THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE 10th ANNIVERSARY BOOK

精武本紀
THE ANNALS OF JINGWU
精武體育會
by the Jingwu Athletic Association
[published Dec, 1919]

[centennial translation by Paul Brennan, Dec, 2019]

The title calligraphy on the front cover is by 陳公哲 Chen Gongzhe:

The drawing below it is by 楊左匋 Yang Zuotao, who signed his named as S. Y. Young (also known as Cy Young when he several years later became one of the major early animators for Disney):

The small world of Jingwu is labeled thus:

箭道 練武廳 運動場 游泳池 議事廳 藏書樓 華人公園 音樂亭 網球場
archery range, martial arts training hall, sports ground, swimming pool, assembly hall, library, Chinese public gardens, bandstand, tennis court

☉精武本紀總目 新會陳鐵生編
CONTENTS (compiled by Chen Tiesheng of Xinhui)

孫中山先生序文
Preface by Sun Yat-sen
胡漢民先生弁言
Introductory Statement from Hu Hanmin
朱執信先生序文
Preface by Zhu Zhixin
言論
[Part One] General Discussion
 大精武主義 陳鐵生 卓枚
 The Great Jingwu Doctrine (by Chen Tiesheng, called Zhuomei)
 精武之眞精神 陳公哲
 The True Spirit of Jingwu (by Chen Gongzhe)
 祝精武體育會 吳榮煦
 Congratulations to the Jingwu Athletic Association (by Wu Rongxu)
事實
[Part Two] A Few Specifics
 會址之歷史 陳鐵生
 History of Our Location (by Chen Tiesheng)
 會旗紀 陳鐵生
 The Jingwu Banners (by Chen Tiesheng)
 服式紀 陳鐵生
 The Jingwu Uniforms (by Chen Tiesheng)
 徽章紀 盧煒昌
 The Jingwu Badges (by Lu Weichang)
 授盾紀 羅克己
 The Awarding Crest (by Luo Keji)
 滬城分會紀 霍東閣
 Jingwu Branches Within Shanghai (by Huo Dongge)
 第三分會紀 寗竹亭
 On the Three Shanghai Branches (by Ning Zhuting)
 精武公園第一聲 陳鐵生
 Heralding the Jingwu Public Gardens (by Chen Tiesheng)
 精武村初唱 霍守華
 Heralding a Jingwu Village (by Huo Shouhua)
技擊
[Part Three] Martial Arts
 運動會紀 陳鐵生
 Our Athletic Meets (by Chen Tiesheng)
 技擊之三級畢業記名 陳鐵生
 The Three Levels of Graduation in the Martial Arts Course (by Chen Tiesheng)
 技擊大會操記 劉扆臣
 Group Practice of Martial Arts (by Liu Yichen)
 健兒團記 盧煒昌
 The Valiant Warriors Club (by Lu Weichang)
 勵志團緣起 鄭灼辰 馮蘭皋
 Origin of the Encouragement Club (by Zheng Zhuochen & Feng Lan’gao)
 紀安步團 金光曜
 Walking Club (by Jin Guangyao)
 惜陰團紀 陳士超
 The Precious-Time Club (by Chen Shichao)
 精武女子模範團紀略 陳士超
 A Brief Account of the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team (by Chen Shichao)
 體育眞相 陳鐵生
 Building up the Body (by Chen Tiesheng)
 跋姚君像 邵廷玉
 A Comment about Yao Chanbo (by Shao Tingyu)
 紀袖鑣 程子英
 Sleeve Darts (by Cheng Ziying)
 論弓矢 鄭憲成
 Discussing Archery (by Zheng Xiancheng)
 復旦公學技擊紀 趙連和 振羣
 The Martial Arts Class at the Fudan Public School (by Zhao Lianhe, called Zhenqun)
 中華工業專門學校技擊紀略 趙連和
 The Martial Arts Class at the Chinese Industry Technical School (by Zhao Lianhe)
 東亞體育學校技擊班 姚蟾伯
 The Martial Arts Class at the East Asia Athletic School (by Yao Chanbo)
 松江江蘇省立第三中學校技擊紀 陳鐵生
 The Martial Arts Class at Jiangsu 3rd Provisional Secondary School, Songjiang District (by Chen Tiesheng)
 紀澄衷學校技擊課 趙連和
 The Martial Arts Class at the Chengzhong Secondary School (by Zhao Lianhe)
 嶺南中學校技擊紀 黃維慶
 The Martial Arts Class at the Lingnan Secondary School (by Huang Weiqing)
 靑年會之技擊班 黃漢佳
 The Martial Arts Class at the YMCA (by Huang Hanjia)
 工界靑年勵志會 黎惠生
 The Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association (by Li Huisheng)
 愛國女學紀 寗竹亭
 The Patriotic Girls’ School (by Ning Zhuting)
 上海廣東小學記 浦闊亭
 The Guangdong Primary School of Shanghai (by Pu Kuoting)
 靑年俱樂部誌 姚蟾伯
 The Shanghai Youth Club (by Yao Chanbo)
 培德兩等小學校紀 霍東閣
 The Developing Virtue Primary School (by Huo Dongge)
 紀培本小學 黎惠生
 The Developing Fundamentals Primary School (by Li Huisheng)
 崇德女校體育科記 陶志超
 The Chongde Girls’ School Physical Education Course (by Tao Zhichao)
 中國體操學校授課圖 盧煒昌
 Photo of Lessons at the Chinese Calisthenics School (instructed by Lu Weichang)
 吳淞水產學校授課圖 李振江 蓮村
 Photo of Martial Arts Lessons at the Wusong Fishery School (instructed by Li Zhenjiang, called Liancun)
 南洋女子師範校授課圖
 Photo of Lessons at the Nanyang Women’s Normal School
 雲南蒙自教授技擊圖 劉扆臣
 Photo of Martial Arts Lessons in Mengzi, Yunnan (instructed by Liu Yichen)
 評判松江運動會紀 陳鐵生
 Judging at the Songjiang District Athletic Meet (by Chen Tiesheng)
 武術(十字戰全套) 陳鐵生
 An Example of Our Martial Arts (featuring the entire set of Cross-Shaped Fight) (by Chen Tiesheng [and performed by Zhao Lianhe])
 出版紀略 陳鐵生
 A Brief Account of Our Publications (by Chen Tiesheng)
 武庫 陳鐵生
 Selections from Our Martial Arts Library (by Chen Tiesheng)
[Parts Four–Six]
兵操
Part Four: Army Drill
 精武兵式操紀略 鄭灼辰
 A Brief Record of the Jingwu Army Drill Unit (by Zheng Zhuochen)
 技擊術軍用實施法 陳鐵生
 Martial Arts Techniques for Army Use (by Chen Tiesheng)
文事
Part Five: Literary Pursuits
 臨池會紀 陳鐵生
 The Calligraphy Class (by Chen Tiesheng)
 夕陽鴉陣圖(古畫) 高鳳翰
 “Flock of Crows at Sunset” (an old painting by Gao Fenghan)
 圖畫成績 陳公喆
 Achievements of the Painting Class (by Chen Gongzhe)
 攝學部成績 陳盧雪英
 Achievements of the Photography Department (by Lu Xueying, wife of Chen Gongzhe)
 插畫三幅
 Three pictures:
 (一)三潭夕照 設色玻璃板 陳公哲
 1. “Three Pools at Sunset” (developed on tinted glass plate, by Chen Gongzhe)
 三潭夕照題詞 汪精衞
 Inscription for “Three Pools at Sunset” (by Wang Jingwei)
 (二)蘇臺煙景 設色玻璃板 陳士超
 2. “Mist Over Sutai” (developed on tinted glass plate, by Chen Shichao)
 (三)揮戈逐日圖 三色銅板 楊左匋
 3. “Galloping Fast to Lead Troops into Battle” (painted with primary colors onto copper surface, by Yang Zuotao)
 精武影戲紀 郭唯一
 On Making a Motion Picture of the Jingwu Association (by Guo Weiyi)
 返光鏡裝置近鏡之新發明 程子培
 Invention of a New Zoom-Lens Device (by Cheng Zipei)
 旅行用之攝影暗箱 程子培
 A Mobile Dark Room (by Cheng Zipei)
 測光表 黃怡生
 Chen Gongzhe’s Calculations for Exposure (by Huang Yisheng)
 論攝學 陳公哲
 A Discussion of Photography (by Chen Gongzhe)
 醫學紀 簡玉鵬 偉卿
 On Medicine (by Jian Yupeng, called Weiqing)
 精武醫學部宣言 羅伯夔
 The Manifesto of the Jingwu Medical Department (by Luo Bokui)
 雄辯團紀 梁少田
 The Debating Team (by Liang Shaotian)
 論國語 雲作丞
 Our National Language (by Yun Zuocheng)
游藝
Part Six: Recreational Activities
 說棋 曾啟文
 Discussing Chess (by Zeng Qiwen)
 粵樂拉雜談 陳卓枚
 Some Ramblings about Cantonese Opera (by Chen Zhuomei [Tiesheng])
 余之京戲談 陳卓枚
 My Casual Opinions on Beijing Opera (by Chen Zhuomei [Tiesheng])
 泰西絃樂紀 陳盧雪英
 Western Stringed Instruments (by Lu Xueying, wife of Chen Gongzhe)
 記梵玲Violin 陳公哲
 On the Violin (by Chen Gongzhe)
 俄國音樂大家 吳見眞
 A Russian Music Master (by Wu Jianzhen)
 紀網球 姚蟾伯
 Tennis (by Yao Chanbo)
 紀籃球 周錫三 陸象賢
 Basketball (by Zhou Xisan & Lu Xiangxian)
 足球 盧煒昌
 Soccer (by Lu Weichang)
 溜冰 唐瓊相
 Skating (by Tang Qiongxiang)
 拔河 陳啟英
 Tug-of-War (by Chen Qiying)
 凌空術 李國荃
 Zip-Lining (by Li Guoquan)
 畋獵 黎永錦
 Game Hunting (by Li Yongjin)
 遠足(一) 邱亮
 Hiking – Part 1 (by Qiu Liang)
 遠足(二) 沈季修
 Hiking – Part 2 (by Shen Jixiu)
 檯球圖
 Photo of Billiards
 自由車旅行姑蘇圖
 Photos of Cycling Excursion to Gusu District
 鐵啞鈴運動圖 黃惠龍
 Photo of Weightlifting (performed by Huang Huilong)
 乒乓圖
 Photo of Ping-Pong
 平檯運動圖
 Photo of Balancing Platform
 木馬運動圖
 Photo of Vaulting Horse
 槓子運動圖
 Photo of Horizontal Bar
 秋千鐵球鐵餅鑣槍運動圖
 Photos of Rings & Rope Swings, Shot Put, Discus, and Javelin
 跳高跳遠運動圖
 Photos of High Jump and Long Jump
[Parts Seven–Eleven]
文苑
[Part Seven] Contributions from Famous Writers
 文
 Prose
 技擊叢刊序 吳敬恆 稚暉
 Preface for the “Martial Arts Series” (by Wu Jingheng, called Zhihui)
 潭腿序 汪兆銘 精衞
 A Preface for Tantui (by Wang Zhaoming, called Jingwei)
 詩
 Poems
 贈精武諸子 李葭榮 懷霜
 A Gift of Poetry for Everyone at Jingwu (by Li Jiarong, called Huaishuang)
 題鐵生肖像 潘飛聲 蘭史
 A Portrait of Chen Tiesheng in Words (by Pan Feisheng, called Lanshi)
雜俎
[Part Eight] A Mix of Offerings
 此中人語 盧煒昌
 Some Things People Say (by Lu Weichang)
 盾墨餘瀋 陳鐵生
 Some Ink Spillings (by Chen Tiesheng)
 謁紅花崗記 陳鐵生
 Visiting Safflower Ridge (by Chen Tiesheng)
 新靑年雜誌主筆聽者 陳鐵生
 Some Words Sent to the Editor of La Jeunesse (by Chen Tiesheng)
 試與風霜戰一場 翁耀衡
 Going Outside to See How Much We Can Withstand the Freezing Wind (by Weng Yaoheng)
 雪將軍 王漢禮
 Our Snow General (by Wang Hanli)
 混成之游戲 黃畹香
 Playing With the Toys (by Huang Wanxiang)
 會員赴學之小車代涉 黃善祥
 Students Going to Class in Wheelbarrows (by Huang Shanxiang)
 靴陣 黃癡
 Boots in Formation (by Huang Chi)
 聚餐會 莫甘棠
 The Dinner Party Gatherings (by Mo Gantang)
 體育場之平民大會 簡偉卿
 A Rally of the Common People on Our Sports Ground (by Jian Weiqing)
題贈
[Part Nine] Gifts of Calligraphy
 孫中山先生題額
 Calligraphy from Sun Yat-sen on a Horizontal Tablet
 林隱靑先生書條幅
 Calligraphy from Lin Yinqing [Lin Hu] on a Vertical Scroll
 王秋湄先生書手卷
 Calligraphy from Wang Qiumei on a Horizontal Scroll
 朱執信先生題額
 Calligraphy from Zhu Zhixin on a Horizontal Tablet
 魏㦽先生題額
 Calligraphy from Wei Yu on a Horizontal Tablet
 朱會長書手卷
 Calligraphy from Jingwu Association President Zhu [Qinglan] on a Horizontal Scroll
 崇德女校贈花籃
 Photo of a Gift of a Flower Basket from the Chongde Girls’ School
 各界贈品
 Photo of Other Gifts We Have Received from Various Organizations
頌祝
[Part Ten] Congratulatory Poetry
 上海中區商團頌詞
 From the Shanghai Central Business Group
 韞懷商團頌詞
 From the Store & Cherish Business Group
 洋布商團頌詞
 From the Machine-Woven-Cloth Business Group
 復旦大學祝詞兩通
 Two Poems of Congratulations from Fudan University
 廣肇公所祝詞
 A Poem from the Guangzhou-Guangdong Public Affairs Office
 徐峙嵩君贈詩六首
 Six [Five] Gifts of Poetry from Xu Zhisong
 沈夢軒君俠士行
 “Heroic Deeds” (by Shen Mengxuan)
 東亞體育學校祝詞
 A Poem from the East Asia Athletic School
 愛國女學頌詞
 From the Patriotic Girls’ School
 工界靑年勵志會頌詞
 From the Encouraging-the-Workers’-Children Association
 〔培本小學頌詞 朱企民〕
 [From the Developing Fundamentals Primary School (by Zhu Qimin)]

