TEACHINGS OF JIN JIAFU

少林拳圖解
SHAOLIN BOXING ILLUSTRATED
傳授者 金陵金佳福
instruction by Jin Jiafu of Nanjing
作文者 維揚金一明
recorded by Jin Yiming of Weiyang
[published by 上海中西書局發行 Chinese & Western Press of Shanghai, Dec 1, 1931]

[translation by Paul Brennan, July, 2020]

金佳福 金一明 合著
by Jin Jiafu & Jin Yiming:
少林拳圖解
Shaolin Boxing Illustrated
孫少江題
– calligraphy by Sun Shaojiang

南派真傳
This is the authentic transmission of the southern art.
區懷白
– calligraphy by Ou Huaibai

吳序
1st PREFACE

金君一明。以所著少林拳三十七勢相眎。此拳為白下金佳福氏之長技。佳福先生得之徐淦林氏。徐得之鮑。聞授鮑者為江南大俠甘鳳池之再傳弟子。則此技係淵源于甘氏可知。甘精內功。純以神行。則此派為甘之一部又可知矣。得一明君表章之。余固知嗜國術者。行將人手一編也。其姿勢左宜右有。全神俱到。其說明更深入淺出。一覽無遺。一明君自序云。有文事者。必有武備。技以文傳。相得益彰。殆所謂文事武備兼賅者歟。請轉持其語以贈之。
民國二十年四月吳心穀氏識於京口
Jin Yiming has written a book about a thirty-seven posture set of Shaolin Boxing. This set is the specialty of Jin Jiafu of Nanjing, who learned it from Xu Ganlin, who learned it from Bao Yongfu, who learned it from Wan Bangcai, who learned it from the hero Gan Fengchi of Jiangnan. Thus we can know that the source of this set was Gan. Though he was a master of internal skills, for which he exhibited miraculous ability, we can thus also be certain that Shaolin Boxing was part of his repertoire.
  I must commend Jin Yiming for his work. I am sure that martial arts addicts will want to grab a copy. Capable in everything he does, he has put his full attention into this project. His explanations reveal the profound in simple terms so that everything is immediately clear. Within his own preface, he mentions this quote from Confucius [from Sayings of the Confucianists, chapter 1]: “I have heard that scholars also had to have military training, [and that military men also had to have literary training].” Jin’s skillful writing further enhances the martial wisdom in this book. It can be said that he has literary talent and martial training in equal measure. Treat his words like a precious gift.
  - written by Wu Xingu in the Jingkou District [of Zhenjiang, Jiangsu], April, 1931


2nd PREFACE

八段錦傳自武穆。少林拳係出寺僧。今之研究國術者。多以八段錦作初階。而不知習少林拳。古人妄談宗派。鄙夷方外。故對少林拳。恆淡漠視之。以致法善意美之祕笈。不能風行於世。良可惋惜。今金佳福金一明兩先生。精通拳技。名聞大江南北。每於暇日。將斷簡殘篇之少林拳。彙訂成編。尋墜緒之茫茫。復旁搜而遠紹。在圖影之左。詳加立說。意在闡明微旨。啓迪後進。用心之深。殊堪敬佩。查斯編已在上海時報陸續刊載。讀者質疑問難之書。恆日有數起。於此可見國人對此術。尚有相當興趣。茲此書版權已讓予中西書局。乞序於余。無以應。書此數言。以示介紹。
退園主人書于時報編輯室 二十,十一,九。
Baduanjin was passed down from Yue Fei. Shaolin Boxing came from temple monks. Those who are currently researching martial arts usually consider Baduanjin to be the initial phase and know little of the practice of Shaolin Boxing. Earlier generations spoke contemptuously of other styles and looked down upon anything from foreign countries. Therefore Shaolin Boxing was treated with an enduring dismissiveness. The result of this is that there are ingenious methods and principles that have not been able to spread to the public as much as they should, a great pity.
  However, Jin Jiafu and Jin Yiming, experts in boxing skills who are renowned both north and south of the Yangtze River, have made use of all of their free time to produce this brief book about Shaolin Boxing, in which they have gathered a few obscure and rare texts. Accompanying the photographs are thorough explanations of the movements. It is the purpose of this book is to reveal profound ideas and thereby enlighten new generations of students. The sincerity of these gentlemen is worthy of admiration.
  This material was already published in serialized form in the Shanghai Gazette [which ran from only 1919 to 1921, meaning that the main portion of the book was published in a newspaper ten years previously]. Readers wrote in with questions about it several times a day, which indicates that our countrymen still have great interest in these arts after all. The rights to publish this material in book form has since been granted to Chinese & Western Press. I have been asked to write a preface for it, a task which I do not feel qualified for, so I am simply providing a few words to introduce you to this book.
  - written by Mr. “Retired to the Garden” of the Gazette editorial department, Nov 9, 1931

校勘少林拳竟為題四絕兼書近感 金鐵盦
FOUR VERSES TO EXPRESS MY FEELING FOR THE SHAOLIN TEXTS GATHERED IN THIS BOOK by Jin Tie’an [Tisheng]

想見當年面壁功少林千古仰宗風二金譜演甘家法一睨人才海內空
金甌擊缺劍如虹古國皤皤板蕩中合向少林門下拜傳將衣鉢振頹風
獨立西風太莽蒼神州北顧黯神傷願君能繼金皋業莫任倭兒氣焰張
犬羊羣嗾鼠無皮上國沉淪劇可悲幸有老拳摶古道圖强興覇是男兒
Imagine those bygone days when people practiced so hard.
Shaolin through the ages has always looked up to its traditions.
The two Mr. Jins, one writing, one demonstrating, reveal Master Gan’s methods.
One look at their talents is all it takes to know there are none in the nation like them.
  Territories have been won and lost, swords flashing like rainbows.
Throughout all of our ancient history, there has been chaos.
Let us look toward the Shaolin art for answers.
This knowledge should be taught in order to shake us out of our degeneracy.
  Standing in the midst of the westerly wind [i.e. Western influence], a mist has shrouded our view of ourselves.
China in the north has become dispirited.
I hope we can all maintain our martial traditions thanks to the work of the Mr. Jins.
We must not allow Japanese power to extend any further.
  Dogs can follow whistled commands to herd sheep, but there is no way to guide rats.
This nation of ours, the greatest of nations, has sunk into degradation, a truly lamentable state.
At least we still have old boxing arts to connect us to our ancient ways.
The quest to once more be strong and dominant lies in such masculine pursuits.

少室闡微
Shaolin teachings are here explained in detail.
何玉書
– calligraphy by He Yushu

似剛實柔似方實圎是為少林拳之第一路其式簡而理則玄之又玄不有一老一壯两君之合伦夫又誰為之宣傳
Appear to use hardness, but actually use softness. Appear to use straight lines, but actually use curves. Here is the first set of Shaolin Boxing. Its postures are simple, but its principles are profound. If it were not for the efforts of these two gentlemen working together, one old [Jin Jiafu] and one young [Jin Yiming], how else would this material be spread to the public?
吳江錢自嚴敬題
– sincerely inscribed by Qian Ziyan of Wujiang [district of Suzhou, Jiangsu]

老當益壯
“[A manly ambition means that determination increases in times of strife and] vigor increases with age.” [quote from Book of Han, bio of Ma Yuan]
侯鎮平題
– calligraphy by Hou Zhenping

蒼顏白髮氣如虹
壯志寄尔意亦雄
識淂君家雙傑在
金毫吹劍夜燈红
Though he is an old man with white hair, his energy is as vibrant as a rainbow.
He continues to have youthful ambition and heroic willpower.
I know from watching him performing his art that he is twice the hero of any man.
Even the smallest of his skills seem to emit swords and in the evening he glows like a lamp.
陳祖同
– inscribed by Chen Zutong

獨淂真諦
You yourself can at last possess the real stuff.
陽鐵生題
– calligraphy by Yang Tiesheng

絕技誰传甘鳳池
白门争诜老拳師
分明度世金鍼在
羡煞生花筆一枝
It must have been a man of consummate skill who taught Gan Fengchi his art.
He was arguably the top boxing master in Nanjing.
He also had an otherworldly skill in acupuncture.
He has drawn the admiration of many a gifted pen.
奉题一明先生新著闖少林 雲间銹銕
– inscribed by the “Rusty Iron of Yunnan” for Ji Yiming’s new book about the Rushing Shaolin boxing set

是尸或光
The choice is death or glory.
陳潔民集毛公鼎
– copied from Chen Jiemin’s collection of Western Zhou bronze cooking vessels

柔中有剛。剛中有柔。
少林武當。同源異流。
诚而明之。明而诚之。
強身之本。敄道之由。
One is hardness within softness, the other is softness within hardness.
Shaolin and Wudang have the same source, different development.
One feels that sincerity leads to understanding, the other that understanding leads to sincerity,
but both arts are the basis of building health, of striving for the Way.
王浩題
– inscribed by Wang Hao

蘇省國術館少林拳敎官金陵金佳福君 年七十九歲攝
Portrait of Jin Jiafu of Nanjing (age 79), Shaolin Boxing instructor at the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute:

哲嗣金士明君
His son, Jin Shiming:

金一明君肖影
Jin Yiming:

本書校訂者
Proofreaders of this book:

蘇省國術館少林拳教官聞春龍君
Wen Chunlong, fellow Shaolin Boxing instructor at the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute:

陳祖同君
Chen Zutong:

保筱泉君
Bao Xiaoquan:

蘇省國術館少林拳教官徐鑄人君
Xu Zhuren, fellow Shaolin Boxing instructor at the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute:

金鐵盦君
Jin Tie’an [Tisheng]:

張邦達君
Zhang Bangda:

