SECRETS OF THE MANTIS BOXING ART

螳螂拳術闡秘
SECRETS OF THE MANTIS BOXING ART
順德黃漢勛編述
by Huang Hanxun [Wong Honfan] of Shunde
[published in Hong Kong, 1946 (revised Nov, 1954)]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Aug, 2020]

螳螂拳術闡秘
Secrets of the Mantis Boxing Art
翁世晃題
– calligraphy by Weng Shihuang

目錄
CONTENTS

羅師遺像及其史略
Image & Brief Bio of the Late Master Luo Guangyu
羅師與哲嗣長才長弟合影
Photo of Master Luo & Sons, Changcai and Changdi
羅師與編者合影
Portrait of Master Luo & Author
編者虎尾三節棍演式
Author Demonstrating Tiger Tail Three-Section Staff
編者三節棍蟠龍式
Performing a “Coiling Dragon” Posture
題字
Inscription
歷代武術興替史
[One] The Ups & Downs of Our Martial Arts Through the Ages
應以革命的頭腦改進國術
[Two] A Shift in Mentality to Improve Our Progress
螳螂拳術起源與系統
[Three] The Origin & Transmission of the Mantis Boxing Art
剛柔虛實總論
[Four] A General Discussion of Hard & Soft, Empty & Full
內五形與外五形之性質及應注意之點
[Five] Qualities of the Internal & External Five Elements, Plus Some Other Things to Pay Attention To
翻車轆轆捶法
[Six] The Techniques of Wheeling & Winching
關於拳術的種種
[Seven] Various Thoughts Regarding Martial Arts
演技態度之研究
[Eight] On Performing With the Proper Attitude
十八家拳法
[Nine] The Eighteen Masters & Their Methods
四方八面打釋要
[Ten] Essentials for Engaging in All Directions
羅漢功
[Eleven] On the Effectiveness of the Luohan Exercises
鐵砂掌練法及藥方
[Twelve] Iron Palm Training Methods & Medicines
八剛
[Thirteen] The Eight Hardnesses
十二柔
[Fourteen] The Twelve Softnesses
八打
[Fifteen] The Eight Allowable Targets
八不打
[Sixteen] The Eight Forbidden Targets
宋太祖訪友歌
[Seventeen] Emperor Taizu of the Song Dynasty Seeks Out Masters
各種器械術語錄
[Eighteen] Weapon Maxims
推拿術治病法
[Nineteen] Tuina Methods for Treating Injuries
經驗實效跌打藥方
[Twenty] Effective Medical Prescriptions for Injuries


PREFACE

歐潮飛揚,亞雲鴟張,競爭戰幕,强存弱亡,鳴呼噫嘻,丁茲時代,弱小民族,其尚可不發奮為雄,尋求自存乎哉!
椎拍輐斷,剛强柔軟,收效奏功,神明益損,鳴呼噫嘻!據茲理論,一切學術行動,其尚可偏枯致病,不調和執中,以策求萬全乎哉!
惟前之説,然。故有武術救亡之提倡,惟後之説,然。故拳術尤主張剛柔並用,我國邇年,不甘東亞病夫之誚,已急起直追,注重武術以救藥柔脆國民體魄矣。唯是拳術派別繁多,門户不一,聞諸先輩傳説謂,南拳主剛,詠春太極各派主柔,雖剛自有剛之精諦,柔自有柔之奧妙,然!陰陽相配,造物以成,剛柔調劑,牙舌互保,則柔剛並用之拳術如螳螂派者,尤不能等閒以視。
考螳螂拳之系統組織,乃集合十八家宗法而成一家,快而不浮,實而不滯,羅漢功充其內,鐵砂掌練其外,以七長主攻,八短主守,攻者剛也,守者柔也,有柔則濟以剛,欲攻先求能守,此剛柔互濟之拳術,隱寓安內攘外之至理。
黃君漢勛,為螳螂派專家羅光玉先生之入室弟子,平日研求螳螂拳術已三折肱,近以所學公諸當世,編成螳螂拳術闡秘一書,問序於余,余閱其書中所言,與上述所聞相吻合,因本此立論以塞篇幅,否則以門外漢而談門內事,其不中肯者多矣,序云乎哉。
中華民國卅五年五月 順德馮葆頤序於香江
The West is rising, the East in decline. Alas, in the competition of war, the strong survive and the weak perish. In this modern era, it is absurd that a diminished nation should not be able to work hard and heroically to strive to survive. This is why we promote martial arts as a means of saving the nation.
  A mallet will crack the shell of a turtle, a case of hardness overcoming softness. Alas, the result is so effective that the domination of one quality over the other seems almost magical. In accordance with this principle, any learning or behavior can become so imbalanced as to lead to a veritable illness of disharmonious bias, and so a more foolproof strategy is required. This is why boxing arts should emphasize both hardness and softness.
  Our nation in recent years has not resigned itself to the slander of being the “sick men of Asia” and we have instead endeavored to use martial arts as a remedy for the fragile physiques of our citizens. Our boxing arts are numerous and varied. I have heard many among the older generation say that southern boxing arts emphasize hardness, whereas styles such as Wing Chun and Taiji emphasize softness. It is true that hardness has the stubbornness of hardness and that softness has the subtlety of softness. However, the passive and active aspects are paired together, for it is through their interactions that the universe was made, and thus qualities of hardness and softness are actually equals. Just think of the way that teeth and tongue protect each other. Therefore boxing arts that use hardness and softness equally, such as Mantis Boxing, should not be casually dismissed.
  The Mantis system is the methods of eighteen masters assembled to form a single art. Be quick but not floating, solid but not sluggish. The supplemental Luohan exercises enrich you internally, while the iron palm training develops you externally. Use long-range techniques for seventy percent of your attacks and short-range techniques for eighty percent of your defensive actions. Attack with hardness and defend with softness. Let hardness come to the aid of softness and let softness prepare the way for hardness. Hidden within this boxing principle of hardness and softness complementing each other is the broader principle of simultaneously maintaining domestic tranquility and resisting foreign aggression.
  Huang Hanxun is a direct disciple of the Mantis master Luo Guangyu. Through daily study, he too has become an expert in the Mantis boxing art and has lately been sharing his knowledge with the public. Once he finished this book, he asked me to make a preface for it. When I read through the manuscript, I discovered that the material does indeed conform to the principles I have outlined above. Look to the well-reasoned material that fills this volume and ignore the explanations of the laymen, who have little of relevance to contribute.
  - Feng Baoyu of Shunde, in Hong Kong, May, 1946

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

漢勛受業羅師凡五載,對螳螂拳術畧窺門徑而已!時適世兄蔡炳寰,林虎文,辦學於濠江,當茲時會,國術風氣瀰漫學海,故蔡林二兄屢函囑赴鏡海,漢勛自維年稚功淺,未敢膺其命,未幾,蔡林二兄又以函促,不得已則請命羅師,承蒙允諾,乃為漢勛步入授拳為業之初階也。
凡半載,又奉羅師命調派漢口精武任職凡三年,時七七戰起,乃南返百粵,轉道香島,復得各社團學校不以拙技見棄,乃能立足迄今,在民國廿六七八九數年之間,復得朝夕追隨羅師,承蒙賜教,獲益匪鮮,不幸港戰爆發,羅師遄歸故里,中途經滬,為故交相留,意擬小住而已;不料因病長逝春申客邸,鳴呼!羅師!漢勛受業多年,未能酧答深恩,今以所授拳法編成小册,以廣流傳,亦卽所以紀念羅師之意也。漢勛不敏,惟望我海內外同門,更以偉大之精神,發揚螳螂拳術,斯則漢勛所厚望也,因將經過大畧拉雜為序。
順德靖濤黃漢勛自序於香江精武體育會國術科
By the time I had learned from Master Luo for a full five years, I had still barely scratched the surface of this art. During that time, my fellow students Cai Binghuan and Lin Huwen began running a school in Macao, since it had become fashionable everywhere to study Chinese martial arts. Cai and Lin repeatedly wrote to me inviting me to Macao to teach, but I felt that I was too young and inexperienced, and so I did not dare to accept their request. They soon wrote again and more insistently, then had a word with Master Luo about it, who accepted on my behalf, and I thus took my first steps into teaching boxing arts for a living.
  After spending six months there, Master Luo then ordered me to the Hankou Jingwu Association, where I taught for the next three years. When the war with Japan started, I returned south and this time went to Hong Kong. The schools in the martial arts community there did not reject me for my inadequate skills and it is there that I have been established to this day. From 1937 to 1940, there I learned from Master Luo every day. I am indebted to him for granting me instruction, from which I have benefited greatly.
  Unfortunately the war then came to Hong Kong as well and Master Luo quickly left to go back to his hometown. He stopped in Shanghai at a friend’s house on the way, but his stay there ended up being longer than he intended, and alas, he unexpectedly became ill and died. Though I had learned from him for many years, I was never able to express my gratitude to him. Therefore I have now made this small book of some of the things I learned from him, both in order to spread this material more widely and to commemorate the man. I am not terribly bright, but because I have deep feeling for my fellow practitioners both at home and abroad, and because I strongly hope that the Mantis boxing art will be carried on, I have produced this rambling collection of the general ideas of the art.
  - written by Huang Hanxun, also called Jingtao, of Shunde, in the martial arts department of the Hong Kong Jingwu Athletic Association

