EXTRA JINGWU COMPOSITIONS, SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS [including the Jingwu Constitution and the details of the Jingwu Movie]
[Appendices to 精武本紀 The Annals of Jingwu, published Dec, 1919]
[translation by Paul Brennan, Dec, 2019]
[APPENDIX ONE] A COLLECTION OF WRITING EXERCISES
 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WOMEN & MARTIAL ARTS by Huang Wanxiang
The citizenry has two parts: men and women. The female population of our nation amounts to about two hundred million, just like the male population. Women have hands and feet, ears and eyes, no different from men. During our previous era of isolationism, corrupt gentlemen became ever more selfish, and so inequality intensified. We women dwelt in society like pliant grass perched in the dirt, and we did not understand that the men thought of themselves as being more imposing and taller than actually they were.
Although everyone emerges from a mother’s body, a weak root will give rise to unimpressive branches and leaves. I say that the reason China is in such a depressed state is entirely due to the suppression of women. With the tying of hands and binding of feet, they were rendered feeble and robbed of their vitality, and so naturally the other half of the population that they gave birth to turned into pathetic old sick men who have lost all face.
Since we have recovered our land [i.e. 1911 Revolution], this fact has become increasingly apparent, and so our male compatriots have given a lot of attention to the physical education of women, offering options such as calisthenics, gymnastics, and more with each passing day. But the primary choice ought to be martial arts, for these arts can develop both energy and blood, work all of the parts of the body at the same time, and do not have the error of overworking one area and neglecting another. The elders of the Jingwu Association have already explained this thoroughly, but here I am specifically discussing this issue in regard to women.
Certain girls’ schools in Shanghai give attention every day to martial arts and have earned great reputation in physical education circles for doing so. In the year before last, a certain foreign female teacher taught the students a new kind of foreign exercise. After a few months, the students all experienced physiological pain. Upon hearing about this, the principal asked the students whether or not they had experienced such pain when they had been practicing boxing arts every day, to which they responded that they had not. Within another month, the female teachers also suffered from the same affliction. The principal urgently ordered that the foreign exercises be discontinued, and then all of the students’ pains suddenly faded away.
Many exercises are beneficial, and so we should not become restrictive. Just because one form of exercise is not good, there is no reason to abandon exercise altogether. However, I look upon this in particular as unbiased evidence that martial arts is a form of exercise that has countless benefits and not one harm. I hope that the two hundred million women of our nation will devote their free time to an intensive study of martial arts, turning their weakness to strength, and thereby preventing the nation from falling again into calamity.
 DISCUSSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION & HUMAN LIFE by Jian Yupeng, called Weiqing
China is usually considered to be a cultured nation, but is just as commonly looked upon as a weak one. The reason for this stems from our old habit of treating literary pursuits as more important than martial affairs, which over a long period has left us giving no attention to physical education. Exercise is an excellent means of strengthening both body and mind, and an essential factor in training the physique.
Regardless of the world’s cultural advances, scientific developments, or humanity’s changing circumstances, the key to our functioning in society is entirely a matter of having strong bodies and minds, and only then can we be productive. With a strong body and a fullness of spirit comes a powerful mind and heroic energy. Westerners have a saying: “Mens sana in corpore sano.” [“A healthy mind in a healthy body.”] But if instead one has a frail constitution and a listless spirit, then even with profound learning and great willpower, situations will constantly end in ruin with no hope of escaping it. How then could physical education not be of enormous relevance to human life?
However, this only addresses the issue on the smaller scale. To take the point further, it is always the case in any nation that strengthening the people is the key to defending the nation and resisting foreign aggression. If only we would do it, then the slander of our people being “old” and “sick” could finally be made to disappear. The Jingwu Athletic Association’s promoting of the physical education that forms our cultural essence is based in this very idea. I hope our people will urgently get up and start training.
 DISCUSSING SUMMER-HEAT DISEASE by Xue Gongchu
Spring is warm and summer is hot. Fall is dry and winter is cold. All of the four seasons can cause a person illness, but summer most of all [in the context of living in Shanghai]. This is because during the summer, hot air descends and moisture rises, and a person is then dwelling in humid heat. He thus becomes overwhelmed by this air and succumbs to “summer-heat disease”. Ancient people divided summer heat into “active heat” and “passive heat”. Basically, illness was caused when there was an excess of both, the hot air actively overheating the environment and the humidity passively making it that much worse.
The illness usually starts from inhalations through the nose or mouth affecting first the energy of the “upper torso cavity” [containing the heart and lungs], then progressing into the “middle torso cavity” [containing the stomach and spleen] and “lower torso cavity” [containing the kidneys, bladder, and intestines]. Its symptoms include: fever, feeling of stuffiness in the chest, unhealthy complexion, irritability, dark urine, and excessive sweating. Sometimes there is no sweating but great thirst, or great thirst but no appetite, or vomiting and diarrhea, or the tongue develops yellow and white blotches.
Among the treatments, ancient worthies used pungent incense to disperse vapors and bitter warming herbs to get moisture to flow away. They also used medicines for each of the three body cavities: for the upper cavity – medicines that induced the effect of “gently rise” to cool and release; for the middle cavity – “bitter hardship” to open and drain; for the lower cavity – “warm flow” to cool the temperature; the general idea being to address where there is an excess and reduce it.
The most common summer-heat illnesses are heatstroke, wind-exposure heat, heat fainting, tuberculosis, and heat exhaustion, but there are also other diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and malaria, which are also brought on by summer heat. Therefore summer-heat illnesses can be classified as “cruel”. However, if we can adjust our daily lifestyle [being mindful of what we eat, what we drink, where we go, and so on] to accommodate the season, then the summer heat will not be able to bully us.
 ON DISMISSING WOMEN AS WEAK by Cai Zizhan
We are all the same in being a bunch of “round-headed square-toes” [i.e. human beings] and we all have a natural disposition to being either fat or thin, so why should we care whether people are men or women? It is a general rule in the world that women are weaker, and so men have been considered more important. But in this era of democracy, the past no longer resembles the present, there is now equality between men and women, and it can be asserted that both are just as capable of holding professional positions. However, in order to assume responsibility over great undertakings, it is first necessary to strengthen the body, and in order to strengthen the body, it is first necessary to understand physical health. We can therefore tolerate no delay in establishing physical education studies for women.
Furthermore, time is running out [“the days are lengthening” – a phrase usually meaning that there is plenty of time, in this case being used to mean the opposite] and the troubles ahead are becoming more urgent, with domestic strife occurring throughout the land while neighboring countries are eyeing us like tigers and wolves, ready to gulp down our nation’s tender flesh. Those who truly recognize the situation that we are in fear for our destruction. We women play a part in the fate of our people and are endowed with bodies that need not be weak. Therefore we must immediately strive to stand up for ourselves!
 MY THOUGHTS ON THE BENEFITS OF THE VALIANT WARRIORS CLUB by Cai Zirong
I was born more than thirty years ago. My family felt that I had a weak physique and encouraged me to join the Jingwu Association and train in martial arts. Although I knew their words were coming from compassion, I doubted that they were true, and I would have to test them for myself to find out that they were not exaggerations. When I was young, I was often ill and was unusually frail. Any manual work was just too hard for me, and even thinking about it made me exhausted. I figured that if the people of our nation were anything like me, the state of our nation would be laughable, so I decided to join the Jingwu Association.
In the beginning, I feared the exercise. As I continued, I still found it to be too hard. Then unexpectedly after just a few weeks, I felt full of gusto. I had gotten used to it. It had become natural. As to its benefits, over the course of this year, I have stopped falling ill, my body has at last fleshed out, sinew and muscle gradually becoming more substantial, and I walk with a lighter gait. These are the obvious benefits.
Lu Weichang then assembled practitioners who are able to stand hard training and formed the Valiant Warriors Club, for which he himself serves as instructor. Criticizing the benefits of solo study as being inferior to those of group practice, he teaches us methodically. More than this, he takes us beyond training in martial arts to also address civil matters, expressing the need in society for a wide variety of practical knowledge in order to be without shortcomings. When one is able to tackle both civil and military affairs, then one is complete.
As this year marks the tenth anniversary of the Jingwu Association, I sincerely write these few words to express how moved I am by how much I have benefited.
 THE ONLY FORM OF EXERCISE by Deng Wenxian
New members to the Jingwu Association are not aware of how much it has been through. Ten years ago, martial arts were a path that nobody cared to take. Then Huo Yuanjia promoted martial studies, rejuvenating these arts, and after ten years of difficulties, numerous results can be seen. Previously, it was usually only known that these arts were used for fighting against opponents, and it was not understood that they are in fact the most effective form of physical education.
Looking at Western calisthenics, it is not without some worth, but examining its effects shows that it emphasizes one area of the body at a time. However, practicing boxing arts strengthens everything, working internally with the energy and blood, externally with the muscles, and also boosts the spirit. Therefore boxing arts can be deemed the finest form of physical exercise.
Since recovering our lost land [i.e. the 1911 Revolution], our countrymen have found this to be so, and hence there has been a change of policy within physical education: an urgent emphasis on boxing arts. These arts are now considered to be indispensable and have quickly been absorbed into the physical exercise curriculum in every school, public or private. If they continue to be on the rise in this way, there is no knowing how far they may go in the future. This is a sign that our nation is recovering its strength.
 THE SOURCE OF MY HEALTH by He Shanxiang
I am a recent member of both the Jingwu Association itself as well as the Valiant warriors Club, having joined only five months ago [joined in April, 1916, therefore dating this piece at Sep, 1916] and have since become like a different person. Before joining the Jingwu Association, I constantly suffered from plantar fasciitis (which the doctors said was caused by insufficient blood flow to the tissues) and dizziness. While I was sleeping in the middle of the night, my feet would cramp up and the pain was extraordinary. Whenever I would lower my head, I would see stars peripherally, my vision would blur, and my head would spin, always causing me hardship. But since joining the Jingwu Association, these afflictions have ceased, my appetite has also increased, and my limbs have firmed up. These are results which came quickly and unexpectedly, gains from being in the Valiant warriors Club. Therefore I have written a few words to let my comrades know.