作者序言
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

橫縱十萬里。上下五千年。苟為一國。必有存立與自衞之方。始能不為列强所吞併。吏治之改良。法律之修訂。可謂善矣。然未足與言存立也。文化之燦爛。詞章之優美。可謂善矣。亦未足與言自衞也。是故言固本圖强者。不僅在文事之修明。而在武事之兼備。孔子云。有文事者。必有武備。文武二者。相提並論。以全國而言。司文事者。則發皇文治。司武事者。必丕著武功。以箇人而言。能文者。亦須能武。能武者。亦應能文。上馬殺賊。下馬草露佈。丈夫處世。當如是耳。或謂事業有大小之分。人體有强弱之別。釣者身俯。射者身仰。此為事業之不同。駝負百鈞。蚊負一粒。此强弱之不同。為士者。不能使為農。為工者。不能使為商。各執其業。各行其志。又安可以一人之身。而作兼人之任哉。余曰。非此謂也。夫能剛者未必不能柔。知靜者未必不知動。故練拳者。儘可無荒爾業。工作者。亦可以兼事習拳。蓋以凡百事業之成功。無不賴乎體魄之强健。與夫意志之堅定。體魄愈强。則意志愈堅。意志堅。自能絕嗜欲。耐勞苦。不畏艱險。不懼壓迫。然後主義始能推行。而理想乃能實現。民衆之意志。卽一國之國魂。國魂旣有所寄託。則其精神之奮發。物質之改進。必有若决江河。一日千里之勢。國家始能存立而臻於自强之地位矣。中華民國。次殖民地之國家也。支那人民。老大之病夫也。衰弱已達極點。非有堅苦耐勞之行。曷勝挽救危亡之任。故非人人有强健之體魄。人人各盡其職務。從事於奮鬭不可。
拳術者。强身之機械也。奮鬭之助手也。頑夫聞之可以興起。懦夫聞之可以立志。能易薄弱之身軀。成剛勁體魄。變魯鈍之性情。為英挺氣節。其有效於人民也如此。吾人又安可棄其本體固有之技能而以雕蟲末技視之哉。是用喚醒同胞。振袂而起。共作聞鷄起舞。莫辭運甓之勞。看誰捷足先登。一顯男兒身手。走也。丁年習技。未遇名師。馬齒徒增。虛拋歲月。茲值服務江蘇省國術館之際。遇同宗佳福老先生者。金陵五老之一。善技擊者之巨擘也。先生任館中少林敎官。年屆八旬。而神淸氣足。長拳短打。別具專長。跳躍如猿。身輕腿快。誠所謂松柏愈老而愈健矣。以所攝少林拳影片見示。丐余為之編著。爰費匝月之光陰。探明珠於驪龍頷下。示後學終南之捷徑。庶好之者。得按圖索驥。易於學步。書成。述其意旨如此。國術同志。盍興起乎。
中華民國二十年四月維揚金一明氏序於江蘇省國術館訓育處
Our nation criss-crosses countless miles and has lasted for five thousand years. If we are to continue to have a nation, we must have methods of survival and self-defense, and then we will be able to prevent the great powers from gobbling us up. Government has been improved, laws reformed. These are good things, but not enough to guarantee survival. Our culture is magnificent, literature exquisite. These are good things, but not enough to provide defense. Therefore a solid strategy of making the nation stronger does not depend only on having an enlightened civilian population, but also on martial preparation.
  Confucius said: “I have heard that scholars also had to have military training, [and that military men also had to have literary training].” Both civil and martial affairs were discussed with equal importance. In terms of the whole nation, when those who attend to civil affairs are in charge, a civil administration will flourish, whereas when those who attend to martial affairs are in charge, there will be impressive military accomplishments. In terms of individuals, those who are capable in civil affairs must also develop ability in martial affairs, and those who are capable in martial affairs should also develop ability in civil affairs. This is how brave men should conduct themselves in society [quoting from the Book of Wei, chapter 70 – bio of Fu Yong (Fu Xiuqi):] “He can mount his horse to kill traitors, then dismount and write the declaration of victory.”
  Someone said to me: “Careers vary in terms of their poise. Bodies vary in terms of their strength. Fishermen lean their bodies forward, but archers lean their bodies back. This is an example of differences of poise. Camels can carry hundreds of pounds, but mosquitoes can carry but a grain. This is an example of differences of strength. Scholars cannot be turned into farmers. Laborers cannot be turned into merchants. Each person devotes himself to his own occupation, fulfills his own ambition. How can the body of one person be made to carry out the tasks of two people?”
  To this I say it’s not like that at all. People who use hardness are not necessarily incapable of using softness, and people who understand stillness are not necessarily incapable of understanding movement. Boxing practitioners are perfectly capable of also doing work, and workers likewise can also practice boxing arts. Success in all fields depends on physical health and steadfast determination. The stronger the body, the stronger the willpower. With strong willpower, it is easy to deny oneself sensual pleasures and tolerate hard work, without fear of difficulty or stress. One’s principles can then be fulfilled, one’s ideals realized.
  The determination of the masses forms the spirit of the nation. Once that spirit is in place, their minds will be roused and their bodies will get improved. It will be like the unstoppable force of a river as it flows over a great distance. The nation can then survive and achieve a position of strength. The Republic of China is merely a vassal state to the great powers. Our people are old and sickly. Being already in such a state of extreme weakness, we must proceed with steadfast endurance, or else we will not be able to succeed in the task of rescuing ourselves from peril. If we do not all have strong and healthy physiques, and fail to carry out our duties to the very best of our ability, we will not be able to deal with the struggles ahead.
  Boxing arts are a tool for strengthening the body and an aid for defending oneself in a fight. When simpletons learn these arts, their brains can be switched on at last. When cowards learn these arts, they will finally get some guts. Weak bodies can become robust physiques. The dull-witted can be turned into great minds of decision and integrity. These are some of the effects that these arts can have on the people. We must not neglect our inherent abilities in favor of more trivial skills. Let us use these arts to awaken our fellow countrymen and rouse to action together. Let none complain of hard work, and let us see who among us can be the first to achieve success, exemplifying the manliest spirit.
  I started practicing these arts at the age of sixteen, though I had not yet met a qualified teacher. Struggling at it for many years, I discovered I had been wasting my time. But since I have been in a position of service to the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute, I have met Jin Jiafu, one of my own clan [or at least the same surname], one of the “five old masters of Nanjing”, a top authority in these skills. An instructor of Shaolin at the Institute, he is in his eighth decade and yet his mind is clear and his energy is abundant. He specializes in both long-range boxing and short-range fighting. He hops around like a monkey, light-bodied and fleet-footed. Truly this applies to him: “The older the pines and cypresses get, the stronger they become.”
  He posed for the Shaolin Boxing photographs in this book, but entreated me to do the writing, which consumed all of my time for a full month. I felt like I was “seeking the pearl from under the black dragon’s chin” in order to give students a shortcut into the southern style of the art. Many have expressed their appreciation for having this tool to guide them, making it so much easier to learn. With the book now finished, I hereby express the intention of this work: to all my martial arts comrades – make the effort!
  - written by Jin Yiming of Weiyang [district in Yangzhou, Jiangsu] at the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute’s moral teachings hall, April, 1931

少林拳圖解總目
CONTENTS

序言
Prefaces
題字
Commemorative Verse
題詞
Calligraphy Inscriptions
小影
Portraits
少林拳眞旨
The True Principles of Shaolin Boxing
少林拳源流
On the Origin & Spread of Shaolin Boxing
少林拳姿勢歌訣
Song of Shaolin Boxing Postures
少林拳進退歌訣
Song of Advancing & Retreating in Shaolin Boxing
少林拳趨避歌訣
Song of Dodging in Shaolin Boxing
少林拳行功歌訣
Song of How to Practice Shaolin Boxing
少林拳之五法
Shaolin Boxing’s Five Components
少林拳之五襠
The Five Kinds of Stances in Shaolin Boxing
少林拳手法略說
A Brief Description of the Hand Techniques in Shaolin Boxing
少林拳腿法略說
A Brief Description of the Kicking Techniques in Shaolin Boxing
少林拳各箇姿勢方向路綫對照圖
Chart of the Route & Orientations of the Postures:
少林拳第一路姿勢說明 少林拳第一路姿勢攝影
Explanations & Photographs for the Shaolin 1st Set
拳術結論
A More General View of Boxing Arts

☉少林拳第一路姿勢圖解細目
LIST OF POSTURES FOR THE 1ST SET OF SHAOLIN BOXING

第一勢 請手
Posture 1: SALUTE
第二勢 左穿花手
Posture 2: LEFT THREADING & FLOURISHING HANDS
第三勢 右穿花手
Posture 3: RIGHT THREADING & FLOURISHING HANDS
第四勢 黃鶯落架
Posture 4: ORIOLE LANDS ON ITS PERCH
第五勢 懷中抱月
Posture 5: EMBRACE THE MOON
第六勢 左冲天砲
Posture 6: LEFT CANNON FIRING INTO THE SKY
第七勢 右冲天砲
Posture 7: RIGHT CANNON FIRING INTO THE SKY
第八勢 馬襠衝拳
Posture 8: HORSE STANCE, THRUST PUNCH
第九勢 雙貫拳
Posture 9: DOUBLE POURING FISTS
第十勢 雁落沙灘
Posture 10: WILD GOOSE LANDS ON THE SANDY BEACH
第十一勢 頂心肘
Posture 11: ELBOW STRIKE TO THE CHEST
第十二勢 白鶴亮翅
Posture 12: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
第十三勢 掛面拳
Posture 13: BACKFIST
第十四勢 肋下肘
Posture 14: ELBOW STRIKE TO THE RIBS
第十五勢 捺擊掌
Posture 15: PUSH DOWN, PALM STRIKE
第十六勢 單鳳朝陽
Posture 16: PHOENIX LANDS ON THE SUNNY SLOPE
第十七勢 抝步拉弓
Posture 17: TWISTED STEP, DRAWING A BOW
第十八勢 弓箭衝拳
Posture 18: BOW & ARROW STANCE, THRUST PUNCH
第十九勢 抽拳切掌
Posture 19: WITHDRAWING FIST, CUTTING PALM
第二十勢 雙挑拳
Posture 20: DOUBLE CARRYING FISTS
第二十一勢 躺襠切掌
Posture 21: CROUCHING STANCE, CUTTING PALM
第二十二勢 單鳳朝陽
Posture 22: PHOENIX LANDS ON THE SUNNY SLOPE
第二十三勢 雙蓋拳
Posture 23: DOUBLE COVERING FISTS
第二十四勢 懷心腿
Posture 24: KICK FROM THE CHEST
第二十五勢 二郎擔衫
Posture 25: SECOND SON PUTS ON HIS JACKET
第二十六勢 袖底切掌
Posture 26: DEFENDING UNDER THE SLEEVE, ATTACK WITH A CUTTING PALM
第二十七勢 猴兒摘桃
Posture 27: MONKEY STEALS A PEACH
第二十八勢 翻身劈擊
Posture 28: TURN AROUND, SPLITTING STRIKE
第二十九勢 躺襠切掌
Posture 29: CROUCHING STANCE, CUTTING PALM
第三十勢 偏花七星
Posture 30: SIDEWAYS FLOURISH, BIG DIPPER POSITION
第三十一勢 二郎擔衫
Posture 31: SECOND SON PUTS ON HIS JACKET
第三十二勢 雙撞拳
Posture 32: DOUBLE CRASHING FISTS
第三十三勢 流星趕月
Posture 33: METEOR CHASES THE MOON
第三十四勢 金鷄獨立
Posture 34: GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
第三十五勢 馬襠衝拳
Posture 35: HORSE STANCE, THRUST PUNCH
第三十六勢 雙圈手
Posture 36: DOUBLE CIRCLING HANDS
第三十七勢 七星收手
Posture 37: BIG-DIPPER POSITION, CLOSING POSTURE

少林拳圖解
SHAOLIN BOXING ILLUSTRATED
傳授者 金陵金佳福 作文者 揚州金一明 合作
(instruction by Jin Jiafu of Nanjing, recorded by Jin Yiming of Weiyang)