羅夫子光玉遺像及其史畧
IMAGE & BRIEF BIO OF THE LATE MASTER LUO GUANGYU

羅師,諱光玉,山東蓬萊人,少隨螳螂名宿,范公旭東遊,積十年盡得其秘,適上海精武中央總會延攬人才,擴展會務,聞范公螳螂拳技負有盛名,乃派員北上厚禮敦聘,范公以年屆八十,不欲再競逐武壇,婉却之,精武代表不願空負此行,再三懇駕,范公以固辭不獲,為副精武雅意乃指羅師曰:此吾徒也,倘諸君不以年稚見棄,可代表吾行?羅師自承命偕精武代表南下滬濱,任職總敎練,與趙振羣陳子正共享精武三大拳師之令譽垂三十年不替,門下桃李遍佈國內外,其任職於軍旅者尤衆,如潘洪昌,鄒喜功,林伯叟等之見重於德鄰健生二公者其最著者也。羅師年三十餘始婚,十年間連舉五男二女,在任職香港精武期間曾一度携眷與俱,其長次子曰長材,長弟,練技頗勤,成績不惡,迨港戰爆發乃携家小北返,道經申江為舊雨所留,本擬小住不意為病魔所纏,又生性不喜吃藥,致為所乘,一代良師,撤手人寰,遽歸道山,泰山其頽,良木其壞,哲人其萎,吾不知將安仰,將安倣矣。
Master Luo Guangyu was from Penglai, Shandong. In his youth, he accompanied the Mantis master Fan Xudong in his travels, learning all his secrets accumulated over the course of decades. The central Jingwu Association in Shanghai recruited Fan’s talents in hopes of expanding their curriculum. Hearing of his great reputation for his Mantis boxing skill, they sent representatives north with lavish gifts to tempt him. However, Fan was already approaching his eighth decade and no longer wanted the competitive life of martial arts circles, so he gently declined. Not wanting to leave in defeat, they pleaded again and again. Fan declined more firmly, pointed to Luo, and said: “This is my disciple. If you don’t mind youth, you can use him in my place.”
  Luo accepted the position and went south with them to Shanghai to teach. He, Zhao Zhenqun, and Chen Zizheng subsequently became known as “the three great Jingwu masters”, a reputation that has carried on for thirty years. His students are now everywhere, within the nation and abroad. He also held a teaching position for the army, training numerous soldiers, such as Pan Hongchang, Zou Xigong, and Lin Bosou. His two best students in the army were the generals Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi.
  Luo was over thirty when he got married. Within a decade, he had five boys and two girls. When he was appointed to teach at the Hong Kong Jingwu Association, he brought along his wife and kids. His eldest and second sons are named Changcai and Changdi. They practice these skills very diligently and have achieved great success in the art. When the war came to Hong Kong, Luo returned north with his family, staying with an old friend in Shanghai. He originally planned to stay there only for a short time, but unexpectedly became very ill. His temperamant was unfortunately the type that hates to take medicine, and so he was taken away by his illness. This great man then left the human realm and went away to the paradise of souls. [quoting from the Book of Rites, chapter 3, originally describing the death of Confucius:] “The mountain has collapsed, and now there is nothing for me to look up to. The supporting beam has broken, the wise man withered away, and now there is no longer an example for me to follow.”

羅師與哲嗣長才長弟合影 三燕穿林之前後夾攻式
Photo of Master Luo with his sons, Changcai [right] and Changdi [left] (performing PINCER ATTACK TO THE FRONT & REAR from the Three Swallows Fly Through the Forest three-person set):

羅師與編者合照
Portrait of Master Luo and the author:

編者虎尾三節棍演式
The author demonstrating with the tiger tail three-section staff:

編者三節棍蟠龍式
Performing a “coiling dragon” posture:

黃館長漢勛惠存
A souvenir for director Huang Hanxun:
螳螂榮譽
“Here’s to the glory of the Mantis art.”
螳螂國術館 漢口分館 深水埔分館 澳门縂館 全骵敬題
– sincerely inscribed on behalf of the Hankou Branch, Sham Shui Po Branch, and all Macao Branches of the Mantis Martial Arts Institute

歷代武術興替史
[ONE] THE UPS & DOWNS OF OUR MARTIAL ARTS THROUGH THE AGES

我國武功,以漢唐最為鼎盛,降及元初,乃有成吉思者,嘗率蒙古兵數千人,遠征歐陸,大兵所至紛紛遷都避之,龐大如俄羅斯,亦弗敢攖其鋒銳,設使成吉思當日具有侵佔野心,當可奄有八荒,駕歐墮白,不致為日後歐人高呼黃禍,並有嚴防黃種集團,惜見不及此,藩籬盡撤,弱點畢呈,實愚莫甚於是,滿淸入主,治我漢族,惟恐不力,重文輕武,創科舉以愚民,視武人為看戶之犬,至養成國人鄙夷練武,狃習文事,淸廷遂永定為宰治漢族不易法門,迨庚子聯軍入京以新式武器攻陷幽燕,乃信用所謂義和團拳匪,以為抵禦,外邦貽笑,逼盟城下,主權喪盡,國體無存,為我國造成艱苦命運之開端,其過未始非重文輕武的政策階之厲也。維時我孫國父以三民主義宣揚海外,中經多次革命,義旗所指,萬方響應,淸廷遂為所推翻,民國肇立,後當道以民弱乃國弱之癥結,爰委張之江上將,就紫金山畔設立中央國術館,將古昔技擊名稱易為國術,自時厥後,國術遂列為國家正式藝術之一,民國廿五年編者任職漢皋,的恭聆蔣主席於南京全國童子軍大檢閱後之播詞,及有冬電之發出,促全國學生注重體育,必先普及國術,列國術為學生正常課程,是電發出後全國省市紛紛組織國術分館,以為全民之倡,其分館之多數,辦理之緊張,與具有四十年歷史,純粹人民團體之精武體育會並駕,正當蓬勃之際,蘆溝橋事變,淞滬戰繼起,中樞頒令全國總動員,與倭寇作殊死戰之鬥爭,東南半壁動搖,人民不知命在何時,曷能延續宣揚武化之事業,淪陷地域之國術舘及精武會,首受敵人摧殘,備極破壞,及今抗戰勝利,建國開始,國民必須具有極雄壯之軀體,始算有上國民之資格,唯是國術不限塲地,不拘人數,握埋十指便可隨意運動,是則運動工具求其在我,固不必求諸舶來也。
Our nation’s martial arts were at their height during the Han [202 BC–220 AD] and Tang [618–907] Dynasties, and went into decline at the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty [1279–1368], when Genghis Khan rampaged with his Mongol hordes, leading them all the way into Europe. Armies one after another busily relocated capital cities in order to avoid them. Even large nations such as Russia could not summon the courage to blunt the thrust of this invading force. If Genghis had even more ambition and decided to conquer all of Europe, he might have driven the white race to extinction. To prevent this kind of catastrophe from occurring again in the future, Europeans loudly warned of a “yellow peril” and formed defensive anti-Asian militias.
  Failing to learn from such events, our own barriers were left unguarded and weaknesses revealed. There is no greater foolishness than this. Consequently the Manchus later took us over, establishing the Qing Dynasty [1644–1911]. Once they were governing us Han people, they realized that they would not be able to keep us under control through force, so they emphasized literary studies and mocked martial pursuits, creating the imperial civil-service examination system as a means of keeping the people ignorant. They looked upon soldiers as the “dog of the household” and cultivated contempt for any citizens who practiced martial arts, perverting the culture into being excessively scholarly. But the Manchus forever found governing the Han people to be difficult.
  In 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance [Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK, USA] used modern weapons to storm and occupy Beijing. They were responding to the actions of the Boxer rebels in their cause of resisting against humiliation from foreign nations. The course of the Boxers only served to force the Allies to capture the city, and we ended completely losing our sovereignty and our national prestige as a result. It was this that was the beginning of our nation’s bitter fate, a situation primed by the terrible policy of emphasizing only literary pursuits and dismissing martial endeavors.
  Sun Yat-sen then began promoting his Three Principles of the People [Identity of the People, Power of the People, Livelihood of the People] while abroad. China has gone through many revolutions, and when once again the banner of righteousness was raised, people from every direction answered the call, and the Manchu government was finally toppled, the Republic of China taking its place. Seeing that the weakness of the people was the reason for the weakness of the country, General Zhang Zhijiang then established the Central Martial Arts Institute next to Purple Mountain [in Nanjing]. Our ancient martial arts became known as our “national arts” and this kind of art has since been classified as one of the official arts of our nation.
  In 1936, while I held a teaching position in Hankou, I listened to the broadcast from Nanjing of when Chiang Kai-shek was making a review of the National Boy Scouts, and also received the “winter telegram” when he repeated his message, urging students throughout the nation to give great attention to physical education. He said we must first popularize martial arts, making martial arts a regular part of school curricula. His message spread throughout the nation, and then one after another a Martial Arts Institute popped up in every province and major city. The people were inspired, the institutes hummed with enthusiasm, and the purely civic organization of the Jingwu Athletic Association was about to embark on its fourth decade.
  And then just as these arts were at last flourishing, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident happened, the Battle of Shanghai commenced, and the central government ordered the total mobilization of the entire nation to fight the Japanese pirates to the bitter end. The southeastern part of the country was shaking from its occupation and the people were uncertain of their fate. The work of promoting martial arts could not continue under these circumstances, especially with the Martial Arts Institutes and the Jingwu Associations having fallen into enemy hands and being among the first things they destroyed.
  Now that the War of Resistance Against Japan has been won, it is time to start building up the country to prepare it against other destructive threats, and for this task the people will need to develop heroic physiques to qualify as worthy citizens. Martial arts are the ideal means of doing so, since they have no limitations of space or number of people and can be practiced whenever one pleases. We have our own tools for exercise and need not seek answers from any foreign imports.