 THE STORY OF THE RIGHTEOUS BEGGAR by Chen Guoheng
No one knows who he was, not even a name. He had long wispy gray hair and a violet tint in his eyes. He possessed great strength, able to lift a hundred-pound cauldron with the same ease as picking weeds. He spent his nights in an old temple, mumbling to himself in sad sounds. No one knew why, and so busybodies peeped at him through a crack in the door and saw him reciting from a manuscript about our nation being conquered. The next morning, he was found in the business district holding a ruined book. It looked like a school textbook, but was covered in dirt, as though he had picked up a book that some student had thrown away. He went to a bookstore and confidently announced:
“The ambition of nations has been on my mind for a long time. Those who are not willing to resist will only get trapped in the balance of power. We are now in a moment in which the great powers are ceaselessly and insatiably eyeing the East, and the destruction of our nation is coming soon! Our countrymen are all living in a drunken dream, ignorant and unaware, and they would rather not face up to the coming heartache. I now contribute this History of a Conquered Nation, which serves as a warning to my countrymen by giving them a taste of what it would be like to experience our nation getting conquered. All I seek is 3 yuan from each of you to pay for publication expenses, though anything you can give would be a great help.”
These were sounds to stir the soul, making some tears well up in the eyes of listeners, who then eagerly tossed him some money. As it was not quite enough for the man’s needs, the shopkeeper then generously decided to fund the publishing of the book himself. But suddenly he fell under foreign censure for this and was accused of being a threat to public order. His shop was closed down and he was arrested, and so the man’s angst-ridden history of a conquered nation unfortunately did not get passed down to the world.
Upon hearing the shopkeeper had been arrested, the beggar said: “A warrior is always ready for death, and so I will dive in and cause trouble. A man unable to save another is no man at all.” He waited along the route that the shopkeeper was being escorted and then got into a tussle with the policemen, making them back off, then grabbed the shopkeeper and they fled together. The shopkeeper decided they should hide in Thailand, but once they had made it down the pier to the boat, the beggar ran off alone and was never seen again.
The shopkeeper was a good businessman. While in Thailand for several years, he made lots of money, and when he finally returned, he told me this tale. He looked for the beggar but never found him, alas. But the righteous beggar remains with us to this day, through his zeal for saving the nation and his attitude of being able to do what most people could not. Thus I have made this record of him in writing.
 A POEM TO COMMEMORATE THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION by Liang Shaotian
Education has to start somewhere: it has to start with physical education!
To commemorate the tenth anniversary, The Annals of Jingwu has been compiled.
The skillful master Huo Yuanjia passed down all he knew.
His Jingwu Association took form one spring in Shanghai with a proud string of firecrackers.
Evolution through competition is seen all over the world.
The nation is carried on our shoulders.
Deeds worthy of being engraved on stone, like those on Delgerkhangai Mountains, should be something we do every day.
Let us rein in our horses atop Mt. Wu [near West Lake] after racing to be the first to get there.
If we want to strengthen our nation, the key to it is not far away.
Martial spirit will grow to become a mighty tide.
Every day there are more weapons shining and gleaming.
The Heaven-Powered Long Sword slashes across the waist.
The Coiling-Dragon Staff rises up to shake the lofty mountains.
The Taming-Tiger Boxing lashes out to subdue demons and monsters.
Let us train valiant warriors, making them experts with their bodies and hands.
Through their accomplishments, we will indeed be able to believe that Chinamen are full of vigor.
Ramparts have been built to defend in all directions.
Everyone is expected to do his duty and rescue his compatriots.
Among the wild grass and mustard greens of the central plains, one is often startled by the cries of cranes,
but when the land and sea are full of gloom, someone has to slay the flood dragon.
We should be ashamed to have lacked the statesmanship to prevent our great troubles,
presuming arrogantly that our iron and blood would be enough to shield us.
But we have cast a hundred thousand finely polished swords,
and once danger arises, we are ready to grab our armor.
There have now been ten years of lessons, of teaching large groups.
Honorable and courageous heroes have been produced.
With their three-star emblems stitched to their jackets, their graduation is a joyous occasion.
Standing proud, as though seven feet tall, they give hope for the future.
They are like the far-reaching sky, which eagles are decorating with their wings [i.e. the sight of many hands clapping].
They are like the sun setting on one side, making horses whinny on the other [i.e. the sound of the audience cheering].
I stand among my fellow students as one who also has been strengthened,
and I am delighted to give this distinguished gathering these quick strokes of my pen.
 WHAT THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION IS FOR by Li Zhixi
Have you not noticed the way foreign countries mock us as the “sick men”?
Why do we let them taunt us so?
This sleeping lion will awaken, depend on it.
To wash away our national humiliation is our plan.
For this, the Jingwu Association was formed, and has become a solid organization.
Countless men and women have joined,
and all have exerted themselves and shown great spirit.
Ten years of encouragement has brought us this far.
Like Tao Kan and Zu Ti [two Jin Dynasty generals], Tao carrying a hundred bricks a day to keep fit for whatever might arise, Zu cracking his whip to get things done,
we will devote ourselves to the project and strive to push ahead the rest of the way.
With complacency and idleness, we would fail in our duty,
abandoning our responsibility, giving up on our burden.
In between our sky and our ground, there is us.
If we step back to admit others into our realm, what can we do then?
We are the descendants of emperors!
For more than four thousand years, our task has not changed.
When physical education is emphasized, our people will be full of boldness.
The message to our compatriots is to build up your bodies.
Pledge yourselves to stand among myriad heroes.
 MAGIC FLUTE by Lu Xianhui
At the Jingwu Association, we have a magic flute.
Its sound shivers through metal and stone.
They are to be played together in harmony:
bronze lute and iron flute.
Someone draws his sword and sings,
his voice resounding clear and far.
When night descends, other sounds disappear,
and so the flute’s notes rise all the way through the valley to the moon.
 CANTONESE MUSIC by Huang Wanxiang
The lamplight looks like snow and the wine flows like a river.
Beautiful words and rejuvenating voices fill Cantonese music.
There are jade pipes and silver zithers, involving sounds from Zhuhai [near Macao].
There are bronze lutes and iron flutes, evoking songs from Yuexiu [district in Guangzhou].
Sanxian lutes lightly plucked keep a clear tone.
A song slowly turns toward different directions, bringing to mind a grand panorama.
Other wonderful sounds delight the eardrums
as a dulcimer emerges to add to the harmony.
☉相見歡 琴心 馮琼珊
 HOPING FOR JOY (A SONG FOR THE ZITHER) by Feng Qiongshan
I lean against the east wall
and gaze at the gleaming moon.
My endless sorrow
I give to my zither.
A traitor to my nation, a monster,
and will someday have to pay for it,
but for now I throw my sadness against the wind.
I repeatedly pluck my seven strings
and in a low voice sing my classical strains.
(Note by Chen Tiesheng: These [thirteen] pieces were originally meant to be part of the Literary Studies section [Part Five], but due to the haste to get the book to the printers, they were gathered up too late, and so they have been included in this final section as a last-minute addition.)
[APPENDIX TWO] SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS
MY VIEW THAT WE SHOULD PERHAPS FORM A NATIONAL JINGWU ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION by Chen Gongzhe
The Jingwu Association was founded just over ten years ago, during which time it has moved three times and gone through many changes. Since its innocent beginnings, the last few years have seen membership increasing by the day and meetings become more complex. Starting from a single corner of Shanghai, there are now Jingwu instructors in more than twenty schools and organizations. Beyond this, letters of invitation from other cities keep pouring in. With demand exceeding supply, it is difficult to agree to every request.
We have added distant Jingwu branches, such as the Hankou location and the Guangdong location. Although administrative positions are appointed from among the local gentry, instructors still have to gain a fluent understanding of the Jingwu purpose, as well an ability to perform their jobs, in order to be qualified. There are just not enough of these talented people to send everywhere. In order to give helpful guidance, there is a variety of responsibilities that have to be fulfilled, and unless there is good judgment about the quality of an instructor, it will difficult for that person to avoid the predicament of having too much to handle at once. Furthermore, making arrangements to have a Jingwu Association in various provinces is a lot or work, broad in scope, involving an ever-increasing number of tasks, and bringing everything together is such a mess that the mind cannot keep a consistent focus.
In my opinion, it is best to set up special department. A designated “National Jingwu Athletic Association” would be concerned with promoting the Jingwu Association and assisting with the arrangements for doing so, which would all be under its own purview. Within the Shanghai area, everything is under the purview of the Shanghai Jingwu Association, implicit in the name, and that location is run independently. But in the future, the Jingwu Association of each province need not be answerable to the originally Shanghai location, and likewise the Shanghai location would not be considered a branch of the province locations. They would be equal to each other and not in subordinate roles. Maintaining the dozens or even hundreds of Jingwu Associations in the various provinces and counties would be the responsibility of a National Jingwu Association. Once the way ahead is clear, the China Jingwu Athletic Association can stand on its own simply as the mother of the other branches.
A special administrative department would be established, with both a president and vice president appointed. Then a managerial department would be established, with both a secretary-in-charge and a vice secretary appointed. However, the making of arrangements is best carried out by experienced people, which is why the Jingwu Association’s original administrative department is usually drawn from the sponsors of the mother location. Therefore the new administrative department ought to also be formed by those who run the original location. The president and vice president should not at the same time have positions in the managerial department, for then they would have too much to do and nothing would get done.
(Those Jingwu members who are called “honorary members” are those who have done selfless work to support the Jingwu Association. They are selected on the basis of their moral integrity and prestige. Regardless of which distant branch these members are in, they will not be required to pay yearly tuition, and if they meet with any accident, other members will give assistance.)
