為陳公哲與程子培陳盧雪英陳士超之特別成績。而以兩星期之短促時間。竟能措置不紊。則全體董事及會員之熱力。曁各界之熱心贊助。良可念也。
The program for the event used the three primary colors – yellow, blue, red – based on the three-star emblem on the uniforms. Though this particular gathering involved the special feature of the film (the contents of which are provided in detail below), the most impressive physical performance was a demonstration of bodybuilding on the third evening by Chen Gongzhe and Zhao Lianhe [followed by two-person sets while still wearing their leopard skins]. When we practice solo boxing sets, we can express all of our power, but performing two-person sets can sometimes be dangerous, and so the performers have to be somewhat restrained. Therefore Chen and Zhao used only seventy percent of their power with each other and gave a truly splendid performance. (Lu Weichang was developing the plans for the Guangdong Jingwu Association, and so he had to return there for a meeting and thus was not able to participate.)
  But all in all, the stand-out achievement of this gathering was the film made by Chen Gongzhe, Cheng Zipei, Lu Xueying (wife of Chen Gongzhe), and Chen Shichao [Gongzhe’s sister], who were able to edit together the finished product over the course of just two weeks. All of the Jingwu Association directors and members, as well as people from all walks of life, have expressed their enthusiastic support for it, finding it to be a very memorable experience indeed.

☉精武自製之技擊術影戲片目錄 陳公哲
CONTENTS OF THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION’S OWN MARTIAL ARTS FILM by Chen Gongzhe

第一卷
First reel [seventeen scenes (1–17)]:

(一)鼓勵士氣之盾
1. Our morale-boosting crest
(二)以身殉技之霍元甲
2. The burial of Huo Yuanjia
(三)贊助本會最力之老會友袁恆之君
3. The most dedicated supporter and most senior member of the Jingwu Association, Yuan Hengzhi
(四)十年來茹苦之職員 陳鐵生 霍守華 周錫三 黎惠生 甯竹亭 陳公哲 郭唯一 金光曜 鄭灼辰 聶雲台 趙連和 盧煒昌 簡琴石 程子培 李耀邦 翁耀衡 姚蟾伯 陳士超
4. Some of the hard-working staff during the last ten years: Chen Tiesheng, Huo Shouhua, Zhou Xisan, Li Huisheng, Ning Zhuting, Chen Gongzhe, Guo Weiyi [who filmed the movie], Jin Guangyao, Zheng Zhuochen, Nie Yuntai, Zhao Lianhe, Lu Weichang, Jian Qinshi, Cheng Zipei, Li Yaobang, Weng Yaoheng, Yao Chanbo, Chen Shichao
(五)民國八年之會長朱慶瀾
5. 1919 Jingwu Association president Zhu Qinglan
(六)民國前二年之始創會所 每月租金十四圓
6. Our original 1910 location (14 yuan per month for rent)
(七)民國二年之會所 每月租金十六圓
7. Our 1913 location (16 yuan per month)
(八)從前赴會必經之鐵路旱橋
8. Having to go under a railway overpass to get to this location
(九)民國四年之會所 自費建築
9. Our 1915 location (built at own expense)
(十)技擊運動室
10. Martial arts exercise hall
(十一)會員沿途赴會
11. Members on the way to their classes
(十二)會所外觀
12. The exterior of the building
(十三)軍樂班
13. The military band
(十四)五四成立之健兒團
14. The Valiant Warriors Club
(十五)愛國女校之拳術
15. Boxing sets performed by the Patriotic Girls’ School
(十六)訓練甫成之軍隊
16. The army drill unit beginning its drill exercises
(十七)訓練已成之軍隊
17. The army drill unit finishing its drill exercises

第二卷
Second reel [nineteen scenes (18–36)]:

(十八)各派技擊教員
18. Instructors of various styles of martial arts
(十九)民國五年第一次六年畢業之三星會員
19. First sixth-year graduates receiving their three-star emblems, 1916
(二十)崇德女學拳術班
20. The boxing arts class of the Chongde Girls’ School
(二十一)精武第一分會成立運動
21. Exercises at the first branch of the Jingwu Association
(二十二)國語班
22. Chinese language class
(二十三)凌空術
23. Zip-lining
(二十四)臨池會
24. The calligraphy class
(二十五)乒乓
25. Ping-pong
(二十六)恭祝國慶
26. Celebrating National Day [Oct 10]
(二十七)京樂班
27. Beijing opera class
(二十八)會員之課外體操
28. Members engaging in extracurricular gymnastics
(二十九)拔河
29. Tug-of-war
(三十)廣東小學團體操節拳
30. Students of Guangdong Primary School performing Articulated Boxing
(三十一)廣東小學套拳
31. Students of Guangdong Primary School performing Trapping Boxing
(三十二)平檯
32. Balancing platform
(三十三)木馬
33. Vaulting horse
(三十四)槓子
34. Horizontal bar
(三十五)韆鞦援架
35. Swings supported by a frame
(三十六)軍隊組織(武字)
36. The Army-Drill Team making a formation (forming the character “wu” [martial])

第三卷
Third reel [fifteen scenes (37–51, with 51 being subdivided into five parts)]:

(三十七)贊助最力之會長 袁恒之君 聶雲台君
37. Zealous support from Jingwu Association presidents Yuan Hengzhi and Nie Yuntai
(三十八)活動攝影
38. Examples of exercise
(三十九)會員赴會之絡繹
39. A continuous stream of members going in and out of meetings
(四十)精武第三分會會長王紹坡
40. President of the Jingwu Association’s third Shanghai branch, Wang Shaopo
(四十一)精武第三分會及總會董事
41. The third branch and a gathering of its directors
(四十二)粵樂班
42. Cantonese opera class
(四十三)自由車隊
43. A flowing motorcade [of VIPs]
(四十四)工人拳術工界靑年勵志會
44. Boxing sets performed by workers from the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association
(四十五)侵晨蒞會之安步隊
45. Steady marching performed by the army drill team at dawn
(四十六)女子體操學校拳術班
46. The boxing arts class of the Women’s Calisthenics School
(四十七)弓箭
47. Archery
(四十八)雄辯團
48. Debating team
(四十九)醫學
49. Medical studies
(五十)網球
50. Tennis
(五十一)有志莫逮之體育譚
51. A discussion about how physical education aspirations must never cease:
近世小說家著述每好描摹過甚使求學者對於武術有可望不可卽之槪致斯術無人過問日就沉淪至可慨歎特表而出之俾知形禁勢格萬不為物理所容是亦維持斯術之微意芸芸會衆當亦有所領會而不致沮其向學之忱也乎
Modern novelists write exaggerated depictions of martial arts, causing students to develop hopes for skills that they will not be able to achieve. The resulting disappointment then makes people lose interest in these arts, which tragically fade further with each day. Here are some special demonstrations to show that the tricks in these arts still obey the laws of physics and that there are people who are preserving these skills with sincerity. The more schools there are that have a true understanding of such skills, the less that people will lose their enthusiasm to study these arts.
(甲)刀影藏形
a. A saber flourishing so fast that its shape becomes indistinguishable
(乙)運氣功夫
b. A demonstration of Qigong [presumably showing feats like taking blows to the belly from a sledgehammer, etc.]
(丙)拳風中人
c. The wind from punches affecting a motionless person from a distance
(丁)力回汽車
d. Demonstrating strength by pulling a car
(戊)飛簷走壁
e. Leaping from rooftop to rooftop

第四卷
Fourth reel [eleven scenes (52–62)]:

(五十二)歷年為社會服務之成績
52. Some of the Jingwu Association’s achievements over the years
(五十三)急救傷科
53. First aid for injuries
(五十四)技擊科表演 雙十節在公共體育場與會者數萬人
54. A martial arts demonstration (celebrating “Double Tenth” [i.e. National Day] at a public sports ground, with tens of thousands of people gathered)
(五十五)絃樂班
55. Stringed instruments class
(五十六)贈送絃樂班之花籃
56. A flower basket being presented to the stringed instruments class
(五十七)隱名氏捐助三萬圓之影事
57. Glimpse of anonymous donation of 30,000 gold yuan
(五十八)理想中將來之會所 民國某年落成造價預算六萬兩
58. Blueprints of future headquarters (to be completed by a certain year and at a projected cost of 60,000 yuan)
(五十九)女子模範團
59. The Exemplary Women Team
(六十)五齡幼女之技擊譚
60. A five year-old girl talking about martial arts
(六十一)袖鏢
61. Sleeve darts
(六十二)運用實施
62. Some martial arts applications

第五卷
Fifth reel [three scenes (63–65)]:

(六十三)攝學部
63. The photography department
(六十四)精武式之技擊會操
64. Group performances of the Jingwu Association’s martial arts
(六十五)照耀全國之精武三星會旗
65. The Jingwu three-starred banner, a shining beacon for the whole nation
[With only three scenes on this reel, they would be averaging five minutes per scene. However, the third scene might only have needed a few seconds and the first scene might only have spent a couple minutes, meaning that there could have been a section of around twelve solid minutes showing boxing sets, weapons sets, and two-person sets, and thus the fifth reel would probably be the most valuable for a martial arts historian. A lengthy martial arts sequence followed by the sight of a proudly-flying flag sounds like a stirring climax, giving this entire documentary feature a tinge of structural similarity to the Kung Fu films that would come later.]

☉中國精武會章程
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE CHINA JINGWU ASSOCIATION

第一章 定名
Section 1: The Name of the Association

第一條
Item 1:

本會初由中國技擊專家霍元甲君發起專事技擊一科繼欲擴充體育範圍附增兵操文學游藝三部定名中國精武體育會
The Jingwu Association was started by Chinese martial arts master Huo Yuanjia. After initially focusing on a martial arts course, it was later decided to expand its physical education spectrum by adding three more departments – army drill, artistic studies, and recreational activities – and thus the full name became the China Jingwu Athletic Association.

第二章 宗旨
Section 2: Our Purpose

第二條
Item 2:

本會以提倡武術研究體育鑄造強毅之國民為主旨然武術本屬專門之學必須專心致志乃可期成以故本會宗旨槪不許預聞政治尤不爭門戶短長
The purpose of the Jingwu Association is to promote martial arts studies and use physical education to build a more resolute citizenry. However, a specialized study of martial arts requires whole-hearted devotion of one’s energies in order to succeed. On the basis of our purpose, we therefore forbid the politics of keeping styles secret and will not tolerate arguments about the strengths and drawbacks of one style versus another.

第三章 會所
Section 3: Our Location

第三條
Item 3:

本會所設在上海提籃橋倍開爾路工部局公學隔壁第七十三號門牌電話第東一百十九號
The Jingwu Association is located in Shanghai, within the Tilanqiao Neighborhood, at 73 Baikal Road, next door to the Ministry-of-Works Public School [and across the street from Nieh Chih Kuei Public School for Chinese]. Phone#: East-109

第四章 會員
Section 4: Membership

第四條
Item 4:

凡立志堅忍確無嗜好有商學界或會員介紹者得為本會會員(年齡不限)
All who are determined, persevering, are free of vices, and have been given recommendation from those in business circles, academic circles, or by other members, are eligible to obtain membership at the Jingwu Association. (There are no age restrictions.)