應以革命頭腦改進國術
[TWO] A SHIFT IN MENTALITY TO IMPROVE OUR PROGRESS

諺曰:一胆,二力,三功夫,為研究國術者所服膺,吾則未敢苟同,誠以胆之大小常因環境而變易,譬有某甲貧乏時則挺而走險,富有時則夜行且畏,彼胆汁何前有,而後無耶!毋亦胆隨環境變易而已!古人更有藝高人胆大一語,尤具理解,例如蜻蜓撼樹,其胆可謂大矣,然終致身敗名裂,曾未動搖樹之毫末,則胆大實不足恃也明矣,此古人一胆之說不足信其証一,再論二力,若謂力大能勝藝術,則尚有人練數十年之拳技乎!祗彼農夫苦力足矣,試觀農夫苦力所扛之百鈞重物,為拳藝家所不能勝,是勞動者之力優於拳藝家之力矣,惟拳藝家一舉手,一投足之力,中含有無限之勁力,雖大力之農夫弗能接受,蓋拳術家之發拳也,必集中全身之力,由腰部而輸於臂肘,再達拳鋒,務取對方重心寄托之部位,然後致之於敗,是則謂力大能勝藝術不其愼乎!此古人二力之說不足信其証又一,吾敢以革命頭腦改之曰:一功夫,二力,三胆,願我同道首先痛下苦功,充實力量發揚胆力。
There’s a saying: “First you need guts, then strength, then skill.” Students of martial arts accept this maxim, but I disagree with it.
  First of all, the extent of one’s courage usually varies depending on the situation. For instance, when a man is poor, he becomes brazen enough to commit crimes, but when he is wealthy, he is afraid to even walk at night. How is it that he has so much boldness in one case and none at all in the other? We should not allow our level of courage to be dictated by circumstances. Furthermore, ancient people had an idiom about the boldness of talented individuals which shares some insightful wisdom: “The dragonfly tries to shake the tree.” This demonstrates great boldness which ultimately results in failure. The tiny animal’s inability to shake the tree even slightly shows that guts alone will not get the job done. For these reasons, there is not adequate cause to prioritize guts.
  As for strength, if we say that great strength can defeat skill, then what is the point of decades of practice? Surely being a farmer or laborer would produce all the strength that is needed. If we examine the capacity of farmers and laborers to carry heavy objects, it cannot be matched by most martial artists, therefore the strength of a laborer typically excels the strength of a martial artist. However, when a trained martial artist sends out a hand or flings out a foot, it contains limitless power, so much that even a man with great strength could not handle being hit by it. This is because his punch concentrates the strength of his entire body, transmitting it from his waist to his arm to his fist, and unleashing it upon the opponent’s center of balance, resulting in his defeat. Therefore to say that strength can outmatch skill is not correct. For these reasons, there is not adequate cause to prioritize strength either.
  I hereby presume to reverse the order: “First you need skill, then strength, then guts.” I hope that my fellow martial artists will instead put their primary emphasis upon the training, then upon building up their strength, and then upon developing their courage.

螳螂拳術起源與系統
[THREE] THE ORIGIN & TRANSMISSION OF THE MANTIS BOXING ART

朱明末葉,有山東人曰:王朗者,目覩輿圖行將變色,時思獻身家國,爭奈無路請纓,因走嵩山,投少林,習拳棒術,以圖後效,及淸兵寇關,王卽隻身赴難,又迫於內奸賣國,致英雄無用武地,鼎革後,重返少林,組織僧侶,以為復國雪恥之圖,但所如輙左,尋且為淸廷偵悉內幕,下令圍焚,王與同門,展其超凡神技,保護師尊脫難,為避淸兵緝捕起見,及間關逃峨嵋,走崑崙,遍歷數省,以迄魯之勞山,遂卓錫於此,未幾師尊羽化,舉大師兄某為主持,日常與王拳棒相戲,以破岑寂,然王每為所敗,王恥之,誓三年後必勝師兄,越三年,復與師兄角,又敗,王羞慚尤甚幾欲自殺,後師兄雲遊,臨別致囑王曰:汝好好練習,吾三年便返,那時當刮目相看矣。師兄去後,一日時方盛暑,悶居陋室,百無聊賴,王乃挾劍持經,入深林避暑,抵一林,祗見淸風習習,身心俱快,正展經朗誦,忽聞虫聲唧唧,吱吱亂鳴,狀頗悲哀,仰首觀之,見一螳螂方與一蟬作殊死鬥,螳螂恃其鋒利雙臂,步步緊迫,未幾蟬遂喪生於螳螂之手,王觀畢,以螳螂進退有度,長短並施,擒縱得法,大肖拳技功夫,因扳枝捕之返寺,朝夕以草桿戲之,卽粘,黏,崩,軋,閃,賺,騰,挪,兼而有之,王天資聰慧,不三日,頓悟螳螂之手法共分十二種,卽勾,摟,採,掛,刁,進,崩,打,粘,黏,貼,靠。而貫入十七家宗法之精華,並採猴猿步法渾為一體三載後自成一家,適師兄倦遊歸來,因與王再角,師兄未及審視,已被跌尋丈外,驚問其故,王舉以告之,是卽螳螂鳴名之時也,自此益知拳技之道實無止境,因與師兄勤加研練,使螳螂之藝益臻妙境,不十年師兄與王先後辭世,該寺僧侶視螳螂拳不啻至寶,不輕示人,後有升霄道人遊雲至此,得承衣砵,螳螂拳始流傳於外,道人再傳海揚,李三剪,李技成,設鑣局於濟南,盛名遠播,大江南北綠林豪傑,聞閃電手之名,莫不致服,畢生英名不替,至晚年,因無嗣,遍覓賢者以承其技,至福山縣,聞王榮生者,乃新科武進士,登門訪之,求演技,以王成名之大刀術獻,李觀畢,不贊一語,曰:技止此而已乎?何名之不符若此!王怒極,猛扑之,已失所在,正徬徨間,笑聲起於背後,因轉身取之,未得,反為所制,因求師事之,數年盡其技,李亦失踪,不之何去,王家富厚,旣不求士進,亦不以技炫人,閒則用作消遣,寒暑無間,數十年如一日,技益猛進,王晚年傳烟台范旭東,范體格魁梧,重逾三百磅,有巨人之稱,精鐵砂掌,曾有一次行經田野,適二耕牛相角,見范來,疑相犯,乃共奔范前,范以來勢殊兇,非出絕技實難制之,先到之牛,范集中全力於右足,力蹴牛小腹,此龐然大物應聲倒地,後至者范以左手握其角,右手用力向牛脊一掌,牛亦倒地,農人以范擊斃其牛,要求賠償,范曰:吾為自衞而已!倘吾被牛打死,則汝肯賠命否?事乃寢息,由此范大力之名益騰播遐邇,光緒初年,有俄人約范往西伯利亞之霍地市角技,范以短於資,後得煙台全市武師助欵成行,此事非中國正式代表資格,且當時報紙又不及現在風行,故其事不彰,范至霍地先擊敗其俄人台主,然後取而代之,經十多塲比賽均非范之對手,范遂得錦標以歸,范氏再傳林景山,羅光玉等數人,民國八年,上海精武體育總會,仰慕螳螂拳技,乃派員北上,延聘羅師光玉南下申江任總敎練之職,至民國十八年舉行全國運動會於首都,其弟子馬城鑫,代表上海市出席參加動手比賽,結果名列前茅,京滬各報競為刋載,羅師之名益噪,未幾奉中央總會之命南下百粵,而港澳,南洋群島,各地,巡視各分會,迨任務完畢,遄返滬濱,適一二八淞滬戰起,精武被毀,會務廢弛,港精武主事人以羅師乃螳螂正宗,得此機會焉能放過,乃電上海臨時辦事處,促駕南來,自此港中人士,始知螳螂拳技之眞相,其留下港中之印象極佳,不幸港陷,羅師乃不甘居離亂忠奸渾雜之香江,買舟北返,不幸為病魔纏於春申,此一代宗師,撒手人寰,長眠地下,螳螂拳流傳至編者一輩,便是第七傳歷三百年。
During the last years of the Ming Dynasty, there was a man from Shandong called Wang Lang, who saw that the map was about to be changed. He wanted to devote himself to the defense of his nation, but the army would not accept him, and so he went to Mt. Song and joined the Shaolin Temple, where he learned martial arts to prepare himself for what he knew was coming. When the Manchu troops then invaded, he decided to go see what he could do alone to aid his homeland, but because traitors within the government had already sold their country out, there was nothing a martial hero could do.
  Once the new Qing Dynasty had been established, Wang returned to Shaolin to organize the monks in order to restore the nation and avenge its humiliation. However, a spy learned of their plans and the Qing government ordered the temple be surrounded and burned down. Wang and his colleagues craftily managed to escape and ensure their master’s safety. To avoid being captured by the Manchu troops, they fled to the Emei Mountains, to the Kunlun Mountains, through several provinces, and finally came to a monastery on Shandong’s Mt. Lao, which became their new home.
  Alas, their master soon passed away. Their eldest classmate then became the one in charge. Wang trained his martial arts every day to dispel the loneliness of their situation, but he always lost his sparring matches and felt ashamed. He vowed that in three years he would be able to defeat his elder. Three years later, Wang again had a bout with his elder, and again he lost. He was even more ashamed than before, so much so that he wanted to kill himself. His elder then decided to do some traveling. Just before he parted, he told Wang: “Practice hard! I’ll be back in another three years, and when I get back, I expect you to impress me.”
  One hot summer’s day after his elder left, Wang found his stuffy room to be a very dreary place to be, so he grabbed his sword and some literature and went into the forest to get away from the heat. Once he had disappeared into the woods, he was met with a cool breeze gently blowing through and felt elated in mind and body. Then as soon as he opened a book to start reading, he heard the buzzing cries of an insect, a chaotic chirping sound that seemed almost sorrowful. He raised his head up and saw a mantis and a cicada fighting to the death. The mantis was using its sharp arms and its determined stepping, and soon the cicada was dead in the hands of the mantis.
  After Wang had finished watching this, he considered how the mantis had performed its advancing and retreating with precision, used actions for both long range and short range, and had methods of both seizing and releasing, all exactly like skills of boxing. He therefore climbed onto the branch to catch it and then brought it back to the temple, where he toyed with it every day using pieces of straw, examining its multifaceted behaviors of sticking and adhering, collapsing and crushing, suddenness and greed, alertness and shifting, Wang, who was naturally gifted with intelligence, realized within just a few days that the hand techniques of the mantis could be expressed in these twelve simple terms: [1] grab, [2] pull, [3] take, [4] hang, [5 & 6] hook and advance, [7 & 8] collapse and hit, [9 & 10] stick and adhere, [11 & 12] crowd and cram. He subsequently drew from the best methods of seventeen different masters, such as incorporating monkey stepping, and combined it all into one integrated art. After three years, he had created his own style.
  Having had enough of traveling, Wang’s elder then returned and they had another bout. Not knowing what to expect, the elder ended up getting thrown more than ten feet away. Surprised, he asked how it happened. Wang explained the process of his new understanding, and thereupon they named his new art after the mantis. They henceforth ceaselessly increased their knowledge of these boxing methods, diligently researching it together, and turned the Mantis art into something profound.
  Within the next ten years, Wang and his elder classmate had both passed away as well. The monks looked upon Mantis Boxing as nothing less than a treasure and did not lightly share it with outsiders. Later the Daoist Shengxiao [“Ascend to the Clouds”] traveled there and received the complete art. Mantis Boxing was then spread beyond the temple, for Shengxiao taught it to Li Sanjian of Haiyang County. After Li had absorbed these skills, he set up a bodyguard service in Jinan and earned a reputation that spread far and wide, being esteemed as a “forest hero” both north and south of the Yangzte River. Nicknamed “Lightning Hands”, he never lost a fight, and his glorious fame never diminished for his entire life.
  In his later years, Li sought widely for someone worthy to carry on the art, having no heirs of his own to pass it down to. When he got to Fushan County, he heard of a man named Wang Rongsheng, who had recently became a successful candidate in the highest level of the imperial military examinations. Li paid him a visit at his home and ask to see a demonstration of his skill. Wang had made a name for himself due to his ability with the large saber, and so he performed with this weapon. After Li had finished watching this, he gave not a single word of approval, instead remarking: “That’s it? How did you get famous for that?” This made Wang so angry that he suddenly charged forward to attack Li, but somehow Li had vanished, leaving him hesitating in confusion. Hearing laughter behind him, he turned around and tried to attack again, but once again there was nothing there and he found that he himself had been seized. As a result, he then begged Li to be his teacher.
  Over the course of the next several years, Li taught Wang everything he knew, and then Li went away and was never seen again. Since Wang was already from a wealthy family, he did not need to seek any official position, nor did he feel tempted to show off his skills to other people, he practiced simply for his own amusement during his free time. Practicing throughout winter and summer without ever taking a break, he trained consistently for decades, and hence his skill made dramatic progress.
  In his later years, Wang taught his art to Fan Xudong of Yantai. Fan had a very large physique. He weighed over three hundred pounds and was known as “The Giant”. He was a master of iron palm. He once was passing through a field and encountered two plow oxen locking horns. When they saw him, they interpreted him to be a threat and charged forward. Seeing the ferocity of their power, he realized that he would not be able to save himself unless he acted with the utmost skillfulness. In response to the ox in front, Fan focused all of his power into his right foot and gave a forceful kick to its underbelly. This enormous beast fell to the ground with an echoing thud. Then to deal with the one that was charging up from behind it, he used his left hand to grab its horn and used his right hand to forcefully strike its spine. It too collapsed in a heap. The farmer had seen Fan kill his oxen and demanded compensation, to which Fan declared: “But I was acting in self-defense! What if instead they had killed me? How would you compensate me for that?” And there the matter ended. Because of this instance, Fan became known for his great power, his fame spreading far and wide.
  In the early years of the reign of Emperor Guangxu [1875–1908], a Russian man invited Fan to Siberia for a wrestling challenge. Fan could not afford such a trip, but he was aided by funds from martial arts masters throughout Yantai. Since he was not a formal representative of China, and because newspapers in those days were not as widespread as they are today, this whole event did not become well-known. Once Fan arrived, he first defeated the Russian champion, thereby usurping his title, then went on to fight in dozens of other matches, in which he met none who were his equal. Having won the prize, he returned to China. Fan later taught his art to Lin Jingshan, Luo Guangyu, and several others.
  In 1919, the Shanghai Jingwu Athletic Association so admired the Mantis boxing skills that they sent staff members north and consequently engaged Master Luo, who then went south to Shanghai to serve as their chief instructor for this art. In 1929, the National Games was held in Nanjing. Luo’s student Ma Chengxin represented Shanghai in the sparring competition and ended up listed among the most successful competitors. [It is not entirely clear what tournament is intended here. There was no 全國運動會 National Games held in 1929. There was one held in 1924 in Wuchang, the next one held in 1930 in Hangzhou, and after that in 1933, which was indeed held in Nanjing. It seems more likely that the famous 國考 National Examinations (short for 國術考試 National Martial Arts Examinations) is what was meant, though that was held in 1928, not 1929. For that tournament, Ma Chengxin is listed as being among the thirty-seven second-place winners.] The results were published in Nanjing and Shanghai newspapers, and Master Luo’s name was increasingly talked of as a result.
  Soon after this, Luo was sent south by the main Jingwu Association in Shanghai to make an inspection tour of the branch schools in Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macao, and throughout the Malay Archipelago. Upon finishing this mammoth task, he returned to Shanghai, but then the January 28 Incident happened and the Jingwu headquarters was destroyed. Since it was no longer tenable to conduct classes there, the head of the Hong Kong Jingwu Association invited Luo back to Hong Kong to teach Mantis. In no position to refuse, he notified the temporary Shanghai office by telegram, saying that he was urgently heading south to be a Hongkonger from that point on. Discovering the true value of the Mantis boxing art, the people of Hong Kong have had a high opinion of it ever since.
  War unfortunately made its way to Hong Kong as well. Master Luo was unwilling to endure the chaos and treachery of the place, so he hired a ship and returned north, but then he became ill and passed away while staying in Shanghai. This great man of his generation is now dead and buried. The Mantis Boxing he taught me has so far been passed down through seven generations, over the course of three hundred years.