I offer a few ways forward:
– Set up a specialized school for talented people to give instruction in martial arts, army drill, literature, and recreational activities, and also be able to conduct meetings.
– Set up a newsletter office to circulate information.
– Invite a senior official from any given area to make a speech promoting the Jingwu Association and to be given a role in assisting matters.
– The main Jingwu headquarters and classrooms for specialized study are to be located at 75  Baikal Road.
If the methods above are all considered to be feasible by the members of the administrative department, I invite you all to express your own views on them in order to choose what is best. If a majority approves of these ideas, let the administrative department then hold a meeting to discuss the matter. Concerning the future of the Jingwu Association, we colleagues have to be able to consider things together in order to make up for the shortcomings of any individual.
- a proposal from Chen Gongzhe
MARTIAL ARTS AT ST. JOHN’S UNIVERSITY by Chen Tiesheng
St. John’s is the premier university in Shanghai. Founded  by American missionaries, it offers a comprehensive curriculum and produces vast numbers of talented individuals. In the autumn of 1919, they started a Martial Arts Society and asked the Jingwu Association to send an instructor. We have recently appointed Huo Yuanjia’s son Huo Dongge to the position.
The Martial Arts Society of St. John’s University on King-of-Heaven Crossing Road [now Kaixuan Road] in Shanghai (Huo Dongge instructing):
Photo from the Chinese Women’s Calisthenics School of Shanghai (Lu Weichang instructing):
ON THE FIRST SHANGHAI JINGWU BRANCH by Chen Qiying
This branch of the Jingwu Association is on North Sichuan Road, at the center of the Hongkou Market District. Because many of the Jingwu Association members live in that area, they requested that we establish a local branch nearer to them. In 1919, we found a building past the Hengbin Bridge in the Fude Neighborhood in which to place this branch (after initially planning to put it on Chongming Road). Many of the members also wanted to have the grounds outside the building so that they can practice not only during daytime hours, but also at night. Now that instructors and advanced-level graduates have congregated there to divide up the lessons, there is sure to be boundless progress at this new location.
The first Shanghai Jingwu branch, located on North Sichuan Road, Fude Neighborhood:
Photo of the martial arts class of the China Public School of Shanghai (Luo Keji & Liu Zhixiang instructing):
Photo of the martial arts class at the Elize Bates Girls’ School in Shanghai (Chen Shichao [left] & Jian Weiqing [right] instructing):
Photo of the martial arts class at the Guangzhou-Guangdong Girls’ School in Shanghai (Jian Weiqing [left] & Chen Shichao [right] instructing):
Construction of the Shanghai Jingwu Association practice ground for rainy days [i.e. covered]:
Photo of the construction of the large gate to the “Jingwu Public Gardens” in Shanghai:
Photo of the construction of the “Jingwu Village” in Shanghai:
CONCERNING SOME DOUBTS ABOUT MARTIAL ARTS by Wang Yuanhui of the Chinese Women’s Calisthenics School
The Shanghai Jingwu Athletic Association was established ten years ago. Focusing primarily on promoting Chinese martial arts, its mission is to rectify our society’s long-standing feebleness. Since they are also intent upon passing down various weapon arts, interested researchers have become as numerous as clouds, and it is now an admirable and powerful force.
What it is doing is beneficial to both body and mind. How could anyone in the nation believe otherwise? Although the Jingwu Athletic Association is called an “athletic association”, it is not like ordinary athletic associations which only promote physical education, instead addressing also intellectual education and moral education, implementing Herbert Spencer’s doctrine of education [from his book Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical (published 1860)] in which he places equal importance on all three parts.
Our Chinese Women’s Calisthenics School was founded in the 46th year of the cycle during the reign of Emperor Guangxu [Xuantong] of the Qing Dynasty [i.e. 1909]. At that time, we already had a martial arts class and the Jingwu Athletic Association had not yet emerged. Teachers of science education were particularly difficult to obtain, and thus we engaged the services of Zhu Fushan of Baoshan Village [who was a physician] to be the head instructor. Zhu had studied martial arts for years, but what he had learned was nothing remarkable, just very conventional material, and so the confidence of the students toward martial arts during that time was not at as strong as it is now. Therefore although there was a martial arts class in the school, there was not yet a sense of achievement from having it.
But then during our fourth term, we entered a golden age. Xu Yibing of Wuxing County [now Wuxing District, in Huzhou] became the head instructor, who taught us a wide variety of things, entirely based on the Jingwu Association’s curriculum. From Tantui to weapon sets, he was thoroughly experienced in all of it, and consequently all of our fellow students that year excelled at martial arts.
In the autumn of 1918, we then invited Lu Weichang to come to the school to serve as head instructor. In learning from this great teacher, we all felt very fortunate to receive personal instruction from him. Ever since he came to teach us, we have made much better progress in martial arts, so much so that we then wanted to go beyond the standard training and make a deeper study of these arts, having a mentality of [quoting from Historical Records, chapter 92, bio of Han Xin]: “When the ignorant think through a thousand things, something is bound to sink in.”
1. Should women practice martial arts differently from the way men practice?
Observing martial arts training nowadays, the first stage is usually Tantui, after which the student will gradually progress to Gongli Boxing and other boxing sets, then move on to weapon sets. It is now the same in every school. This has become the systematic method. However, should men and women be taught in a different way?
i. Physically, women tend to be weaker and men tend to be stronger, and so it is generally the case that men tend to be more proficient at the training and women tend to have more difficulty.
ii. In terms of their character, men are usually more boisterous and women are usually more reserved. It is easier for those with a livelier demeanor to practice martial arts, whereas practice is more difficult for those with a quieter disposition.
iii. In terms of what is customary, men have had more opportunity to do work and women have been busy taking care of the home. By being constantly in a state of doing lighter tasks, women have had fewer chances to exert themselves, and so for them to suddenly be expected to exert themselves vigorously ends up being a case of “one’s mind wants to do more, but one’s strength is insufficient” [an English equivalent of this idiom being “to bite off more than you can chew”].
iv. Physiologically speaking, men and women have both similarities and differences. Things that are beneficial for the male physiology are not necessarily beneficial for the female physiology.
Therefore there seems to be one way of studying martial arts movements for men and another for women. If we say that Tantui and various other boxing sets are suitable for both men and women, then whether or not the movements of Tantui indeed all conform to both male and female physiology, there may yet be different results. This is therefore an issue that is bound to cause people to have some doubts.
2. Is it appropriate for women to train with weapons?
To progress in a boxing art involves moving on to using weapons. There are many kinds of weapons, such as spear, sword, ax, saber, and so on, each with their own profound principles. When women train in martial arts, how can they reach their goal if they stop at boxing arts? They should be able to continue into training with weapons. But which weapons are most suitable for a woman’s disposition? And after practicing with a weapon, how is a woman physiologically affected by it and what are the benefits? It seems that there ought to be certain parameters in order to establish a reasonable standard. If women are merely imitating patterns of movement, then surely we are not seeking realistic results. This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.
3. How should northern and southern styles of martial arts be properly mixed and integrated with each other?
It is often said that are nation’s martial arts have an extraordinarily large scope, meaning the “southern styles” and “northern styles”. Southern styles are more defensive; northern styles are more offensive. Southern styles are more compact; northern styles are more spread out. Southern styles tend to stay within a short range; northern styles can advance and retreat with ease. Although we can point out such ways in which styles are different, they are nevertheless a product of society, and so we cannot say that they are completely unrelated.
Nowadays, martial arts are being promoted as a matter of urgency and the integration of styles is felt to be extremely important. But if northern and southern styles remain at odds with each other, how many years is it going to take for them to integrate? There is already such deep factionalizing that there seems to be no hope of ending it, and thus the opportunity may slip away. It therefore could be that the very principle itself might be flawed.
However, there is also something lacking in the idea that once you learn a northern style, you do not need to learn a southern style, for how can a northern style be considered to be so full of strong points that southern styles have nothing worthwhile in them at all? It is the trimming away of superficialities to get at the essentials [i.e. looking past style into substance] that is the actual key to studying these arts, whereas [from Huainanzi, chapter 17] “whittling the foot to fit the shoe” is really not a good way to go about it. “To go into a mountain full of treasure and come away empty-handed” [from the prologue to Yang Xianzhi’s Bitter Cold Pavilion] is likewise not what we are aiming to do when we practice these arts.
Furthermore, apart from the northern and southern styles which exist today, new martial arts have also been invented. How can we be sure that in another ten years there will not be more people who have created even more styles? Therefore the integration of martial arts styles seems to be rather difficult. And should martial arts styles be integrated with each other in the first place? This is an important question. And how exactly should martial arts styles be integrated? This is another important question. These two questions need to be resolved in order for us to be on the correct path forward. And so this is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.
4. What method of teaching martial arts brings the easiest benefit?
Teaching physical education in schools is typically a matter of gathering many students in one place to teach them one method. This means that they will be exercising together, which at the very least makes it easier to give them corrections, which is the charm of group instruction. But apart from the usual martial arts sets that are appropriate for teaching groups, such as Tantui or Gongli Boxing, there are also two-person boxing sets and weapon sets, in which there are two people, one attacking and one defending, and so the teaching method is not the same at all.
A two-person set requires a greater amount of practice time in order for teachers to correct all of the movements and postures. It also cannot properly be done by a large number of students in unison, for those who are not practicing the same set have to spread even farther away in the practice space, not to mention that the sequence of movements will often slip out of harmony anyway [because two people need to constantly be moving in synch, and so if one person makes a mistake, both people are affected].
The teachers that oversee group lessons face the dilemma of finding the right balance, for without sufficient correction from teachers, students will take longer to achieve, having to put in twice the effort to get only half the result. It is necessary to choose the right teaching method, and then there will be no difficulty in gaining benefit from the exercise. This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.