第五條
Item 5:

會員分特別會員通常會員名譽贊成員夏季會員四種
Membership is divided into four types: special membership, ordinary membership, honorary membership, and limited summer membership.
(甲)特別會員 入技擊部而兼他部者
A. Special membership is for those who participate in martial arts courses and other courses.
(乙)通常會員 祗入游藝部者
B. Ordinary membership is for those who only participate in recreational activities.
(丙)名譽贊成員 贊助本會及捐助經費者
C. Honorary membership is for those who help out here or who donate funds.
(丁)夏季會員 入技擊部且兼他部惟以夏季四十天為限
D. Limited summer membership is for those who participate in martial arts courses and other courses, but only during a six-week period in the summer.

第五章 職員 教員
Section 5: Staff & Instructors

第六條
Item 6:

(總部)
Administrative Staff:
(一)正會長一人總理會務
1. President: one person, who presides over all meetings.
(二)副會長二人協理會務遇正會長不到時得代行其職權
2. Vice presidents: two people, who assist in managing the Jingwu Association, meet with the president, and act on his behalf in his absence.
(三)董事無定額凡滿任會長及熱心贊助本會者得舉任之
3. Directors: no specific number of directors. They are appointed by the president based on their enthusiasm for assisting in all affairs.
(四)總務主任二人駐會執行會務
4. Heads of general affairs: two people, who stay at the Jingwu Association and organize all meetings.
(五)書記員八人司管文牘
5. Secretaries: eight people, manage documents and correspondence.
(六)會計員二人司進出款項
6. Bookkeepers: two people, who are in charge of keeping track of all funds that come in and go out.
(七)調查員四人調查各界對於本會意見藉資奮勉以期會務日臻完備
7. Examiners: four people, who examine public opinion of the Jingwu Association, from people of all walks of life, in order to constantly improve what is offered here.
(八)庶務員六人司本會一切庶務
8. Head of business affairs: six people, who manage all business matters.
(九)會醫三人司本會衞生醫藥事宜
9. Physicians: three people, who are in charge of hygiene and medical treatment.
(十)稽查員四人司管一切雇役及淸潔事宜
10. Customs officers: four people, who manage the borrowing of all equipment and the maintaining of a sanitary environment.
(十一)糾察員四人監視會員行止
11. Disciplinary officers: four people, who keep an eye on the behavior of the members.

(技擊部)部長一人統理技擊事宜凡派出內外各團體之教練技擊者咸受其節制調動
Martial Arts Department: one department head, who manages all martial arts affairs, and sends his orders to all martial arts instructors, both within the main location and to all other branches and locations, and they will all accept his orders and reassignments.
技擊主任無定額凡派往各省之總會及分會或上海之分會及團體教授技擊之會員均稱為主任
There is no specific number of martial arts directors. Regardless of where they are coming from, whatever branch in another province or whatever location or club in another part of Shanghai, instructors will all address them as “director”.
技擊教員無定額直接受技擊部長及主任之節制間接並受總部制裁而由技擊部長聘任之
There is no specific number of martial arts instructors. They will receive their teaching assignments from the department head, accept orders from the directors, are answerable to the main Jingwu headquarters, and are appointed by the department head.
勵志團主任二人由本團公舉
Encouragement Club: two directors, elected from within the club.
女子模範團主任二人由部長指定道德高尚者充任
Exemplary Women Team: two directors, appointed by the department head on the basis of who demonstrates the highest ethical integrity.
安步團主任一人由本團公舉
Walking Club: one director, elected from within the club.
武器主任四人由部長指任
Weapons: four directors, appointed by the department head.
袖鑣主任一人由部長指任
Sleeve darts: one director, appointed by the department head.
弓箭主任一人由部長指任
Archery: one director, appointed by the department head.
健兒團總教一人由部長兼任或指派之
Valiant Warriors Club: one general instructor, appointed or nominated by the department head.
健兒團內紅黃藍白黑五隊各由本隊公舉一人充任隊長
(Within the Valiant Warriors Club are also five teams – red, yellow, blue, white, black –
each of which elect their own team captains.)
技擊術出版部編輯員無定額
Martial arts publishing department: no specific number of editors.

(兵操部)部長一人教授無定額
Army Drill Department: one department head, no specific number of instructors.
被服主任一人
Supplies: one director.
軍械主任一人
Armaments: one director.
軍樂主任一人
Military music: one director.

(文事部)部長一人
Literary Studies Department: one department head.
國文教授無定額
Chinese language: no specific number of instructors.
英文教授無定額
English language: no specific number of instructors.
圖畫教授無定額
Painting: no specific number of instructors.
簿記學教授無定額
Accounting: no specific number of instructors.
國語教授一人
Mandarin: one instructor.
打字科主任一人
Typewriting class: one director.
攝影學主任一人 攝影學教授二人兼教影戲片
Photographic studies: one director, two instructors (who will also give instruction in making films).
雄辯團主任一人
Debating team: one director.
書報主任四人
Books & periodicals: four directors.
臨池會主任二人一主國文一主英文
Calligraphy class: two directors (one for Chinese calligraphy, one for English calligraphy).
臨池會檢察員一人中醫主任西醫主任無定額
Calligraphy class [Medicine class]: one inspector, no specific number of directors for either Chinese medicine or Western medicine.