[Part Eleven] Lists of People
 上海精武會職員教員攝影
 Photos of Shanghai Jingwu Association Staff & Instructors
 上海精武會歷任職員教員表
 List of Positions Held Over the Years at the Shanghai Jingwu Association
 上海精武會派往各團體教授技擊職員記名
 List of Martial Arts Instructors from the Shanghai Jingwu Association Teaching at Various Organizations
 上海精武會員表
 Lists of Members of the Shanghai Jingwu Association
外篇
[Part Twelve] Opening Distant Branches
 前南潯分會紀 邱亮
 The Opening of the Nanxun Branch (by Qiu Liang)
 漢口精武會紀略 張文德
 A Brief Account of the Hankou Jingwu Association (by Zhang Wende)
 廣東精武會紀
 Photos of the Guangdong Jingwu Association
 開辦關東精武體育會實紀(香江附) 盧煒昌 陳鐵生
 A Full Account of the Opening of the Guangdong Jingwu Athletic Association (by Lu Weichang & Chen Tiesheng) (Plus Photos of the Hong Kong Jingwu Association)
[Appendices]
課卷彙刊
[Appendix One] A Collection of Writing Exercises
補篇
[Appendix Two] Supplementary Texts
 組織全國精武體育協會芻言 陳公喆
 My View that We Should Perhaps Form a National Jingwu Athletic Association (by Chen Gongzhe)
 聖約翰大學紀 陳鐵生
 Martial Arts at St. John’s University (by Chen Tiesheng)
 上海女子體操學校拳術班攝影
 Photo of the Boxing Arts Class from the Women’s Calisthenics School of Shanghai
 上海精武第一分會紀 陳啟英
 On the First Shanghai Jingwu Branch (by Chen Qiying)
 上海中國公學技擊班攝影
 Photo of the Martial Arts Class of the China Public School of Shanghai
 上海晏摩氏女學技擊班攝影
 Photo of the Martial Arts Class at the Elize Bates Girls’ School in Shanghai
 上海廣肇女學技擊班攝影
 Photo of the Martial Arts Class at the Guangzhou-Guangdong Girls’ School in Shanghai
 上海精武會建築中之雨操場攝影
 Photo of the Construction of the Shanghai Jingwu Association Practice Ground for Rainy Days
 建築中之上海精武公園大門之攝影
 Photo of the Construction of the Large Gate to the “Jingwu Public Gardens” in Shanghai
 建築中之上海精武村攝影
 Photo of the Construction of the “Jingwu Village” in Shanghai
 對於國技之疑點 王元輝
 Concerning Some Doubts about Martial Arts (by Wang Yuanhui)
 特別游藝會紀 陳鐵生
 A Special Entertainment Party (by Chen Tiesheng)
 精武自製之技擊術影戲片目錄 陳公哲
 Contents of the Jingwu Association’s Own Martial Arts Film (by Chen Gongzhe)
 中國精武會章程
 The Constitution of the China Jingwu Association

[In the drawing below by Yang Zuotao, the figure in the middle is emitting H, O, N, and C2O [CO2] (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) – the major components of the air we breathe. This appears to be an attempt at a more scientific rendering of the concept of qi, which fundamentally means “air” and eventually grew so far as to imply “force field”, the expressing of which is apparently making this superhero impervious to bullets and blades, as many in the Boxer Rebellion just two decades before claimed to be.]

精武會始創者 霍元甲先生之遺像
Portrait of the late Huo Yuanjia, founder of the Jingwu Association:

本編攝影主任 陳公哲 廣東香山人業五金
Head photographer for this book, Chen Gongzhe, from Xiangshan [now Zhongshan], Guangdong (a hardware-store owner):

本編總編輯 陳鐵生又名卓枚 廣東新會人新聞記者
Editor of this book, Chen Tiesheng, also called Zhuomei, from Xinhui, Guangdong (a journalist):

精武本紀序 孫文
PREFACE by Sun Yat-sen

自人類日進於文明能以種種經驗資用器具而抵抗自然至於今日人智所發明者幾為古人夢想擬議所不到蓋云盛矣然以利用種種器具之故漸舉其本體器官固有之作用循用進廢退之公例而不免於淘汰此近來有識者所深憂也慨自火器輸入中國之後國人多棄體育之技擊術而不講馴至社會個人積弱愈甚不知最後五分鐘之決勝常在面前五尺地短兵相接之時為今次歐戰所屢見者則謂技擊術與鎗炮飛機有同等作用亦奚不可而我國人曩昔僅襲得他人物質文明之粗末遂自棄其本體固有之技能以為無用豈非大失計耶我國民族平和之民族也吾人初不以黷武善戰策我同胞然處競爭劇烈之時代不知求自衞之道則不適於生存且吾觀近代戰爭之起恆以弱國為問題倘以平和之民族善於自衞則斯世初無弱肉強食之說而自國之問題不待他人之解決因以促進世界人類之平和我民族之責任不綦大哉易曰慢藏誨盜冶容誨淫孟子曰人必自侮而後人侮之國必自伐而後人伐之此皆為不知自衞者警也精武體育會成立旣十年其成績甚多識者稱為體魄修養術專門研究之學會蓋以振起從來體育之技擊術為務於強種保國有莫大之關係推而言之則吾民族所以致力於世界平和之一基礎會中諸子為精武本紀旣成索序於余余嘉諸子之有先知毅力不同於流俗也故書此與之
中華民國八年十月二十日
Ever since human beings developed civilization, they have been able to draw from a vast variety of experiences and make use of many tools to resist against nature. What modern people have invented, ancient people could only have dreamt of and would surely have declared to be the greatest prosperity, but the purpose of using all manner of tools is to gradually elevate our physical capacities. The general rule is to continue to progress rather than fall behind, and this unavoidably involves selection through competition [i.e. keeping what works and eliminating what does not], a factor that has recently given knowledgeable people deep concern.
  Alas, ever since firearms came into China, our countrymen have typically given up using martial arts as physical education and no longer even talk about it, and thus the people in our society have become increasingly weak. They do not understand that victory is often determined during the last five minutes on the last five feet of ground – the moment of close-quarters combat – as has lately been shown over and over again in the course of the European War [i.e. World War I]. Therefore how can it not be said that martial arts are just as valuable as artillery or aircraft?
  Our countrymen long ago used such arts simply to fight against other societies for material resources, and then after a war was done they discarded their own innate skills, deeming them to now be worthless, a huge miscalculation. The people of our nation are inherently a peaceful people, for we did not begin as militaristic warriors scheming against our own compatriots. However, in times of fierce competition, there is no way to survive without knowing methods of self-defense.
  We see with the rise of modern warfare the problem of being a weak nation. When peaceful people are good at self-defense, the world will move on from the notion of “the law of the jungle”. We should not wait for the problems of our nation to be solved by other nations. To promote peace for the world and for mankind is a duty of our people, and a grand one at that. It says in the Book of Changes [from Commentary, Part 1]: “Neglecting to hide valuables invites burglars. Dressing like a whore invites rapists.” Mengzi said [Mengzi, 4a]: “A man first has to bully himself in order for other people to be able to bully him… A nation first has to attack itself in order for other nations to be able to attack it.” These are both examples of not understanding the preventative element of self-defense.
  Since the Jingwu Athletic Association was established, ten years ago, it has had a great many achievements. Discerning people recognize it as being an educational institution that is doing specialized research into arts for training the body. The work of promoting martial arts as physical education is greatly related to the task of strengthening the masses to protect the nation. This means that our people are devoted to one of the fundamental principles of establishing world peace. Once the great people of the Jingwu Association had completed their manuscript for The Annals of Jingwu, they asked me for a preface. As I am so impressed by their uncommon foresight and willpower, I have therefore written these words to accompany their book.
  - Oct 20, 1919

胡漢民先生弁言
INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT FROM HU HANMIN

以科學的法式
傳藝術之精神
Let us use scientific methods
to pass down the spirit of these arts.
漢民题
– calligraphy by Hu Hanmin

朱執信先生序文
PREFACE BY ZHU ZHIXIN

余自三年前來上海数從精武體育會諸君子游闻其始創立時陳英士先生與有力焉辛亥上海革命起有從奪製造局门者既入民國始日昌大而搘拄鼓舞之力則盧君煒昌陳君公哲為多會中人雖日事搏擊而惟以擁護人類自由抵抗強權為號召蓋將化残贼之行以為相仁愛之一手段斯可尚矣人之生也其實動也去動則無生使生而無善可事則必求禍國殃民之事而事之饮食男女縱博贼殺皆生之一部分力之所由宣也世界之所以不滅也從其末則非也求其本則有力而用之固不可免者也道在善用其力不以其生害人之生則雖贼殺凶虐之技壹可化之以為藝術而不復肖其故吾視精武會中人皆能以懲忿窒欲自強則其不以私而用其術審矣其日夕修治惟恐不及也蓋亦以為藝術之一種而愛之者耶昔之善書者疾雷破柱太近而不改其度非精之至也非然者則足二分重在外而恥絜寇之紂絀矣能化人事以為藝術者固超乎道德綱紀以上當其意則所至外物又何足以易之然則學搏擊而得以愛常人之所評哲士所不疑也精武會既曰擴其業分會四起而皆以立行堂人雖束之斯其業紀將與中國之藝術精神而俱進也與陳子鐵生屬余為精武會一員故書此遺之
民國八年十一月 蕭山朱大符(執信)
Three years ago [1916], I came to Shanghai and several times visited the Jingwu Athletic Association, whose fame has spread everywhere. When it was founded, Chen Yingshi [Qimei] was on the rise. He later brought the 1911 Revolution to Shanghai and captured the arsenal there. The city thereafter became part of the Republic of China and has prospered ever since, bringing inspiration to people such as Lu Weichang and Chen Gongzhe, and many other members of the Jingwu Association. Although they focus on fighting skills, they endorse human freedom and the call to resist against tyranny, transforming what are actions for injuring people into a means of caring for each other. This is noble indeed.
  Human life depends on movement. No movement, no life. But to provide life without any means of doing good only brings disaster to a nation and its people, leading to licentious living [“drink, eat, man & woman”, the meaning being “food and drink, and sex”] and a chaos of thieving and killing, everyone living a pattern of selfishness that the world cannot quell. To only observe this outcome will fix nothing, but working at the root cause will bring a useful strength that will be undeniable. The Way lies in making use of one’s strength, not in using one’s own life as an excuse to harm the lives of others, thus these otherwise brutal skills can be transformed into beautiful arts and no longer appear to be only what they used to be.
  I have noticed that the members of the Jingwu Association are all capable of [from Book of Changes, hexagram 41] “keeping their temper and restraining their passions”, and [hexagram 1] “striving for self-improvement”. Thus they do not act merely for themselves, but for their art, and fear only that there is not enough time in the day for training, because they have made their art into a project of caring for others. Long ago, a great writer [Ouyang Xiu] produced these words [in “Retiring with Six Ones” (one set of ten thousand books, one set of a thousand scrolls of ancient inscriptions, one zither, one chess set, one cooking pot, and one old man himself): “[Mt. Tai could collapse in front of me, but I would not blink.] Thunder could bring down the building around me, but I would not flinch.” Events may crowd in upon us, but they cannot diminish our focus once it has been established, and we will be undistracted by anything beyond it, even humiliation.
  Those who can transform a piece of quite ordinary human affairs into an art truly go above and beyond mere codes of ethics, and what they have achieved with their ideas cannot be swayed by the material world. Thus learning fighting skills is now a means of learning to care for ordinary people, and thus is something philosophers would not argue against. The Jingwu Association has now expanded by establishing several branch locations, all of which are now open and operating. Even when its members are hidden behind the walls of these practice halls, what they are doing will cause China’s artistic spirit to make great progress. Chen Tiesheng has encouraged me to become a member of the Jingwu Association myself, and I will start by writing this preface.
  - Zhu Dafu [Zhixin] of Xiaoshan [in Zhejiang], Nov, 1919

言論
[PART ONE] GENERAL DISCUSSION

☉大精武主義 陳鐵生 卓枚
THE GREAT JINGWU DOCTRINE by Chen Tiesheng, called Zhuomei

▲槪論
Introduction

冠首標題。曰大精武主義。得毋似彼大斯拉夫大亞細亞之專制口吻乎。曰否不然。威爾遜有言。國際聯盟。是以美國曾經試驗有效之聯邦制度。推廣於世界也。斯義也。吾有取焉。
Does the title “The Great Jingwu Doctrine” perhaps imply the tone of the despots of Europe and Asia? No, it does not. [Woodrow] Wilson described a “league of nations” [explained in the fourteenth of his Fourteen Points: “A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”], a system of federation modeled upon the United States and applied to another part of the world. [The League officially formed within a month after this book was published, though ironically the US was not a member.] We have adopted the spirit of this principle.