5. It will not be easy to spread martial arts without establishing a systematic curriculum.
Martial arts methods are extremely numerous, as everyone knows, and there is no way to discuss them all. We should first examine how difficult they are and what level they address, which ones are appropriate to teach in primary school and which ones are appropriate to teach in secondary school. Those who promote martial arts have to develop systematic rules, clear standards for teachers to adhere to. If a blind man gallops along on a blind horse, any obstacle they come across is bound to bring them both down.
The reason why education is divided into courses that are to be taught in primary school and others that are to be taught in secondary school is entirely due to students being at different levels. It seems necessary in martial arts to also divide the curriculum into different levels and to consider what each level entails. With certain things being taught at each level, then once students have moved on to the next level, they will have to go through a period of reviewing the material from the previous level, as is usually the case in education.
Although different kinds of supplementary material can be used to compensate for any incompleteness in what is currently being taught, a failure to first establish systematic rules of how to structure the curriculum will result in teachers making it up as the go. Step A might then not be relevant to Step B, or Step B might end up contradicting Step A. Every part of the process would only produce confusion. There is a right and a wrong way for a school to function. For whatever level the students are at, there has to be a fixed curriculum. Based on a standard curriculum, the abilities of the students can then be reliably tested. However, since martial arts methods are so numerous and the opinions of teachers are so divided, just what kind of standard curriculum will end up being the presented to the public? This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.
6. Martial arts do not have enough scientific literature to refer to.
Skills and scientific principles are usually interrelated. Once the skills can be verified through precise scientific principles, scientific principles can then be used to explain the skills. Therefore the skills cannot flourish without the science and the science cannot be demonstrated without the skills. With both aspects operating at the same time, this can then induce most people to have confidence in the material. Unfortunately, books examining martial arts scientifically are few and far between [“as rare as a sight of Mercury” (which can be glimpsed for only a brief period during a sunrise on certain days or a sunset on certain days)], and so ordinary people tend to look down on these arts as they are apparently devoid of any scientific study.
To refine the skills but not be able to explain the principles of doing so makes it harder for the masses to benefit from them. Furthermore, martial arts movements are constantly changing from one to another, a factor that often easily slips away from consideration even by those who have studied deeply, much less by beginners. Martial arts books also often seem to be overly comprised of poetry, and what they discuss is only the methods, never any scientific principles. Even when they touch upon breathing or some other physiological process, it is always such a shallow description that it cannot truly be trusted as being accurate.
Although we would wish to use such books as reference material, it is very difficult to find any that are worthy of being so. However, to not even seek to understand how these arts work leaves us only with the way they look. This is the main reason why our nation’s martial arts throughout our several thousand years of history have been unable to flourish. What methods of reform should we use and what things do we need to study in order to be able to explain the authentic principles of these arts? This is another issue that will cause people to have doubts.
Of these six points, the first three address modern issues and the final three address some requirements of teaching. Whenever I had felt that I should write down these doubts to share them publicly, there was unfortunately not a good opportunity to do so. But now that the Jingwu Athletic Association is commemorating its tenth anniversary, various schools have been called upon to contribute compositions for the event. As my knowledge is shallow and incomplete, it is presumptuous of me to offer any contribution, but my teacher has insisted that I should, so I specially present this list of the doubts that are often on my mind. I sincerely hope for any correction on these issues, for which I would feel fortunate indeed.
(A comment by Chen Tiesheng of Xinhui:)
The Annals of Jingwu had already been sent to the printers, but Lu Weichang then presented me with this piece of writing, a hurried response to Ms. Wang’s list of doubts that had no time to be more detailed than this:
Responding to the first item (on whether or not there should be differences in how men and women train):
This issue has been tested by the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team over the last three years, and they are able to answer the question in one word: nope. (Sure, women will take a few days off each month, but this simply has to do with a certain physiological issue.)
In other forms of exercise, such as the running races and high jumping of track-and-field events, there are always people who find it to be beyond their strength to endure and yet force themselves due to their competitive spirit. During a competition, there are always spectators applauding to keep the energy of the event rising up, which encourages the athletes to push themselves to an unnecessary level of risk and thus they may end up hurting themselves. However, performances of boxing arts sets express the strength of individuals one at a time, and so despite the applause of spectators, the performers are less prone to overdoing it.
This is because boxing arts practitioners are in a situation in which they are always aware of their own capacity and thus deprioritize things that they cannot yet do. Actions such as the continuous kick, whirlwind kick, and so on, seem to be in the category of more intense exercise, and yet performers will only do what they can do and will not try to do what they do not yet have the strength to do. In this way, the physiology of the person, regardless of man or woman, is never hindered.
As for physical strength or weakness, those who have not yet practiced martial arts will rely on their natural endowments. (Healthy parents will raise healthy children, and this has nothing to do with distinctions of male and female qualities.) And for those who have practiced martial arts, the word “weak” does not appear in any of the boxing classics [i.e. the training will “transform weakness into strength” so that there is no weakness to speak of], nor does any question of “male or female”.
Responding to the second item (on whether or not weapons are appropriate for women):
Boxing arts and weapon arts are unquestionably interrelated, in the same way that the European and America sports are divided into those in which the hands are free and those that involve holding some kind of implement, As for what the goal is and what the limits are for women practicing martial arts, this issue should be addressed in two ways:
The first goal of the Jingwu Association is to popularize martial arts, being the Chinese equivalent of calisthenics. If we want to transform the bodies of our countrymen and indeed the people of the whole world, it has to be for everyone, without exception. The aim is for all to achieve a high degree of health, and therefore these kinds of exercise have to suit ordinary people. Man or woman, young or old, all can practice. One day’s practice gives you one day’s benefit, but there is no limit to the number of days you can practice. As long as people have patterns to follow, there will indeed be realistic results.
Whether saber or spear, punches or kicks, they each have their own essential principles. Without ten or twenty years of hard work, there will be no skill. Members of the Jingwu Association have now been training unceasingly for ten years, proving this point.
These ideas have been given very little attention within martial arts books, and Ms. Wang’s little packet of paper only scratches the surface, but we have learned through experience at the Jingwu Association that men and women have the same capacity to learn martial arts skills. Therefore the issue of whether there should be two paths for men and women shrinks to one path after all.
Responding to the third item (on “northern styles” and “southern styles”):
This is a recent phenomenon. Such categorizations were not always there. Previous boxing arts teachers tended to be obsessed with their own tradition, presenting their art as something mystical rather than something purely utilitarian, but teachers nowadays share their arts publicly and are making them more scientific. Regardless of “northern” or “southern”, all styles can now be gathered together under one roof, such as in the Jingwu Association, where there is everything from northern styles to southern styles (the mention in the original text of “new martial arts” mainly referring to styles that also happen to be northern) and long-boxing styles to short-boxing styles.
This means that the teachers do not have any connecting to do between northern and southern styles because the members are usually getting a mix of northern and southern anyway. Over the course of time, there will naturally be a blending of northern styles and southern styles, selecting from the best of both. As with all things, a process proceeds as a series of steps, for we cannot climb to the sky in a single bound, and so this third item is simply a current concern that will probably fade away after our own era.
Responding to the fourth item (on choosing the right teaching methods):
This issue is indeed an important one, but it can be explained away quite simply. The martial arts sets of the Jingwu Association, regardless of paired or solo sets, weapons or empty-hand, can all be practiced in groups. Whether there are just a couple people or hundreds, they can all be directed by verbal commands. This is clear simply from taking a look at all the photos in this book that show group practice of martial arts.
Furthermore, Ms. Wang understands that a boxing arts set like Articulated Boxing is among the boxing sets that are more difficult to perform, but that the Jingwu Association nevertheless once successfully used verbal commands to direct a group of several hundreds practicing it in unison, and that they performed with the same orderliness and liveliness as if it was just one person [though this example fails to address the issue of the difference between directing a group a people doing the same solo set and a group of pairs doing the same two-person set].
For teachers to correct the movements and postures is just like with ordinary calisthenics. It is no more difficult or different than using verbal commands to direct the training of an army, though it may appear to the layman to be very difficult. In short, if we can teach ordinary calisthenics in this way, we can certainly teach martial arts in the same way.
Responding to the fifth item (on a systematic curriculum):
This is currently the most difficult issue to resolve. However, we cannot say that there is a complete absence of a systematic curriculum. The Jingwu Association has no less than four hundred martial arts sets, but the beginning level has been standardized as being a particular group of only ten sets. The courses based on our curriculum that are taught in schools and other organizations are all run in accordance with this standard.
Furthermore, those schools at the present time still have hardly any martial arts students who have been training for more than three or four years, and this is because the practitioners who are at a high enough level to run martial arts classes in the schools have for the most part established such classes rather recently, and so this issue would not be felt to be a problem yet. Nevertheless, the Jingwu Association foresaw this issue three years ago and consequently made preparations to deal with it, which might perhaps give Ms. Wang some comfort. The solution is Tantui, which functions like a dictionary, something that will be indispensable all the way from kindergarten to college graduation.
Responding to the sixth item (on the difficulty of finding worthwhile reference books):
Martial arts are a kind of science. Every movement is full of profound reasoning. In the past, the literary life and the martial life were considered to be completely different paths. Scholars used to despise warriors and were not willing to associate with them, and consequently these kinds of books are very rare. The Yijinjing managed to be popular among ordinary people, but that was only because it fit into a Daoist category. This is a great pity for the martial arts community.
In modern times, physics has brought about many new inventions, x-ray photography for instance, and new advances are made by the day. The martial arts community makes use of new advances to publish books, books which are constantly increasing in number. Ignorant people say that China is backward in all things, but our martial arts writers are actually a step ahead, and this is because they also include photographs and modern drawings, thereby making the true principles of boxing arts more realizable on paper. After ten years, we now seem to be in a time in which martial arts publishing is flourishing. This very book contains a piece about our martial arts library [at the end of Part Three], which provides easy access to such books, and they can be checked out or requested.