剛柔虛實總論(卽螳螂打)
[FOUR] A GENERAL DISCUSSION OF HARD & SOFT, EMPTY & FULL (or ON THE MANTIS METHODS OF FIGHTING)

論螳螂拳法者多矣,然能解釋中肯者極鮮,就練法而言,螳螂拳之出手,必連及步,每紀動作,都適乎實用,貫串緊繫,一氣呵成,拳法旣屬難練,唯其中尚須分別剛柔,長短,務切合疾徐,不能剛柔渾亂,長短不分,否則其技雖似,實未窺奧妙矣,其攻守益為繁雜,攻則以七長,而進守則用八短,為本攻力畧遜於守,彼剛極我則以十二柔制之,其柔手我則用八剛之手法尅之,若論十八家謂般法門,則曰:打下取上,取上削下,打左須防右,打右一定防左,上下關照,左右呼應,招之卽打,打之卽招,連打代招,連招夾打,不招不架,實是能家,若祗招架,眞是離家,必須頭腦冷靜,審察敵情眼光銳利,不被欺虛作實,身手靈敏,手出步隨,長短互用,手脚吻合,心欲進,而手足齊施,長拳短打,殊無二理,惟因勢利用,因人而施而已!螳螂拳腿法極多,然適乎實用者,祗有軋腿,十字腿,穿心腿,閉門腿,掃膛腿,前抅後彈腿,連環腿,雙飛腿,旋風腿,擺蓮腿,橫掃腿,蹬腿等皆是,步馬亦分多種,如騎馬,登山,跨虎,入環,七星,扑式,吞塌,中式,坐盤,獨立等式,凡練者須細心研練,窮究其理,務得實用,方為功用,腿尤貴把定心,鞏固後防,然後出腿方不悞事,民國廿八年夏,南洋華僑囘國隨軍服務團,道經香江聘羅師。為大刀術敎練,羅師曾闡述臨陣之方法,其題曰『三定三快』,因言語關係由編者任譒譯,故知之頗詳,三定卽眼定,心定,站定,三快者,乃手快,步快,腿快是也,及今細味斯言,頗覺合理,若作戰時,能先觀察入微,堅定心志,站立塲地,然後手步腿皆以迅雷不及掩耳之法出之,則勝利可期矣。
The methods in Mantis Boxing are many, but very few of them are easy to explain. I will attempt to convey some of the training principles:
  When the hands go out, they have to be coordinated with the feet. Every movement has a practical application. The movements should be tightly linked together, producing a single flow from beginning to end.
  Boxing techniques are difficult to train because they require distinguishing between hardness and softness, long range and short range, and have to be performed at the appropriate speed. If you cannot distinguish between hardness and softness, and cannot properly judge between long range and short range, then even though you may appear to be skillful, you have not actually reached a deep level at all.
  Attacking and defending is even more complicated. Attacking is seventy percent long-range, but defending is eighty percent short-range, therefore defending is more economical than attacking. If the opponent attacks with great hardness, use the twelve softnesses to control him. When he attacks with soft techniques, use the eight hardnesses to overpower him.
  The eighteen masters had many more principles, such as:
  “Strike below to attack above and attack above to strike below. Be aware of both above and below. When striking with your left hand, you must defend with your right hand, and when striking with your right hand, you must defend with your left hand. Left and right work in concert.”
  “Block and then strike. Strike and then block. Striking should flow right back into blocking. Blocking should surge right back into striking.”
  “One who never blocks has mastered the art. One who is constantly blocking has mastered nothing.”
  “You must keep calm and carefully observe the opponent with sharp eyes, not getting tricked by his ruses.”
  “To move with the maximum agility, your steps are determined by your hand techniques.”
  “Operate at both long range and short range, your hands and feet acting in unison.”
  “When your mind decides to advance, your hands and feet go together.”
  “Although the arts of Long Boxing and Short Fighting are peerless, you must take advantage of the situation as it is and act according to what the opponent does.”
  There are many kicks in Mantis Boxing, of which the most useful are: crushing kick, cross-shaped kick, through-the-center kick, door-closing kick, sweep-the-hall kick, snapping a kick to the rear while grabbing in front, continuous kick, flying double kick, whirlwind kick, swinging lotus kick, sideways sweeping kick, and pressing kick. There are also many stances, such as horse-riding stance, mountain-climbing stance, sitting-tiger stance, kneeling stance, big-dipper stance, reaching-leg stance, gulp & sink stance, centering stance, sitting-twisted stance, and one-legged stance. Practitioners have to study meticulously, delving deeply into the principles and working hard to understand the applications, in order to be able to use the art. Kicking in particular requires a steadiness of mind, a focus on maintaining a stable stance and well-defended posture while kicking, so that the kicks can be unleashed without any doubts.
  In the summer of 1939, the South Seas Overseas Chinese Return-to-Enlist Corps passed through Hong Kong to learn from Master Luo. He gave them instruction in the large saber art and also gave them a tip to prepare them for battle, which was “the three steadinesses and the three quicknesses”. Because I had to translate his words for others, I know them in detail. “The three steadinesses are: steady gaze, steady mind, and steady stance. The three quicknesses are: quick hands, quick steps, and quick kicks.” Ponder his words and you will find that they are reasonable. When the time comes to fight, if you can first observe the opponent carefully, awaken your willpower, and stand your ground, then your hands, steps, and kicks will be able to act with tremendous speed, in the same way that [from Six Scabbards (Dragon Scabbard), chapter 26] “the thunderclap gives no time to cover one’s ears”, and victory will be assured.