健全之精神。寓於健全之軀體。殆成莫破之眞理。今歲美國全國教育會。宣布戰後教育之基本計畫。有獎勵體育。及有益游戲。養成健全國民之一條。夫以美國之強盛。體育之發達。猶為是言。然則我輩之觀感。當何如也。黃膺白所撰歐戰之教訓。謂今次教訓。無論其國民對於國家如何忠實。若無獨立之能力者。終不足以擔負國家之大事。彼持國家主義者之言若此。然則有世界眼光者。當知體育之不容或緩也。決無疑義。雖然。體育之途夥矣。說者謂。器械徒手。歐法具備。苟能有是。則已無復遺憾。然窮其成法。多囿於一肢。每有顧彼失此之慮。求其四體百骸。協同動作。氣血共長者。初無有焉。有之。其惟吾華數千年遺傳絕續之技擊術是已。
The maxim “mens sana in corpore sano” [“a healthy mind in a healthy body”] is surely an undeniable truth. This year, the National Education Association of the United States [NEA] announced a post-war basic education program, particularly encouraging physical education and beneficial recreational games, one of the aims being to cultivate a stronger populace. The strength of America does seem to be due to its physical education. But what is the impression of our own people? Huang Yingbai [Huang Fu], for example, has recently written Lessons from the European War and the Future of China, in which he says: “The lesson now is that no matter how loyal the people are to their nation, if they do not have individual ability, they will ultimately not be equipped to perform the great task their nation requires of them.” If those who otherwise hold to a nationalist ideal fall short in this way, then in the eyes of the world they will undoubtedly be thought to either not care about physical education or be very behind in it.
  However, there are many kinds of physical education, some done with empty hands, others involving apparatuses. European methods involve both, and so there is nothing missing in this regard. But one of their limitations is that they emphasize one part of the body at a time, thereby neglecting other parts. To seek to work the entire body, all parts working in coordination, energy and blood developing together, is a quality they lack. In order for us to have this quality, our martial arts, passed down over several thousand years, are ideal.

技擊之作用最神。漢時華佗用以治病。然體育眞理。猶未發明。知其然。而不知其所以然。海通以後。知歐美之強盛。道在體育。故彼之種種運動。乃稗販於吾華焉。歲庚戌。霍元甲先生。發大聲於海上。創立精武體操會。在閘北之王家宅。時有平日喜作歐式運動者。見有體操之標誌。姑往肄業。初本好奇之一念。固未知其效果之何如。浸假而軀體之進步。有非初意所及計者。旣而知者漸衆。乃羣趨而問道焉。察其效果。竟無不同。而後知體育之眞正法門。此為精華。彼特糟粕耳。夫技擊歷經獨夫之摧折。俠武有禁。拳師有禁。故昔之練習者。或則匿於方外。或則秘於家傳。其得堂堂正式之練習。蔚為璀璀光華之學科者。斯為嚆矢矣。
Martial arts actions are so marvelous that Hua Tuo of the Han Dynasty used them to treat illness. However, the true principles of physical education had still not been invented at that time. They knew then how to do things with the body, but did not yet know how bodies actually worked. Later on, we came to know that the strength and prosperity of Europe and America was a matter of physical education, and that their various kinds of exercise had apparently been copied indiscriminately from our Chinese exercises.
  In the 47th year of the cycle [1910], Huo Yuanjia spoke out against this in Shanghai and founded the Jingwu Calisthenics Association in the Wang Family Neighborhood in Shanghai’s Zhabei District. At that time, people were usually quite fond of doing European exercises, similar to calisthenics, and this is what was normally used in schools. The Jingwu Association initially only sparked some curiosity from people, not really sure that it would bring results, but gradually their bodies made significant progress.
  Membership had not even been worth counting in the beginning, but then eventually grew to a crowd as more and more hastened to ask for instruction. They noticed that the results were just as good as with the European exercises and later understood that this was actually the genuine method of physical education, that our Chinese way is the essentials [the characters used here for “essentials” also coincidentally meaning “pure Chinese”] and their European way is merely the leftovers.
  Unfortunately in the case of our martial arts, enthusiasts have often encountered autocratic masters who have deliberately obstructed access to the art. Warriors and teachers both had prohibitions about sharing. Practitioners in former times either kept their art hidden in the wilderness or secret within a family tradition. This is why the training gained a reputation for having a dignified formality and of it being a discipline steeped in a majestic mystique.

十稔以還。閱歷考察。亦已有素。若者轉弱為強。若者驅除痼疾。而老而少。殆不可以數量。吾聞科學重實驗。技擊術有此確切證明。然則體育之良法。如技擊術者。可謂有百利而無一弊矣。
After ten years of experience and observation, we have built a solid foundation indeed, transforming weakness into strength, eliminating chronic illness, and turning the old into the young again, too many successes to count. I have heard that some scientific tests on martial arts have been conducted which verify their effectiveness. Broadly speaking, the benefits of physical education such as martial arts can be considered to have countless advantages and not one drawback.

雖然。技擊絕續。今始萌蘖。且以昔日拳師多未中程。此當改善為有組織有秩序之正式學會。夫而後有發達昌明。普及世界之希望。然而凡百事業。創始為艱。苟無前轍之可循。難免望洋而興嘆。故同人等發大願心。敬以本會十年經歷。若宗旨。若性質。若辦理法與歷史。詳敍而介紹於大衆。匪云模範。聊作先河。但使增一技擊同志。卽增一精神健王。體力充實之世界全人。增一同式團體。卽增一富有互助精神。富有團結能力之平民保障。異日者。旣無弱肉。自無強食。孔子所謂太平大同。佛氏所謂極樂世界。咸以此為護法之利器。引渡之慈航也。
The continued survival of martial arts starts from today. Boxing masters of former times failed to establish this, but the situation has been improved by having an organized and systematic formal association, and from now on, these arts will flourish and indeed they will even spread throughout the world. However, all undertakings are difficult in the beginning, and unless the right path is followed, it is difficult to avoid feeling hopelessly inadequate [“sigh at the scale of the ocean” – Zhuangzi, chapter 17]. Therefore our colleagues made a vow to make it work, and the Jingwu Association has now lasted through ten years.
  Below I will explain our purpose, our nature, our curriculum, and our history, as an introduction to everyone, not to set the definitive blueprint, but simply to set an example. The addition of every martial arts comrade means another step toward invigorating the spirit and enhancing the physical health of people everywhere. The addition of every similar organization means another step toward enriching each other’s spirit and improving our capacity to unite for the protection of the people. In former times, we lived by the law of the jungle. But what Confucianists call the “peaceful utopia” and Buddhists call the “pure land” [Sukhavati] both depend on these kinds of strategies as the tools to sustain us and the transportation to take us into a better world.

▲宗旨
Our Purpose

平等兩字。為天經地義。然等何以平。非人類之身體。各個咸臻康健。則智識道德。皆無可語。故康健平等。為人間世第一大事。惟欲達此境。非體育不為功。講究體育。非技擊不為功。本會宗旨以技擊為根本。以武德為皈依。輔以有益之學科。正當之游藝。么匿健全。拓都普及。淑身淑世。向此目標進行。
Equality is what is called for. But how to achieve it? Unless every human body attains a high level of physical fitness, then intellectual and moral fitness have nothing to build on. Therefore equality of physical health is the top priority for society. However, while equality cannot be achieved without physical fitness, physical fitness cannot be achieved without martial arts. The purpose of the Jingwu Association is grounded in martial arts and imbued with martial virtue, which is then further supplemented by other beneficial branches of learning and other appropriate recreational activities. Strengthening the individual radiates an influence onto society as a whole. Refining the self equals refining the world. This is the goal we are progressing toward.

▲性質
Our Nature

學校有年齡之限制。吾會以實際經驗。打破此關。蓋以時勢要求。不能舍此中年有用。生育猶繁之多數人民。使其永淪荏弱。廢置無用。且有此荏弱之父母。必產生荏弱之子息。故中年男女。尤當使之轉弱為強。勿使再留弱種。所以本會雖為學校之性質。而無年齡之限制。
課餘自當有行樂游戲之場所。故本會並具俱樂部性質。然苟有不規則之游戲。直接是有隳人格。間接是有害社會。故本會雖具有俱樂部之性質。而嚴禁不規則之行為。
School education usually has age restrictions, but the Jingwu Association deals with a practical consideration that breaks down such barriers: in order to deal with the demands of our time, we cannot afford to discard the potential of the middle-aged. Most people seem to consider them to have been reduced to a permanent state of weakness and then dismiss them as being useless. However, weak parents will raise weak children. This means that middle-aged men and women need to transform their weakness into strength and must not allow themselves to remain weak. Therefore although the Jingwu Association has the nature of being a school, we are not here only for young people.
  Beyond our classes, we also have facilities for recreational activities, and thus the Jingwu Association also has the nature of being a club. However, if there were any improper activities going on, this would directly harm an individual’s character and thereby indirectly harm society. Therefore although the Jingwu Association has the nature of being a club, we strictly prohibit improper behavior.
(附錄)本會旣為學校性質。故從前拳師之積習。在所厲禁。無謂之政談。亦當屛絕。告成學養功深。武德純粹之平民。
(Note: Because the Jingwu Association first of all has the nature of being a school, any bad habits that our boxing instructors have had in the past have been strictly forbidden. It is not necessary to go into detail about it. Suffice it to say, through dedicated study and hard work, all who are here have become people of pure martial virtue.)

▲辦理法
Our Curriculum

辦理取分部法。以正副會長董事總其成。以總務主任書記會計糾察庶務調查稽查等職副之。各部設部長主任等職。
Our curriculum is divided into departments. Overall responsibility lies in a president, vice president, and board of directors. Subsidiary duties are carried out by heads of general affairs, secretaries, bookkeepers, disciplinary officers, general affairs secretaries, inspectors, and customs officers. There is a head director of each department in charge of managing that department.