Books about Yijinjing or breathing exercises have an inherent element of blind faith. Since the worth of these exercises has not yet been proven by proper physiologists, I would rather treat them as little better than their horse liver comment. [“When people refrain from eating horse liver (mistakenly thought to be poisonous), it is not because they do not like it.”] Since our purpose is to popularize these arts in order to strengthen the body, it is not necessary for us to bother with such nonsensical and bizarre ideas of esoteric “knowledge”. The study of martial arts principles is nothing more than a study of practicality. With deeper study, it is natural to go from mere familiarity with the material to full understanding. But of course it is also a specialized field of knowledge and cannot be summed up in just a few words.
A SPECIAL ENTERTAINMENT PARTY by Chen Tiesheng
For the three evenings of Dec 19–21, 1919, the Shanghai Jingwu Association rented the large movie theater in the park at the east [southeast] corner of North Sichuan Road and Qiujiang Road in the Hongkou District of Shanghai, where they held a three-evening entertainment party. Apart from martial arts performances by select Jingwu members, as well as a showing of their homemade feature-length five-reel boxing arts film, there was also traditional Chinese music, local Shanghai music, Guangdong folk music, Western stringed music, military music, singing from the Chongde Girls’ School and the Patriotic Girls’ School, and performances of martial arts and dance from the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team, the Patriotic Girls’ School, and the Women’s Calisthenics School.
For these three evenings, they sold altogether about four thousand tickets. The theater only has twelve hundred seats [meaning that there was over a hundred in the audience each night who were standing], and so it was extraordinarily crowded, and yet the schedule proceeded as smooth as silk and never became disorganized. It is good to see by way of events like these how much progress our countrymen are making. Below is the program and also a chronicle of the event from one of the various newspapers that have reported on it, included here for posterity.
An anonymous gentleman has donated 30,000 gold yuan to the Jingwu Athletic Association. We have decided to put this money toward the building of a public garden, so that from now on we Chinese have a public flower garden of our own making within the Foreign Concession. However, this is an enormous project and this donation is not quite sufficient to fund it by itself, and so we are holding a grand entertainment party to help raise the remainder of the funds needed.
The Jingwu Association over the last ten years has done many services to society without seeking donations for itself. This public garden project is a matter of national prestige and therefore has inspired a unified effort. When various schools (listed below throughout the program) heard about it, they all vied for a chance to help out.
We Chinese have also made our own film, which is about our boxing arts. This is truly unprecedented, showing sights that are not often seen in the West, and is something that every Chinese person needs to watch.
- Announcement from the Shanghai Jingwu Athletic Association
Program for the evening of Dec 19:
1. Military music by the Jingwu Military Band
2. Speech given by Nie Yuntai
3. Performance of “Boxing Arts for Women” from the Patriotic Girls’ School
4. Performance of American dance from the Women’s Calisthenics School
5. Selected performances of martial arts sets from advanced-level members and instructors, including:
Ning Zhuting: Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall Boxing
Chen Gongzhe & Yao Chanbo: Monkey Boxing
Huo Dongge & Huang Huilong: Double Sabers Versus Wooden Bench
Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe] & Zheng Zhuochen: Empty-Hand Versus Spear
Sun Yufeng & Huo Dongge: Three-Section Staff, and so on.
6. Music performed by the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association
7. Performance of exercises by select Jingwu members
8. Performance of a fire-stick dance from the Patriotic Girls’ School
9. Demonstration of bodybuilding by Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe] &Yao Chanbo
10. Singing from the Patriotic Girls’ School
11. The Jingwu Movie (showing our achievements since the Association was founded ten years ago, a movie made by ourselves, five thousand feet of film in length but worth countless yuan in value)
Program for the evening of Dec 20:
1. Singing from the Chongde Girls’ School
2. Speech given by Chen Jintao
3. Performance of Boxing Arts for Women, Tiger Head Hooks, and Gongli Boxing from the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team
4. Performance of dance from the Patriotic Girls’ School
5. Performance with Western stringed instruments by an ensemble of the Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class
6. Performance of a flashlight dance from the Patriotic Girls’ School
7. Performances of martial arts sets from high-level members and instructors, including:
Huang Huilong: Flag-Waving Staff (a southern set)
Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Coiling-Dragon Three-Section Staff
Ye Shutian: Ground-Rolling Saber
Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen: Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
Zheng Zhuochen & Luo Keji: Boy Scouts Practical Staff Methods
8. Demonstration of bodybuilding by Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen
9. Performance with Western stringed instruments performed by the Ministry of Works strings class
10. The Jingwu Movie
Program for the evening of Dec 21:
1. Military music by the Jingwu Military Band
2. Speech given by Yuan Hengzhi
3. Performance of “Boxing Arts for Women” from the Women’s Calisthenics School and the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team
4. Performance of Western stringed instruments by an ensemble of the Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class
5. Performances of martial arts sets from high-level members and instructors, including:
Huang Huilong: Double Axes
Chen Gongzhe & Yao Chanbo: Gate-Opening Leopard
Chen Zizheng: Luo Da’s Postures
Huo Dongge & Zhao Baocheng: Double Sabers Versus Large Saber
6. Performance of an elegant dance by young girls from the Women’s Calisthenics School
7. Cantonese music, performed by Jingwu’s Cantonese Music Class
8. Demonstration of bodybuilding by Chen Gongzhe & Zhao Lianhe
9. Performance of Western stringed instruments
10. The Jingwu Movie
From Shanghai’s Guangzhou-Guangdong Weekly News (issue #39):
“A Complete Record of the Jingwu Athletic Association’s Grand Entertainment Party”
The local Jingwu Athletic Association is preparing to construct a public garden, but they do not quite have sufficient funds for it, and so for Dec 19–21, they borrowed the use of the large movie theater at the corner of North Sichuan Road and Qiujiang Road in Shanghai to hold a grand entertainment party.
Day 1 (Dec 19):
The event began at 7:30 pm.
Zhou Xisan commenced the event thus: “The Jingwu Association operates from a principle of self-sacrifice. Therefore over the last ten years, we have never sought donations [except for the recovery from the typhoon damage]. Recently, an anonymous person has made a contribution of 30,000 gold yuan. We have noticed that in the Foreign Concession there is still not a Chinese public garden, and so we wish to use this money to benefit society by building one. However, to do it justice, this windfall will not quite cover it. And that is why we are holding this three-day entertainment party.”
 Then there was military music.
 Nie Yuntai followed this with a short speech: “The Jingwu Association owes its thanks to many people, but especially to that anonymous gentleman. When it comes to public service, our countrymen rarely lend a hand, but he sets an example for us all and rouses everyone’s sense of public spirit. I’m sure that you are all here out of a sense of public welfare and not just seeking amusement. The name of this Association is Jingwu, ‘Jing’ short for ‘jingshen’ [spirit] and ‘Wu’ [martial], the character of which [武] breaks down into the components of ‘stop’ [止] and ‘weapons’ [戈]. Modern weapons are doing great harm to the world. We want to stop this. But unless we toughen ourselves for future ordeals, we will not have the spirit to do so. The important thing is that we save our money to do things for the public good. If an anonymous man can commit an act like this, then our whole nation might be able to rescue every one of its people.”
 The students from the Patriotic Girls’ School performed Large-Scale Fight.
 There was a performance of American dance from the Women’s Calisthenics School.
 Members and instructors (Ning Zhuting, Chen Gongzhe, Huo Dongge, Huang Huilong, Zheng Zhuochen, Zhao Zhenqun [Lianhe], Sun Yufeng, and Yao Chanbo) gave performances of martial arts sets: solo sets and two-person sets, empty-hand sets and weapons sets. Each performance was imbued with great physical agility and liveliness of spirit, showing the richness of our nation’s physical education. Chen Gongzhe’s six year-old daughter, Suzhen, also demonstrated Gongli Boxing, and was that much more adorable because of how skillfully she performed it.
 There a performance of music by the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association.
 Select Jingwu performed martial exercises.
 The Patriotic Girls’ School performed a fire-stick dance.
 Zhao Lianhe and Yao Chanbo gave a demonstration of bodybuilding as a means to explain muscular development and its relevance to physical education.
 There was singing from students from the Patriotic Girls’ School.
 There was a showing of the Jingwu movie.
Day 2 (Dec 20):
The event began at 7:30 pm.
 The evening started this time with singing from students from the Chongde Girls’ School.
 Then a short speech was given (which was originally to have been given by Chen Jintao, who was then stricken with a cough and was replaced by Chen Gongzhe): “Whenever people are able to devote some of their energy into physical education, not only is it a means of training the body, it can also benefit the mind. This is because putting hard work into exercise has the invisible effect of eliminating all sorts of addictions. Furthermore, our nation has been going through troubled times and we want to do something to help save the nation. But without a strong body and a determined spirit, there is nothing that can be done. For the last ten years, my colleagues have not dared for an instant to neglect their own physical training. However, such a mentality is still too narrow in scope, and so we extend this idea to all of our countrymen, promoting physical education widely, so that the majority of our people will have a strong body and a determined spirit. Once we have a very active citizenry, our nation will then be on its way to becoming a force to be reckoned with.”
 The Jingwu Exemplary Women Team performed Tiger Head Hooks and Gongli Boxing.
 Students of the Patriotic Girls’ School performed dancing.
 The Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class joined together for a performance of Western stringed instruments.
 The Patriotic Girls’ School performed a flashlight dance.