(游藝部)部長一人
Recreational Activities Department: one department head
京樂教授一人
Beijing opera: one instructor.
歐絃教授一人
Western stringed instruments: one instructor.
銅樂教授一人
Brass instruments: one instructor.
京樂主任一人
Beijing opera: one director.
粵樂主任二人
Cantonese opera: two directors.
畋獵主任二人
Game hunting: two directors.
足球主任四人
Soccer: four directors.
網球主任四人
Tennis: four directors.
鐵球鐵餅主任一人
Shot put & discus: one director.
檯球主任一人
Billiards: one director.
籃球主任一人
Basketball: one director.
平臺木馬主任一人
Balancing platform & vaulting horse: one director.
溜冰主任一人
Skating: one director.
凌空主任一人
Zip-lining: one director.
鑣槍主任一人
Javelin: one director.
槓子秋千主任無定額
Horizontal bar / rings & rope swings: no specific number of directors.

第七條
Item 7:

本會各職員除正副會長外均由會員中推舉其富有責任心者當之一年期滿再被舉得連任之
All staff positions, except for the roles of president and vice president, are elected from among the members of the Jingwu Association. Those who serve dutifully in their position for a full year are eligible to be renewed for a second term.

第六章 會費
Section 6: Tuition

第八條
Item 8:

特別會員每月收費二圓每半年收費八圓每年收費十二圓十六歲以下之會員年月費均減半通常會員每半年收費二圓夏季會員每四十天收費壹圓均於入會時繳交會計處
Special membership: 2 yuan per month, 8 yuan per six months, or 12 yuan per year, half price for ages sixteen and below. Ordinary membership: 2 yuan per six months. Limited summer membership: 1 yuan per six weeks. All fees are to be paid at the accounting office.

第七章 科目
Section 7: Courses

第九條
Item 9:

(一)技擊部
1. Activities of the martial arts department:

拳術
– boxing sets
兵器
– weapon sets
對手(卽拆法)
– two-person sets (i.e. performing techniques)
內功(卽運氣)
– internal training (i.e. moving energy)
弓箭術
– archery
袖鑣
– sleeve darts

(二)兵操部
2. Activities of the army drill department:

兵式操
– army formation drill
野戰術
– field operations
汽鎗打靶
– firing at targets with air rifles
軍樂
– military music
軍事學
– military science

(三)文事部
3. Activities of the literary studies department:

各種體育書報
– study of various physical education books and periodicals
中西文夜學
– Chinese and English language night classes
攝影學
– photography
打字
– typing
簿記學
– accounting
雄辯學
– debate
臨池
– calligraphy
國語
– Mandarin
醫學
– medicine
圖畫
– painting

(四)游藝部
4. Activities of the recreation department:

足球
– soccer
網球
– tennis
鐵球
– shot put
鐵餅
– discus
檯球
– billiards
乒乓
– ping-pong
槓子
– horizontal bar
籃球
– basketball
鞦韆
– rings and rope swings
溜冰術
– skating
凌空術
– zip-lining
平檯
– balancing platform
木馬
– vaulting horse
畋獵
– game hunting
鑣槍
– javelin
音樂(分西樂京調粵調三種)
– music (divided into Western music, Beijing opera, and Cantonese opera)

☉附技擊術名目
List of Boxing Arts

▲黃河流域派技擊術
Boxing Arts from the Area of the Yellow River Basin

(一)拳術
1. Boxing sets:

潭腿
Tantui
工力拳
Gongli Boxing
節拳
Articulated Boxing
大戰
Large-Scale Fight
脫戰
Escaping-Techniques Fight
十字戰
Cross-Shaped Fight
短戰
Low-Posture Fight
穿拳
Piercing Fists
插拳
Charging Punches
龍虎勢
Dragon & Tiger Postures
伏虎拳
Taming-Tiger Boxing
黑虎拳
Black Tiger Boxing
練手拳
Handwork-Training Set
二郎拳
Second Son’s Boxing Set
殺蛟拳
Serpent Slayer Boxing
太祖拳
Taizu Boxing
少林拳
Shaolin Boxing
金剛拳
Arhat Boxing
關西拳
Western-Pass Boxing
八極拳
Baji Boxing
靑龍拳
Blue Dragon Boxing
醉八仙
Drunken Eight Immortals
溜脚勢
Swinging Kicks
溜腿架
Swinging-Kicks Boxing Set
小紮拳
Small Tying Boxing
順步搥
Smooth-Stepping Boxing
子孫丹
Ancestral Elixir
五虎拳
Fifth Tiger’s Boxing
五虎架
Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set
孫臏拳
Sun Bin Boxing
擋拳
Blocking Boxing
撩襠拳
Uppercuts-to-the-Groin Boxing
硬搥
Hard-Hammer Boxing
散拳
Miscellaneous Boxing
十二步架
Twelve-Steps Set
臥地豹
Crouching Panther
跳地龍
Leaping Ground-Dragon
形拳
Shape-Based Boxing
四六拳
Four-Six Boxing
地躺拳
Ground-Rolling Boxing
殺手掌
Killing Palms
開打拳
Spread & Strike Boxing
行拳十路
Ten-Line Walking Boxing
鷹手連拳五十路
Eagle Claw Fifty-Line Continuous Boxing
羅漢拳
Luohan Boxing
八步捶
Eight-Steps Boxing
八面捶
Eight-Directions Boxing
雁行拳
Flock-of-Geese Boxing
大雄拳
Great Hero Boxing
小雄拳
Lesser Hero Boxing
五花豹
Dancing-Flowers Leopard
大棉掌拳
Greater Cotton-Palms Boxing
小棉掌拳
Lesser Cotton-Palms Boxing
前溜勢
Forward-Gliding Postures
(以上獨習類)
(These are all solo sets.)