內五形與外五形之性質及應注意之點
[FIVE] QUALITIES OF THE INTERNAL & EXTERNAL FIVE ELEMENTS, PLUS SOME OTHER THINGS TO PAY ATTENTION TO

內五形者,精神氣力功是也,外五形則係手,眼,身,法,步,凡習拳者,對上述兩點,須精神貫注,氣力充沛,功夫精奧,然後發展於外,使手出步隨,眼到手到,距離遠近,進退準確,端賴夫目光銳利,方不致差之厘毫,謬以千里,身形尤關重要,偏身進擊與跨步,側身,旣能減少被襲之目標,又可在距離較遠之形勢,取得對方,其法門亦須認識淸楚,務能依其短範,細心研練,方能致之,至於用精神之道,非祗徒為外表臨陣經戰之時,絕無餘時運用腦汁以備應敵之法,須先從練習得來之內外五形,連繫一致,當大敵之時,從手足接近所得之觸覺,招之乎,避之乎,還擊乎,都從感覺中立予施行,否則犯遲滯之病矣,拳脚卽戰陣中之器械,器械旣精良矣,必備配充份之彈藥,亦卽拳家之氣力是也,各樣旣已齊備,則尚須有嚴密之戰畧,方謂勝券可操也,拳術作戰亦有戰畧,猶之軍人戰鬥必須觀察對方實力體態,如其體格較己為高,則當取其下三路,若比我矮者,則以泰山壓頂之勢攻其上路,所謂避實就虛,用己之長,攻彼之短,把握時機,明察大勢,與軍人之利用地形,以擊敵者殊無二致。
The internal five elements are: essence, spirit, energy, strength, and skill. The external five elements are: hands, eyes, torso, technique, and footwork. All boxing practitioners are confronted with these two aspects. It is required that essence and spirit be coursing through, energy and strength be abundant, and skill be refined to a deep level. This then expands outward, your feet stepping in accordance with the actions of your hands, your hands going where your eyes tell them to go. Proper distance and precision of advance and retreat depend entirely upon keen vision in order to avoid the outcome of “miss by an inch, lose by a mile”. The torso is especially important, for if you advance from the side or step in with your body sideways, you can reduce the number of targets available to the opponent, and you can also attack him from a greater distance. The proper way to perform techniques has to be understood clearly in order to take advantage of his weak points once they appear, and thus meticulous study is needed for you to succeed.
  Training yourself mentally is also essential, for it is not only important during an actual fight, but for preparing yourself psychologically to deal with opponents before any fight has begun. Therefore you must first train the internal and external five elements, and link them together so that they are functioning in unison. When face to face with a powerful opponent, close enough to touch him with hands and feet, provoke him to attack, evade his attack, then counterattack. Always take action based upon open-minded awareness [rather than stubborn intellect], otherwise you will commit the error of being too late. Furthermore, your fists and feet are your weapons in battle, so make them superior weapons. You must keep your weapons fully loaded with ammunition, i.e. your energy and strength.
  With all of these features prepared, you then also need to possess a refined strategic mind, and then you will be able to be confident of victory. Boxing arts are a matter of strategy just as much as fighting. In the same way that soldiers in combat have to estimate the strength of the enemy, if you observe that your opponent is taller than you, then you should attack his lower area, and if he is shorter, then techniques such as MT. TAI CRUSHES THE HEAD can be employed to attack his upper area. As it is said [from Art of War, chapter 6]: “Avoid him where he is full and attack him where he is empty.” Use your strengths to attack his weaknesses. Seize opportunity based on being aware of the whole situation, the way soldiers use the terrain to their advantage, and you will defeat him faultlessly.

翻車轆轆捶法
[SIX] THE TECHNIQUES OF WHEELING & WINCHING

羅師嘗言,翻車速,而螳螂密,翻車遠,而螳螂翻車近,螳螂翻車其運用實有聯繫之必要,翻車之重要法門,為被四面包圍無法突出之時,須以翻車手法衝破包圍界線,然後以螳螂手互相為用,則奏功於頃刻也,然翻車之法為何?則不得不說明之矣,翻車之法,先以兩手握拳,分左右由上劈下,下而反上,旣上又卽削下,纏繞不輟,不理對方如何,總向目標猛進,直至深入為止,使用此種手法須先觀察我能否支持長久之氣力,並且不能賴之以擊敵人,祗可利用突入,然後施用泰山壓頂,迎面直統,黑虎偷心等手法,如乃無效,則須當機立斷,改用柔手,左右閃步以察敵人所以能制我之法以俟再擊,如彼當我畧退而進迫,不予我喘息機會,當此之時我實處被動之地位,隨時有被擊倒之可能,則處境險矣。
戰爭之道,不外爭取時時與主動為决勝之條件,主動旣易為被動,時間若再為敵占先,則我不敗者鮮矣,是故生死存亡之處境,不容許不先下手為强,立變翻車之手而為轆轆捶,左右無定,或以左進右退,或右入左出,須要偏身低馬,以一手過頭圈去,手與步共同一致,務達目的為止,如對方改移方向,則我亦用左右跨步之法而側擊之,學拳者不可不知也。
Master Luo often said: “The wheeling technique is done fast because the situation is urgent and done with a long reach because I am getting crowded.” The wheeling technique in Mantis is indispensable. When you find yourself surrounded by opponents and have no way out, you need this technique to smash through them. You can then use other Mantis techniques to build on the results of this one and quickly succeed. But what is this technique? I must explain:
  The wheeling method first involves both hands grasping into fists, and then alternating left and right they chop down from above, swinging back up and chopping down again, whirling unceasingly. Regardless of what your assailants are doing, fiercely advance upon them until you have charged right through.
  In order to employ this kind of technique, you must first examine yourself as to whether or not you have the vigor required to sustain this action for a long time, for if you cannot, you will not be able to rely on using it for attacking opponents. You have to be able to use it suddenly, and then you can follow it up with other techniques such as MT. TAI CRUSHES THE HEAD, THRUST PUNCH TO THE FACE, or BLACK TIGER STEALS THE HEART. If none of this works, you must act decisively and switch to techniques of softness, such as LEFT & RIGHT DODGING STEPS, in order to anticipate what he might do and then find a better moment to attack him. If he forces you to retreat and then crowds in on you, giving you no respite, you are truly in a disadvantageous position, liable to be knocked down at any moment, a dangerous situation.
  It is the way of combat that the one who seizes the initiative in an all-out struggle, the one who refuses the passive role, has the best chance of victory. Whenever an opponent takes charge, it will be rare for you to win. Therefore in a life-or-death situation, never allow yourself to not seize the initiative.
  Reverse the direction of the movement and the wheeling becomes winching. There is no fixed pattern, and so it does not matter which leg is advancing or retreating, which hand is going out while the other is coming back, only that your body stays sideways and the stance stays low. Whirl a hand in a circle going upward higher than your head, your hand and step acting in unison to achieve the objective. If the opponent changes his direction, employ LEFT & RIGHT LUNGING STEPS to attack him from the side.
  The wheeling and winching techniques are an indispensable part of your arsenal.