 Jingwu Instructors and members each performed various martial arts sets, including:
Huo Dongge: Taming-Tiger Boxing
Pu Kuoting: Yan Qing’s Single Saber
Students from the Developing Virtue Primary School: Continuous Fighting
Li Huisheng: Night-Battle Spear
Jin Guangyao: Nezha Postures
Ye Shutian & Pu Kuoting: Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
Chen Zizheng: Bafan Boxing
Zheng Zhuochen & Ning Zhuting: Gate-Opening Leopard
Liu Zhixiang: Great Hero Boxing
Weng Yaoheng: Snowflake Saber
Yao Chanbo & Zhao Lianhe: Single Saber Versus Spear
Zheng Zhuochen & Luo Keji: Boy Scouts Practical Staff Methods
Huang Huilong: Long Staff
Huo Dongge & Zhao Baocheng: String of Beads
Liu Zhixiang: Eight-Steps Boxing
Zhao Lianhe: Flinging Fists
Ning Zhuting & Zheng Zhuochen: Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
Chen Zizheng: Luohan Boxing
Huo Dongge & Huang Huilong: Empty-Hand Versus Dagger
Ye Shutian: Ground-Rolling Saber
Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Three-Section Staff
This was an ensemble of heroes gathered under one roof, each performing to the utmost of their exquisite ability.
 There was another showing of the Jingwu movie.
Day 3 (Dec 21):
 The evening began [at 7:30pm], again with music from the Jingwu Military Band.
 Then Yuan Hengzhi gave this speech: “When I first came to Shanghai, I saw Europeans and Americans. Their bodies are robust and their technology is exquisite. Every one of them has a burgeoning spirit and they have all been trained for military service. They can truly be said to be equally skilled in both civil and martial matters. Compared to them, we are utterly inferior. At that time, I thought that God had made man unfairly, always giving the best brains and greatest strength to foreigners, while the rest us were unwanted, with incomplete scraps of knowledge being tossed to us lowly Chinese. Why did I have these kind of thoughts? Because it was clear that we really were inferior to them, or at least unequal to them. Even when we grouped together, we still managed to be inferior. Was this not unfair, two different ways, one for them and one for us?
“But now I look upon the members of the Jingwu Athletic Association, who have for the last ten years been building up their bodies to the same level, so that we are equally matched with the foreigners. These people have been energetically practicing boxing arts, working hard for a full decade, all of them with the vigor of dragons and tigers. Not only have they greatly progressed in physical education, but also very impressively in ethical and intellectual education as well. The Jingwu Association now has courses in everything, such as Chinese and English language, drawing, army drill, tennis, photography, military music, classical music, chemistry, and so on, and they have become experts in all of these fields. When I compare myself to them, my body is completely inferior, but I now understand that God has been fair and that there are not actually two different ways after all.
“The issue is simply that we love leisure and hate labor, are unwilling to make an effort and too easily give up on ourselves. Therefore this Republic of China is in imminent danger of becoming a conquered nation. Even if we are sure that we are going to die, let’s not prepare our coffins, put on our funeral clothes, and just wait for it to happen. We have to appreciate that our nation is a vast territory and that we have abundant resources, and that it is only due to a lack of people possessing sincerity and strength that we have ended up in this awful state.
“So I invite all young people to go with impatient haste to the Jingwu Athletic Association and sign up to train in boxing arts. Through physical education, you will naturally make great strides in ethical and intellectual education as well. I likewise invite all wealthy men to donate to the Jingwu Association, those of you who build schools, those of you who run industries, to give a little from your surplus to support this project on the side. We are unanimous in that not only will China not perish, but it will in fact be transformed into one of the most powerful nations. The Jingwu Athletic Association has always held firmly to this idea, and everything they do is done with this in mind. Suffering compatriots, humiliated Chinamen, awaken, arise, and rescue the nation!”
 The Women’s Calisthenics School and the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team performed Boxing Arts for Women.
 Thee Jingwu strings class and the Ministry of Works strings class joined together for a performance of Western stringed instruments.
 Jingwu instructors and members did individual performances of various kinds of boxing sets and weapon sets, including:
Yao Chanbo: Bagua Ground-Rolling Saber
Ning Zhuting: Drunken-Stumbling-Around-the-Hall
Pu Kuoting: Double Eight-Trigrams Sabers
Jin Guangyao: Avalanche Steps
Chen Suzhen’s: Large-Scale Fight
Li Shusen: Gongli Boxing
Li Huisheng: Silk-Robe Sword
Weng Yaoheng: Mountain-Chopping Saber
Chen Zizheng: Qimen Staff as well as Luo Da’s Postures
Liu Zhixiang: Tiger Head Hooks and Liuhe Spear
Ye Shutian: Drunken Eight Immortals
Huang Huilong: Double Axes
Zhao Lianhe: Double Hooks
There were also two-person sets, including:
Yao Chanbo & Chen Gongzhe: Gate-Opening Leopard
Zhao Lianhe & Zheng Zhuochen: Empty-Hand Versus Spear
Ye Shutian & Pu Kuoting: Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
Huo Dongge & Huang Huilong: Double Sabers Versus Wooden Bench
Zhao Baocheng & Wang Fengchun: Tying Boxing
Huo Dongge & Zhao Baocheng: Double Sabers Versus Large Saber
Each of the performances were without exception amazing to behold.
 And then once the performances were finished, they once again showed the Jingwu Movie. For three whole days, the guests all crammed into their seats for this, the third day most of all. Of all of the martial arts performances it displayed, not one was unpopular. The film was divided into five reels, the contents of which have to do with performances and all variety of achievements, perfectly arranged so that no part of it is dull. Of course it does not surpass European and American films, but a great many famous people came to see it nevertheless. Sun Yat-sen attended on the second day, the American Consul on the third, and the rest were too numerous to record.
Tang Jiezhi sold altogether fifteen hundred tickets, quite a crowd. Jingwu Association member Weng Yaoheng on the third day was presented with a flower basket in appreciation for all his hard work for the event. It was truly an unprecedented gathering for Shanghai. The Westerners who came to watch the film all gave it extraordinary praise. Many of them invited the Jingwu Association to someday show the film in a Western theater in order to give even more people a feast for the eyes. The Jingwu Association gave its approval and the film did indeed have a theater showing just over a week later.
The program for the event used the three primary colors – yellow, blue, red – based on the three-star emblem on the uniforms. Though this particular gathering involved the special feature of the film (the contents of which are provided in detail below), the most impressive physical performance was a demonstration of bodybuilding on the third evening by Chen Gongzhe and Zhao Lianhe [followed by two-person sets while still wearing their leopard skins]. When we practice solo boxing sets, we can express all of our power, but performing two-person sets can sometimes be dangerous, and so the performers have to be somewhat restrained. Therefore Chen and Zhao used only seventy percent of their power with each other and gave a truly splendid performance. (Lu Weichang was developing the plans for the Guangdong Jingwu Association, and so he had to return there for a meeting and thus was not able to participate.)
But all in all, the stand-out achievement of this gathering was the film made by Chen Gongzhe, Cheng Zipei, Lu Xueying (wife of Chen Gongzhe), and Chen Shichao [Gongzhe’s sister], who were able to edit together the finished product over the course of just two weeks. All of the Jingwu Association directors and members, as well as people from all walks of life, have expressed their enthusiastic support for it, finding it to be a very memorable experience indeed.
CONTENTS OF THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION’S OWN MARTIAL ARTS FILM by Chen Gongzhe
First reel [seventeen scenes (1–17)]:
1. Our morale-boosting crest
2. The burial of Huo Yuanjia
3. The most dedicated supporter and most senior member of the Jingwu Association, Yuan Hengzhi
（四）十年來茹苦之職員 陳鐵生 霍守華 周錫三 黎惠生 甯竹亭 陳公哲 郭唯一 金光曜 鄭灼辰 聶雲台 趙連和 盧煒昌 簡琴石 程子培 李耀邦 翁耀衡 姚蟾伯 陳士超
4. Some of the hard-working staff during the last ten years: Chen Tiesheng, Huo Shouhua, Zhou Xisan, Li Huisheng, Ning Zhuting, Chen Gongzhe, Guo Weiyi [who filmed the movie], Jin Guangyao, Zheng Zhuochen, Nie Yuntai, Zhao Lianhe, Lu Weichang, Jian Qinshi, Cheng Zipei, Li Yaobang, Weng Yaoheng, Yao Chanbo, Chen Shichao
5. 1919 Jingwu Association president Zhu Qinglan
6. Our original 1910 location (14 yuan per month for rent)
7. Our 1913 location (16 yuan per month)
8. Having to go under a railway overpass to get to this location
9. Our 1915 location (built at own expense)
10. Martial arts exercise hall
11. Members on the way to their classes
12. The exterior of the building
13. The military band
14. The Valiant Warriors Club
15. Boxing sets performed by the Patriotic Girls’ School
16. The army drill unit beginning its drill exercises
17. The army drill unit finishing its drill exercises
Second reel [nineteen scenes (18–36)]:
18. Instructors of various styles of martial arts
19. First sixth-year graduates receiving their three-star emblems, 1916
20. The boxing arts class of the Chongde Girls’ School
21. Exercises at the first branch of the Jingwu Association
22. Chinese language class
24. The calligraphy class
26. Celebrating National Day [Oct 10]
27. Beijing opera class
28. Members engaging in extracurricular gymnastics
30. Students of Guangdong Primary School performing Articulated Boxing
31. Students of Guangdong Primary School performing Trapping Boxing
32. Balancing platform
33. Vaulting horse
34. Horizontal bar
35. Swings supported by a frame
36. The Army-Drill Team making a formation (forming the character “wu” [martial])
Third reel [fifteen scenes (37–51, with 51 being subdivided into five parts)]:
（三十七）贊助最力之會長 袁恒之君 聶雲台君
37. Zealous support from Jingwu Association presidents Yuan Hengzhi and Nie Yuntai
38. Examples of exercise
39. A continuous stream of members going in and out of meetings
40. President of the Jingwu Association’s third Shanghai branch, Wang Shaopo
42. The third branch and a gathering of its directors
42. Cantonese opera class
43. A flowing motorcade [of VIPs]
44. Boxing sets performed by workers from the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association
45. Steady marching performed by the army drill team at dawn
46. The boxing arts class of the Women’s Calisthenics School
48. Debating team
49. Medical studies
51. A discussion about how physical education aspirations must never cease:
Modern novelists write exaggerated depictions of martial arts, causing students to develop hopes for skills that they will not be able to achieve. The resulting disappointment then makes people lose interest in these arts, which tragically fade further with each day. Here are some special demonstrations to show that the tricks in these arts still obey the laws of physics and that there are people who are preserving these skills with sincerity. The more schools there are that have a true understanding of such skills, the less that people will lose their enthusiasm to study these arts.