接潭腿
Two-Person Tantui
合戰
Cooperative Fight
串子
String of Beads
八折
Eight-Turnings Boxing
猴拳
Monkey Boxing
擋步搥
Advance-Halting Boxing
五郎搥
Fifth Son’s Boxing Set
三步架
Three-Steps Boxing
四門拳
Four-Gate Boxing
套拳
Trapping Boxing
紮拳
Tying Boxing
開門豹
Gate-Opening Leopard
踴步搥
Leaping-Steps Boxing
捻手拳
Hand-Twisting Boxing
盤捶
Coiling Boxing
短打
Short Fighting
一百零八拳
Hundred and Eight Techniques
棉掌拳
Cotton-Palms Boxing
對子腿
Two-Person Kicking Set
(以上對手類)
(These are all two-person sets.)

(二)兵器
2. Weapon sets:

達摩劍
Damo Sword
綈袍劍
Silk-Robe Sword
大連環劍
Greater Continuous Sword
小連環劍
Lesser Continuous Sword
雙八卦劍
Double Eight-Trigrams Swords
五虎槍
Fifth Tiger’s Spear
夜戰槍
Night-Battle Spear
提爐槍
Furnace-Sparking Spear
露花槍
Glistening-Flower Spear
梨花槍
Pear Blossom Spear
攔門槍
Gate-Blocking Spear
斷門槍
Gate-Breaking Spear
梅花槍
Plum Blossom Spear
太極槍
Taiji Spear
三步槍
Three-Steps Spear
花槍
Flourishing Spear
雙舌槍
Double-Tongued Spear
大六合花槍
Greater Liuhe Flourishing Spear
中六合花槍
Middle Liuhe Flourishing Spear
小六合花槍
Lesser Liuhe Flourishing Spear
羅漢槍
Luohan Spear
八卦刀
Eight-Trigrams Saber
步戰刀
Infantry Saber
朝陽刀
Sunrise Saber
二郎刀
Second Son’s Saber
抱月刀
Moon-Embracing Saber
解腕刀
Wrist-Cutting Saber
劈山刀
Mountain-Chopping Saber
露花刀
Glistening-Flower Saber
雪片刀
Snowflake Saber
六合刀
Liuhe Saber
梅花單刀
Plum Blossom Single Saber
雙刀
Double Sabers
雙八卦刀
Double Eight-Trigrams Sabers
大金剛雙刀
Greater Arhat Double Sabers
小金剛雙刀
Lesser Arhat Double Sabers
春秋大刀
Spring & Autumn Halberd
提爐大刀
Furnace-Sparking Large Saber
太極大刀
Taiji Halberd
梅花大刀
Plum Blossom Large Saber
方天㦸
Crescent Moons Halberd
玄靈杖
Dark-Magic Cane
峨嵋槍
Emei Spear
蛾眉刺
Emei Needle
雙斧
Double Axes
虎頭鈎
Tiger Head Hook
雙座鈎
Double Hooks
八寶鈎
Eight Treasures Hook
護手鈎
Hand-Guarding Hook
雙鐧
Double Maces
銅錘
Bronze Hammer
九節軟鞭
Nine-Section Soft Whip
單刀鞭
Single Saber & Whip
攔門鈌
Gate-Blocking Lance
孫臏拐
Sun Bin Cane
大掃子
Two-Section Staff
虎撲羣羊棍
Pouncing-Tiger Shepherd’s Staff
齊眉棍
Eyebrow-Height Staff
奇門棍
Qimen Staff
老虎鞭(卽棍尾鞭)
Tiger Whip-Rod (also called Staff-Tail Whip-Rod)
(以上獨習類)
(These are all solo sets.)

對槍
Two-Person Spear
戰槍
Battling Spears
鷂子槍
Hawk Spears
圈槍
Encircling Spears
纏攔槍
Coil & Block Spears
穿袖槍
Through-the-Sleeve Spears
金剪刀槍
Golden-Scissors Sabers Versus Spear
雙刀串槍
Double Sabers Versus Spear
單刀串槍
Single Saber Versus Spear
棍對槍
Staff Versus Spear
大刀對槍
Large Saber Versus Spear
玄靈杖對槍
Dark-Magic Cane Versus Spear
拐刀對槍
Saber & Cane Versus Spear
雙拐對槍
Double Canes Versus Spear
雙掃對槍
Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
雙刺對槍
Double Needles Versus Spear
虎頭鈎對槍
Tiger Head Hooks Versus Spear
三節棍對槍
Three-Section Staff Versus Spear
盤龍棍對槍
Coiling-Dragon Staff Versus Spear
對手八卦刀
Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
斷門刀
Gate-Breaking Sabers
對手雙刀
Empty-Hand versus Double Sabers
單刀對大刀
Single Saber Versus Large Saber
對手大刀
Two-Person Large Saber
方天㦸對大刀
Crescent Moons Halberd Versus Large Saber
對手三節棍
Empty-Hand Versus Three-Section Staff
雙掃子對拐
Two-Section Staff Versus Cane
對手齊眉棍
Two-Person Eyebrow-Height Staff
霹靂棍
Thunderbolt Staffs
降龍棒
Descending-Dragon Cudgels
大掃子對槍
Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
童子軍實用棍
Boy Scouts Practical Staff Methods
(以上對手類)
(These are all two-person sets.)