(一)技擊部
1. Martial Arts Department

技擊為根本。故首列此科。以部長董之。幷設主任。然聘請教員。解釋用法。非深於此道者不能。故技擊主任。必以有心得而道德學問為同人信任者充之。技擊教員。受其支配。凡外間學校或公團。有延請本會教練技擊者。先由部長於主任中擇派。倘無主任可派。乃酌派教員。蓋以本身武技論。自當推重教員。然技擊今在復興時代。才兼文武者。實難其選。且團體教練。尤與單人教練不同。各主任多商學界人。兵式操皆有根底。方言相通。解釋尤易。此從實驗而來。非書本上空談也。七年秋。北京集全國中學會議。已決定技擊為必要之學科。故本會現正擬辦速成技擊師範班。擬以曾畢業於各種運動學校者為限。卽所以救濟此項急需也。本會教員。各派俱備。惟初級科目。有規定。以正始基。初級科目共十種。
Martial arts are the foundation, therefore it is the primary course of study that is emphasized. There is a department head and department directors. As for the instructors employed to explain how these arts work, they do not qualify if they have not achieved a deep level. Therefore martial arts directors must themselves have experience, integrity, and knowledge in order to gain the confidence of their colleagues in giving martial arts instructors their positions.
  Whenever outside schools or public organizations seek to engage instructors from the Jingwu Association, the department head will first choose from among the department directors, and if none are available, then consider from among the instructors for who is to be sent. In terms of individual martial skill, the instructors are of course held in high esteem, but because martial arts are only recently in an era of revival, it is hard to find those who are equally skilled in both literary arts and martial arts.
  Furthermore, group instruction is very different from individual instruction. The department directors often come from business or academic circles, but the groups are conducted like drilling soldiers in an army, which is rooted in communicating orders as clearly as possible. Being able to run a group in this way is based on experience, not on empty theorizing from books.
  In the autumn of 1918, at the Nationwide Secondary Schools Conference held in Beijing, it was decided to make martial arts a required course of study. Therefore the Jingwu Association now runs an accelerated program for training martial arts instructors, limited to graduates of physical education colleges, thereby filling an urgent need.
  Jingwu Association instructors are equipped in various styles, but the course for beginners has been standardized to give a proper foundation. Beginners will learn these ten sets:

潭腿。
[1] Tantui
工力拳。
[2] Gongli Boxing
節拳。
[3] Articulated Boxing
接潭脮。
[4] Two-Person Tantui
八卦刀。
[5] Eight-Trigrams Saber
五虎槍。
[6] Fifth Tiger’s Spear
大戰拳。
[7] Large-Scale Fight
套拳。
[8] Trapping Boxing
羣羊棍。
[9] Shepherd’s Staff
單刀串槍。
[10] Single Saber Versus Spear

必熟習此十種。方及他技。會員中。有相約不輟技擊課程者。自成一組。號曰勵志團。凡無故不至會者。予罰。故七年以前。成績以此團為優。團有主任以董其事。至八年春。復有惜陰團。蓋相約於天明六時以前。到會練拳。風霜雨雪。不許規避者。亦設主任。以事考核。八年夏。更發生健兒團。團例。凡非兵操之日。必於晨七時集合操場。作技擊之團體操演。此團尤為能人所難。蓋技擊之單人演習與團體操練。其用力直如一與四之比例。團設總教。凡曠課三次者。卽予除名。蓋教授以此為最吃苦。不欲虛用其精力也。有模範團。此為教練女子技擊者。有安步團。此相約步行到會者。有弓箭袖鑣等科。自由練習。有武器主任。管理武器者。以上為關於技擊之一部。
These ten sets must be learned well in order to then move on to other sets.
  Among the members, there are those who have formed their own group in which they have promised to non-stop martial arts training. It is called the Encouragement Club. It works like this: whenever a club member is absent without giving a reason, he is given a fine. The result of this for the last seven years is that the achievements of the club have been outstanding. This club has its own director to manage its affairs.
  Then in spring of 1918, the Precious-Time Club was formed. They meet before dawn, gathering at the Jingwu Association to practice boxing sets, undeterred by wind or rain. They have appointed a director to evaluate the progress of its members.
  In the autumn of 1919, the Valiant Warriors Club also started. Their premise is that on the days in which there is no army drill, they will gather on the drill ground at 7am to do group training of martial arts. The challenge for the talented members of this club is that they push themselves to do four times as much practice, both solo and group, as ordinary members. They have established a rule that once a member is absent for the third time, that person is kicked out of the club. The instructors treat this as the true challenge of the club, making the point that their time should not be wasted.
  There is also the Exemplary Women Club, specifically for training women in martial arts, the Walking Club, who are committed to walking to the Jingwu Association every day as their only form of transport, as well as courses in things such as archery, sleeve darts, and so on, and plenty of opportunity for practicing whenever and whatever one pleases. A weapons director has been specially appointed to maintain all of the weapons.

(二)兵操部
2. Army Drill Department

技擊術中之團體操。須以口令指揮。故教員會員。必習此科。(惟會員有特別原因者、可放任、)部長外。幷設教授及軍樂主任。軍械主任。被服主任以副之。
Group training in martial arts requires verbal commands to direct it, therefore teachers and members should also go through this course (except of course for members who have special cause to be exempt [such as being flat-footed, etc.]). The department head is assisted by drill instructors, a band director, a director of armaments, and a director of uniforms.

(三)文事部
3. Literary Studies Department

會員於課餘之暇。多習文事者。國文有教授。英文有教授。簿記學有教授。打字科有主任。臨池會有主任。圖畫有教授。攝影有教授及主任。華醫有主任。西醫有主任。普通語有教授。此部分主任多兼教員。為義務職。以會員之深於此道者任之。以部長董其成。
In their spare time outside of their normal classes, members often train in literary studies. For the Chinese and English language classes, and the classes in accounting, drawing, and Mandarin, they are all run by instructors. For the classes in typing, calligraphy, Chinese medicine, and Western medicine, they are all run by directors. The photography class is run by both an instructor and a director. The duties of this department are spread among directors and instructors, but for the members to be able to delve deeply into these pursuits is thanks to the head of the department.

(四)游藝部
4. Recreational Activities Department

人生之行樂。當軌於正道。本會於正當有益之游戲。無不備設。足球有主任。網球有主任。畋獵有主任。籃球有主任。標槍有主任。凌空溜冰有主任。平檯木馬有主任。檯球有主任。鐵球鐵餅有主任。京樂西樂絃樂有教授。粵調有有主任。皆受成於部長。(本會有普通會員之一類。初志本在游藝文事之兩門。然入會而後。多愛兼習技擊者。故本會定例。星期日技擊術一科。兼教普通會員。惟屬隨意。)
In the quest for amusement, there are proper paths to finding it. The Jingwu Association offers a variety of legitimately beneficial recreational activities: soccer, tennis, game hunting, basketball, javelin throwing, zip-lining, roller skating, balancing platform, vaulting horse, billiards, shot put, discus, and Cantonese opera, which are all run by directors, as well as Beijing opera and Western stringed instruments, which are run by instructors, and all of these activities are arranged by the head of the department. (There are many members who started with an interest in our recreational activities or literary studies, but after joining, they discovered a delight for learning martial arts as well. Therefore the Jingwu Association has a special martial arts class every Sunday in which instruction is given to ordinary members in whatever they feel like.)

以上卽本會現在之辦理法。惟經費一項。閱者無讋於以上之科目繁瑣。以為必須鉅大之薪金也。實則除技擊教員而外。各教授純任義務。會員中有勝任某項者。卽舉以充之。無自棄者。此卽互助之謂也。老會員陳公哲曾謂以辦小學一年之費。可辦精武事業兩年。以中學一年之費。可辦精武事業四年。其省費也若此。
The above items describe the current structure of the Jingwu Association. As for tuition, you do not need to worry that any of the courses above will require you to have a huge income. Apart from the martial arts instructors, the instructors in the other courses are actually volunteers, members who have special qualifications and have thus been given authority to run those courses. This is an example of how people who do not give up on their own ambitions are then able to give help to others. Seasoned member Chen Gongzhe once said that the tuition for one year of primary school would get you two years at Jingwu and the tuition for one year of secondary school would get you four years at Jingwu, and so it is a much better deal.

學問之道。自修最難。所謂十年讀書。不如一朝聽講。良師不如益友也。况自修恆苦孤寂。其不至中道而止者幾希。吾儕素持技擊普及主義。日以結團肄習勸人。亦緣此也。然結合之始。尤必相見以誠。吾會有隱語曰精武式。精武式云者。誠之代名詞也。譬如有會友相約至某處晚膳者。綴以精武式三字。卽云屆時必至。不許或逾。幾如憲法中之所謂神聖不可侵矣。莫謂小節無關。須知習慣卽成自然。今日不痛不癢麻木不仁之見象。皆此不誠之一念為之也。吾會雖未能號為純全法治團體。然十年而往。歷盡艱難困苦。而仍有今日者。皆此誠之一字。維持於不敝耳。
To study on one’s own is the most difficult way to learn. It is said that reading books for ten years is not as good as listening to a lecture for one day, and also that studying under a great teacher is not as useful as studying with a helpful friend. To study on one’s own is very lonely and one can barely hope to get halfway. We embrace the doctrine of spreading martial arts, and therefore we practice every day as a group in order to encourage each other.
  However, in order to function as a group, we must meet with sincerity. The Jingwu Association has its code. The “Jingwu code” is a synonym for “sincerity”. For example, if members agree to meet somewhere for an evening meal, they live by the Jingwu code, meaning that they will arrive at the appointed time and no later. Our code is almost like what is said in the Constitution [of the Empire of Japan]: “[The Emperor is] sacred and inviolable.” There are no exceptions, no matter how small.
  It has to be understood that once something has become habitual, it has become natural. People nowadays exhibit a numbness of apathy, and this is entirely due to a lack of sincerity. We cannot claim that the Jingwu Association is the perfect organization, but we have lasted for ten years. We have gone through all manner of difficulty and hardship, but we are still here, and this is because we have maintained our sincerity.

尤有進者。卽武德之一大問題也。故一方面為講武之體育場。一方面並為德育之實踐地。大抵道德之不振。多由軀體荏弱。精神不足以支拄之。此蓋有生理之關係焉。武術家因每日體液排洩之作用。濾淸其體中之血液。血液純凈。則心志澄淸。種種不道德之思想。自然消滅。故古昔之人。讀書必兼擊劍。此蓋兩不偏廢。相與有成也。羅斯福曰。支配全人物之精神者為精力。而支配全人物精力者為運動。吾為進一解曰。增進人類之道德者為技擊術也。
Furthermore, there is the large issue of martial virtue. One aspect of the training is the practice of martial arts, but another aspect is moral education. Generally speaking, a decline in one’s morality usually comes from weakness growing in one’s body to the point that one’s spirit gives up. This is related to a physiological effect: the daily practice of martial arts masters has the effect of cleansing their bodily fluids, filtering their blood until it is pure, and thus their willpower is unclouded by doubts and all variety of immoral thoughts are naturally eliminated.
  This is why ancient people who studied literature were required to give equal time to fighting with swords, not emphasizing one and neglecting the other, and thus both aspects completed each other. Theodore Roosevelt said that the spirit of the perfected man is governed by vigor and that the vigor of the perfected man is governed by exercise. I propose a similar notion: “Enhancing one’s ethics is what martial arts are for.”

▲歷史
Our History

民國前兩年。歲在庚戌。有外人樹武幟於海上。卽世俗豔稱之擺擂臺也。然蘇俗文弱。無抗衡者。有宋氏子。燕產也。函告靜海霍力士元甲。力士南來。則外人已自餒而潛遁。已而。有魯人趙某者至。其勢洶洶然。霍曰。鬩牆之舉。非吾志也。趙嗤為遁詞。力士乃勉與周旋。不旋踵而趙負矣。旬日後。其友張某繼至。敗亦如趙。時有小人國艷力士之技。嬲與角。折脇者數人。乃銜力士。知力士方患嗆。薦其同黨醫生秋某為治嗆。力士性率直。受之不疑。當時力士正剏立精武體操會(精武之始名)於閘北之王家宅。不旬日。而力士遽歸道山矣。力士歿之翌晚。秋醫已鼠竄歸窟。力士門弟子大疑。檢力士日服之餘藥。付公立醫院察之。院醫曰。此慢性爛肺藥也。(此藥今仍貯公立醫院、吾儕矢誓、永不忘此紀念、)然殺一霍元甲。而第二第三。以至無量數之霍元甲。乃續續產生。其又將若之何哉。力士旣歿。門弟子皆具決心。努力進行。然精武會殆以此時為最苦矣。入其門。蕭條之象。殆如破落之古剎。盧煒昌、陳公哲、黎惠生、劉扆臣、姚蟾伯、邱亮、寧竹亭、等。皆古剎中之入定僧也。廳事中陳列者。木製之單刀。鐵片製成之大刀。無纓之秀槍。三脚之板櫈。光如靑螢之煤油燈。及教員之一片睡板。與夫三五茶爐爨具。精武會之所有。盡於此矣。會員皆子弟資格。無家正權。故雖勉力支持。不免捉襟見肘。甚至教員且有半日不得食者。試以倍開爾路七十三號比之。其感想為何如也。然而吾輩當勿忘此入定之老僧。
In the 47th year of the cycle, or 1910, foreigners were putting up martial advertisements in Shanghai. The custom at the time was to issue challenges from a raised platform, but the people of Shanghai were typically too frail and no match for them. There was a man named Song, from Hebei, who sent a letter to Huo Yuanjia, telling him about this. Huo then came south to Shanghai, and those foreigners lost confidence and secretly left. Soonafter, a man from Shandong named Zhao arrived, bringing a violent attitude. Huo said: “I’m not interested in quarreling over who’s best among us Chinese.” Zhao sneered in contempt, so Huo then committed to engaging and Zhao was quickly defeated.
  The following week, Zhao’s friend Zhang Mouji came to try, and lost just like Zhao. At that time, there were many lesser mortals who admired Huo’s skill and pestered him for a bout. After a few had got the better of him, they then understood that Huo had become ill and recommended a physician they knew, a certain Dr. Qiu, to cure him. Huo was a somewhat naïve man and accepted treatment without any doubts. At that time, Huo had just founded the Jingwu Calisthenics Association (as it was then called) in the Wang Family Neighborhood in the Zhabei District. After only a week, Huo suddenly fell into a coma and died the next evening. Dr. Qiu then fled like a mouse into a hole, which Huo’s students found to be very suspicious. They had Huo’s medicine taken to a public hospital to be examined. The conclusion given was that it was a poison for slowly rotting the lungs. (This substance remains at the hospital to this day, and we have vowed never to forget this information.)
  However, to kill one Huo Yuanjia, or a second, or a third, or any number of Huo Yuanjias, will only continue to produce more. For instance, once Huo died, his students all became even more determined, doing their utmost to carry on. But the Jingwu Association was at that time in dire straits. Upon entering it, it seemed desolate, almost like a monastery in decline, with Lu Weichang, Chen Gongzhe, Li Huisheng, Liu Yichen, Yao Chanbo, Qiu Liang, and Ning Zhuting all being like monks in a trance.
  On display within the main hall were a wooden saber, an iron halberd, a spear without any horsehair, a three-footed wooden stool, dim light from a kerosene lamp, some planks for instructors to sleep on, and a few stoves for brewing tea. The Jingwu Association had been stripped down to this. The members were all at a very junior level, and there was no proper master in authority. Therefore although they did their best to maintain the Jingwu Association, they were inevitably overwhelmed by problems, to the point that the instructors had hardly anything to eat each day. This sounds so very different to the current state of the Jingwu Association at 73 Baikal Road. We should not forget about that time when they were living like monks.