關於國術的種種
[SEVEN] VARIOUS THOUGHTS REGARDING MARTIAL ARTS

編者致力國術十餘年,默察一般來習拳者之目的,無非為强身自衞問題所驅使,夫目的旣屬如此,必須循軌漸進先求其易於練習者,按紀動作學之,務使正確愼毋妄自發力,以求速成,須知習技日淺,其重心力未平勻之前,如强於發力,必招致兩種不良之後果,一為出手投足,身體必隨之傾斜,一為未經運動,驟然用力太劇,必致筋肉漲痛,關節疲之,飲食不思,是故凡初習者,對上弊端不可不愼,飲食以後,必經一小時以後,方可運動,使勿刺激腸胃,須待其得以消化,經過劇烈運動之後,亦不可立進飲食,蓋腸臟空虛,必見肌渴,一見食品,必欲狼吞虎咽,則飲食無序,必至生病。
當運動至烈之時,雖嚴冬之候,亦必大汗淋漓,全身血脈緊張,毛孔受筋肉澎漲而開張,此時勿立當風之處,免招風寒侵襲,又勿遽然停止運動,必俟氣血歸源,皮膚復本,然後以乾巾拭之,以水洗之,則精神逾恆,强身之道,奇功立奏矣。
諺曰:俠以武犯禁,斯言誠不我欺,處斯社會奸偽欺詐之輩,以衆凌寡之徒,比比俱是,若以個人之勇,而平天下之不平,其可得乎?如非親受其害,或被逼時,先以理喻之,以禮讓之,以求合理解决,不得,然後出諸武力,所謂無事不惹事,有事不怕事也。
世界任何一國,其國民必愛護祖國及其文化藝術,譬喻福州人,如有人贊其漆器聞名世界,或景德鎭人若稱頌其瓷器精美,或吧西人倘有人稱其烟草良好,其人必以極愉快之心情而接受他人之頌揚,中外一例,無有差舛,觀吾拙篇者皆中華國民,對國術之歷史價値必有相當認識,國術是代表國家藝術之一種,如國醫國畫等同一地位,吾人又焉可以街頭賣技者以槪視整個武術界之人格乎?如路傍粉字一堆,望之亦文學中人,其為丐乎?其為騙乎?高明人自有判別,弗能魚目混珠,徒羞藝術而已。
客問余曰:拳術以何派為最好,余不覺失聲而笑,蓋任何一派拳術,都有其精奧,大槪以發拳露力者而歸宗少林,隱而不露,心隨意使,動作柔和,調節適中者,出自武當,各有獨到之處,或以身形步法勝,或手足敏捷,勝都不外拳脚運用之義,其始無非强身自術而已!譬有某甲遍覓名師執業,旣得之矣,初則孜孜以赴,繼則一暴十寒,虛躭習技之名,積時計之,亦十年矣,師旣良日旣久,其技當優矣,唯一旦見諸實用,則無從措手,必被人恥笑,且及其師焉,斯則不能歸咎於敎之不善,及該派拳術之不良,唯學者自招之後果而已。
嘗有賣技者過市,人以其能而盛稱之,某名師適經此,祗看一眼便走,有詢之者曰:其技不足觀乎?曰:然!衆不服請其解釋,某曰:何用解釋,此是江湖之技,從少專練一臂,使之堅實,力劈磚石,炫耀人前,藉博升斗,君如不信,可請其易手試之,則吾言不謬矣,衆如所言果不出所料,再詢某名師,則曰:凡習武必先具决心,痛下苦功,拳技以外,各種器械均須練之,其法門更須研究淸楚,絕不能以偏怪之技,趨附庸俗,衆始服論。
I have devoted myself to martial arts for more than a decade and have tacitly observed the motivations of ordinary practitioners. What drives them is nothing more than the issues of health and self-defense.
  These being the goals, you must abide by the principle of gradual progress by starting with the things that are easier to practice. Learn the movements in order, make your postures correct, and be careful not to overexert yourself in hopes of succeeding faster. You have to understand that skill grows only a tiny little bit each day. If you express power vigorously before you have developed sufficient balance, this will result in two counterproductive consequences: 1. Whenever you send out a hand or foot, your body will go along with it uncontrollably and end up leaning. 2. Not yet being accustomed to the exercise, you will move too abruptly and forcefully, causing your muscles to ache and your joints to become fatigued. These are things that beginners have to be very mindful of.
  Also, do not eat and drink thoughtlessly. After eating a meal, you must wait a full hour before exercising in order to keep from irritating your stomach and intestines, and to allow your food to be more thoroughly digested. After doing strenuous exercise, you also must not eat and drink right away, because you will be so hungry and thirsty that the merest sight of food will make you want to wolf it down, and eating in such an immoderate way will only make you sick.
  Intense exercise, even in winter, will leave you dripping with sweat, veins showing, muscles swollen, pores wide open. At such a time, keep from standing in direct wind in order to avoid catching a cold. Also do not end your exercise session abruptly, instead wait for your breath, blood, and the state of your skin to return to normal, then wipe yourself down with a dry towel and wash with water. Thus your spirit will be boosted and the strengthening of your body will be more effectively achieved.
  There is a saying [from Hanfeizi, chapter 49]: “[Scholars use their elegant rhetoric to bend the law.] Warriors use their martial skill to break the law.” I am not trying to give a mixed message with this choice of words. Our society indeed often contains treacherous swindlers and those who gang up in large numbers to bully a few. You are therefore allowed to rely on individual courage to right the wrongs of the world. However, as long as you are not being personally harmed or compelled to act, first appeal to rationality and use courtesy in order to seek a reasonable solution. But if this does not stop the situation and you are left with no choice, you may then unleash martial force. As it is commonly said: “If there’s nothing that needs to be done, don’t cause trouble, but if there’s something that needs to be done, don’t be afraid to do it.”
  In every single nation, its citizens have to love their native land with its unique art and culture. For example, the people of Fuzhou are famous throughout the world for their lacquerware, the people of Jiangxi are famous for their exquisite porcelain, and the people of the West are famous for their excellent tobacco. They surely are all delighted when they receive praise from others for the special things they produce. China and foreign countries are no different in this regard. Because the audience for my clumsy writings is mainly comprised of Chinese people, most readers will likely have pretty much the same understanding of the historical value of Chinese martial arts.
  Our martial arts are a kind of art form that represents the whole nation, having equal status to traditional Chinese medicine or traditional Chinese painting. It is totally absurd to imagine that performers peddling their skills on street corners are a measure for the character of the martial arts community as a whole. Should a heap of noodles slouching on the sidewalk be looked upon as a colorful character from literature, or is he really just a bum? Wise people are discriminating. They cannot be fooled by something counterfeit. Such attempts [“trying to pass off fish eyes as pearls”] only bring shame to our glorious arts.
  A visitor once asked me: “Which style of boxing arts is the best?” I unintentionally let out a laugh, because every kind of boxing art has its own brilliant ingenuities. Generally speaking, styles that punch with fully expressed power can be traced back to Shaolin, whereas styles that keep their power hidden, are driven by intention, and have gentle movements and mild postures usually come from Wudang, but each has its distinctive characteristics. Whether a style relies more on posture, footwork, or nimbleness, victory always comes down to a bunch of punching and kicking.
  The training always starts with strengthening the body and mastering the self. For example, there was someone who sought out a good teacher to learn from, managed to find one, and began the training in earnest. But he thereafter practiced more sporadically, eventually reducing his effort to half-heartedly studying only the theory, and then simply let the time pass until he could say that he been learning the art for ten years. Equipped with both a good teacher and a long period of time, his skill should have reached a high level. However, when he one day had to actually apply the art, he was incapable of doing anything, and he ended up getting mocked, and by association so did his teacher. The blame cannot be put upon the teacher or style for being bad, for it is the student who brought these consequences upon himself.
  There was once a performer peddling his skill in the center of town and people were praising him for his ability, and then a famous teacher passed by, gave the performer barely a glance, and walked on. Confused spectators then asked him: “Are his skills not worth watching?”
  “Not at all.”
  “Could you please explain why not?”
  “What is there to explain? These are just the antics of itinerant performers. This guy spent his youth training to exhibit a single trick, developing just one arm to make it hard enough to chop through bricks, and simply for the purpose of showing off to spectators so they will give him some notoriety. If you don’t believe me, ask him to demonstrate with his other hand and then you’ll know I’m not exaggerating.”
  The crowd did as he suggested, which confirmed his words, and were then inspired to inquire of him further. He told them: “All those who practice martial arts first have to possess total commitment and be willing to suffer through all the hard work that is required. In addition to boxing skills, they have to train with various weapons and also study the theory of their art until it is completely clear to them. They must never waste their time perfecting silly tricks for the sake of impressing simple folk. That kind of thing only ends up giving the masses a low regard for all martial arts.”

演技態度之研究
[EIGHT] ON PERFORMING WITH THE PROPER ATTITUDE

拳家演技時之禮儀,南北各有不同,亦各有其觀點,嶺南拳家登台奏技,必先抱拳踏出中線,向西面觀衆行禮,至完其式,亦如之,聞諸舅父余巨川言:此為少林遺敎,因當日少林為反淸復明之總部,各同志相見必抱拳為禮,由是相沿成習,迄今仍舊用之,巨川舅父為嶺南名拳師,是言當有所根據也,至北方則歷來俱用鞠躬為禮,至今不變,如嚴格而論,則須出塲後,進前三步行鞠躬禮,退後三步,然後開式,至收式亦如上述。
嘗見有所謂拳術家,出塲演技,則裝模作樣,禮貌不甚莊重,斯則未免輕視觀衆矣。
又有掙眉怒目,苦口苦臉,造成若甚吃力之狀,以討好觀衆,實際其尊範之難看,有非筆墨所能形容者,余以為凡登台奏技,務盡己之所長,運用適當,不苟且,又不牽强,以保持臉上之自然,表情使不致為觀衆留不良印象,微末之見,質之高明以為然否。
Etiquette for performing boxing sets is different between northerners and southerners, both having their own point of view. When southerners climb onto a stage to perform their skills, they first stand in the center, salute with a hand over a fist, and present this salute all the way across from one side to the other.
  My uncle Yu Juchuan told me: “This is a specifically Shaolin tradition, from the time when the Shaolin Temple was the headquarters of the movement to ‘overthrow the Qing Dynasty, restore the Ming Dynasty’. Supporters of the movement knew each other by showing this salute [the right fist making the 日, the left palm making the 月, thereby displaying 明 (Ming)]. Long usage of this salute turned it into a custom, and it is still used up to now.” Uncle Yu is a famous boxing arts master in the south, and so I feel his words have some clout.
  As for northerners, they always bow, and this has not changed up to now. To describe it more precisely, once they are on a stage, they advance three steps, bow, retreat three steps, then commence their performance, and upon completion, repeat this ritual.
  I once saw a so-called “master” who went onto a stage to perform and gave us the most soulless display, no solemnity at all. This kind of thing shows contempt for the audience. Although he furrowed his brow and glared with his eyes, gave a curl to his lips to bring a cruelty to his face, and tried to look as though he was engaged in a vastly strenuous effort, he was merely toadying to the spectators, which only resulted in an exhibition so ugly as to be beyond the power of words to describe.
  When you go on a stage to demonstrate something, put all of yourself into it and perform it properly, neither walking through the motions nor over-exaggerating, maintaining a naturalness on your face. This prevents the audience both from being given a bad impression or from walking away thoroughly unimpressed. People know quality when they see it.