(三)空手入白刃類
3. Empty-hand versus bladed weapons:

空手奪刀
Empty-Hand Versus Saber
空手破刀
Empty-Hand Disarming Saber
空手奪雙刀
Empty-Hand Versus Double Sabers
空手奪槍
Empty-Hand Versus Spear
空手奪插
Empty-Hand Versus Fork
空手奪匕
Empty-Hand Versus Daggers

長江流域派技擊術
Martial arts styles from the area of Yangzte River Basin

(一)拳術
1. Boxing sets:

天罡手
Big-Dipper Hands
四門重手
Heavy Hands in All Directions
十字手
Cross-Shaped Hands
八黑手
Eight Hidden Techniques
蔣手
Jiang’s Hand Techniques
下山拳
Mountain-Descending Boxing
小梅花拳
Small Plum-Blossom Boxing
昭陽手
Clear-Dawn Hands
金槍手
Golden-Spear Hands
興唐拳
Xingtang’s Boxing Set
十八技
Eighteen Techniques
脫銬
Breaking Manacles
獨臂拳
One-Armed Boxing
醉溜膛
Drunken Stumbling Around the Hall
醉八仙
Drunken Eight Immortals
楊家手
Yang Family Hands
競槍拳
Spear-Defeating Boxing
百合拳
Hundred Closings Boxing
金鷄拳
Golden Rooster Boxing
宗法拳
Ancestral-Method Boxing
赤雄拳
Devoted Hero Boxing
彌陀拳
Amitabha Boxing
八羅漢拳
Eight Luohans Boxing Set
大天罡
Greater Big-Dipper Boxing
小天罡
Lesser Big-Dipper Boxing
(以上獨習類)
(These are all solo sets.)

紅操
Hong’s Techniques
黃操
Huang’s Techniques
花鮑操
Colorful-Shell Techniques
短手
Short-Range Techniques
文操
Wen’s Techniques
(以上對手類)
(These are all two-person sets.)

(二)兵器
2. Weapon sets:

梅花槍
Plum Blossom Spear
左提槍
Leftward-Lifting Spear
少林棍
Shaolin Staff
金箍棒
Gold-Banded Staff
五郎棍
Fifth Son’s Staff
板櫈
Wooden Bench
虎尾鋼鞭
Tiger Tail Steel-Whip
流金鎲
Wanderer’s Golden Fork
單槊
Single Lance
單札
Single Writing-Tablet
月牙鏟
Crescent-Moon Shovel
平安㦸
Peacemaking Halberd
單拐
Single Cane
雙撲刀
Double Pouncing Halberds
雙鞭
Double Whips
雙槊
Double Lances
雙平安㦸
Double Peacemaking Halberds
甘家刀
Gan Family Saber
縱撲刀
Leap & Pounce Halberd

珠江流域派技擊術
Martial arts styles from the Pearl River Basin

(一)拳術
1. Boxing sets:

鐵拳
Iron Fists
祖拳
Taizu Boxing
虎膝拳
Tiger-Knee Boxing
鳳眼拳
Phoenix-Eye Boxing
雙龍拳
Double-Dragon Boxing
伏虎拳
Taming-Tiger Boxing
(以上獨習類)
(These are all solo sets.)

拚命拳
Death-Defying Boxing
(以上對手類)
(This is a two-person set.)

(二)兵器
2. Weapon sets:

長棍
Long Staff
雙刀
Double Sabers
攔門豸
Gate-Blocking Lance
板櫈
Wooden Bench
藤牌戰刀
Rattan Shield & Battle Saber

Rake
(以上獨習類)
(These are all solo sets.)

對手棍
Two-Person Staff
雙刀對棍
Double Sabers versus Staff
板櫈戰雙刀
Wooden Bench versus Double Sabers
鈀戰刀牌
Rake Versus Saber & Shield
(以上對手類)
(These are all two-person sets.)

第八章 時間
Section 8: Schedules

第十條
Item 10:

(一)技擊部
1. Martial Arts Department:
每晨六時起至晚上九時止由教員分班教授凡屬特別會員無論何時均可來學
Every day, throughout the day, from 6am to 9pm, instructors teach material to individual groups. All special members can come to learn at any time.

(二)兵操部
2. Army Drill Department:
兵式操及野戰每星期三六兩日由上午七時至八時星期日由上午八時至九時
Army drill and field operations training will be held every Wednesday and Saturday at 7–8am and Sunday at 8–9am.

(三)文事部
3. Literary Studies Department:
夜學每晚由七時上課至九時其餘另有詳章
Night classes will be held every evening at 7–9pm. (The rest of the classes will added be in another section.)

(四)游藝部
4. Recreational Activities Department:
足球運動在星期六及星期兩日網球運動每日下午四時至七時星期六及星期兩日則由下午二時至七時音樂每星期二五兩晚由七時至九時星期日則由上午九時至十一時其餘則可隨時為之
Soccer practice will be held on Saturday and Sunday. Tennis practice will be held every day at 4–7pm, and also Saturday and Sunday at 2–7pm. Music practice will be held every Tuesday and Friday at 7–9pm, and also Sunday at 9–11am. All other activities can be held at any time.