少林拳眞旨
THE TRUE PRINCIPLES OF SHAOLIN BOXING

少林拳。初練之時。須一伸一屈。一着不苟。由緩而漸快。由快而加緊。由緊而神化。猶之臨帖然。由眞字而行書。由行書而草字。由草字而脫胎。其中有筆未到而神已完。有拳未到而意已達。故可以分。可以合。可以連。可以不連。可以不連而連。連而不連。是在歷練功深者。隨心變化而已。本篇拳法固簡單。而動作甚完備。腿法雖不多。而步武甚穩固。能使人氣力內長。外透拳足。雖竭畢生之精力。亦莫能窮其變化。初練之時。首宜求姿勢之準確。次謀勁力之發展。再次方能求其神速。因姿勢準確以後。如欲發勁。一凝一挺。自然勁貫拳足。待練至推拳勁響。發腿有風。自能旋轉自如。得心應手。而有龍行虎奔之勢。切忌拳路尚未記淸。卽想迅快神化。是猶眞字尚未能寫。驟學草書。豈不大謬。習者勉之。
初習少林拳時。注重姿勢。似乎純剛而不柔。實則外方而內圓。純熟之後。隨意表演。又似純柔而不剛。實則外圓而內方。似乎全為直勁。殊不知直裏有圓。似乎全為圓勁。殊不知圓裏有直。其步法或一虛而一實。其手法則一攻而一守。伸者一變卽為屈。吞者一變卽為吐。吸一進。卽為攻。逼一退。卽為守。其靜也。如波平浪靜。其動也。如倒海翻江。發拳有穿山洞石之情。落步有入地生根之意。心固定。神目不慌。意雖狠。不現諸神。以進為退。以靜養動。若夫不知虛實。莫明攻守。皆失之過偏之弊。有乖拳術中庸之道。世有練習少林拳一二十年。而表演之時。尚不免江湖惡習。露膊挺胸。粗暴之氣。令人觀之欲嘔。是皆不能神化之故也。少林拳之眞旨為何。曰「剛」「柔」「動」「靜」「逼」「吸」「吞」「吐」八字而已。神而化之。自無分乎內外。亦莫別其剛柔。庶乎得個中之三昧矣。
In the beginning of learning Shaolin Boxing, you must perform each technique, in every bending and extending, with sincerity. Gradually progress from slow to fast, from fast to snappy, from snappy to spiritual. The process is similar to practicing calligraphy, in which you progress from a standard script to a more flowing script to a fully cursive script and finally to an innocent naturalness. Before the brush draws a stroke, the mind has already made the word. Before the fist arrives, the intention has already hit the target. Therefore be able to separate and engage, to connect and disconnect, stopping and starting, starting and stopping. Practitioners who are experienced and skillful simply adapt to the situation as they please.
  In this book, the boxing techniques are very simple, but the movements are fully expressed, and although there are not many kicking techniques, the stances are very stable. Such exercise can cause a person to develop strength within that will emerge outwardly at the fists and feet. Even if you work hard at this art for your entire life, you will never reach the limits of its transformative capacity.
  In the beginning of learning Shaolin Boxing, you must first seek to perform the postures accurately, then seek to express strength, and finally seek to move fast. Once the postures are accurate, then whenever you wish to express power, it will be fully concentrated, and naturally the power will flow through to your fist or foot. Once you have trained to the point that your punches snap out audibly and your kicks sound like the wind, you will be able to move as you please, your hands performing whatever your mind dictates, and you will appear to move like a dragon and rush in like a tiger. However, at all costs avoid the desire to speed ahead to achieving a spiritual level before you have even memorized this boxing set. That would be like skipping ahead to trying to learn the cursive script before being able to draw the standard script – preposterous. Make the full effort.
  In the beginning of learning Shaolin Boxing, the emphasis is on getting the postures right, and so it will look as though it is all hardness and no softness, but actually it is outwardly square and inwardly round. After you have mastered it, you can perform the techniques as you please, and so it will look as though it is all softness and no hardness, but actually it is outwardly round and inwardly square.
  Your energy may seem straight, but the opponent does not realize there is roundness within straightness. Your energy may seem round, but the opponent does not realize there is straightness within roundness.
  The step is sometimes empty and sometimes full. The hand technique is sometimes an attack and sometimes a defense.
  As soon as you extend, bend. As soon as you absorb, shoot out.
  Draw back as the opponent advances and then immediately attack him. Press in as the opponent retreats and then be ready at once to defend.
  In stillness, be as though you are calming every wave in the sea. In movement, be as though you are pushing back the ocean and diverting the rivers.
  The fist shoots out with a feeling of boring a hole through a mountain. The step comes down with an intention of planting roots in the ground.
  Your mind must be calm, your spirit unflustered. Although your intention is ruthless, you do not show it outwardly.
  Use advance as retreat. Use stillness to foster movement.
  If you do not understand emptiness and fullness, or attack and defense, you will always make the mistake of overemphasizing one aspect over the other. The best boxing arts embody the principle of staying balanced instead of veering toward extremes [or the “doctrine of the mean”]. There are those who have practiced Shaolin Boxing for ten or twenty years and yet when they perform are still helplessly exhibiting the bad habits of itinerant street performers, such as showing off their arms, sticking out their chests, and displaying the utmost uncouthness, inviting the derision of spectators. Such practitioners will never be able to achieve a spiritual level.
  The true principles of Shaolin Boxing are summed up in these eight terms: hard and soft, movement and stillness, press in and draw back, absorb and shoot out. Once you have reached a spiritual level, there will no longer be any distinguishing between internal and external, between hardness and softness, and this is the indication of mastery.

少林拳源流
ON THE ORIGIN & SPREAD OF SHAOLIN BOXING

少林拳。為甘鳳池之拳法。傳於萬邦才。邦才傳鮑永福。永福傳眞州徐淦林。淦林傳金陵金佳福。金於幼年好弄拳棒。及長。慕朱家郭解之風。嘗謂人曰。古之任俠之士。目不窺聖賢之書。耳不聞禮樂之義。而其言行氣節。雖使人執鞭隨鐙。亦所甘為。其言如此。是亦天性使然。年十四。與窗友數人從徐師淦林習藝。時徐在督標營充武術敎師。兼充湘軍敎習。年六十餘。精神矍鑠。身體魁梧。各種技藝。靡不精深。尤以懷心腿。吸臂衫功。為其絕技。所授生徒。如馬雙魁為遜請武解元。沙殿邦為江甯武庠。陳其瑞陶武等。其身法手法。精巧絕倫。皆為一時之俊傑。此外受業者。如王定傑得其解手秘法。潘士懷得其柔軟功夫。而金老先生獨得其少林眞諦。後十年。徐師去世。金復從師叔陳祥周歷練有年。技益精進。自火器昌明。習柔功者。世無其人。以言强身之法。則應推練拳為獨步。故江南江北。負笈擔囊。登金老之門者。實繁有徒。其中以丹陽張邦達。秦郵林大文。江甯徐鑄人聞春龍為尤著。張則精於提攔槍。林則精於雙稍子。徐則精於腿聞則精於拳。其後聞名者益衆。漢口商會會長陳經畬先生。邀往漢臯。為之設塲收徒。款禮備至。北至滁臨。南至江浙。聞先生之名者。莫不傾心願為執梃也。先生現任江蘇省國術館敎官。派往蘇省農鑛廳敎授國術。廳中高級職員。從之游者。如侯君鎭平陳君祖同張君叔翹陳君典元保君筱泉王君浩李君兆輝周君毓桂卞君劼靜李君德源陳君潔民汪君勳丞等。皆風起雲從。公餘習練。何廳長玉書亦國術中之能手。對金老先生尤器重之。本篇為先生數十年來。敎徒之初步手法。亦卽少林拳中之正法眼藏。廣稱曰少林拳。共分六路。第一路曰闖少林。第二路曰提鑪少林。第三路曰文少林。第四路曰抅步少林。第五路曰武少林。第六曰神化少林。茲將第一路之歌訣。編述如下。
Shaolin Boxing was the boxing art of Gan Fengchi. He taught his art to Wan Bangcai, who taught it to Bao Yongfu, who taught it to Xu Jinlin of Zhenzhou [now Yizheng County, in Jiangsu], who taught it to Jin Jiafu of Nanjing. When Jin was a boy, he loved playing around with martial arts. As he matured, he admired the tales of Zhu Jia and Guo Jie [whose exploits are recorded in the Historical Records, chapter 124: Bios of Wandering Heroes].
  Jin once said: “The ancient chivalrous heroes did not read any books by wise philosophers nor listen to ritualized music designed to improve one’s moral character, and yet their words and deeds were full of righteousness. Thus they inspired others not only to follow them, but also to act from their own sense of integrity.” Jin’s mere words explaining this carry the same inspiring effect.
  When he was fourteen, he and several classmates went to learn from Xu Jinlin, who at that time was serving as the martial arts instructor to the local army barracks, as well as drilling the Hunan army. Xu was over sixty years old, but still had a hearty spirit and a robust body. He was exquisitely skillful at every technique, particularly the kick from the chest. Iron shirt was his specialty, which he taught to students such as Ma Shangkui, who then became a first-place candidate in the Jiangsu provincial military exams, Sha Dianbang, who then went to the Nanjing Military Academy, as well as Chen Qirui, Tao Wu, and so on.
  Xu’s skill with his body and hands was peerless, and everyone considered him to be a hero of the time. He had other students such as Wang Dingjie, who learned secret escaping techniques, and Pan Shihuai, who learned soft skills, but Jin alone received the authentic Shaolin training. After Jin had been learning from him for ten years, Xu passed away. Jin then learned from Chen Xiangzhou for many years, and his skill progressed even further.
  Ever since the use of firearms started flourishing, hardly anyone was training in soft skills anymore, but the practice of boxing arts was still considered to be an unrivaled means of strengthening the body. Therefore many people from around the area north and south of the Yangtze River went to learn from Jin. Among them were Zhang Bangda of Danyang [in Jiangsu], Lin Dawen of Qinyou [old name for Gaoyou, also in Jiangsu], and Xu Zhuren and Wen Chunlong of Nanjing. Zhang Bangda specializes in Lift & Block Spear, Lin Dawen specializes in Two-Section Staff, Xu Zhuren specializes in kicking, and Wen Chunlong specializes in using his fists.
  Jin’s fame subsequently grew and he was invited to Hankou by Chen Jingyu, the president of the Hankou chamber of commerce, to establish a site where students could gather for a fund-raising ceremony. With his influence spreading north into Anhui and Jiangsu, and south into Jiangxi and Zhejiang, those who heard of his fame admired him and wanted to meet him.
  Jin is currently an instructor at the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute and also teaches martial arts at the Jiangsu Farmers & Miners Department. The best of his students are Hou Zhenping, Chen Zutong, Zhang Shuqiao, Chen Dianyuan, Bao Xiaoquan, Wang Hao, Li Zhaohui, Zhou Yugui, Bian Jiejing, Li Deyuan, Chen Jiemin, and Wang Xuncheng, all of whom are highly motivated to train their bodies [“the winds rise, making the clouds move”], continue to practice whenever they have free time. Department head He Yushu is himself a martial arts expert and has a particularly high regard for Jin.
  This book represents Jin’s decades of experience at teaching the basics, presenting authentic and previously hidden methods of Shaolin Boxing. What is widely known as Shaolin Boxing has six practice routines: 1. Rushing Shaolin, 2. Furnace-Sparking Shaolin, 3. Scholar Shaolin, 4. Foot-Trapping Shaolin, 5. Warrior Shaolin, 6. Spiritual Shaolin. The song of postures for the first of these is shown below:

少林拳姿勢歌訣
SONG OF SHAOLIN BOXING POSTURES

善惡分明把手揚。穿花左右換弓襠。
黃鶯落架寒鷄步。向左偏身抱月忙。
左起冲天拳左挑。連環踩腿勢堅强。
馬襠蹲坐衝拳發。貫耳雙拳撞太陽。
平沙落雁翻身轉。弓步頂心肘莫當。
白鶴亮翅雙花手。掛面拋拳打面龐。
右足進步肘擊肋。左推右捺奔胸膛。
身腰左轉朝陽勢。抝步拉弓肘角張。
弓步衝拳難閃避。抽拳切掌應提防。
雙拳上絞成雙挑。切掌探身變躺襠。
鳳立高崗身右轉。雙拳蓋落勢潛藏。
騰身發出懷心腿。花手擔衫憶二郎。
夾馬鴉弦單切掌。猿兒摘菓請先嘗。
翻身照耳忙披掌。左轉迴身又躺襠。
順勢偏花七星手。兩次擔衫態更狂。
弓步雙捎雙撞擊。流星趕月右邊旁。
抽拳獨立金鷄勢。站馬開弓引興長。
左轉寒鷄雙圈手。斜偏閃讓鳳飛翔。
交叉兩手雙抄起。落步寒鷄歸舊鄕。
此是少林第一路。三十七勢不須忘。
江南江北皆傳遍。留得金家姓氏香。
[Posture 1] To show that you are friend rather than foe, raise your hands in salute.
[2 & 3] Go to the left and right with threading & flourishing hands, correspondingly alternating bow stances.
[4] Perform ORIOLE LANDS ON ITS PERCH, getting into a shivering-chicken stance.
[5] Your torso leans to the left, eagerly hugging the moon.
[6] Your left fist rises like a cannon firing into the sky.
[7] Continue into a stamping kick, expressing power forcefully.
[8] Squat down into a horse stance and shoot out a thrust punch.
[9] With DOUBLE FISTS POUR INTO THE EARS, strike to the temples.
[10] Perform WILD GOOSE LANDS ON THE SANDY BEACH, turning your body.
[11] From a bow stance, unleash the ELBOW STRIKE TO THE CHEST, which nothing can withstand.
[12] Perform WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS, flourishing with both hands.
[13] Hurl out a backfist to strike the opponent’s face.
[14] Advance your right foot and deliver the ELBOW STRIKE TO THE RIBS.
[15] Your left hand pushes down and you rush out with a strike to his chest.
[16] Turn around to the left and perform PHOENIX LANDS ON THE SUNNY SLOPE.
[17] Perform TWISTED STEP, DRAWING A BOW, reaching back with your elbow.
[18] Get into a bow stance and send out a thrust punch, difficult for him to evade.
[19] Perform WITHDRAWING FIST, CUTTING PALM, forcing him to defend.
[20] Your fists rise upward and cross, performing DOUBLE CARRYING FISTS.
[21] Do a cutting palm while reaching forward with your body, switching to a crouching stance.
[22] Stand like a phoenix perching on a mountain peak, your torso turning to the right.
[23] Your fits cover downward, as though you are concealing something.
[24] Suddenly rise up and shoot out a kick from your chest.
[25] With a flourish of your hands, perform SECOND SON PUTS ON HIS JACKET.
[26] Leaving the squeezed-horse position of the tying-a-duck stance, go forward with a cutting palm.
[27] Perform MONKEY STEALS A PEACH, behaving as though you are entitled to it.
[28] Turn around in response to hearing an opponent behind you and hurriedly drape over yourself with a palm.
[29] Turn around to the left and go into another crouching stance.
[30] Continue into a sideways flourish to put your hands into a big-dipper position.
[31] Again perform SECOND SON PUTS ON HIS JACKET, this time with even more flourish.
[32] Go into a bow stance with your hands brushing upward and perform DOUBLE CRASHING FISTS.
[33] Perform METEOR CHASES THE MOON, attacking with your right side.
[34] Withdraw your fist to perform GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG.
[35] Get into a horse stance and make a bow-drawing position, pulling back until you are fully extended.
[36] Turn around to the left into a shivering-chicken stance, performing DOUBLE CIRCLING HANDS,
your body positioned sideways, dodging like a phoenix in flight.
[37] Your hands cross, rising up,
as you step forward into a shivering-chicken stance with the other foot, returning you to the spot you started at.
This is the first Shaolin set to be learned.
a series of thirty-seven postures that must not be forgotten.
This material has been taught both north and south of the Yangzte River,
thus preserving the good name of Jin Jiafu.

此為第一路闖少林歌訣。祗能熟記其三十七勢之動作而已。今人練拳。原為强身而習。不須研究對擊之法。然婦人女子學拳。儘可不知進退之方。若軍人警士練拳。則不可不明趨避之法。金老先生嘗云。拳無定格。打無定例。不過在初學拳術者。靈活身腰。便利手足。不得不有定律。以作研究標準。在方家見之。原不值其一哂也。茲將進退。趨避。行功各歌訣。述之如下。
This song about the Rushing Shaolin set is simply a mnemonic for memorizing the movements of the thirty-seven postures. Modern practitioners who are using this set merely to strengthen their bodies do not need to study its fighting techniques. Women and girls who are learning boxing arts do not need to know principles of combat, but soldiers and policemen do.
  Jin Jiafu comments: “There’s no rules for fighting. But as for the training, it starts with making the body more nimble and getting the hands and feet to move more fluently. There has to be rules for this stage in order for the study to fulfill certain standards and keep experts from sneering in contempt at the mess they would otherwise be watching.”
  Below are included three additional songs about principles for both fighting and training.

少林拳進退歌訣
SONG OF ADVANCING & RETREATING IN SHAOLIN BOXING

進步捷如風。失機退宜快。乘勢側鋒入。身稍向前邁。
掌實卽須吐。發聲使驚怪。變化如蛟龍。遲快分勝敗。
Advance as fast as the wind,
but if you miss, retreat even faster.
Take advantage of every opportunity to attack from an angle,
your body slightly advancing as you step in.
When your palm is obstructed, give a shout,
using sound to catch the opponent by surprise.
Transform like the flood dragon.
Victory or defeat lies in distinguishing when to be slow and when to be fast.

少林拳趨避歌訣
SONG OF DODGING IN SHAOLIN BOXING

趨避須眼快。左右見機行。趨從避中取。實自虛處生。
功力雖制我。隙開進莫停。勢猛君休懼。四兩撥千觔。
Dodging threats requires alert eyes,
eyes scanning all around for opportunities arising.
Quickly get out of the way to avoid being hit squarely,
instead letting your fullness move into areas of emptiness.
Although it is your skillfulness that restrains you from rashness,
nevertheless advance unstoppably once you find a gap.
Displaying a posture of ferocity will make the opponent hesitate in fear,
with the same effect that a force of a mere four ounces will deflect a force of a thousand pounds.

少林拳行功歌訣
SONG OF HOW TO PRACTICE SHAOLIN BOXING

練習拳時間。子後午前行。能做五七次。逐日無間停。
精强且力壯。力能長千觔。延年兼益壽。百病不能侵。
The time to practice boxing
is after midnight and before noon.
Practice five to seven times
each day without ever missing a day.
It will make you strong enough
to lift a thousand pounds.
It can promote longevity
and prevent illness.

少林拳之五法
SHAOLIN BOXING’S FIVE COMPONENTS

少林拳有五法。五法為何。一心法。二眼法。三手法。四身法。五步法。又要心快。眼快。手快。身快。步快。兼要五法能同時運用。心中想着。眼裏看着。手上動着。身子活着。步下走着。遇隙卽攻。見空卽補。隨機變化。令人莫測。則為得矣。故少林五法有五要點。(一)心要明。(二)眼要淸。(三)手要速。(四)身要下。(五)步要準。心不明。則神昏。眼不淸。則意亂。手不快。則遲緩莫救。身不下。則起落無方。步不準。則進退失勢。此謂之五病。皆拳家之所忌也。
There are five components to Shaolin Boxing: mind, eyes, hands, body, and footwork. Your mind should be alert, your eyes should be alert, your hands should be alert, your body should be alert, and your steps should be alert. All five have to be able to function in unison: the mind thinks, the eyes see, the hands act, the body moves, and the feet step. When you find a gap, attack. When you see an opening, fill it. Adapt according to the situation. Cause the opponent to be unable to guess what you are about to do. With these principles you will succeed. To achieve this success, the five methods have five requirements:
  1. Your mind should be clear. 2. Your eyes should be focused. 3. Your hands should be quick. 4. Your body should sink. 5. Your steps should be precise. If your mind is not clear, your spirit will be confused. If your eyes are not focused, your intention will be in disarray. If your hands are not quick, you will be too slow to save yourself. If your body does not sink, you will bob up and down uncontrollably. If your steps are not precise, you will advance and retreat always in the wrong position. These five errors are mistakes that all boxing masters can agree on.

少林拳之五襠
THE FIVE KINDS OF STANCES IN SHAOLIN BOXING

技擊家嘗云。拳打三分。脚打七分。又云。手是兩扇門。全憑脚踢人。此言拳術一道。雖為手上工夫。若與敵人交手。占最後之勝利。則全賴腿足贏人。故少林拳。首重步法之姿勢。練拳之初。必先練步。步法穩準。而後練拳。則事半功倍。不致有顧首不能顧尾之弊。庶幾上下相隨。手足相應。而能完整一氣也。本篇拳法中。運用最多之步法。有五種。(一)弓襠。(二)馬襠。(三)躺襠。(四)寒鷄襠。(五)鴉弦襠。
Boxing arts masters have said: “Strike with the fists a third of the time, with the feet two thirds of the time.” Also: “The arms are like two swinging doors, but it all comes down to kicking the opponent.” These maxims point out that although the hands may be very skillful, victory in a fight ultimately depends on the legs and feet. Therefore Shaolin Boxing primarily emphasizes stances. In the beginning of learning boxing techniques, you must first learn stances. Once your stances are stable, you may then practice boxing techniques. By learning in this order, you will get twice the result for half the effort, and you will avoid the error of over-relying on one area and forgetting about the other [“consider the head but not the tail”]. Your upper body and lower body should be coordinating with each other, your hands and feet working together, so that your whole body functions as an integrated unit. Amidst the boxing techniques in this book are five kinds of stances:

弓襠。
1. BOW STANCE:
廣稱弓步。又名弓箭步。其姿勢為左右兩足。前後相離一大步。一腿曲膝向前。一腿挺直在後。前腿足尖須向內勾。下部小腿。尤須立直。成前弓後箭式。亦有以左右為名稱者。如左足在前。名曰。左弓右箭步。右足在前。名曰。右弓左箭步。
This is also called a “bow & arrow stance”. The feet stand a large step apart forward and back. One leg bends forward and the other straightens behind, the front toes hooking inward, the lower leg vertical. This produces a stance of front leg a bow, rear leg an arrow. Or we can also describe it in terms of left and right: when the left foot is forward, it is a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow; when the right foot is forward, it is a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow.

馬襠。
2. HORSE STANCE:
廣稱馬步。又曰跕馬。又名地盆。其姿勢。係將左右兩足分開。兩腿曲膝蹲下。大腿面與膝角成平行。膝角與足尖上下相對。體正。腰挺。兩足成八字式。或一字形。練步法者。多以此為基礎。因旣能使重心下沉。增長腿力。且可免血氣上浮。呼吸短促之弊。
This is also called a “horse-riding stance”, as well as a “basin-on-the-ground stance”. It involves the feet being spread apart, the legs bent and squatting down until the thighs are flat, the knees making a vertical line with the toes. The body is straight, torso erect. The feet are somewhere between parallel and the toes pointing slightly outward. This is usually considered the most fundamental stance, and this is because sinking the weight down increases leg strength. It also helps train away the errors of letting energy rise up or having shortness of breath.

躺襠。
3. CROUCHING STANCE:
又曰仆步。又名躺步。其姿勢係一足向旁方橫伸。一腿屈膝蹲下。兩足尖相齊成平行。如左足旁開一步。右膝蹲下。則稱為左躺襠。如右足旁開一步。左膝蹲下。則稱為右躺襠。久久練習。則步穩氣沉。身腰活便。
This is also called a “pouncing stance”. It involves one leg extending to the side, the other leg bending and squatting down, the feet parallel with the toes pointing the same direction. The left leg extended and the right leg bent makes it a left crouching stance. The right leg extended and the left leg bent makes it a right crouching stance. After practicing it over a long time, the stance will be stable, energy will sink, and the waist will become more flexible.