十八家法
[NINE] THE EIGHTEEN MASTERS & THEIR METHODS

太祖的長拳起首。韓通的通背為母。鄭恩的纏封尤妙。溫元的短拳更奇。馬籍的短打最奇。孫恒的猴拳且盛。黃粘的靠身難近。綿世的面掌飛疾。金相的磕手通拳。懷德的摔捋硬崩。劉興的抅摟採手。譚方的滾漏貫耳。燕靑的占拿跌法。林冲的鴛鴦脚强。孟甦的七勢連拳。崔連的窩裡剖捶。楊滾的棍採入直。王朗的螳螂總敵。
[1] Emperor Taizu’s Long Boxing is the father
[2] and Han Tong’s Tongbei Boxing is the mother.
[3] Then there is Zheng En’s ingenious methods of “twining & sealing”,
[4] Wen Yuan’s brilliant Short Boxing,
[5] Ma Ji’s even more brilliant Short Fighting,
[6] Sun Heng’s Monkey Boxing with its boundless energy,
[7] Huang You’s crowding body, making it difficult for an opponent to find a way in,
[8] “Cotton” Sheng’s blindingly fast palm strikes to the face,
[9] Jin Xiang’s “slapping block, piercing punch”,
[10] Gao Huaide’s technique of throwing away to the side followed by an unstoppable backfist,
[11] Liu Xing’s “grab-pull-take” technique,
[12] Tan Fang’s “rolling & slipping” attacks to the ears,
[13] Yan Qing’s “grab & throw” technique,
[14] Lin Chong’s powerful mandarin-duck kicks,
[15] Meng Su’s Seven Posture Continuous Boxing,
[16] Cui Lian’s devastating punches to the solar plexus,
[17] Yang Gun’s technique of tying up and poking through,
[18] and Wang Lang’s Mantis Boxing, which overcomes all opponents.

四方八面打釋要
[TEN] ESSENTIALS FOR ENGAGING IN ALL DIRECTIONS

項羽初習兵刃時,謂吾學萬人敵,師卽授之以槍,惟槍可為萬人敵,拳亦能為萬人敵也,所謂萬人敵之拳法,卽四方八面搥是也,苟能四方八面搥者,則萬人敵矣,其搥法卽翻車螳螂手法,而加以慘跳倒順之步,橫衝竪撞之勢,左綑右纏之法,面南而打北,指東而擊西,忽起忽落,行無卽有奇妙莫測,然非一朝一夕所能促就者,今分為十勢,畧言於後。
卽十捶打是也,太極打,八卦打,挾山超海打,逐步為營打,衝圍打,環攻打,順返打,倒退打,流水打,迴風打。
When Xiang Yu began his military training, he said [from Historical Records, chapter 7]: “[Studying the sword is good for dealing with one opponent at a time, but] what I need to learn is how to defeat thousands of them.” He was then trained to use the spear. Spears can be used against a multitude. Well, so can fists. The boxing theory for such eventualities is called “methods for engaging in all directions”. If you can fight in all directions, you can fend off a multitude. This concept is basically the Mantis technique of wheeling, but with the addition of footwork that advances and retreats, jumps and startles, of postures of colliding against everything from any angle, and of techniques of weaving through and tangling up to the left and right. Face to the south, but then strike to the north. Point to the east, but then attack to the west. Suddenly rise and suddenly lower. Keep them from making sense of anything you are doing. However, this requires constant practice to be prepared for the urgency of the situation. This theory is expressed in ten variations, which are briefly explained below:

『太極打』
[1] GRAND POLARITY
用螳螂手法四面旋繞,上下環轉,返身剿步,而叠如捶山,敎人入手無路,而觸處受傷,所謂渾然一太極是也。
Employ Mantis techniques in all directions, turning every which way, turning around with stealth steps, and pile on attacks as though smashing down mountains. Teach your assailants that wherever they reach out their hands against you, they will end up getting injured. Have the completeness of a grand polarity [i.e. the full circular coverage of a yinyang symbol].

『八卦打』
[2] EIGHT TRIGRAMS
合八卦之方位,不論從何方起,首須輪廻至最終之位為止,總之一入敵塲,便如十面埋伏,點滴不漏,隨機變換,循八卦之位置,互相更調是也。
Conforming to the positions of the eight trigrams, start at any one of them and move in a circle all the way through them. Once you have found yourself in enemy territory, it is as though you are being ambushed from all sides with no space to escape. Adapt accord to circumstances, stepping around to the eight directions, each position reinforcing the rest.

『挾山超海打』
[3] HEAVY AS A MOUNTAIN, FAR AS THE HORIZON
打而卽走,拳起步隨,舍此取彼,橫衝直撞,如入無人之境,挾山者,言其重而有力,超海者,言其輕舉而遠也。
Attack and then go through. When your fist starts to move, your step goes along with it. Abandon one place to seek another. Crash right through as if there is no one there. To be “heavy as a mountain” is to become crushing and powerful. To go as “far as the horizon” is to move nimbly to a great distance.

『逐步為營打』
[4] GRADUALLY GATHERING YOUR FORCES
步步是打,節節有拳,安定門戶,隨進隨打,與超海打殊異,然須迅速,而過四方八面,滿塲是打,始為神奇。
Strike them with each step, punching them one after another. Staying stable, attack as you advance. This is very different from FAR AS THE HORIZON, for there has to be greater speed [rather than great distance]. When surrounded on all sides, if you can knock away every attacker, your skill will seem miraculous.

『衝圍打』
[5] CRASHING THROUGH
挺身獨立,被多人團團圍住,雖有太極之打,使不近身,然手脚不停,能支持幾時!欲用超海之勢,亦恐圍纏太緊,有碍慘跳,卽便逐步為營之法,而千重萬叠亦非頃刻所能驟出者,則便有衝圍打焉,衝圍者,欲從東出,則先西擊,欲從左出,則先右打,乘其不備,而突然衝之,彼一起手打來,我便有𨻶可衝矣,虛從實打,虛打實衝,亦挾山超海,逐步為營等法在內,祗是相形度勢,速出圍外,方不致被陷重圍。
Straighten up and stand proudly, for you have been completely surrounded. Although the GRAND POLARITY method can keep you from getting too close to anyone, your hands and feet not stopping can keep buying you time. If you want to use the FAR AS THE HORIZON method, but you find that you are already surrounded too tightly to jump in any direction, or you want to use GATHERING YOUR FORCES, but your assailants are so numerous and overlapped that there is no moment in which you can suddenly escape, then use CRASHING THROUGH. If you want to exit to the east, first attack to the west. If you want to exit to the left, first strike to the right. Take advantage of where they are unprepared and suddenly burst through. As soon as one of them lifts a hand to strike, this creates a gap that can be cracked open. Feint a movement, then strike for real. Feint a strike, then crash through for real. The methods of HEAVY AS A MOUNTAIN, FAR AS THE HORIZON and GRADUALLY GATHERING YOUR FORCES are somewhat comparable, but this method gets you out faster so that you will not end up getting trapped.

『環攻打』
[6] ATTACKING THE CIRCLE ITSELF
彼衆我寡,將被圍在裡面,我從外邊循環攻打也,進退綽綽,縱橫如意,須要連環會合,如長編束髮,越纏越緊,如密網捕魚,行走行收。
They are many, you are alone. Being at the center of a circle, you therefore attack toward the outer edge of the circle. Advance and retreat with confidence, crissing and crossing as you please. But you must engage continuously, otherwise you will end up like long hair being bundled back or like fish caught in a finely woven net.

『順返打』
[7] GOING WITH & AGAINST
順步反手,上步進拳,進則勇往,切勿猶豫,退則急流,勿為所貼,致為彼纏。
Step in and counterattack, advancing with punches. Advance courageously, without any hesitation, then retreat rapidly, without any delay. This will result in the opponents getting tangled up on each other.

『倒退打』
[8] OVERTURNING RETREATS [no explanation given]

『流水打』
[9] FLOWING WATER [no explanation given]

『迴風打』
[10] WHIRLWINDS
欲退而先轉,旣退而復囘,故有大廻風,小廻風,單廻風,雙廻風之別,大迴風者,舍此取彼,忽用超海之勢,躍入本位,小迴風者,欲東向而西轉,欲先左攻而起右手,單廻風則或順或倒,只一廻而卽前走,雙迴風者,一倒,一順,一左,一右,逐迴逐走,卽走卽迴,連環相繫而已!
Before retreating, turn, then after retreating, turn again. There is a large whirlwind and a small whirlwind, a single whirlwind and a double whirlwind. The large whirlwind involves abandoning one place to seek another, suddenly employing FAR AS THE HORIZON, then leaping back to where you started. For the small whirlwind, before going east, turn to the west, and before attacking with your left hand, lift up your right hand. The single whirlwind involves advancing or retreating with just one spin and then going forward. The double whirlwind goes back and forth, side to side, turning and yielding, yielding and turning, moving continuously.

練此打法,須先用太極打法,劈開門戶,安立八卦方位,將超海為營等打法,變換穿揷,相機出手,雖千重萬叠,我有四方八面之捶,則何懼焉。
When training with these concepts, start with the GRAND POLARITY method as an initial strategy, then become stable in the EIGHT TRIGRAMS positions, then move on to FAR AS THE HORIZON and GATHERING YOUR FORCES, transforming and weaving, and then attacking once you see an opening. Even if you are surrounded by a hoard of opponents, you have methods of fighting in all directions, and so you have nothing to fear.