旣而遷至鐵路旱橋鄰近之第二會址。當時會員略有加增。袁恆之先生者。熱腸古道之君子人也。當舉世非議之時。獨任將伯。且投身會中。肆力於技擊焉。然是時會務旣漸擴充。經費日見增益。執事中有典衣質物以相支持者。亦良可念矣。四年七月。滬上遭颶風。會前之笪棚。竟為十八姨席捲以去。而新會址之計畫。乃起點焉。失敗者成功之母。此之謂也。
The Jingwu Association later moved to its second location, near a railway overpass. Membership then slightly increased. Yuan Hengzhi [whose name 恆之 Hengzhi has the same construction for “perseverance” as in Lun Yu, 13.22: 無恆之人不可以作巫醫 (“A man without perseverance will never become a shaman.”), making him a model of perseverance even in his name], a gentlemen who is enthusiastic about these ancient traditions, was the best person to ask for assistance during those days when everyone still thought little of us. He devoted himself to the Jingwu Association and did his utmost for martial arts.
  While he was in charge, the curriculum gradually expanded, funds gradually increased, and the uniforms and paraphernalia became standardized, truly making his contribution something to be remembered. But then in July of 1915, a typhoon hit Shanghai, wrecking the bamboo roof and ripping out eighteen floor mats. This was the starting point for planning the new location. As it is said: “Failure is the mother of success.”

人物者。歷史之中堅也。無人物是無歷史。精武向來重實踐。惡虛名。故人知精武。而精武之中堅人物。固不欲人之知之也。余曰不然。名固虛。實亦虛。惟此一點精神。歷千萬劫而不敝。旣能獻身世界。豈必並此虛名而靳之。且諸君之所為。亦人類應盡之義務耳。吾旣秉筆為精武本紀。必束縛吾腕。不如其已。雖然。知此為人類之義務者。何竟不可數數覯也。
Colorful characters are the backbone of history. Without such characters, there is no history. Because we have always respected actual training and hated empty reputation, people therefore assume that the Jingwu Association does not want to be known for its people. This is not necessarily the case. Fame is indeed meaningless, but one’s deeds can also end up becoming meaningless. A degree of colorful spirit is required for one’s deeds to be remembered throughout the generations. And so to be able to devote oneself to others, one should not be expected to be entirely selfless. The noble deeds of great men inspire the rest of us to carry out the duties that are actually common to us all. However, while writing for The Annals of Jingwu, I have had to tie my hands to a certain extent so that I do not put too much of myself into it. Those who understand that this kind of work is a duty would nevertheless find it difficult to keep from repeatedly giving in to a similar temptation.

笪棚旣倒。陳公哲姚蟾伯盧煒昌之三子。乃竊議於大觀樓。新會地址。本為公哲舊物。乃合姚盧之力。同任建築。然仍相約以祕密進行也。五年春新會落成。三月四日。乃移寓焉。此卽今日精武會之初基也。故敍精武歷史。在舊址時為胚胎時期。至是乃入嬰兒時期。
After the typhoon damage, Chen Gongzhe, Yao Chanbo, and Lu Weichang discussed having something much grander for a new location. It started out as an old plan of Chen’s, but then when combined with the efforts of Yan and Lu, they were able to get it built, making their progress in secret. In the spring of 1916, the new building was completed, and was moved into on the 4th of March. This is the current headquarters of the Jingwu Association, therefore in terms of Jingwu history, it represents its transition from embryo to infant.

遷入新會而後。會員日增。且以體操兩字。未能完滿。故易名曰精武體育會。擴充學科。改良形式。如昔之套袴兵。則改為黃軍服。(各科另有專紀)昔之舊書櫥。今則擴為書報室。兵操文事游藝之種種。罔弗備置焉。五年夏。煒昌等謀組月刊。以其事屬之不佞。旋以吾儕旣持普及主義。當計畫推銷之良法。乃以撰著附刊於商務印書館之學生雜志中。命名曰技擊叢刊。凡一種之殺靑。另刊單行本。仍託商務印書館印行。今之潭腿。與潭腿掛圖。五虎槍。達摩劍。合戰。童子軍實用棍譜等是也。
Since moving into the new location, membership has daily increased. The name “Calisthenics Association” was no longer satisfactory, and so it was changed to the Jingwu “Athletic Association”. The curriculum was expanded and improvements took shape, such as the “breeches army” switching to proper uniforms (each department having its own special concerns). Instead of the old bookcases, there is now an enlarged library of books and periodicals. New departments, such as army drill, literary studies, and recreational activities, have all been established.
  In the autumn of 1916, Lu Weichang and others began working to form a monthly newsletter to discuss our affairs. Along these lines, and in keeping with our mission of spreading knowledge far and wide, a good strategy for promoting these arts has been to publish writings about them in The Students’ Magazine, run by Commercial Press. Under the banner of “Martial Arts Series”, we have now collected these writing into complete books in individual volumes, for which we have again relied on Commercial Press to do the publishing. There are now the manuals of Tantui, along with a Tantui wall-hanging, Fifth Tiger’s Spear, Damo Sword, Cooperative Fight, and Practical Staff Methods for the Boy Scouts.

精武分會。曁各省之精武會。皆獨立者。然技擊教員。必受本會之制裁。昔有浙江之南潯分會。紹興分會。香港分會。七年秋。漢口精武會成。(另有專紀)八年夏。廣東精武會成。(有專紀)鄂粵兩會。魄力雄厚。經費充裕。任事者皆具熱心毅力。其發達可立而俟也。
There are now Jingwu Association branches in various provinces. They all function independently, but the martial arts instructors must by authorized by the original Jingwu Association in Shanghai. First there were the two branches in Zhejiang – the Nanxun branch and Shaoxing branch – and then the Hong Kong branch. In the autumn of 1918, the Hankou Jingwu Association was established, and then in the summer of 1919, the Guangdong Jingwu Association was established. (A more detailed look at the establishing of the Guangdong branch appears in Part Twelve.) The branches in Hubei and Guangdong required ample boldness and abundant funding. Those who arranged them have great enthusiasm and willpower, and thus these branches are sure to flourish.

本會對於會員蹈履上之約束最嚴。凡入會者。必有介紹。介紹者自負責成。士農工商。皆可入會無階級。無貧富。惟入會之先。必經審查。入會之後。尤多糾察。苟有不規則行為之見端者。立予除名。不少假借。語云。如入芝蘭之室。久而不聞其香。故會員初則兢兢自守。恐侵神聖之約章。久而久之。躬行實踐。則亦入而俱化。行所無事矣。十年來略博社會之信任者。此其眞因也。
Membership has strict requirements. A member has to have a recommendation from someone who can vouch for him. All types of people can become members, whether scholar, farmer, laborer, or merchant, regardless of rank or economic status. However, before joining, you will be examined in order to qualify to get in, and then after joining, you will frequently be examined again to make sure that you are worthy to stay, and if it turns out that you are not abiding by the rules, you will be expelled.
  We often make use of the principal in this saying [from Sayings of the Confucian School, chapter 15]: “[Being in the company of good people is] like entering a hall full of flowers. After a long time, you will become so used to the fragrance that you will not notice it anymore and it will have become part of you. [Being in the company of bad people is like entering a shop full of fish. After a long time, you will become so used to the stink that you will not notice it anymore and it will have become part of you.]” Members who solemnly maintain the rules, behaving in accordance with them for a long time, will subsequently be transformed in their conduct. Over the last ten years, we have gained the trust of society, and this is the reason why.

政治問題。最為擾攘。故會約有制止政談之一條。立足於十里洋場之風潮旋渦中。本會曾未受其影響。彼隆隆之礮聲。蚩蚩之子彈。吾輩之練拳如故也。蓋謂政治為一時之見象。而技擊為萬世之根本。十年樹木。百年樹人。吾固無此餘暇。以干預彼擾擾之政治問題也。
Political issues are the most troublesome of all, therefore in the Jingwu Association we refrain from discussing politics. Despite living among the turbulence of foreigners, we have still not become overly influenced by them. Regardless of the sounds of their cannons and bullets, we go on practicing our boxing arts as before. Whereas the political situation is always temporary, martial arts provide a framework for all generations, for as it is said [a common saying paraphrased from Guanzi, chapter 3]: “It takes a decade to grow a tree, a century to cultivate a people.” And so we simply do not have time to waste on being concerned with the circus of politics.

此卽彼入定老僧所身體力行之效果。亦卽精武十年來之成績也。夫霍先生縱得千百門弟子。苟盡如從前拳師。則雖盡如霍先生之好身手。而於技擊前途。固亦無甚影響。於世界更無影響。惟有此三數人。遂能發揮而光大之。此無他。道德智識。足以濟之耳。是豈第霍先生之幸耶。技擊中興。卽人類平等之基礎。懸吾言以為的。五十年以往。當有不可思議之明效大驗焉。
The result of those monks in a trance practicing what they preach is that the Jingwu Association has had ten years of achievement. Huo by extension has thus had countless students. But even if they do their best to imitate his ability, it would have very little influence upon the future of martial arts and even less upon the world. Nevertheless, some of these people will be able to carry these arts forward, and even if such a project does nothing else, it will at least provide benefit to one’s moral and intellectual education. It is in this way that Huo’s great hopes are being fulfilled. The revival of martial arts will provide the foundation of equality for human beings. I am sure that fifty years ago [i.e. when Huo was born], no one could have known that he would have such a profound effect.

▲結論
In Conclusion:

精武宗旨性質。及其辦理法與歷史。大略己備於此矣。大精武主義。至此亦已了澈無餘矣。然吾儕旣持普及主義。必使經費問題。輕而易舉。故簡率以告同志曰。諺云。萬丈高樓。皆從地起。凡屬有志。其事必成。但能糾合同志二十。月捐小費兩金。卽可賃一市房。聘一教習。以為練習之基礎。此一小團體。彼亦一小團體。使窮鄕僻壤。無地無之。謂之為傳習所也可。謂之為俱樂部也可。此卽分担平民義務之眞實力量。眞正法門也。有世界思想之善男子善女人。儻願聞之。
What is provided above is simply a general overview of Jingwu’s purpose, nature, curriculum, and history, and yet within it the great “Jingwu doctrine” is fully presented. However, to spread this doctrine requires funds. The simplest way to express this point to our comrades is with this proverb: “Tall buildings start with breaking the ground.” It is indeed the case that where there’s a will, there’s a way, but if people are able to come together and pool their resources, then they can do even more. Spaces can be rented and teachers can be hired, laying the groundwork for training. With a small group here and a small group there, it will reach to every place, no matter how out-of-the-way it may be, sometimes by way of a seminar, sometimes by way of a club. This is the power of ordinary people sharing the workload, the true way to get things done. The world is full of good men and women who express the same kind of thinking, and such thoughts deserve to be heard.