寒鷄襠。
4. SHIVERING-CHICKEN STANCE:
又名丁坐步。其姿勢係一腿屈膝在前。足尖點地。一腿屈膝在後。足跟落實。如左足在前成一竪。則右足在後成一橫。名左丁寒鷄步。如右足在前成一竪。左足在後成一橫。名右丁寒鷄步。此種步法。廣稱活步。取其便於進退也。
This is also called a “T-shaped sitting stance”. It involves one leg bent in front with just the toes touching down, the other leg bent behind with the foot fully on the ground. The left foot in front pointing straight and the right foot behind pointing sideways makes a left T-shaped shivering-chicken stance. The right foot in front pointing straight and the left foot behind pointing sideways makes a right T-shaped shivering-chicken stance. This kind of stance is usually considered to be a livelier stance, for it leads the most easily into advancing and retreating.

鴉弦襠。
5. TYING-A-DUCK STANCE:
又名夾馬步。其姿勢係一腿在後。屈膝成蹲坐勢。一腿在前挺伸。足尖向內勾。兩大腿夾靠相近。如左足在前挺勾。右足在後蹲屈。則名左夾馬步。右足在前挺勾。左足在後蹲屈。則名右夾馬步。此種步法。用之轉身迴旋。最為靈便。
This is also called a “squeezing-horse stance”. It involves the rear leg being bent and sitting back, the front leg straight with the toes hooking inward, the thighs squeezing toward each other. The left foot in front hooking inward and the right leg bent behind makes a left squeezing-horse stance. The right foot in front hooking inward and the left leg bent behind makes a right squeezing-horse stance. This kind of stance uses a turning of the body to achieve greater nimbleness.

因拳術雖為手上工夫。如步法不固。則上重下輕。風絮水萍。足跟無力。故拳術一道。而以襠法為入門第一步之初階也。
Your hand techniques may be skillful, but if your stances are not stable, you will be top-heavy and the effect will be like wind bending duckweed over, your heels coming off the ground. Therefore it is the way of boxing arts for stancework to be the first step in the training.

少林拳手法略說
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE HAND TECHNIQUES IN SHAOLIN BOXING

拳術中之手法。係指手臂之全部而言。膀。肘。腕。指。掌。拳。均在其內。茲將本篇中所用之手法。略舉如下。
The hand techniques in boxing arts involve the full length of the arm: using arm, elbow, wrist, fingers, palm, and fist. The hand techniques appearing in this book are briefly described below:

(切掌)
CUTTING PALM:
係掌根外緣下部用勁。用以切擊敵人之手法。
This involves expressing power at the heel of the palm, using a cutting action to attack the opponent.

(捺掌)
DOWNWARD PUSHING PALM:
係掌根正中下部用一種挺勁吐出。捺擊之手法。
Expressing power at the heel of the palm, strike downward with a pushing action.

(頂心肘)
ELBOW STRIKE TO THE CHEST:
係用肘角前方。向敵人心窩撞擊之手法。
Using the forearm side of the elbow, smash against the opponent’s chest.

(肋下肘)
ELBOW STRIKE TO THE RIBS:
係已打進敵人身旁。而用肘角上臂外方。撇擊敵人脇脥之手法。
Using the upper-arm side of the elbow, strike the opponent’s ribs on the side of his body.

(衝拳)
THRUST PUNCH:
多由腰間發出。向前方或旁方平衝。未發出之前。虎口朝外。拳心朝上。發出之後。拳心朝內。
This usually shoots out from your waist as a level thrust forward or to the side. Before it shoots out, the tiger’s mouth is facing outward, the center of the fist facing upward, and then after it shoots out, the center of the fist is facing inward.

(雙貫拳)
DOUBLE POURING FISTS:
係將左右兩拳。同時向前撞擊。專打敵人之太陽穴之手法。
Both fists go forward in unison to strike the opponent’s temples.

(掛面拳)
BACKFIST:
係用拳背節骨。由上向下。打擊敵人之面門之手法。
This uses the knuckles of the back of the fist, striking downward from above to the opponent’s face.

(雙挑拳)
DOUBLE CARRYING FISTS:
係用雙拳由下絞起向上。專門崩取敵人心胸之手法。
Your fists go upward from below with the forearms crossed, focusing on attacking the opponent’s chest.

(雙蓋拳)
DOUBLE COVERING FISTS:
係雙拳由上下磕。專用於磕打敵人拳脚之手法。
Use both fists to strike downward from above, focusing on knocking away the opponent’s his fist or foot.

(鵰手)
VULTURE HAND:
五指掇攏。用以勾掃來拳。或啄擊敵人要部之手法。
The fingers are pinched together to make a hook that is used to sweep aside an incoming punch or do a pecking strike to the opponent’s vital areas.

(七星手)
BIG-DIPPER HANDS:
或拳或掌。曲肘靠近胸前。旋推旋進。是名七星。用以偏身進步。兼攻並守之手法。
Whether using fists or palms, the elbows are bent, bringing your hands relatively close to your chest, and it is performed with one side of your body advancing. This technique is a simultaneous defense and attack [with the hand on the inside blocking and the hand on the outside striking].

少林拳腿法略說
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE KICKING TECHNIQUES IN SHAOLIN BOXING

拳法中之腿法。係指腿足之全部而言。如胯•膝•足•趾•踁•踵•均在其內。本篇之腿法。以懷心腿一着為最難練。其次則為鴉弦襠。茲將懷心腿之練法。略誌如下。
The kicking techniques in boxing arts involve the full length of the leg: using hip, knee, foot, toes, shin, and heel. The kicking techniques appearing in this book are briefly described below, the kick from the chest being the most difficult to train, followed by the tying-a-duck stance:

▲懷心腿
KICK FROM THE CHEST:
所謂懷心腿者。其腿須由懷心向上。踢人心胸。使其不及提防。普通人之腿法。祗能平蹬偏踩。或高踢低蹴。而懷心腿之用法。則大不然。懷心腿發出之時。係足踵內斜向上。足尖外扭向下。其腿曲提腹上。足心朝天。向前上方踢出。此腿人不易防。而其練法。亦頗不易。金老先生云。練懷心腿。年歲須在十齡左右。襠筋富於彈力性之時。用繩子一根。穿過屋梁上。一端環頭。將足跟擱於其上。一端用手抽着。使其足踵上翹。逐日懸弔。須一百二十日。則襠筋自能伸長。又云普通人。多用右腿。每較左腿尤為靈活。而余所練之懷心腿。則為左腿。用腿之時。使人更難揣測。本篇第二十四圖。為懷心腿踢後。落下之姿勢。金老現年七十九猶能踢腿。較壯年人靈活便捷云。
This kick goes upward from in front of your chest to kick the opponent’s chest, causing him to be unable to defend against it in time [because it involves less telegraphing than many other kicks]. Most people only rely on level sideways stamping kicks, high snapping kicks, or low treading kicks, but this is not like any of those kicks. When this kick shoots out, the toes are turned outward, heel turned inward, the leg bent and lifted over your belly, the sole of the foot facing upward, and the kick goes out forward and upward. This kind of kick is not easy to defend against, but it is also not easy to practice.
  Jin Jiafu comments: “To train this kick, you ideally ought to start when you’re about ten years old, when the groin tendons are already very flexible. Toss a rope over a roof beam, with a loop at one end for you to slip a heel through, the other end in one hand for you to pull on and elevate your foot. Pull your foot a little higher each day. It takes about four months of this for the groin tendons to develop sufficient flexibility.”
  He also adds: “Ordinary people tend to kick with the right leg, which they usually find to be more flexible than the left leg, therefore I prefer to kick with my left leg to catch opponents by surprise.”
  Posture 24 of this book shows Jin lowering his leg after performing the kick, giving the sense that at the age of seventy-nine he is still as limber as a young man.

▲鴉弦襠
TYING-A-DUCK STANCE [i.e. front sweep]:
鴉弦襠。須一腿後曲。一腿前伸。全體重量。均在後腿。胸要挺。腰要直。似蹲而非蹲。似坐而非坐。則上下皆可兼顧。進退定能自如。練此步法。能逐日站一二十分鐘。則其腿力之增長。有非常人所逆料者也。
Your rear leg is bent, front leg straight, the weight on your back leg. Your chest should be sticking out, your waist upright. You seem to be somewhere between squatting and sitting. From this position, attacks above and below can be equally attended to, and advancing and retreating can be performed with ease. If you practice this stance every day for ten to twenty minutes, your leg strength will increase and you can expect to develop extraordinary skill.

少林拳各箇姿勢方向路綫對照圖
Map of the postures in this Shaolin boxing set:

第一勢 請手
Posture 1: SALUTE

左手作半合掌是為善手。右手抱拳。是為惡手。起手。立正。背北。面南。目光前看。左掌。右拳。兩臂微提。由外向前。右手為拳台。拳背朝上。虎口向內。左手作半合掌。五指朝上。大指在內。表示敬禮之意。形如左圖。
Your hands rise up, your left hand as a palm, your right hand as a fist. Your left palm is the “compassionate hand”. Your right fist is the “cruel hand”. Standing straight, your chest is facing toward the south, your back to the north, your gaze forward. Your arms slightly lift to the sides and come together in front, the back of your right fist facing upward, tiger’s mouth facing inward, the fingers of your left palm pointing upward, the thumb placed inward. The purpose is to display ceremonious courtesy. See photo 1:

第二勢 左穿花手
Posture 2: LEFT THREADING & FLOURISHING HANDS

左足向左旁方一步。同時。左掌由內弧向下一捎。握指成拳。手心朝上。收囘護腰。右拳變掌。向前切擊。同時上身左轉。正面朝東。兩腿成左弓右箭步。身腰矮下。目光東看。形如左圖。
Your left foot steps out to the left as your left palm arcs away downward with a brushing action and then becomes a fist, withdrawing to guard your waist, the center of the fist facing upward, your right fist becoming a palm and going forward with a cutting strike, your upper body turning to the left so that your chest is facing toward the east, your legs making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow, your body lowering. Your gaze is toward the east. See photo 2:

第三勢 右穿花手
Posture 3: RIGHT THREADING & FLOURISHING HANDS

右掌由內弧向下外捎。兩足根不動。足尖右磨。身體隨之右轉。正面朝西。成右弓左箭步。右掌握指變拳。收囘護腰。同時左拳變掌。伸直向前切擊。目光前看。正面朝西。形如左圖
Your right palm arcs away downward with a brushing action as your heels pivot to turn the toes to the right, your upper body also turning to the right so that your chest is facing toward the west, your legs making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow, your right palm then becoming a fist and withdrawing to guard your waist, your left fist becoming a palm and extending forward with a cutting strike. Your gaze is forward toward the west. See photo 3:

第四勢 黃鶯落架
Posture 4: ORIOLE LANDS ON ITS PERCH

左掌由左向上。畫成圈花。由下揚起。屈肘當胸。虎口朝上。同時左足提向右足前方半步。足尖點地。成寒鷄步。身腰蹲坐。右拳未動。正面朝南。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your left palm goes across to the left, down, and up, drawing a [counterclockwise] circular flourish to raise it up in front of your chest, the elbow bent, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, as your left foot lifts and goes a half step in front of your right foot, touching down with the toes, making a shivering-chicken stance, your body squatting down, your right fist not moving. Your chest is facing toward the south, your gaze forward. See photo 4:

第五勢 懷中抱月
Posture 5: EMBRACE THE MOON

左脚微提。足尖向左。足跟向右一跥。屈膝落實。右脚向前一步。右脚挺伸。成躺襠勢。同時身腰左轉。胸前朝東。右拳變掌。兩手由懷內向下一崩。由外圈向左前方。成抱月圈。虎口相對。掌心朝外。左手微高。右手略低。目光右看。形如左圖。
Your left foot slightly lifts, the toes turning outward, and stomps down, all your weight going onto it, the knee bent, and your right foot steps forward, the leg straight, making a crouching stance, your torso turning to the left so that your chest is facing toward the east. At the same time, your hands lower from your chest, your right fist becoming a palm, and circle across to the forward left to make a rounded posture of “embracing the moon”, the tiger’s mouths facing each other, the palms facing outward, your left hand slightly higher, right hand slightly lower. Your gaze is to the right. See photo 5:

附解
Further details:
第五勢之動作法。先將朝南在前足尖點地之左足。微提向前。將足尖朝左。足跟向右落下。同時身腰左轉。正面朝東。將右足向南一步。全身重量移置左邊。左腿屈曲。右腿挺伸。成躺襠姿勢。在右腿進步之時。卽將右拳變掌。雙掌由懷內下一拂。由外圈向上抄起。成抱月形。
Your left foot slightly lifts, the toes pointing to the left, and stomps down as your torso turns to the left for your chest to be facing toward the east and your right foot steps toward the south, the weight now on your left foot, your left leg bent, right leg straight, making a crouching stance. At the same time, your right fist becomes a palm and both palms go downward from your chest with an action of brushing off, then arc across upward, making a shape of embracing the moon.