a. A saber flourishing so fast that its shape becomes indistinguishable
b. A demonstration of Qigong [presumably showing feats like taking blows to the belly from a sledgehammer, etc.]
c. The wind from punches affecting a motionless person from a distance
d. Demonstrating strength by pulling a car
e. Leaping from rooftop to rooftop
Fourth reel [eleven scenes (52–62)]:
52. Some of the Jingwu Association’s achievements over the years
53. First aid for injuries
54. A martial arts demonstration (celebrating “Double Tenth” [i.e. National Day] at a public sports ground, with tens of thousands of people gathered)
55. Stringed instruments class
56. A flower basket being presented to the stringed instruments class
57. Glimpse of anonymous donation of 30,000 gold yuan
58. Blueprints of future headquarters (to be completed by a certain year and at a projected cost of 60,000 yuan)
59. The Exemplary Women Team
60. A five year-old girl talking about martial arts
61. Sleeve darts
62. Some martial arts applications
Fifth reel [three scenes (63–65)]:
63. The photography department
64. Group performances of the Jingwu Association’s martial arts
65. The Jingwu three-starred banner, a shining beacon for the whole nation
[With only three scenes on this reel, they would be averaging five minutes per scene. However, the third scene might only have needed a few seconds and the first scene might only have spent a couple minutes, meaning that there could have been a section of around twelve solid minutes showing boxing sets, weapons sets, and two-person sets, and thus the fifth reel would probably be the most valuable for a martial arts historian. A lengthy martial arts sequence followed by the sight of a proudly-flying flag sounds like a stirring climax, giving this entire documentary feature a tinge of structural similarity to the Kung Fu films that would come later.]
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE CHINA JINGWU ASSOCIATION
Section 1: The Name of the Association
The Jingwu Association was started by Chinese martial arts master Huo Yuanjia. After initially focusing on a martial arts course, it was later decided to expand its physical education spectrum by adding three more departments – army drill, artistic studies, and recreational activities – and thus the full name became the China Jingwu Athletic Association.
Section 2: Our Purpose
The purpose of the Jingwu Association is to promote martial arts studies and use physical education to build a more resolute citizenry. However, a specialized study of martial arts requires whole-hearted devotion of one’s energies in order to succeed. On the basis of our purpose, we therefore forbid the politics of keeping styles secret and will not tolerate arguments about the strengths and drawbacks of one style versus another.
Section 3: Our Location
The Jingwu Association is located in Shanghai, within the Tilanqiao Neighborhood, at 73 Baikal Road, next door to the Ministry-of-Works Public School [and across the street from Nieh Chih Kuei Public School for Chinese]. Phone#: East-109
Section 4: Membership
All who are determined, persevering, are free of vices, and have been given recommendation from those in business circles, academic circles, or by other members, are eligible to obtain membership at the Jingwu Association. (There are no age restrictions.)
Membership is divided into four types: special membership, ordinary membership, honorary membership, and limited summer membership.
A. Special membership is for those who participate in martial arts courses and other courses.
B. Ordinary membership is for those who only participate in recreational activities.
C. Honorary membership is for those who help out here or who donate funds.
D. Limited summer membership is for those who participate in martial arts courses and other courses, but only during a six-week period in the summer.
第五章 職員 教員
Section 5: Staff & Instructors
1. President: one person, who presides over all meetings.
2. Vice presidents: two people, who assist in managing the Jingwu Association, meet with the president, and act on his behalf in his absence.
3. Directors: no specific number of directors. They are appointed by the president based on their enthusiasm for assisting in all affairs.
4. Heads of general affairs: two people, who stay at the Jingwu Association and organize all meetings.
5. Secretaries: eight people, manage documents and correspondence.
6. Bookkeepers: two people, who are in charge of keeping track of all funds that come in and go out.
7. Examiners: four people, who examine public opinion of the Jingwu Association, from people of all walks of life, in order to constantly improve what is offered here.
8. Head of business affairs: six people, who manage all business matters.
9. Physicians: three people, who are in charge of hygiene and medical treatment.
10. Customs officers: four people, who manage the borrowing of all equipment and the maintaining of a sanitary environment.
11. Disciplinary officers: four people, who keep an eye on the behavior of the members.
Martial Arts Department: one department head, who manages all martial arts affairs, and sends his orders to all martial arts instructors, both within the main location and to all other branches and locations, and they will all accept his orders and reassignments.
There is no specific number of martial arts directors. Regardless of where they are coming from, whatever branch in another province or whatever location or club in another part of Shanghai, instructors will all address them as “director”.
There is no specific number of martial arts instructors. They will receive their teaching assignments from the department head, accept orders from the directors, are answerable to the main Jingwu headquarters, and are appointed by the department head.
Encouragement Club: two directors, elected from within the club.
Exemplary Women Team: two directors, appointed by the department head on the basis of who demonstrates the highest ethical integrity.
Walking Club: one director, elected from within the club.
Weapons: four directors, appointed by the department head.
Sleeve darts: one director, appointed by the department head.
Archery: one director, appointed by the department head.
Valiant Warriors Club: one general instructor, appointed or nominated by the department head.
(Within the Valiant Warriors Club are also five teams – red, yellow, blue, white, black –
each of which elect their own team captains.)
Martial arts publishing department: no specific number of editors.
Army Drill Department: one department head, no specific number of instructors.
Supplies: one director.
Armaments: one director.
Military music: one director.
Literary Studies Department: one department head.
Chinese language: no specific number of instructors.
English language: no specific number of instructors.
Painting: no specific number of instructors.
Accounting: no specific number of instructors.
Mandarin: one instructor.
Typewriting class: one director.
Photographic studies: one director, two instructors (who will also give instruction in making films).
Debating team: one director.
Books & periodicals: four directors.
Calligraphy class: two directors (one for Chinese calligraphy, one for English calligraphy).
Calligraphy class [Medicine class]: one inspector, no specific number of directors for either Chinese medicine or Western medicine.
Recreational Activities Department: one department head
Beijing opera: one instructor.
Western stringed instruments: one instructor.
Brass instruments: one instructor.
Beijing opera: one director.
Cantonese opera: two directors.
Game hunting: two directors.
Soccer: four directors.
Tennis: four directors.
Shot put & discus: one director.
Billiards: one director.
Basketball: one director.
Balancing platform & vaulting horse: one director.
Skating: one director.
Zip-lining: one director.
Javelin: one director.
Horizontal bar / rings & rope swings: no specific number of directors.
All staff positions, except for the roles of president and vice president, are elected from among the members of the Jingwu Association. Those who serve dutifully in their position for a full year are eligible to be renewed for a second term.
Section 6: Tuition
Special membership: 2 yuan per month, 8 yuan per six months, or 12 yuan per year, half price for ages sixteen and below. Ordinary membership: 2 yuan per six months. Limited summer membership: 1 yuan per six weeks. All fees are to be paid at the accounting office.
Section 7: Courses
1. Activities of the martial arts department:
– boxing sets
– weapon sets
– two-person sets (i.e. performing techniques)
– internal training (i.e. moving energy)
– sleeve darts
2. Activities of the army drill department:
– army formation drill
– field operations
– firing at targets with air rifles
– military music
– military science
3. Activities of the literary studies department:
– study of various physical education books and periodicals
– Chinese and English language night classes
4. Activities of the recreation department:
– shot put
– horizontal bar
– rings and rope swings
– balancing platform
– vaulting horse
– game hunting
– music (divided into Western music, Beijing opera, and Cantonese opera)
List of Boxing Arts
Boxing Arts from the Area of the Yellow River Basin
1. Boxing sets:
Dragon & Tiger Postures
Black Tiger Boxing
Second Son’s Boxing Set
Serpent Slayer Boxing
Blue Dragon Boxing
Drunken Eight Immortals
Swinging-Kicks Boxing Set
Small Tying Boxing
Fifth Tiger’s Boxing
Fifth Tiger’s Boxing Set
Sun Bin Boxing
Spread & Strike Boxing
Ten-Line Walking Boxing
Eagle Claw Fifty-Line Continuous Boxing
Great Hero Boxing
Lesser Hero Boxing
Greater Cotton-Palms Boxing
Lesser Cotton-Palms Boxing
(These are all solo sets.)
String of Beads
Fifth Son’s Boxing Set
Hundred and Eight Techniques
Two-Person Kicking Set
(These are all two-person sets.)
2. Weapon sets:
Greater Continuous Sword
Lesser Continuous Sword
Double Eight-Trigrams Swords
Fifth Tiger’s Spear
Pear Blossom Spear
Plum Blossom Spear
Greater Liuhe Flourishing Spear
Middle Liuhe Flourishing Spear
Lesser Liuhe Flourishing Spear
Second Son’s Saber
Plum Blossom Single Saber
Double Eight-Trigrams Sabers
Greater Arhat Double Sabers
Lesser Arhat Double Sabers
Spring & Autumn Halberd
Furnace-Sparking Large Saber
Plum Blossom Large Saber
Crescent Moons Halberd
Tiger Head Hook
Eight Treasures Hook
Nine-Section Soft Whip
Single Saber & Whip
Sun Bin Cane
Pouncing-Tiger Shepherd’s Staff
Tiger Whip-Rod (also called Staff-Tail Whip-Rod)
(These are all solo sets.)