第九章 畢業
Section 9: Graduating

第十一條
Item 11:

技擊部會員滿兩年由教員及主任審定及格者給以初等畢業文憑滿四年給以中等滿六年給以高等畢業文憑各等畢業均於開秋季運動會時舉行高等畢業後有欲再求精進以竟全功者尤為本會所歡迎其會費幷可按年遞減
Once members of the martial arts department have completed two years of training, they will be tested by their instructors and department directors and then given a beginner-level diploma. After completing four years, they are given an intermediate-level diploma. After completing six years, they are given an advanced-level diploma. Graduation at all levels is held during our annual autumn athletic meet. If advanced graduates wish to continue to progress toward even higher levels of accomplishment, they are especially welcome in the Association, and their membership fees will annually decreased.

第十二條
Item 12:

兵操部會員操滿兩年後由主任者考試程度及格則給以畢業證書作為模範隊畢業後每星期日仍須會操一次以資後覺之觀摩而促操務之進行一年期滿卽退伍作為續備隊
Once members of the army drill department have completed two years of training, they will be tested by the department director and then given a diploma in recognition of being a model trooper. After graduating, members must still participate in the drill parade every Sunday in order to set an example for the newer students, and then after completing a full year of this encouragement marching, they can be demobilized to continue to prepare the troops in other ways.

第十三條
Item 13:

攝學畢業不拘年限但須將所撮景物成績交該部主任評定認為合格始給以畢業證書以謀藝術普及廣招同志不限會員外人成績及格亦可得畢業證書唯須繳證書費一元
To graduate from the photography course, there is no set number of years. Students must instead present their best selection of landscape scenes for the department director to evaluate, and if they are deemed to have reached the required standard of quality, they will then be given a diploma. In order to better spread this art, the acceptance of students does not have to be restricted to actual members. People from outside the Jingwu Association who achieve a level of success and pass their evaluation can also obtain a diploma, but they must pay an extra 1 yuan fee for their certification.

第十章 運動
Section 10: Athletic meets

第十四條
Item 14:

本會每年開秋季運動會一次
The Jingwu Association will hold an athletic meet every autumn.

第十一章 開會
Section 11: Meetings

第十五條
Item 15:

本會各職員每日晤面必有定時遇事自可隨時解決如遇有重要事項則開全體大會議決屆時先由書記員發信通告
Staff members will meet every day at a fixed time to resolve smaller matters. In the case of important matters, all staff will be convened to pass a resolution, and the appointed time for such a meeting will be posted from the clerk’s office.

第十二章 書報
Section 12: Books & Periodicals

第十六條
Item 16:

本會所置中西書報祗以供會員夜學之研究及公餘之檢閱無論新置舊存一槪不能攜出本會書報室外以免散失及妨礙他人之取閱
The Jingwu Association’s Chinese and English language books and periodicals are only for the use of members to study during their night classes or to review during their free time. Whether the books are new or old, they cannot be removed from our reading room. This is to prevent them from getting lost, which would greatly hinder others from being able to use them.

第十七條
Item 17:

會員所送或暫存本會之書籍祗許本人借用但須在借書簿塡明姓名及交還時日以便管理者檢查此外無論何人均不得沿例借用
For members to borrow or hold onto any of the books from the Jingwu Association’s library, they must be borrowed in person, your name has to be written on a borrowing slip, they have to be returned by a specific date, and will be inspected by the librarian. Regardless of who is borrowing materials, you are not allowed to just take them with you when you feel like it.

第十三章 規則
Section 13: Rules

第十八條
Item 18:

同人組織此會為強種保國起見凡屬會員均宜奮勉練習藉以養成剛健強毅之風而剗除萎靡頹惰之習
Our colleagues who formed the Jingwu Association did so for the purpose of strengthening the people and protecting the nation. All members should put their full effort into training, cultivating an attitude of robustness and resolution, and getting rid of habits of listlessness an laziness.

第十九條
Item 19:

特別會員每日練習須依所訂技擊課程表由教員教授間有不諳方言及不明所授要旨者儘可詢問各畢業會員自當詳細解釋
The daily practice of special members must be in accordance with a structured curriculum of martial arts classes arranged by the instructors. If any part of the material does not make sense to you, you can also ask for help from senior students, who should be able to supply you with detailed explanations.

第二十條
Item 20:

特別會員因事不暇練習者須致函書記處告假(惟遵守勵志團規約者不在此例)
When special members are too busy to practice because there is something else they have to do, they must send a letter to the clerk’s office to ask for permission to be absent (in accordance with the rules of the Encouragement Club).

第二十一條
Item 21:

本會所置技擊器械會員均宜愛惜用畢須妥置原處幸勿隨意拋棄餘如所植花木各種游藝器具及彈子檯等尤宜格外將護以保公物
All Jingwu Association members should return martial arts weapons to the weapons racks with reverence. After you are finished using any weapons, you must put them back in their appropriate place and not just casually leave them anywhere. The same goes for gardening tools, all recreation equipment, and keeping the billiards table clear of items. Extra care has to be given to maintaining property that is shared with others.

第二十二條
Item 22:

浴室內所置灑水浴器及磁盆等會員均可享用惟水管龍頭之啟閉用者須特別留意以免濫耗冷熱水
The showers and sinks in the bathroom are for the use of all members, therefore when using a drain plug, you must be careful to avoid overflowing and wasting water, whether hot water or cold.

第十四章 附則
Section 14: Supplementary Items

第二十三條
Item 23:

凡特別會員而遵守勵志團規約者(勵志團規約另載)為之備衣櫃鞋箱藉表歡迎勤奮會員之誠意
All special members will abide by the rules of the Encouragement Club (the rules of which are written elsewhere) in keeping the lockers and shoe cases tidy and welcoming, thereby demonstrating the sincerity of being hardworking members.