第六勢 左冲天砲
Posture 6: LEFT CANNON FIRING INTO THE SKY

方向未變。右足收囘。向左足併攏。身體立直。同時雙掌變拳。右拳護腰。貼近左脇。左拳上衝。斜豎於左上方。拳心朝外。虎口朝右。目光右看。形如左圖。
Without changing your direction, your right foot withdraws to stand next to your left foot, your body standing straight, as your palms become fists, your right fist guarding your waist near your left ribs, your left fist thrusting up diagonally to the upper left, the center of the fist facing outward, the tiger’s mouth facing to the right. Your gaze is to the right. See photo 6:

附解
Further details:
第六勢與第五勢之銜接處。此勢方向與左足均未移動。卽將右足收囘。向左足併攏。身體立起。右掌變拳。收囘屈肘。以護左腰。左拳由懷內向上一衝。成冲天砲。
The previous posture flows right into this one. The direction your chest is facing does not change, nor the position of your left foot. Your right foot pulls back next to your left foot, your body standing up, as your right palm becomes a fist, withdraws to guard the left side of your waist, the elbow bent, and your left fist thrusts up from your chest to perform the action of a “cannon firing into the sky”.

第七勢 右冲天砲
Posture 7: RIGHT CANNON FIRING INTO THE SKY

右足足跟向下。足尖朝右。向前踢一踩腿。落地站實。左右兩拳。同時右拳下扎。向右上方揚起。左拳護腰。貼近右脇。目光前看。正面朝南。形如左圖。
Your right foot comes down with the toes turned out to the right, going forward with a stamping kick, coming down with your weight going onto it, as your right fist pokes downward and then rises upward, your left fist guarding your waist near your right ribs. Your chest is facing toward the south, your gaze forward. See photo 7:

附解
Further details:
踩腿。係提起右足。離地約四五寸許。將足尖上翹向右。足跟用勁由內扭轉向前。踩踢前方敵人小腿臁骨。足踁等處。
To perform the stamping kick, your right foot lifts not quite half a foot off the ground, the toes turning outward to the right, and the heel stomps down forward forcefully. The stamping kick is for attacking an opponent’s shin or the top of his foot.

第八勢 馬襠衝拳
Posture 8: HORSE STANCE, THRUST PUNCH

左足足跟前吐。足尖上仰。向前踢一踩腿。落下成馬襠步。左手向前一抓。收囘屈肘。提與肩平。虎口朝下。拳心向外。拳背靠近肩窩。右拳落至胸前。由左拳袖底。向前平衝。身腰蹲坐。成馬襠左拉右衝拳姿勢。正面仍係朝南。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your left foot lists up with the toes raised, heel sticking out, and goes forward with a stamping kick, then comes down to the left into a horse stance as your left hand goes forward with a grab, then withdraws at shoulder level, the elbow bent, the tiger’s mouth facing downward, the center of the fist facing outward, the back of the fist near your right shoulder, and your right fist lowers in front of your chest, then thrusts out level from under your left sleeve, your body squatting down. This produces a posture of left hand pulling and right hand thrusting [making a bow-drawing action] in a horse stance. Your chest is still facing toward the south, your gaze forward. See photo 8:

第九勢 雙貫拳
Posture 9: DOUBLE POURING FISTS

身步未動。雙拳收囘脇下。上身左轉。右足微向前移。雙拳同時向左前方畫弧撞擊。虎口相對。左拳微揚。右拳微低。目光隨拳注視。正面朝東。背面朝西。形如左圖。
With your stance not changing, your fists withdraw below your ribs as your upper body turns to the left and your right foot shifts forward, then your fists strike in unison to the forward left with inward arcs so that the tiger’s mouths are facing toward each other, your left fist slightly higher, right fist slightly lower. [This technique is usually intended as a strike to both temples, but the result with the fists at different heights would be one fist striking to the temple and the other fist striking to the jaw, which is actually a more effective technique due to the additional shock to the opponent’s neck.] Your chest is facing toward the east, your back to the west, your gaze following your fists. See photo 9:

第十勢 雁落沙灘
Posture 10: WILD GOOSE LANDS ON THE SANDY BEACH

右拳變掌。向右上方一捎。右脚一跺。左足向前一步。身腰右轉。左脚前伸。右膝屈落。成躺襠勢。同時右手向後一掃。左手向前下方發一切掌。遙對左足足尖。正面朝南。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your fists become palms and brush away to the upper right as your right foot does a stomp and your left foot steps forward, your torso turning to the right, your left leg straightening, right leg bending, making a crouching stance, your right hand sweeping away to the rear, your left hand shooting out forward and downward as a cutting palm, vertically aligning with your left toes. Your chest is facing toward the south [west], your gaze forward. See photo 10:

第十一勢 頂心肘
Posture 11: ELBOW STRIKE TO THE CHEST

上身立起前邁。步法未動。成左弓右箭步。右手變拳。屈藏在內。右肘向前打一頂心肘。同時左掌收囘。向上一捎。在右肘角前方一拍。正面朝南。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your upper body rises up and moves forward without your feet changing their position, making a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow, as your right hand becomes a fist, the arm bending inward, and your right elbow strikes forward to the opponent’s chest, your left hand at the same time withdrawing, going upward with a brushing action, and slapping against the forearm side of your right elbow. Your chest is facing toward the south, your gaze forward. See photo 11:

第十二勢 白鶴亮翅
Posture 12: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

右手向右旁方一捎。身腰右轉。此時正面朝北右步後退。同時右捎手。從右外方由下向上。左手從左外方。由上朝下。向後一掃。右手畫內弧。左手畫外弧。成寒鷄步。白鶴亮翅。左手後捎。右手上揚。左足足尖點地。右足落實。身腰蹲坐。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your torso turns around to the right so that your chest is facing toward the north, your right foot retreating, as your right hand brushes outward to the right, moving upward from below, and your left hand goes outward to the left, moving downward from above, sweeping away behind you, making a position of a white crane showing its wings, which involves your left hand brushing to the rear and your right hand rising up. While your hands arc, you are making a shivering-chicken stance, your left foot touching down with the toes as the weight goes onto your right foot, your body squatting down. Your gaze is forward. See photo 12 [reverse view]:

第十三勢 掛面拳
Posture 13: BACKFIST

左手上捎。右手握拳護腰。左足足跟向前。踢一蹴臁腿。落下。成左弓步。右拳由腰下提起向前擊一掛面拳。係用拳背擊敵面門。虎口朝右。拳心向裏。同時用左掌托着右拳拳背。目光前看。正而朝北。形如左圖。
Your left hand brushes upward, your right hand becoming a fist and guarding your waist, as your left heel goes forward with a treading kick to the opponent’s shin. Then your left foot comes down to make a left bow stance as your right fist lifts from your waist and strikes forward, using the back of the fist to strike to the opponent’s face, the tiger’s mouth facing to the right, the center of the fist facing inward, your left palm propping up at the back of your right fist. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 13 [reverse view]:

附解
Further details:
蹴臁腿。係足尖上仰。腿筋伸直。將足跟吐出。向前方敵人小腿臁骨處底蹴。蹴踢之法。無須過高。足跟用勁。橫出則為踩。直出則為蹴。
The treading kick involves the toes pointing upward, the leg extending straight, and the heel shooting out to the opponent’s lower leg. This kick does not need to be high and power is expressed at the heel. The foot turned sideways makes it a stamping kick. The foot pointing upward makes is a treading kick.

第十四勢 肋下肘
Posture 14: ELBOW STRIKE TO THE RIBS

右足向前一步。左手朝外。微微向上一捎。似握敵人左臂。向左後方一拉。右拳屈肘向內。順勢用右肘上膀。外臂肘角。向外崩擊敵人左腰肋。目光前看。正而朝北。形如左圖。
Your right foot steps forward as your left hand brushes outward and slightly upward, as though grabbing the opponent’s left arm, and pulls to the left rear, your right fist drawing in, the elbow bending, and then your right elbow, using the upper-arm side of the elbow, goes out to crash against the opponent’s left ribs. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 14 [reverse view]:

第十五勢 捺擊掌
Posture 15: PUSH DOWN, PALM STRIKE

右手向右前上方一捎。然後左手由左外方向前旁方。掌根用勁一推。落靠右腰旁。同時左足向前一步。右掌由懷內發出。向前一擊。五指朝上。掌根用勁。步法成左弓右箭步。目光前看。正面朝西北。形如左圖。
Your right hand brushes upward to the forward right, then your left hand goes across forward from the left and pushes down with the heel of the palm until at the right side of your waist [your right palm withdrawing] as your left foot steps forward. Then your right palm shoots out forward from your chest, the fingers pointing upward, power expressing at the heel of the palm, as you settle into a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. Your chest is facing toward the northwest [north], your gaze forward. See photo 15:

第十六勢 單鳳朝陽
Posture 16: PHOENIX LANDS ON THE SUNNY SLOPE

右手向上一捎。右足向左前一步。足尖點地。身腰左轉。正面轉南。同時左手由右腰旁。經左後下方。向上畫一大圓弧。落至右旁腹前。右手捎後。由右旁方畫弧。從內圈挑起向上。揚於右頂上方。步法成左前右後寒鷄步。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your right hand brushes upward as your right foot steps to the forward left, then your body continues to turn around to the left so that your chest is facing toward the south, and you make a shivering-chicken stance with your left foot forward, touching down with the toes, as your left hand lowers from the right side of your waist, drawing a large clockwise circle that takes it to the left rear, upward, and lowering until in front of the right side of your belly, and your right hand also draws a clockwise circle to the right, rear, down, and rising up above your right temple. Your gaze is forward. See photo 16 [reverse view]:

第十七勢 抝步拉弓
Posture 17: TWISTED STEP, DRAWING A BOW

左足向前一落伸直。成丁步勢。左右兩手。由右旁向前下方一幌撩起。向上成一大圓花形。右手從右腰下前伸。掌心朝上。似握敵人來手。向右後一抽。左手由上向前。發一切掌。同時右足向左足後抝步上前一步。正面朝南。形如左圖。
Your left foot comes down forward, the leg straight, making a T-shaped stance, as your hands make a large flourishing circle that goes forward, to the left, downward, and upward, your right hand then extending forward from your waist with the palm facing upward, as though grabbing the opponent’s incoming hand, and then pulling back to the rear while your left hand shoots out forward as a cutting palm, your right foot stepping forward behind your left foot, making a twisted step. Your chest is facing toward the south. See photo 17 [reverse view]:

第十八勢 弓箭衝拳
Posture 18: BOW & ARROW STANCE, THRUST PUNCH

右足由左後方提出。向左足前方進一步。左足再向前方一步。成左弓右箭步。左掌由上向右旁方一扳。成拳護腰。同時。右拳由右肋下發出。向前平衝。正面朝南。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your right foot lifts from behind your left foot and steps forward in front of your left foot, then your left foot steps forward to make a stance of left leg a bow, right leg an arrow. At the same time, your left palm goes to your right side, rolls over, becoming a fist, and pulls back to guard your waist as your right fist shoots out from below your right ribs with a level thrust punch. Your chest is facing toward the south, your gaze forward. See photo 18 [reverse view]:

第十九勢 抽拳切掌
Posture 19: WITHDRAWING FIST, CUTTING PALM

向右一扭身。由弓箭襠變馬襠。正面朝西。同時將右拳抽囘。肘角向後。拳平右胸。左掌向南切擊。五指朝上。掌根用勁。目光向南注看。形如左圖。
Your torso twists to the right, switching you from a bow & arrow stance to a horse stance, your chest facing toward the west, as your right fist withdraws so that the elbow is pointing behind you, the fist in front of the right side of your chest, and your left palm goes out toward the south with a cutting strike, the fingers pointing upward, power expressing in the heel of the palm. Your gaze is toward the south. See photo 19 [reverse view]:

第二十勢 雙挑拳
Posture 20: DOUBLE CARRYING FISTS

兩手握拳。由懷內向上雙捎。左內右外。畫弧上抄。抱置胸前。拳心朝內。身體右轉。將右足收囘。足尖點地。成寒鷄步蹲坐勢。正面朝北。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your hands become fists, brush upward from your chest, spread apart to the sides, and scoop up again in front of your chest, left hand on the inside, right hand on the outside, the centers of the fists facing inward, as your torso turns around to the right, your right foot withdrawing and touching down with the toes to make a shivering-chicken stance. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 20 [reverse view]:

附解
Further details:
第十九勢與二十勢。銜接處。此種手法。係雙拳同時向上成兩個大圓圈。左拳走內圈。右拳走外圈。成連環式。如∞形。
The previous posture continues right into this one. This technique involves your fists in unison drawing large upward circles, your left fist going counterclockwise, your right fist going clockwise, together drawing a shape like interlocking rings.

第二十一勢 躺襠切掌
Posture 21: CROUCHING STANCE, CUTTING PALM

右足向右旁方橫進一步。與左足相平。左腿挺伸。右腿屈膝。上身微向左斜。同時右拳收囘護腰。左手變掌。向左前下方抺擊。目光隨左掌注看。正面朝西北。形如左圖。
Your right foot steps sideways to the right, making an east-west line with your left foot, your left leg straightening, right leg bending, your upper body leaning to the left, your right fist withdrawing to guard your waist, as your left fist becomes a palm and goes downward to the forward left with a cutting strike. Your chest is fazing toward the northwest, your gaze toward your left palm. See photo 21 [reverse view]:

第二十二勢 單鳳朝陽
Posture 22: PHOENIX LANDS ON THE SUNNY SLOPE

上身右轉。右手向外上捎。再由懷內畫弧向上。向時左手由左上方向右方磕下。落於腹前。肘角微彎。掌心向下。右手上舉。掌心朝上。膀臂微屈。同時左足收囘。足尖點地。置於右足尖前。成單鳳朝陽勢。目光前看。正面朝正北。形如左圖。
Your upper body turns to the right as your right hand brushes away upward and draws a clockwise circle that again brings it upward, the palm facing upward, and your left hand draws a clockwise arc upward, to the right, and covering downward in front of your belly, the palm facing downward, both arms slightly bent. At the same time, your left foot gathers in to be placed in front of your right foot, touching down with the toes. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 22 [reverse view]:

第二十三勢 雙蓋拳
Posture 23: DOUBLE COVERING FISTS

右手由外圈向下。左手由下弧畫圈翻上。兩拳同時下蓋。左足落平。與右足相齊。雙腿同時朝下一蹬。兩手交叉。左上右下。抱在膝外。正面朝北。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your right hand arcs downward from the outside as your left hand arcs upward from below to meet it, then both fists cover downward in unison as your left foot comes down next to your right foot, your legs squatting down, your hands crossed with the left hand on top, right hand underneath, wrapping over your knees. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 23 [reverse view]:

第二十四勢 懷心腿
Posture 24: KICK FROM THE CHEST

雙拳同時向上一捎。作雙崩勢。身腰立起。同時左腿隨手發出。上踢一懷心腿。懷心腿踢法。參看說明。正面仍然朝北。形如左圖。
Your fists in unison brush upward and rip apart as your body stands up and your left leg shoots out a kick from your chest, same as explained earlier. Your chest is still facing toward the north. See photo 24:

第二十五勢 二郎擔衫
Posture 25: SECOND SON PUTS ON HIS JACKET

左足落下。左拳變掌。向前右方發一旁捺掌。右手變鵰手。由左上方畫弧。向右旁方反撥。同時右足貼地向前一鈎掃。足尖朝左。左手揚起。在左上方。掌心朝前。右手撥後。手背朝前。在右旁方。此着一捺一撥一勾。名為三合。手足須同時並用。正面朝北。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your left foot comes down as your left fist becomes a palm and pushes down to the forward right, your right fist becoming a vulture hand and arcing to the upper left. Then your right hand deflects to the right rear, the back of the hand facing forward, as your right foot goes forward with a hooking sweep, staying in contact with the ground throughout the movement, the toes pointing to the left, and your left hand rises up to the upper left, the palm facing forward. The actions of your left hand pushing down, your right hand deflecting, and your right foot hooking are called the “three closings”. Your hands and feet must move in unison. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 25 [reverse view]:

附解
Further details:
左手向前方發一捺掌。係五指向上微彎。掌根腕底用勁挺擊之意。右手將五指掇攏名為鵰手。由左上方向下。經胸則向右旁方。連鈎一撥。畫弧向後反啄。手腕向前。五指向後。此時一捺一集已收囘。由懷內向左上方揚起。此勢在一捺時。右足向前。用一鈎腿。隨時左手收囘向上。右手由上向下。成左上右下。絞絲形手法。
Your left hand goes forward and pushes downward with the fingers pointing upward, slightly bent, the striking power expressing at the heel of the palm. The fingers of your right hand pinch together, forming what is called a “vulture hand”, and lowers from the upper left, passing in front of you and deflecting to the right, hooking to the rear with a reverse pecking action, the wrist facing forward, the fingers pointing behind. Your left hand pushing down is an action of gathering in, after which it rises up to the upper left. At the same time, your right foot goes forward with a hooking kick. With your left hand gathering in and then rising upward as your right hand goes to the upper left and then moves downward, what is produced is an appearance of tangling thread.

第二十六勢 袖底切掌
Posture 26: DEFENDING UNDER THE SLEEVE, ATTACK WITH A CUTTING PALM

右足提起。向前半步。由鴉弦襠變為右弓左箭勢。同時。左手向右旁方一推。右手收囘。由腰下伸出。向前發一切掌。目光前看。正面朝北。形如左圖。
Your right foot lifts and goes forward a half step, switching from a tying-a-duck stance to a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow. At the same time, your left hand pushes across to the right side as your right hand withdraws and then shoots out from your waist with a cutting palm. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 26 [reverse view]:

第二十七勢 猴兒摘桃
Posture 27: MONKEY STEALS A PEACH

左足向前進一步。同時右手由上向右外方一捎。落下垂肘。鵰起掇五指朝前。左手由外上方畫弧。向內下方後鵰。掇五指向後。同時左腿向前微進半步。屈膝跪落。正面朝北。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your left foot advances a step while your right hand brushes outward to the right and rises up as a vulture hand, the fingers pinching together and pointing forward, the elbow hanging down. At the same time, your left hand circles to the left, upward, inward, downward, and goes to the rear as a vulture hand, the fingers pinching together and pointing toward the rear, while your right leg advances a half step, the knee bending and kneeling down. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 27 [reverse view]:

第二十八勢 翻身劈擊
Posture 28: TURN AROUND, SPLITTING STRIKE

身腰立起。左足向左後方退一步。身體左轉。左手向左旁後方一捎。此時正面朝西南。右足前進一步。右拳向前打一披面拳。打時左掌向右拳背上一刮。右臂挺伸。雙掌下鵰。左掌護耳。掌心朝右。步法成朝東南馬襠勢。目光右看。形如左圖。
Your body stands up, your left foot retreats a step to the left rear, and your right foot advances a step to make a horse stance, your body turning to the left so that your chest is facing toward the southwest [southeast], as your left hand brushes across to the left rear and your right fist goes forward with a strike to the opponent’s face, your left palm scraping along the back of your right fist as it goes out, your right arm straightening, the hand finishing as a vulture hand, your left palm guarding your ear, the palm facing to the right. Your gaze is to the right. See photo 28 [reverse view]:

第二十九勢 躺襠切掌
Posture 29: CROUCHING STANCE, CUTTING PALM

右足向前東南方半步。身腰左轉。正面朝北。右掌變拳。抽囘護腰。肘角提起。同時左掌向左下方切擊。身腰右坐。右腿屈曲。左腿挺伸。成躺襠勢。目光左看。形如左圖。
Your right foot takes a half step forward toward the southeast, your torso turning to the left so that your chest is facing toward the north [northeast], as your right palm becomes a fist and pulls back to guard your waist, the elbow lifted up, and your left palm goes downward to the forward left with a cutting strike, your torso sitting onto your right leg, your right leg bending, left leg straightening, making a crouching stance. Your gaze is toward your left palm. See photo 29 [side view]:

第三十勢 偏花七星
Posture 30: SIDEWAYS FLOURISH, BIG-DIPPER POSITION

左足收囘。足尖點地。成寒雞勢。上身微向右轉。正面朝東。同時左掌與右掌。隨左足收囘之時。順勢向右旁方。由下畫半弧揚起。成雙切掌七星勢。指尖朝上。頭向右轉。目光南看。形如左圖。
Your left foot pulls in, touching down with the toes to make a shivering-chicken stance, your upper body slightly turning to the right so that your chest is facing toward the east, as your palms draw a half circle to the right, going upward from below, forming a big-dipper position [i.e. your arms making a bucket shape] involving double cutting palms, the fingers pointing upward. Your head is turned to the right, your gaze toward the south. See photo 30 [side view]:

第三十一勢 二郎担衫
Posture 31: SECOND SON PUTS ON HIS JACKET

身腰左轉。左足向前半步。右足貼地畫半弧。向北方前鏟落實。足尖朝西。同時右手向上一捎。左手向懷內一蓋。成雙花手。左掌向左旁方揚起。右手向右旁方後鵰。目光前看。正面朝北。形如左圖。
Your torso turns to the left as your left foot goes forward a half step and your right foot draws a semicircle, shoveling along the ground until in front of you in the north, the toes pointing toward the west. At the same time, your hands do a flourishing action, right hand brushing upward to the left and then going to the right rear as a vulture hand, your left hand covering inward toward your chest and then rising up to the left as a palm. Your chest is facing toward the north, your gaze forward. See photo 31 [reverse view]:

第三十二勢 雙撞拳
Posture 32: DOUBLE CRASHING FISTS

足跟貼地。兩足尖左磨。身腰左轉。成正面朝南左弓步。雙手在胸前成交叉式。向上雙捎。右足隨時向前踢一踩腿落實。同時雙捎手收囘成拳。由腰間發出。向前雙衝。正面朝南。步法成右弓左箭步。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your heels pivot to turn your toes to the left, your torso turning around to the left, to make a south-facing left bow stance as your hands cross in front of your chest and brush upward. Your right foot then goes forward with a stamping kick, your weight going onto it, making a stance of right leg a bow, left leg an arrow, as your hands withdraw, becoming fists, and then shoot out forward from your waist with double thrust punches. Your chest is facing toward the south, your gaze forward. See photo 32:

第三十三勢 流星趕月
Posture 33: METEOR CHASES THE MOON

左手向左後方一捎。身腰左轉。正面朝東。右足躍向左足旁方一步。左足磨轉。成馬襠蹬下。同時右拳由頂上翻向左旁方磕擊。左掌托其右肘前下方。此時正面朝西。目光右看。形如左圖。(此着右足與右拳。須同時動作。轉身更要靈快。)
Your left hand brushes to the left rear, your torso turning around to the left, your right foot leaping past your left foot, your left foot pivoting leftward, your right foot stomping down into a horse stance as your right fist goes over your head and smashes down to the left, your left palm propping up under your left forearm. Your chest is facing toward the west, your gaze to the right. (In this technique, your right foot and right fist must move in unison, making the turning of your body more nimble.) See photo 33:

第三十四勢 金鷄獨立
Posture 34: GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG

右拳抽囘護腰。拳心朝上。同時左掌向前切擊。右膝提起。足尖靠近左膝角上。左腿獨立。正面朝西。目光前看。形如左圖。
Your right fist withdraws to guard your waist, the center of the fist facing upward, as your left palm goes forward with a cutting strike, your right knee lifting so that the toes are near your left knee, your left leg standing one-legged. Your chest is facing toward the west [north], your gaze forward. See photo 34:

第三十五勢 馬襠衝拳
Posture 35: HORSE STANCE, THRUST PUNCH

右足向右前斜方一落。成馬襠勢。左手變拳。曲肘平肩。拳心朝下。右拳同時向右平方衝出。目光右看。正面朝西。形如左圖。
Your right foot comes down diagonally to the forward right to make a horse stance as your left hand becomes a fist and pulls back at shoulder level, the elbow bent, the center of the fist facing downward, and your right fist goes out to the right with a level thrust punch. Your chest is facing toward the west, your gaze to the right. See photo 35 [side view]:

第三十六勢 雙圈手
Posture 36: DOUBLE CIRCLING HANDS

雙拳變掌。由右上方向左下方畫雙花大圓圈。再由右肋下。左手向左前方屈肘上豎。四指朝上。大指在內。肘角對膝角。同時右手由右肋下向上。舉過右額角。四指朝前。右虎口與左虎口遙遙朝對。同時將左足收囘。身腰左轉。成寒雞勢。目光左看虎口。正面朝南。形如左圖。
Your fists become palms and make a large flourishing circle to the upper right, lower left, below your right ribs, and up, your left hand rising to the left in front of you with the elbow bent and vertically aligned with your left knee, the fingers pointing upward, the thumb facing inward, your right hand rising up past your right temple, the fingers pointing forward, your tiger’s mouths pointing toward each other. At the same time, your left foot gathers in, making a shivering-chicken stance, your torso turning around to the left. Your chest is facing toward the south, your gaze toward the tiger’s mouth of your left hand. See photo 36:

第三十七勢 七星收手
Posture 37: BIG-DIPPER POSITION, CLOSING POSTURE

雙手向前下方一抄。成十字交叉形。向前一崩。雙手再在左右兩旁。各打一花。向胸前操起。左手在後。右手在前。十指向上。掌根朝外。同時左足落實。右足向前進一步。成寒雞勢。目光前看。正面朝南。形如左圖。
Your hands brush down in front of you, forming an X shape, then rip apart in front of you and spread away to the sides, each making a flourishing circle [left hand counterclockwise, right hand clockwise] that returns them to being crossed in front of your chest, rising up with your left hand behind, right hand in front, the fingers pointing upward, the heels of the palms facing outward. At the same time, your left foot comes down fully and your right foot advances a step to make a shivering-chicken stance. Your chest is facing toward the south, your gaze forward. See photo 37:

拳術結論
A MORE GENERAL VIEW OF BOXING ARTS

拳術本無分少林武當。後世之人。以少林為方外所傳。故曰外家。武當為煉師所授。故曰內家。又謂少林派。重姿勢。不務行功。目之為外家。武當派。重運氣。不重姿勢。目之為內家。以致分為兩派。矜長揭短。各不相能。是皆未知拳術之初旨。夫自六朝始有達摩。少林寺自達摩與曇宗而後。始以拳棒名於世。自宋時始有張三丰由黃黎洲作征南墓銘之後。始有內外家之分。若以其言為是。是不啻目我國在宋代與六朝之前。毫無拳術可言。未免捨其本而取其末。以言拳術。發明最早。見於史書者。當推華佗為始。元化有虎鹿熊猿鳥五禽圖戲。傳於世。似應推華佗為始祖。然漢書載齊愍以技擊强。又管子云。有於子之屬。有拳勇股肱之力。秀出於衆者。有則以告。似又應推春秋時之齊管仲為提倡之始祖矣。然仍未盡是。推而上之。上古之世。初生之民。渾渾噩噩。巢處穴居。茹毛飲血。與禽獸相雜處。禽獸食人。人食禽獸。其所以時至今日。吾人能寢虎豹之皮。食牛羊之肉。其初何嘗不應用拳足和天賦之智能。與之相决鬥。以爭生存哉。卽謂拳術為人類固有之技能。自無不可。謂有人類卽有拳術。亦無不可。今人動輒謂內家精於內功。外家精於外功。亦若有內卽無外。有外卽無內。更屬非是。夫能剛者豈不能柔。知靜者安不知動。有陰卽有陽。萬物一理。有內卽有外。人體一律。外功練成。亦有內勁。內勁練成。亦有外功。手足原無異態。拳術何必分門。三敎源來是一家。宗敎不同。同歸於敎。顏柳歐褚。筆法不同。同歸於字。原不必因字體有異。而生妬嫉。更不必因拳法不同。而分畛域。要知各種拳法。各有所長。亦卽各有所短。昔人每多故步自封。墨守成法。矜己之長。形人之短。練少林者。聞武當之名稱。則掩耳而走。練武當者。見少林之二字。亦蹙額而吁。遂使天然團體。不能相親。反視同仇讎。是悞會攻錯他山之旨。甘願抱殘守缺。而不知共相琢磨。研究改進之方者也。夫少林武當者。拳中之名稱。書法中之顏柳也。不能因名而忌其拳。更不必因辭而害其意。近今立於國術界同志。均能推誠相愛。抱平和奮鬥之精神。去舊更新。截長補短。或不以余言為河漢也。
Boxing arts were originally not divided into the categories of Shaolin and Wudang. It was later generations who decided that Shaolin came from a foreign country and was therefore to be considered “external”, and that Wudang was passed down from native Daoist masters and was therefore to be considered “internal”. They also said that Shaolin emphasizes postures rather movement and was in this regard “external”, and that Wudang emphasizes energy rather than postures and was in this regard “internal”. But once they were divided into these two schools, practitioners boasted about the strengths of their school and mocked the drawbacks of the other, ceasing to be on good terms, and began to declare that those of the other school did not understand boxing arts at all.
  During the era of the Six Dynasties [222–589], Damo emerged. Due to the activities of Damo and the monk Tanzong at the Shaolin Temple, the fame of martial arts began to spread. During the Song Dynasty [960–1279], Zhang Sanfeng appeared. Due to the influence of Zhang and the “Memorial Inscription for Wang Zhengnan” written [1669] by Huang Lizhou [Zongxi], the distinction was then made between an “internal school” and an “external school”. Prior to the Song Dynasty and the Six Dynasties, there seems to be hardly any mention of boxing arts, and so inevitably we tend to give up trying to figure out how they began and focus on how they have developed more recently.
  As for the earliest discussion of boxing arts, going by the historical records, it surely begins with Hua Tuo. His Five Animal Frolics – tiger, deer, bear, ape, bird – has spread everywhere, and he seems to have been the creator of those exercises. But the Book of Han records great mourning for the sorry state of martial arts at the time. And going still further back, Guanzi said [Guanzi, chapter 20]: “One who has fists and courage, physical strength that sets him apart from the rest, he will be talked about.” Therefore perhaps Guan Zhong of the Kingdom of Qi during the Spring & Autumn era [771–476 BC] should be nominated as the earliest starting point.
  However, this would still not be accurate, for if we look back even further, beyond antiquity to prehistoric man, primitive people lived in caves, ate whatever they could scavenge, no matter how furry or bloody, and lived amongst animals and were preyed upon by them. Ever since people turned the tables and preyed upon the animals, we have had tiger pelts to cover our beds and the meat from livestock to eat. How could primitive people not have known the inborn ability to use their fists and feet in the struggle for survival? Boxing arts are inherent skills of human beings, something we all can do. If there are human beings, there will be boxing arts, for fighting is something we all capable of.
  People nowadays frequently think that the internal school specializes in internal skills and the external school specializes in external skills, and also that if the internal school focuses on the internal, that means that it completely ignores the external, and that if the external school focuses on the external, that means that it completely ignores the internal. Utterly wrong. Just because someone has the ability to use hardness does not mean that he does have the ability to use softness, and just because someone understands how to use stillness does not mean that he does not understand how to use movement. If there is a passive aspect to something, there is also an active aspect. That is true for all things. If there is an inside, there is an outside. That is true for every person’s body. When external skills are trained, this also produces internal power. When internal power is trained, this also produces external skills. There is really nothing unusual about hands and feet, so why must boxing arts be divided into different schools in this way?
  The Three Doctrines [Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism] were originally a single school of thought. Though they are different traditions, they are the same wisdom. There have been different masters of the art of calligraphy, such as Yan Zhenqing, Liu Gongquan, Ouyang Xun, Chu Suiliang, and so on. Though they each had different methods, they were writing the same words. Originally there were no differences due to the words themselves, but due to calligraphers becoming envious of each other’s talents. In the same way, there were no differences due to the boxing methods themselves, but due to practitioners becoming proprietorial about the way they train.
  It has to be understood that every kind of boxing art has its strengths and its drawbacks. Ancient people tended to become complacent and stuck to established methods, boasting about the strengths of their own art and disparaging the shortcomings of others. When Shaolin practitioners hear the name “Wudang”, they cover their ears and walk away. When Wudang practitioners see the word “Shaolin”, they knit their brows and sigh with disdain. They have formed quite naturally into distinct factions, unable to see each other as anything but enemies. As a result of this, they have forgotten how to learn from others altogether, willingly becoming stuck in their own ways and failing to understand that they can work together to better improve through mutual research.
  Within boxing arts, there are the categories of Shaolin and Wudang, just as within calligraphy there are the styles of Yan Zhenqing and Liu Gongquan. There should be no hate for the other school just because its name is different, nor any demeaning of its principles on the basis of that hate. Let all within the martial arts community love one another and embrace a spirit of pacifying such feuds. Let us start fresh in order to adopt the strengths of one school to balance the shortcomings of the other. And let this advice of mine be heeded, for these are not mere hollow words.

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