Coil & Block Spears
Golden-Scissors Sabers Versus Spear
Double Sabers Versus Spear
Single Saber Versus Spear
Staff Versus Spear
Large Saber Versus Spear
Dark-Magic Cane Versus Spear
Saber & Cane Versus Spear
Double Canes Versus Spear
Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
Double Needles Versus Spear
Tiger Head Hooks Versus Spear
Three-Section Staff Versus Spear
Coiling-Dragon Staff Versus Spear
Two-Person Eight-Trigrams Saber
Empty-Hand versus Double Sabers
Single Saber Versus Large Saber
Two-Person Large Saber
Crescent Moons Halberd Versus Large Saber
Empty-Hand Versus Three-Section Staff
Two-Section Staff Versus Cane
Two-Person Eyebrow-Height Staff
Two-Section Staff Versus Spear
Boy Scouts Practical Staff Methods
(These are all two-person sets.)
3. Empty-hand versus bladed weapons:
Empty-Hand Versus Saber
Empty-Hand Disarming Saber
Empty-Hand Versus Double Sabers
Empty-Hand Versus Spear
Empty-Hand Versus Fork
Empty-Hand Versus Daggers
Martial arts styles from the area of Yangzte River Basin
1. Boxing sets:
Heavy Hands in All Directions
Eight Hidden Techniques
Jiang’s Hand Techniques
Small Plum-Blossom Boxing
Xingtang’s Boxing Set
Drunken Stumbling Around the Hall
Drunken Eight Immortals
Yang Family Hands
Hundred Closings Boxing
Golden Rooster Boxing
Devoted Hero Boxing
Eight Luohans Boxing Set
Greater Big-Dipper Boxing
Lesser Big-Dipper Boxing
(These are all solo sets.)
(These are all two-person sets.)
2. Weapon sets:
Plum Blossom Spear
Fifth Son’s Staff
Tiger Tail Steel-Whip
Wanderer’s Golden Fork
Double Pouncing Halberds
Double Peacemaking Halberds
Gan Family Saber
Leap & Pounce Halberd
Martial arts styles from the Pearl River Basin
1. Boxing sets:
(These are all solo sets.)
(This is a two-person set.)
2. Weapon sets:
Rattan Shield & Battle Saber
(These are all solo sets.)
Double Sabers versus Staff
Wooden Bench versus Double Sabers
Rake Versus Saber & Shield
(These are all two-person sets.)
Section 8: Schedules
1. Martial Arts Department:
Every day, throughout the day, from 6am to 9pm, instructors teach material to individual groups. All special members can come to learn at any time.
2. Army Drill Department:
Army drill and field operations training will be held every Wednesday and Saturday at 7–8am and Sunday at 8–9am.
3. Literary Studies Department:
Night classes will be held every evening at 7–9pm. (The rest of the classes will added be in another section.)
4. Recreational Activities Department:
Soccer practice will be held on Saturday and Sunday. Tennis practice will be held every day at 4–7pm, and also Saturday and Sunday at 2–7pm. Music practice will be held every Tuesday and Friday at 7–9pm, and also Sunday at 9–11am. All other activities can be held at any time.
Section 9: Graduating
Once members of the martial arts department have completed two years of training, they will be tested by their instructors and department directors and then given a beginner-level diploma. After completing four years, they are given an intermediate-level diploma. After completing six years, they are given an advanced-level diploma. Graduation at all levels is held during our annual autumn athletic meet. If advanced graduates wish to continue to progress toward even higher levels of accomplishment, they are especially welcome in the Association, and their membership fees will annually decreased.
Once members of the army drill department have completed two years of training, they will be tested by the department director and then given a diploma in recognition of being a model trooper. After graduating, members must still participate in the drill parade every Sunday in order to set an example for the newer students, and then after completing a full year of this encouragement marching, they can be demobilized to continue to prepare the troops in other ways.
To graduate from the photography course, there is no set number of years. Students must instead present their best selection of landscape scenes for the department director to evaluate, and if they are deemed to have reached the required standard of quality, they will then be given a diploma. In order to better spread this art, the acceptance of students does not have to be restricted to actual members. People from outside the Jingwu Association who achieve a level of success and pass their evaluation can also obtain a diploma, but they must pay an extra 1 yuan fee for their certification.
Section 10: Athletic meets
The Jingwu Association will hold an athletic meet every autumn.
Section 11: Meetings
Staff members will meet every day at a fixed time to resolve smaller matters. In the case of important matters, all staff will be convened to pass a resolution, and the appointed time for such a meeting will be posted from the clerk’s office.
Section 12: Books & Periodicals
The Jingwu Association’s Chinese and English language books and periodicals are only for the use of members to study during their night classes or to review during their free time. Whether the books are new or old, they cannot be removed from our reading room. This is to prevent them from getting lost, which would greatly hinder others from being able to use them.
For members to borrow or hold onto any of the books from the Jingwu Association’s library, they must be borrowed in person, your name has to be written on a borrowing slip, they have to be returned by a specific date, and will be inspected by the librarian. Regardless of who is borrowing materials, you are not allowed to just take them with you when you feel like it.
Section 13: Rules
Our colleagues who formed the Jingwu Association did so for the purpose of strengthening the people and protecting the nation. All members should put their full effort into training, cultivating an attitude of robustness and resolution, and getting rid of habits of listlessness an laziness.
The daily practice of special members must be in accordance with a structured curriculum of martial arts classes arranged by the instructors. If any part of the material does not make sense to you, you can also ask for help from senior students, who should be able to supply you with detailed explanations.
When special members are too busy to practice because there is something else they have to do, they must send a letter to the clerk’s office to ask for permission to be absent (in accordance with the rules of the Encouragement Club).
All Jingwu Association members should return martial arts weapons to the weapons racks with reverence. After you are finished using any weapons, you must put them back in their appropriate place and not just casually leave them anywhere. The same goes for gardening tools, all recreation equipment, and keeping the billiards table clear of items. Extra care has to be given to maintaining property that is shared with others.
The showers and sinks in the bathroom are for the use of all members, therefore when using a drain plug, you must be careful to avoid overflowing and wasting water, whether hot water or cold.
Section 14: Supplementary Items
All special members will abide by the rules of the Encouragement Club (the rules of which are written elsewhere) in keeping the lockers and shoe cases tidy and welcoming, thereby demonstrating the sincerity of being hardworking members.
For members of the army drill department, your uniforms and air rifles can be managed by the Jingwu Association on your behalf. We guarantee that if there are any damages caused on our part, the cost of your equipment will be refunded to you.
All members of the photography department may borrow the use of the dark room, developing trays, or composition tools, but you must provide your own photographic plates and developing fluid.
When members of the recreational activities department come to athletic meets, you must bring your Jingwu Association ID with you in order to more smoothly ascertain your tasks in the event and avoid getting tangled in the bureaucracy of foreigners.
If a member wants to know the rules of a department in detail, but the rules of that department have not yet been formalized in writing, please take all of your questions straight to the department director.
To the right side of the Jingwu Association is the newly built Jingwu Public Gardens, accessible for all our members to enjoy.
Once one has joined the Jingwu Association, one’s membership ID applies equally to all Jingwu branch locations.
HOW TO GET TO THE JINGWU ASSOCIATION
精武體育會之路由 倍開爾路七十三號 公哲
Jingwu Athletic Association’s location: 73 Baikal Road (map drawn by Chen Gongzhe)
1. 聶中丞華童公學 Nieh Chih Kuei Public School for Chinese [which was established by Nie Yuntai in honor of his father, 聶緝槼 Nie Jigui (Nieh Chih Kuei)]
2. 荊州路 Jingzhou Road
3. 精武體育會 Jingwu Athletic Association
4. 七十三號 #73
5. 大連灣路 Dalny Road [now 大連路 Dalian Road]
6. 麥克利克路 MacGregor Road [now 臨潼路 Lintong Road]
7. 倍開爾路 Baikal Road [now 惠民路 Huimin Road]
8. 提橋里 Tilanqiao Neighborhood
9. 楊樹浦路 Yangshupu Road
10. 滙山碼頭正門 Huishan Wharf main entrance
11. 威賽路 Wayside Road [now 霍山路 Huoshan Road]
12. 袁地 park
13. 電車站 tramcar stop
14. 茂海路 Muirhead Road [now 海門路 Haimen Road]
15. 東百老滙路 East Broadway Road [now 東大名路 Dongdaming Road]
1. The Jingwu Association in Shanghai is in the Hongkou District, Tilanqiao neighborhood, at 73 Baikal Road. But if you ever want to write us a letter, whether domestically or from outside the country, all you need to write on the envelope is the five words 上海精武會 [“Shanghai Jingwu Association”] and it will reach us.
2. The first time you come to us, start from the Hongkou Steel Bridge [i.e. the Waibaidu Bridge, also called the “Garden Bridge”]. See photo 1, showing the bridge:
Wait at the north end of the bridge for a number 5, 7, or 9 tramcar (which will have the street it serves clearly written on the front, in both Chinese and English), all of which will work. Get off at the Tilanqiao stop. (It costs 3 copper yuan for a third class seat, or 6 for first class. Unfortunately the numbers on the stops are not distinct, so you should ask the ticket seller to notify you of when you are about to arrive.) See photo 2, showing a tramcar at the Tilanqiao stop:
From there, walk straight ahead a little over a hundred paces until you see the main entrance to the Huishan Wharf [on the right]. Directly in front of this begins Baikal Road [and turn left onto it]. (The street sign shows the name in both Chinese and English.) See photo 3, showing the beginning of Baikal Road:
Go straight about a thousand paces and you will arrive at the Jingwu Association [on the left, at the corner of Jingzhou Road]. (Tramcar service runs from 6am to 9pm.)
In commemoration of Jingwu’s 10th anniversary
– [calligraphy by 昌（盧煒昌） Lu Weichang]
– [leopard plaque drawing by Yang Zuotao]