第二十四條
Item 24:

兵操部員之操衣及汽鎗均可由本會代辦如覓有切實保證不致半途中輟者其費用倂可豁免
For members of the army drill department, your uniforms and air rifles can be managed by the Jingwu Association on your behalf. We guarantee that if there are any damages caused on our part, the cost of your equipment will be refunded to you.

第二十五條
Item 25:

攝影術部之暗房沖片器具及佈景等物會員皆可借用惟相片及沖片藥水須用者自備
All members of the photography department may borrow the use of the dark room, developing trays, or composition tools, but you must provide your own photographic plates and developing fluid.

第二十六條
Item 26:

游藝部會員來會運動時須攜帶本會所給會證俾易查詢而免外人羼雜
When members of the recreational activities department come to athletic meets, you must bring your Jingwu Association ID with you in order to more smoothly ascertain your tasks in the event and avoid getting tangled in the bureaucracy of foreigners.

第二十七條
Item 27:

各部細則未克備載會員欲知詳細者請逕向各部主任詢問一切
If a member wants to know the rules of a department in detail, but the rules of that department have not yet been formalized in writing, please take all of your questions straight to the department director.

第二十八條
Item 28:

會所右側新建精武公園凡我會員得享公園之全部權利
To the right side of the Jingwu Association is the newly built Jingwu Public Gardens, accessible for all our members to enjoy.

第二十九條
Item 29:

本會所發之入會證券在各省區之精武會及本埠之精武分會皆有效
Once one has joined the Jingwu Association, one’s membership ID applies equally to all Jingwu branch locations.

☉精武會路由
HOW TO GET TO THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION

精武體育會之路由 倍開爾路七十三號 公哲
Jingwu Athletic Association’s location: 73 Baikal Road (map drawn by Chen Gongzhe)

1. 聶中丞華童公學 Nieh Chih Kuei Public School for Chinese [which was established by Nie Yuntai in honor of his father, 聶緝槼 Nie Jigui (Nieh Chih Kuei)]
2. 荊州路 Jingzhou Road
3. 精武體育會 Jingwu Athletic Association
4. 七十三號 #73
5. 大連灣路 Dalny Road [now 大連路 Dalian Road]
6. 麥克利克路 MacGregor Road [now 臨潼路 Lintong Road]
7. 倍開爾路 Baikal Road [now 惠民路 Huimin Road]
8. 提橋里 Tilanqiao Neighborhood
9. 楊樹浦路 Yangshupu Road
10. 滙山碼頭正門 Huishan Wharf main entrance
11. 威賽路 Wayside Road [now 霍山路 Huoshan Road]
12. 袁地 park
13. 電車站 tramcar stop
14. 茂海路 Muirhead Road [now 海門路 Haimen Road]
15. 東百老滙路 East Broadway Road [now 東大名路 Dongdaming Road]

(一)本會在上海。虹口提籃橋。倍開爾路。七十三號。凡欲由郵局致函本會者。無論本國或外國。信面只書上海精武會五字。卽可得收。
1. The Jingwu Association in Shanghai is in the Hongkou District, Tilanqiao neighborhood, at 73 Baikal Road. But if you ever want to write us a letter, whether domestically or from outside the country, all you need to write on the envelope is the five words 上海精武會 [“Shanghai Jingwu Association”] and it will reach us.

(二)凡初至本會者。可先到虹口鐵大橋。(第一圖卽鐵橋)
2. The first time you come to us, start from the Hongkou Steel Bridge [i.e. the Waibaidu Bridge, also called the “Garden Bridge”]. See photo 1, showing the bridge:

卽在橋之北端立候。凡遇第七路第八路第九路電車。(電車前必有中西文記明第路字樣)皆可趁之。至提籃橋站。然後下車。(三等座銅圓三枚。頭等座銅圓六枚。若恐站數未明者。可囑電車賣票人到時通知。)旣下車。(第二圖卽提籃橋車站。)
Wait at the north end of the bridge for a number 5, 7, or 9 tramcar (which will have the street it serves clearly written on the front, in both Chinese and English), all of which will work. Get off at the Tilanqiao stop. (It costs 3 copper yuan for a third class seat, or 6 for first class. Unfortunately the numbers on the stops are not distinct, so you should ask the ticket seller to notify you of when you are about to arrive.) See photo 2, showing a tramcar at the Tilanqiao stop:

卽由此直前。約百餘步。見有匯山碼頭大門在路南。由碼頭門口對正。卽是倍開爾路口。(路口有中西文字。中文曰倍開爾路。西文曰Baikal Road)由此直進。(第三圖卽倍開爾路口。)
From there, walk straight ahead a little over a hundred paces until you see the main entrance to the Huishan Wharf [on the right]. Directly in front of this begins Baikal Road [and turn left onto it]. (The street sign shows the name in both Chinese and English.) See photo 3, showing the beginning of Baikal Road:

約千步。卽至本會。電車由上午六時至下午十時皆有之。
Go straight about a thousand paces and you will arrive at the Jingwu Association [on the left, at the corner of Jingzhou Road]. (Tramcar service runs from 6am to 9pm.)

民國八年冬
Winter, 1919
精武十週年紀念
In commemoration of Jingwu’s 10th anniversary
– [calligraphy by 昌(盧煒昌) Lu Weichang]
– [leopard plaque drawing by Yang Zuotao]

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