☉精武之眞精神 陳公哲
THE TRUE SPIRIT OF JINGWU by Chen Gongzhe

一事也。有其形式。必有其精神。譬諸國體。共和立憲。其形式也。所以造成此共和立憲者。則在精神。譬諸人身。五官四肢。其形式也。所以運用此五官四肢者。則在精神。精神不屬。則共和立憲。有類俳優。五官四肢。無非傀儡。識者將謂之粗具形式矣。雖然。精神必依附形式。而形式要不足以賅精神。以精武體育會言之。日習技擊。此形式也。非精神也。精神之所在。無窮盡。無方體。雖會中人不知其所以。是蓋與山行者不自知其位置之高。舟居者不自知其進行之速。同一理也。昔孔子之稱虞舜。曰蕩蕩乎民無能名。頌泰伯。曰民無德而稱。精武之所以為精武。亦若是焉已矣。然則終無以名之乎。是又不然。精神之所在。固無名稱可言。而要非不可告人者。公哲不敏。謹舉平日所身歷所目擊者。略述其梗槪。
夫儒之宗旨為克己。佛之宗旨為平等。耶之宗旨為博愛。克己也。平等也。博愛也。儒佛耶之眞精神也。今以觀於精武會員。實能融會貫通。無可偏駁。賈子曰。貪夫徇財。烈士徇名。財與名固世人所斤斤者也。惟我精武會員。人人知有義務。不知有權利。有時且犧牲一己之權利。助成義務。而不居其名。(例如某會員捐助本會三萬金至今不知其姓氏)斯其行誼。深合儒家克己之旨。而不流於虛。貧富貴賤。兩兩相形。乃生芥蒂。惟我精武會員。一視同仁。不分階級。其人而可與為善。雖鄙夫視若弟昆。其人而行檢攸虧。雖契友不稍寬假。斯其品性。深合佛氏平等之旨。而不流於誕。人己之間。不無畛域。為我主義。豈獨楊子為然。惟我精武會員。善與人同。一以覺後為己任。己有所知。惟恐人之不知。己有所能。惟恐人之不能。斯其度量。深合耶教博愛之旨。而不流於濫。凡此種種。不過述其崖略。未足云全豹。然而精武之名稱。已藉藉於社會。究其所以致此。會中人不自知也。會中人所日夕研究者。一以體育為主旨。卒之體育精進。則軀幹健而道德日以高尚。腦力充而知識日以開通。體育也而德育智育寓焉矣。且也有團體斯有優劣。有優劣斯有比較。有比較斯有競爭。有競爭斯有進步。萃羣衆於一堂。互相觀摩。互相砥礪。優者以勉。劣者以奮。有此原因。用能使與斯會者人人摒嗜慾。淡名利。事事務求實踐。力戒虛憍。期造成一世界最完善最強固之民族。斯卽精武之大希望也。亦卽精武之眞精神也。若拘拘於形式。不免淺之乎測精武矣。
All things have a form, and consequently a spirit. For example, the form of the nation is a republican constitution, and therefore its spirit lies in building that constitution. The form of the body is its five senses and four limbs, and therefore its spirit lies in using the senses and limbs. If spirit is not involved, then the constitution would amount to little more than some kind of vaudeville show, and the parts of the body would amount to little more than a marionette. The discerning recognize that form possesses a crudeness, and that although spirit is required to complete form, form is not sufficient for completing spirit.
  In the Jingwu Athletic Association, it is said that daily practice is a matter of form rather than spirit, because spirit is harder to pin down, having no limit, no pattern. If this seems unclear, think of it as the same principle as losing a sense of height when hiking through mountains, or of losing a sense of speed when traveling in a boat. Confucius praised Emperor Shun [Yao] the Great as “so great that the people did not know what to call him” [Lun Yu, 8.19] and praised Count Tai as having “such a high level of virtue that the people could not comprehend it” [LY, 8.1]. This is no different for the martial spirit inherent in “jing” [spirit] and “wu” [of the martial]. [The name 精武 “Jingwu” is an abbreviation of 精神尚武 “jingshen shangwu” (spirit of the martial), which is an inversion of the more usual 尚武精神 “shangwu jingshen” (martial spirit).] This kind of spirit can never be properly described, but although no description of it can truly do it justice, this does not preclude us from telling people about it. I for one am certainly not smart enough to speak of it in anything more than general terms based on what I myself have experienced and witnessed.
  Confucianists strive for self-control, Buddhists strive for harmony, and Christians strive for universal love. Self-control, harmony, and universal love are each the authentic spirit of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Christianity. The members of the Jingwu Association are clearly capable of achieving all of these ideals.
  Jia Yi said [in his poem “Vultures”]: “Greedy men are tempted by wealth. Ambitious men are tempted by fame.” Wealth and fame are simply the trivia of ordinary people. In the Jingwu Association, we all have a sense of duty rather than privilege. Sometimes we may get the privilege of giving of ourselves for the sake of other people, but since it is our duty to help anyway, we do not dwell in any thoughts of the fame we may receive for doing so. (For example, a certain member made a donation of 30,000 gold yuan, and we still do not know who it was.) This is an example of virtuous conduct, which conforms to the Confucian ideal of self-control, without descending into exaggeration.
  Rich and poor exist in contrast to each other and give rise to resentment. However, in the Jingwu Association, everyone is treated equally, no distinctions of social class. People who exhibit good conduct are looked upon as brothers, no matter how lowly their status may be, and people who exhibit bad conduct are criticized, no excuses made even for close friends. This is an example of moral character, which conforms to the Buddhist ideal of harmony, without getting descending into fantasy.
  Between others and oneself, there is the boundary of the ego, like a tree standing alone. However, in the Jingwu Association, others are treated with equal dignity, and it is considered one’s own responsibility to treat others thus. When we know something, we help others to have the same knowledge, and when we have an ability, we help others to develop the same ability. This is an example of tolerance, which conforms to the Christian ideal of universal love, without getting mired in over-sentimentality.
  These examples give only a general idea, not a complete picture. The name of Jingwu is already widely spoken of in society, though the members are not even sure why. What they practice every day starts as physical education, but then it becomes more than that. The training of the body increases a sense of morality and opens the mind to new knowledge. Physical education thus also facilitates moral education and intellectual education.
  Furthermore, when practicing in a group, some will be better than others, which leads to comparison of quality, which in turn gives rise to competition, which then produces progress. By gathering together a large number of people in one space, they inspire and encourage each other, the more talented striving to set an example, the less talented trying to rise to their level. This can cause members to let go of material addictions and lose interest in fame and wealth, instead becoming in all matters concerned only with working toward actual achievement and guarding against having any false pride over superficial accomplishments. This will create the best and strongest population in the world. It is this that is both the great hope and the true spirit of Jingwu. For the sort of people who fixate on form rather than spirit, they would inevitably have only a shallow view of what we are doing anyway.

☉祝精武體育會 吳榮煦
CONGRATULATIONS TO THE JINGWU ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION by Wu Rongxu

此篇曾載於廣東七十二行商報至理名言語皆中的非尋常頌祝語也揭之篇首以告國人鐵生記
(Note by Chen Tiesheng: This article was previously published in the Guangdong All Businesses Bulletin. It is full of extraordinary praise, but its main function is to inform our countrymen.)

世有一藝業焉。足以興發其一國之精神。維繫其千年之古風者。吾必重之。其於國也。日積月累。以能養成人民堅忍不拔之根能。削滅沈湎衰頹之陋習者。國必重之。不寧惟是。教育學者以促進教育為己任。見其藝業焉。足以壯健人之體魄。鍛鍊其德智之力者。亦必重之。社會學者以促進社會為主義。見其藝業焉。足以祛除陋風維持秩序者。亦必重之。嗚呼。竪盡千古。橫極八荒。求有一藝業焉。足當此贊頌而為世所重者。幾何也。求有一藝業焉。產生於文明最古之國。能留存於今日。以為歷史之光者。幾何也。我國年來動曰保存國粹。然所謂國粹者。果能善於保存。以得古人之眞。使發揮而光大之。不至有流弊者幾何也。今國中救國之聲浪。殆徧大地。然求其能實際有補益於國家。不蹈浮動之惡習以促亂亡。而能為根本之圖者幾何也。嗚呼。吾為此懼。
何懼乎爾。曰懼中國乃至今日而無一藝業焉足以興中國者也。懼中國乃至今日而竟無一藝業焉足以保國粹救國命而為全國人之所寄託而知重之者也。出門一望。賭館林立。酒家相屬。煙公司屢以興業。花天地特闢世界。夫煙酒嫖賭之所叢聚。乃破家亡國之預兆也。胡為國民嗜之若渴也。豈貨利之心所驅使歟。好逸浪游乃人情所趨也。然因貪利好逸之故。而戕其性。又豈人之所樂就哉。國民之嗜好不正。實乃貪貨好逸之現象。而因是以得戕性之惡果。因為彼之所不能預計者也。故夫有牧民之責者。將何以禁其貪貨好逸之源。而開之以趨義之路乎。有權衡社會教育之能者。宜若何因其所已知之明。攻其所習之蔽。使之幡然改悟。不入迷途乎。煙酒之傷生病財。嫖賭之損財損德。人人所知。而乃貪一時之作戲。為竟日之盤桓者。雖士子不能免焉。則何以故。曰維無貸代消遣物之故。吾國為東亞大病夫國。固世界之所哄傳也。乞氓滿野。殘廢載途。駝背之徒。鵠形之輩。項背相望。面色枯槁。衣履垢穢。入會議之堂。時聞咳喘。過鄕閭之巷。徒見呻吟。以人民如此之精神。以國家如此之份子。一與外人較。但覺沉沉病晦之氣。露溢眉宇。靡復慷慨激昂之氣象矣。則何以故。曰維不講運動法之故。由前之項。人格等諸掃地。而禍烈於今時。由後之項。人生如坐愁城。而病源於古代。要之有一不革。則中國永無立足之望也。今有一藝業焉。足以貸代消遣物。使人入其中而樂之不疲。足使嫖賭煙酒之毒物。將絕迹於中國。而其藝業又以講求體育法為主幹。足增武勇之風。而矯文弱之弊。果能推而行之。將必強種強國。保國粹。救國命。以興中國無疑。嗚呼。吾為此喜。
何喜乎爾。曰中國今日非有提倡國技者乎。非有提倡國技而組織精武體育會者乎。夫精武體育會。成立於滬上。亦有年矣。而今年乃移植其種於廣州。成廣東精武體育會。又數月矣。余始以國技一門。中國向有習之。而綠林居多。習之者亦每每好勇鬭很。每因小嫌。輒擅施其技。故有道君子。素不之重且彼。家數紛歧。每相妬嫉。非國之福。視以為非要圖也。乃自上海精武會諸君子。一為提倡。盡改向來門戶之陋習。融和畛域。重精神不重暴力。恪守秩序。貴鍛鍊不貴嘗試。且足化剛戾為温和。濬聰明使應變。於德育智育。有莫大之陶養工夫在。又不徒能增進身體強健精神已也。往者該會代表來粵。報告該會已往成績及將來計畫。令人聞之驚服。及見其所演各技。出化入神。應首桑林。堪歎觀止。然余猶以為彼擅絕技者。他人固不易學而幾也。及觀粵精武會之成。不匝月而成效已可略覩。迨第二三月第二次報告。而已成績大著矣。其所習種類。以漸而增進。而教練則由淺而入深。今會員且千。中有有因腦病輟學來會練習而病除者。有因童年染有喘症來會練習不一月而體質大變矣。夫腦肺之病。最難愈者也。而且奏効。則其他疾病之可以是而除者。必更僕難數矣。有病且可除。則無病者。其身體之強固。更何如矣。吾友多入會學習者。莫不皆言精神體魄之強固。日進一日。而所演各技。亦覺轉折純熟可觀矣。由會回寓。但見其暇則手舞足蹈。以温習所學。而對於其他無謂之嗜好。節省多矣。夫事非難學。而又有益於身心如此。則其技之果應為普通人士所宜習。而不能謂之為非要圖矣。自有此會。而國技庶足以使全國人寄託而重之以光耀於世。而不為彼綠林輩所擅以逞其好勇鬭很之技害民而誤國也。自有此會。而國技之為一種強種保國之藝業。乃始為國人所公認。而其振古風。維國粹。漸漸削除煙酒嫖賭諸種嗜好物。使國民不沈湎而衰頹。庶能有當於救國之實際。而留歷史上之光也。噫嘻。有教育學者於此。必將以其能壯健精神體魄。脩養德育智育。視為有促進教育之價値。而提倡鼓吹以重之也。有社會學者於此。必將以其能祛除陋風。維持秩序。視為有促進社會之價値。而提倡鼓吹以重之也。若是夫則吾嚮所謂竪盡千古橫極八荒求有一藝業焉。足當此贊頌而為世所重者。庶在茲也。吾以是為中國精武體育會前途祝。吾以是為廣東精武體育會前途祝。
There is a kind of skill that can boost the national spirit and is tied to a tradition thousands of years old. We must take it seriously, for it comes from our own nation. Applying it for a prolonged period can cultivate our people’s capacity for resilience and extinguish our bad habit of being listless and depressed, and so again we must take it seriously. Educators, who make it their personal responsibility to promote education, will then see skill manifest. It can strengthen the body and toughen the moral fiber, and so again we must take it seriously. Sociologists, who live by a doctrine of promoting society, will then see skill manifest. It can get rid of vile vices and maintain order, and so again we must take it seriously. Always and everywhere, people have sought to have such skill, and so it is right that it should be praised.
  Our nation is the oldest civilization to have lasted to this day, the glory of history. We in our nation have been moved in recent years to preserve our cultural essence. If we can do this, receiving and carrying forward the authentic traditions of our ancient people, it will cure us of corrupt tendencies. There are now calls to “rescue the nation” almost everywhere in the nation, but the most practical means of doing this does not lie in bad habits of random movement, which leads only to confusion. The issue then is where to start. Alas, I worry.
  I worry that without skill, China will not be able to rise, that we will not be able to preserve our cultural essence and rescue our national destiny, and so we should all put our hopes in it and understand its importance. Go outside and look around. We are surrounded by drinking and smoking, gambling and whoring. These things are the signs of a ruined and conquered nation. The people are driven by desires and greed, chasing after pleasure and leisure. Greed for pleasure destroys morale and does not lead to happiness. If the people’s addictions are not corrected, greed will overwhelm us, and the harm will be immeasurable.
  How are those responsible for governing the people supposed to discourage such pleasure-seeking and set them on the right path? How should those who consider the potential of social education reinforce what the people know to be right and attack their bad habits in order to cause a change of awareness to keep them from losing their way? Smoking and drinking will kill your health, and whoring and gambling will drain your wealth. Everybody knows this, but they forget it as soon as they are tempted and then get lost in these things for the rest of the day as soon as they have given in. Even scholars cannot resist, and so what is the solution?
  It is to replace our diversions with other pastimes. Our nation is the nation of the “sick men of Asia”, as we are mocked throughout the world. We are uncouth beggars, cripples filling the streets, hunchbacked and swan-necked, passing by with withered complexions. We enter buildings in the dirtiest clothes, and cough and pant our way down the alleys. The mere sight of us is met with groans. When the people exhibit this kind of spirit, the nation is given this kind of regard. Compared with foreigners, we have a very depressed air, a gloom all over our faces, and we should restore a passionate bearing. What is the solution? Exercise!
  We have either swept aside our human dignity and put ourselves in our present perils or spent our lives dwelling in a state of sorrow and sunk into a longstanding malaise. In short, if we do not reform ourselves, China will never be able to stand tall. Let us choose the training of this kind of skill, so that we can replace our diversions with it, causing everyone to be happy rather than weary. If the vices of drinking and smoking, gambling and whoring, can vanish from the land and physical education can become the new backbone of the nation, then a spirit of martial boldness will increase and the habit of scholarly frailty will diminish. In order to do this, we must strengthen the masses to strengthen the nation, preserve our cultural essence and rescue our national destiny, raising up China without any doubts. Ah, this would delight me indeed.
  It is a wonderful thing that martial arts are currently being promoted in China. This is thanks to the forming of the Jingwu Athletic Association, established in Shanghai several years ago. It has now also been transplanted to Guangzhou, the Guangdong Jingwu Athletic Association being established several months ago. Once we encourage China to practice Chinese martial arts, it may attract quite a few practitioners who are hooligans that love to fight, which provokes some suspicion about people using these arts. Therefore wise gentlemen do not overemphasize that aspect of these arts.
  Furthermore, different styles have different views, and thus they tend to resent each other. This blessing to the nation consequently seems like it might not be such a good idea after all. For this reason, the gentlemen of the Shanghai Jingwu Association are promoting these arts by tearing down the barriers between styles to mix them all together, by emphasizing spirit rather than aggression, by presenting an orderly curriculum, by making exercise itself more important than competition, and by transforming a brutish nature into mildness. They have cleverly adapted the training so that it is just as much moral education and intellectual education as it is physical education. Being a complete form of cultivation, the training not only can enhance the body, it can also strengthen the mind.
  They have recently sent representatives to Guangdong to report on the Jingwu Association’s past results and future plans. People were amazed by what they heard and entranced by the skills they saw demonstrated, skills of the highest quality and not easy for just anyone to learn. Once the Guangdong Jingwu Association had been established, results could already be seen after not even a month, and then after a couple more months, they had achieved great success.
  The material being taught gradually increases, and the instructors progress from the simple to the complex. Membership is now in the thousands. After training at the Jingwu Association, children who had quit school for being mentally slow have become sharp, and children who had suffered from asthma have experienced a physical transformation within a mere month. Though deficiencies of the brain and lungs are among the most difficult to treat, this training has proven very effective. As for other illnesses that can be cured in this way, they are too numerous to count. Those with illness can be cured, and those without illness can be made healthier still.
  Of my many friends who have joined the Jingwu Association, they all say that they have become stronger in both body and mind. Improving with each passing day at the various skills they are practicing, they have indeed made noticeable progress. When they return home after their practice, they can be found spending their spare time reviewing what they have learned, their hands and feet still moving, and they have cut out their other unspeakable addictions. These arts are challenging to learn, but are beneficial for both body and mind, and so they should by practiced by ordinary people. Is this not an important project indeed?
  With the Jingwu Association, martial arts will now enable our countrymen to show our glory to the world, but it is not for supplying skills to hooligans who only want to fight, which would be harmful to the people and the nation. With the Jingwu Association, martial arts are now a means of strengthening the masses to protect the nation, something our countrymen will widely recognize, and through these arts we will restore ancient traditions and maintain our cultural essence. We will gradually get rid of our addictions to smoking and drinking, gambling and whoring, and this will cause our countrymen to stop wallowing in listlessness. This is a practical means of rescuing the nation and preserving the glory of our history.
  Pedagogically, such training can strengthen body and spirit, and cultivate morality and intellect. Thus it has educational value and should be promoted seriously. Sociologically, such training can help us get rid of bad customs and maintain better order. Thus it has social value and should be promoted seriously. Because of this, I proclaim this bold project will have a presence forever and reach everywhere, and I extend my solemn praise for it to the world. Best wishes to the future of the China Jingwu Athletic Association and the Guangdong Jingwu Athletic Association.

事實
[PART TWO] A FEW SPECIFICS

☉會址之歷史 陳鐵生
HISTORY OF OUR LOCATION by Chen Tiesheng

民國前兩年。霍先生發起本會時。會址在閘北王家宅。近滬寧鐵路自來水塔之西。一老式之房屋也。年租祗一百六十八銀圓。先生歸道山後。民國紀元。其門弟子盧陳姚黎邱劉等。乃遷於王家宅之近滬寧鐵路旱橋之西。年租亦只二百銀圓。民國四年。會前操場。為颶風刮倒。當時會員莫不為之喪氣。然而失敗者成功之母。今日羣稱之曰三公司之陳公哲盧煒昌姚蟾伯。乃於此時東挪西借。祕密進行。(三公司之名由此得之)五年春。而今日巍然煥然之西式會所落成。遷居之前一夕。乃宣布於會衆。咸擬為鬼斧神工。然未費會員之一錢也。以後…………………(無窮無盡之新建築敬俟後賢之賡續)
When Huo Yuanjia created the Jingwu Association in 1910, it was in the Wang Family Neighborhood in the Zhabei District, an old-fashioned building near the western water tower of the Shanghai-Nanjing Railway. The annual rental for the building was a mere 168 silver yuan, but Huo unfortunately soon passed away.
  In 1912, Huo’s students Lu Weichang, Chen Gongzhe, Yao Chanbo, Li Huisheng, Qiu Liang, and Liu Yichen finally moved the Jingwu Association to another site in the Wang Family Neighborhood, near the western end of the overpass over the railway. The annual rental for this building was only 200 silver yuan.
  In 1915, the practice area at the front was destroyed by typhoon winds. This disheartened all of the members, but failure is the mother of success, for it induced Chen Gongzhe, Lu Weichang, and Yao Chanbo to borrow money from anywhere they could find it and quietly build again. (This is why they are called “the three companies”.)
  In the spring of 1916, the Jingwu Association was moved into the newly-built majestic and resplendent western-style building that is its present home. All members have since praised the superb craftsmanship. None of them were ever asked to contribute a single coin toward its construction (and we sincerely hope that future gentlemen will continue to ceaselessly build).

(一)上海精武會最初之會所 在閘北王家宅(民國前兩年)
Photo 1 – The Shanghai Jingwu Association’s first location in the Wang Family Neighborhood, Zhabei District (1910):

(二)最初之會所
Photo 2 – A closer view of our first headquarters:

(三)上海精武會民國元年第一次遷移之會所 在閘北王家宅
Photo 3 – The Shanghai Jingwu Association in 1912, our first change of location, still within the Wang Family Neighborhood in the Zhabei District:

(四)舊會之內部
Photo 4 – Interior of the second location:

(五)舊會之遭風圖(民國四年)
Photo 5 – The typhoon damage at the second location (1915):

(六)民國五年之新會所(建築費二萬餘元)
Photo 6 – Our new headquarters as of 1916 (which cost over 20,000 yuan to build):

(七)八年之精武大門
Photo 7 – The gated entrance, added in 1919:

(八)本會第一演武廳
Photo 8 – Our first martial arts practice hall:

(九)本會第二演武廳
Photo 9 – Our second practice hall:

(十)本會書報室
Photo 10 – Our reading room:

(十一)本會第一浴室
Photo 11 – Our first bathroom:

(十二)本會第二浴室
Photo 12 – The showers in our second bathroom:

☉會旗紀 陳鐵生
THE JINGWU BANNERS by Chen Tiesheng

會旗長方形。白色。斜綴三星。(紅藍黃三色)(藍色星初用綠七年改為藍)蓋取博愛自由平等之意。
The rectangular Jingwu banner is white with a diagonal arrangement of stars sewn onto it in three different colors – red, yellow, and blue (originally green but changed after seven years to blue) – representing liberty, equality, and fraternity.

會旗(一)
Banner #1:

並有小旗靑蓮色。其精武兩字黃色。上橫亦黃色。兩小襯帶紫色。三星亦分紅藍黃三色。此備各會員用為住宅之飾壁。以示晨夕不忘也。
There is also a smaller heliotrope banner. It has the characters for “Jingwu” in yellow, as well as a top bar also in yellow, and two small lines on the sides in purple. Its three stars are again divided into the three colors of red, blue, yellow. It is designed for members to hang on the wall in their homes to remind them to train every morning and evening.

會旗(二)
Banner #2:

☉服式紀 陳鐵生
THE JINGWU UNIFORMS by Chen Tiesheng

會員衣用國產之淺灰色。愛國布。衣釦及緣飾以黑布為之。對襟。左方第一及第十二為黑布結鈕。中綴十釦。右方十二釦而無鈕。此稱通明鈕。因練拳時每拍擊胸部有鈕則不適用也。衣有領。亦以黑布緣之。衣長及身之半。窄袖。其長及腕下。袴用黑色愛國布。或杭縐。因練習武術時。須以下身着地。絲質者少沾塵埃之故。短靴用黑布製。本編首頁。鐵生公喆之兩影相。卽本會規定之服式也。教員用黑色布衣。施以淺藍色緣。用通明鈕。袴亦黑色。靴用黑布。
Jingwu Association members wear domestically produced “patriotic cloth” [i.e. in support of hand-woven fabrics made in China as opposed to purchasing to foreign machine-made fabrics] that is dyed a light gray. The fringe and frog buttons are made of black cloth.
  The button arrangement consists of the first and twelfth spots on the left being frog buttons while the [first and] twelfth spots on the right are loops for the left side’s buttons, and then the ten buttons in the middle [on each side] create an interwoven formation. This button arrangement is called “neatly threading”. When practicing boxing sets, there are times when one claps one’s own chest, and thus normal buttons [made of a hard material] would not be suitable.
  The collar also has black cloth fringe.
  The jacket is measured to a length of half the body.
  The sleeves are narrowed [as opposed to being very loose at the wrist] with a length measured to reach just past the wrist.
  The pants are made of black patriotic cloth or Hangzhou crêpe fabric. When practicing martial arts, the lower body will sometimes be touching the ground, and these silk materials will not collect as much dust from the floor.
  The short boots are made of black cloth [except for the soles].
  The two photos of Chen Tiesheng and Chen Gongzhe near the beginning of the book display the standard uniform. Instructors instead wear black jackets with light blue for the fringe and frog buttons, though still wearing the same black pants and boots.

☉徽章紀 盧煒昌
THE JINGWU BADGES by Lu Weichang

最初之襟章。用圓形。中徑公尺三生的米達。中藏盾形。盾外則用淺藍色地。盾內淺紅色地。精武體育會五字淺藍三星色白。盾之周圍。間一白線。六年形略改小。中徑二生的有半仍圓式。而中藏盾形。盾外綠色地。盾內仍紅色而略深。如玫瑰然。精武體育會五字用黑色。三星仍用白色盾之周圍。仍間一白線。兩者皆如普通之襟章。用化學之假明角罩。中有顏色紙片也。七年。遂改用以模範鑄成之盾式者。初用銻。旣而改用銀質。最長處一生的有半。最闊處一生的二。襟章有四種。其一種盾後有插針。一種盾後有袖鈕形。此兩者備男會員之用。一作領扣式。備女子模範團用。有作戒指形者。男女可用。本會之標識。現在規定全用盾形。意取正當防衞也。而身而家而國而世界。咸若此焉。願吾會衆。永書於紳。
Our first garment emblem was round, three inches wide, and contained the shield design. There was a light blue background around the shield, red color within the shield, the words for “Jingwu Athletic Association” were in light blue, the three stars were white, and there was a white line along the edges of the shield. In 1917, the design was reduced in size to 2.5 inches wide. There was instead a green background around the shield, still a red color within the shield, although a richer rose tint, the words for “Jingwu Athletic Association” in black, the three stars remained white, and there was still a white line along the edges of the shield. Both of these were ordinary garment emblems, using a laminate material over simple colored paper. In 1918, this was changed to an emblem that is made from a casting mold, at first using antimony and then switching to silver. It is 1.5 inches long, and 1.2 inches wide.
  There are four kinds of garment emblems: [1] one that is worn as a brooch, [2] one that is worn as a cuff link, both of which are for the male students, [3] one that is worn as a collar stud, which was made specially for the Jingwu Exemplary Women Team, [4] and one that is worn as a ring, which can be worn on the fingers of both the male or female students. Our standardized emblem is now in the shape of a shield, representing defense, whether of oneself, one’s home, one’s nation, or the whole world. I hope the members of our Association will always wear them proudly.

襟章
Garment emblems:

今日之襟章 昔日之襟章
The new garment emblem [smaller one on the left] and the older garment emblems [the medium ones on the right]

☉授盾紀 羅克己
THE AWARDING CREST by Luo Keji

吾會有授盾例。盾鑄以紫銅。上方有四銳角。直徑十四生的米達有二。幅徑十二生的有半。文曰精武。(此兩字平列)體育會。(此三字直行)中綴星三。(一在精武兩字之中兩在體字之左右)(本會之盾式。凡門前之大銅盾。及此盾。曁襟章之小盾。與印信圖章。皆同一手書。蓋為左君孝同所寫。鑄為模範。應用則以攝影術為之大小也。)凡會衆有服勞日久。純任義務。或有非常之贊助。創始之勛勞者。經會衆公決。以全體名義。公贈此盾。有得盾者。咸以為榮寵。然非會衆皆無間言。不輕授受。與彼爛羊頭。勳章雨。有霄壤之別也。本會會衆。於精神上體魄上皆得無限之利益。惟雖有十年服務。心力交瘁者。而身外物之酬贈。舍此盾外。例不許有他物焉。則其視為無上寶貴也。理亦宜之。
The Jingwu Association has an awarding crest, cast from red copper. The upper section has four corners. It is 14.2 inches tall, 12.5 inches wide. On it is written “Jingwu” (horizontally) and “Athletic Association” (vertically). There are three stars mixed in (one between “Jing” and “wu”, two surrounding “Athletic”).
  The crest is designed as a front-entrance plaque [as can be seen on the left side of the gated-entrance photo above]. There is also a smaller version which is used for a variety of garment emblems, similar in size to a letter-writing seal. The calligraphy for the crest design was made by Zuo Xiaotong [a famous calligrapher and the youngest son of the famous general Zuo Xiaotong (the General Zuo of the dish “General Zuo’s chicken”)]. The size of the casting mold is expressed through the photo below [though with no other objects in the picture to give a sense of relative size, it is expressed better by the gate photo].
  Members who have volunteered their services over a long period, have provided extraordinary support, or performed deeds of unique merit will receive recognition from all other members by being unanimously proclaimed worthy and be publicly presented with this crest. Those who have received it have all considered it to be an honor. However, Jingwu Association members all have to be in agreement, for this award is not to be given lightly. Being over-praised or covered in medals is empty of meaning. Members already gain limitless benefit to both mind and body, and so for one to also put in ten years of extra service, doing his utmost mentally and physically, and then be rewarded for his efforts with a mere worldly object might not seem like much. But as long as we award people with no other object beside this one, it will surely be respected as a precious treasure.

盾形
Design of the crest:

☉贈盾表
List of people who have been presented with the crest:

袁恆之 Yuan Hengzhi
聶雲台 Nie Yuntai
梁麗藻 Liang Lizao
林錦華 Lin Jinhua
尹鶴林 Yin Helin
王閣臣 Wang Gechen
陳止瀾 Chen Zhilan
孫新甫 Sun Xinfu
李福林 Li Fulin
魏邦平 Wei Bangping
林虎 Lin Hu
簡琴石 Jian Qinshi
朱慶瀾 Zhu Qinglan
陳廉伯 Chen Lianbo
金湘帆 Jin Xiangfan [Cengcheng]
簡照南 Jian Zhaonan
陳益南 Chen Yinan
楊梅賓 Yang Meibin
楊達三 Yang Dasan
黃礪海 Huang Lihai
熊長卿 Xiong Changqing
何劍吳 He Jianwu
羅嘯璈 Luo Xiao’ao
唐善磋 Tang Shancuo
甯竹亭 Ning Zhuting
穆藕初 Mu Ouchu
王維藩 Wang Weifan
鄭灼辰 Zheng Zhuochen
陳陞堂 Chen Shengtang
姚蟾伯 Yao Chanbo
霍守華 Huo Shouhua
李耀邦 Li Yaobang
盧煒昌 Lu Weichang
譚海秋 Tan Haiqiu
温欽甫 Wen Qinfu [Zongyao]
邱亮 Qiu Liang
劉少筠 Liu Shaoyun
胡耀庭 Hu Yaoting
陳公哲 Chen Gongzhe
陳鐵生 Chen Tiesheng
黃季植 Huang Jizhi
唐耐修 Tang Naixiu
黃伯平 Huang Boping
黎惠生 Li Huisheng
劉扆臣 Liu Yichen
湯節之 Tang Jiezhi
馮少山 Feng Shaoshan
黃鴻鈞 Huang Hongjun

☉滬城分會紀 霍東閣
JINGWU BRANCHES WITHIN SHANGHAI by Huo Dongge

八年夏。本會會員薛培坤劉永康曹永康三君。倡立分會於滬城之新北門。暫假煤炭公所為會址。技擊部長盧煒昌先生命東閣主其事。譾陋如予。曷足任此。亦惟勉盡棉力。以期無負諸君而已。
In the summer of 1919, three gentlemen of the Jingwu Association – Xue Peikun, Liu Yongkang, Cao Yongkang – proposed establishing a couple of branch locations, one in the area of Shanghai’s New North Gate, and another with a location temporarily borrowing space in the public affairs office of Shanghai City Coal. The head of the martial arts department, Lu Weichang, appointed me to the task. As ignorant as I am, how could I be qualified to carry this out? Nevertheless, I have done my best with my limited abilities, hoping only to not let everyone down.

城裏精武分會 民國四年上海
The Inner-City Jingwu Branch (Shanghai, 1915):

中國精武技擊分會第弍次攝影 民國四年四月
Portrait of the second year of the branch location of the China Jingwu Martial Arts Association (April, 1915)

現在上海城南之精武第二分會
Second Shanghai Jingwu branch – in the southern part of Shanghai [the background of this photo showing the three-star Jingwu flag and also two national flags (being the Republican-era five-colored flag representing the five main ethnic groups in China, which in top-down order are red for Han Chinese, yellow for Manchus, blue for Mongols, white for Hui or Chinese Muslims, and black for Tibetans)]:

上海精武體育南會成立紀念 民國八年七月
In commemoration of the opening of the South-Side branch of the Shanghai Jingwu Association (July, 1919)

上海法租界呂班路 山東會館內之精武第三分會
Third Shanghai Jingwu branch – in the Shandong Guild Hall, Luban Road, French Concession, Shanghai:

精武體育會上海第三分會成立攝影
Photo taken at the establishing of the third Shanghai branch of the Jingwu Athletic Association

☉第三分會紀 寗竹亭
ON THE THREE SHANGHAI BRANCHES by Ning Zhuting

上海有精武分會三所。第一分會在北四川路崇明路。第二分會在滬城煤炭公所內。第三分會在山東會館內。前列中坐者。卽第三分會之會長。王紹坡君也。
There are three branch locations of the Jingwu Association in Shanghai. The first is at the intersection of North Sichuan Road and Chongming Road. The second is within the administrative office building of Shanghai City Coal. The third is within Shandong Guild Hall. Seated in the front row [of the third photo] is the president of the third branch, Wang Shaopo.

☉精武公園第一聲 陳鐵生
HERALDING THE JINGWU PUBLIC GARDENS by Chen Tiesheng

八年夏。有熱心公益者。自署為隱名氏。慨助三萬金於精武體育會。附以一函。其意略謂。精武能為社會謀幸福。而無權利思想。故以此為贈。願執事擴而充之。以期造福全國云。幹事部乃於七月八日下午五時。邀集郭唯一。霍守華。黎惠生。陳公哲。盧煒昌。姚蟾伯。鄭灼辰。程子培。陳士超。陳鐵生。金光曜。甯竹亭。翁耀衡。周錫三。李耀邦。等十五人。聚商於嶺南樓。衆以當開大會取決。八月二十八號。董事職員會員等開聯席會於嶺南樓。主席者為老會董袁恆之先生。議決。卽以此三萬金在精武會之右旁。購地十餘畝。創辦一公共花園。王維藩提議署名曰精武公園。衆又議取世界主義。凡屬人類。苟能守文明通則者。咸准入園游玩云。人道正義。此之謂也。隱名氏先生知之。當亦點頭稱可。現正加工建築。屈指九年春初。倍開爾路大連灣路之角。當有精武公園。燦然在望也。書此以作先聲。
In the summer of 1919, an anonymous person, enthusiastic about benefiting the public, donated 30,000 gold yuan to the Jingwu Athletic Association. He included a letter briefly explaining his intent: “The Jingwu Association has the capacity to increase the happiness of society, yet it lacks the means to fully achieve such an ambition. Therefore I send this gift in the hopes that you will use it to expand and thereby further benefit the nation as a whole.”
  Administrative staff then gathered on July 8 at 5pm, including Guo Weiyi, Huo Shouhua, Li Huisheng, Chen Gongzhe, Lu Weichang, Yao Chanbo, Zheng Zhuochen, Cheng Zipei, Chen Shichao, Chen Tiesheng, Jin Guangyao, Ning Zhuting, Weng Yaoheng, Zhou Xisan, and Li Yaobang. These fifteen people assembled to discuss the matter at Lingnan Restaurant, deciding to have a general meeting at the restaurant on Aug 28, involving all directors and staff members.
  The chairman of the meeting, senior Jingwu Association director Yuan Hengzhi, passed a resolution that the 30,000 yuan would be used to purchase just over ten acres of land on the right side of the Jingwu Association, on which would be established a public flower garden. Wang Weifan then suggested that it be called the “Jingwu Public Gardens”. The group discussed the idea, liking the cosmopolitan notion that it should be for all people, as long they can remain civilized while on the grounds.
  All agreed. People would enter the grounds to enjoy themselves in the name of humanitarianism and justice. The anonymous philanthropist would surely have nodded his head in agreement as well. It is now in the process of being built and set to be opened in the spring of 1920. At the corner of Baikal Road and Dalny Road will be the magnificent sight of the Jingwu Public Gardens. Let it be so!

☉精武村初唱 霍守華
HERALDING A JINGWU VILLAGE by Huo Shouhua

精武公園議定之翌日。公哲煒昌蟾伯唯一等。更商購公園後方之地。闢一精武村。村例不許有不規則之行動。蓋沿精武式也。此後卽多一正當淸潔之地方。吾願居此者。永遠守此精武式而勿變。
The day after the Jingwu Public Gardens was deliberated over, Chen Gongzhe, Lu Weichang, Yao Chanbo, and Guo Weiyi also discussed purchasing the land behind the Gardens and opening a “Jingwu Village”. Having a “village” [i.e. living quarters] right on the grounds would help prevent improper conduct and more deeply instill the Jingwu code. Immediately after this, many began clearing the land. We hope that those who will live here will always maintain the Jingwu code and never let it change.

[Continue to Part Three.]

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