羅漢功
[ELEVEN] ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LUOHAN EXERCISES

此功乃昔日達摩禪師,根據天地陰陽六合之正氣,採仿羅漢神像之形態,共集為十八路,分六十九式,全神貫注,非尋常力功之比,練之有恆,則形神活躍,氣力充沛,嘗有魯人王君,年五十餘,經商於港,暇則到精武坐談,蓋與羅師光玉有同鄕之雅,日久談話中,涉及家事,王君輒吁嘆不已!羅師亟詢之,始悉王雖富有,但伯道無兒,並問羅師有何良箴指點,羅師但笑而不言,再三請求,羅師始答之曰:汝有恆心否?能以一年之時間從吾否?王答曰:能,迨後便見此白鬢衰翁,朝夕與編者等一輩小孩練習羅漢功,有未悉其所以然者,皆以為奇,蓋此就木之年,尚作此嬉戲也,期年返魯,又來年,則來書羅師,告及妻妾均育子女各一,慶喜之心溢於詞表,至港戰前止,七八年間,已兒女成行矣,夫兒女成行,妻妾亦本來之妻妾,所以前後異其功用者,豈非羅漢功之為效耶?羅漢功之對於人體,確具反弱為强之功,可信然矣,其行動柔和易練,全功呼吸調序有方,為拳技中之打氣機,凡我同好幸勿輕視。
These ancient exercises come from Damo. They are based on the energy flow between the sky and ground, between the passive and active aspects, and between the six unions [up/down, left/right, forward/back], and are modeled upon the images of the Luohan idols. There are altogether eighteen exercises, divided into sixty-nine postures. Involving total concentration, they are unlike ordinary exercises. Practicing them perseveringly invigorates the body and spirit, greatly boosting energy.
  There is a Mr. Wang of Shandong, who was a businessman in Hong Kong in his fifties. In his spare time, he came to the Jingwu Association to sit and talk, because he and Luo Guangyu were from the same town. In the midst of a long conversation, they got onto the subject of family matters and Wang started sighing endlessly. Luo became concerned and asked what was wrong. Wang explained that he was rich but had no children, then asked Luo if he had any guidance to help him out of this predicament. Luo said nothing in reply, just laughed. Wang repeated his question until Luo finally asked him with a smile: “Are you a persevering person? Can you learn from me for a whole year?” Wang answered that he could and thereafter this grey-haired old man practiced the Luohan exercises every day alongside us young boys. We did not know why and thought it rather strange that a man in his declining years would engage in such activities.
  After his full year had passed, Wang went home to Shandong. A year after that, he sent a letter to Master Luo, saying that his wife and concubine had each delivered a child, and that he was more delighted than words could express. Several years later, he had so many children that they formed a long line. If he now has many children and yet the wife and concubine are the same women as before, then the difference between before and after is surely the result of him practicing the Luohan exercises.
  These exercises truly have the capacity to change a weak body into a strong one. The movements are gentle and easy to practice. Throughout the exercises, the breathing is regulated and orderly. Within boxing arts, this is an excellent tool for greatly boosting one’s energy. I hope my fellow practitioners will not underestimate it.

鐵沙掌
[TWELVE] IRON PALM

鐵砂掌練法繁多,如不得法,定藥方浸藥洗手然後行之,雖極强壯之人,必至引瘀歸心而危及生命,故第二代祖師昇霄道人,為完成其功起見,不惜走遍名山大川,研究藥方,以資補救,照錄其方如后:川烏,草烏,生南星,蛇床子,生半夏,百部草,花川椒,狼毒,藜蘆,龍骨,透骨草,海浮石(研末),地骨皮,紫苑,地丁,以上各藥每一両,靑鹽四両,硫磺二両研末,黑米醋五湯碗,共煎至七分,以缸儲藏,勿使洩氣,至用時,再煲至將沸,以手浸下約十分鐘,便可行功。
其法先用大瓦缸置大如黃荳之光滑鐵砂約百餘觔,至行功時,乃盤馬於缸傍,十指挺直向缸揷下,至力所極之點,然後握砂組拳向上抽起,復向缸以拳撞下,便成一紀動作,初學者最普通莫如以十紀動作為基本之一次,每日每次練習分三節,共為三十紀動作,逐日增加一紀,每節休息時必須再行浸藥,每日依定時刻練習,毋使間斷,初習之百日內不能房事或遺洩,否則前功去矣,以後亦應節戒,則事半功倍矣,此藥方范公旭東云,久練硬功者,難覓此方,切勿輕予示人,凡能遵守道德者,可傳云。
There are many methods of iron palm training. One constant is the soaking of the hands in special medicine before practicing. Even for very strong men, training without using the medicine can result in blood clots that might find their way to the heart and become life-threatening. For such reasons, the second-generation master known as the Daoist Shengxiao, in order to better accomplish his goals, traveled ceaselessly throughout the famous mountains and mighty rivers of our nation to make a comprehensive study of medicine so that he would be equipped to rescue himself in the event of any emergency.
  Here is his iron palm formula: 10 grams each of chuanwu, Chinese aconite, raw nanxing, cnidium monnieri seeds, fresh pinellia ternata, stemona tuber, Sichuan pepper, Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata, black false hellebore, fossil fragments, lopseed, powdered sea stone, medlar root bark, Tatarinow’s aster, dandelion, plus 20 grams of lake salt, 10 grams of sulfur, and five soup bowls of black rice vinegar. Cook all of these ingredients together for seven minutes, then store it in a jar to preserve its potency. When using it, heat it up again and soak your hands in it for about ten minutes, and then you can practice.
  The method is to first put about a hundred pounds of iron pellets as big as soybeans into a large ceramic pot. When practicing, get into a horse stance beside the pot and jab all ten fingers straight down into the pellets, focusing all of your power at the fingertips, then grab a handful in each hand, forming fists, and pull the pellets up, and then punch down back into the pellets in the pot. This makes one complete movement.
  Beginners most commonly will do this movement no more than ten times as the basic level of the exercise. Practice three sessions of this every day, altogether performing the action thirty times. With each day, add another count to each session. When you rest at the end of every session, you must again soak your hands in the medicine. Practice at the same time every day, never missing a session.
  During the first hundred days of this [by the end of which a session has grown to more than a hundred counts], you must not engage in sexual intercourse or allow wet dreams, otherwise you will lose all of the gains you have made so far. You should thereafter continue to forbid yourself, and then you will get twice the result for half the effort.
  Fan Xudong said about the medicine: “For those engaging in the long-term training of hardening the hands, this is a medicine that is difficult to obtain. Do not lightly reveal to others that you possess some, for this skill should only be taught to those who abide by a high moral standard.”

八剛
[THIRTEEN] THE EIGHT HARDNESSES

剛能勝柔,如剛刀斷肉,筋骨齊開,如石柱擂粉,渣滓盡化,一往莫禦,直前不退,或曰吾剛矣,而彼亦剛焉,能勝乎?不知患吾非剛耳!剛則未有不勝者,卽美玉至剛矣,雖北宮之霜鋒,苦於無用,荊軻之匕首困於難施,可謂剛矣,然一遇昆吾良刀,則琢如意,其剛不足言矣,夫誠有昆吾之剛,天下尚有不可勝之玉乎,故泰山壓頂,迎面直統等手法可用也,八剛名稱簡錄於后:
Hardness can of course defeat softness, like a hard knife cutting up meat, separating muscles from bones, or like a pestle pounding a material down until it has been completely transformed into a powder. It goes forward unstoppably, committed and unretreating. But someone may ask: “If I am using hardness, and the opponent is also using hardness, can I defeat him?”
  Do not worry about having a hardness insufficient to defeat another hardness. No hardness is invincible. Fine jade is so hard that even the sharpest northern blades are useless against it. Jing Ke’s dagger, so difficult to wield, could be considered to have hardness, but if it encountered the famous Kunwu Sword [which could “cut through jade as though it was but mud”], it would have been easily broken in two, and in that case it would have been said that its hardness was insufficient. And yet even with the hardness of the Kunwu’s blade, there is still jade in the world that it would not be able to cut.
  MT. TAI CRUSHES THE HEAD or STRAIGHT PUNCH TO THE FACE are examples of hand techniques that employ hardness. The eight techniques of hardness are listed below:

(一)泰山壓頂
1. MT. TAI CRUSHES THE HEAD
(二)迎面直統
2. STRAIGHT PUNCH TO THE FACE
(三)順步雙掌
3. STRAIGHT STANCE, DOUBLE PALMS
(四)叠肘硬拱
4. THE PILING ELBOW ATTACKS UNSTOPPABLY
(五)貼門靠璧
5. CROWD THROUGH THE DOORWAY AND LEAN AGAINST THE WALL
(六)硬崩伏底
6. CRUSHING AVALANCHE SUBDUES THE GROUND
(七)左右雙棍
7. LEFT & RIGHT DOUBLE TYING
(八)摔捋兩分
8. THROWING AWAY TO BOTH SIDES

十二柔
[FOURTEEN] THE TWELVE SOFTNESSES

柔能尅剛,小可制大,是法之得也,彼鼠與象,大小懸殊,然鼠能由象鼻入,而食其腦,象力雖大,無從施用,一遇鼠穴,輙魂魄俱落,悚懼莫措,故育象者,恆掘四地穴狀如鼠穴者同,令其踏之,永不敢動,此卽以小制大之騐也,彼瑪瑙堅而至滑者,馬尾細而且柔極,然欲割瑪瑙非馬尾弓不可,由此可悟柔能尅剛之理矣。十二柔名稱如后:
Softness can also defeat hardness, and the small can overcome the large.
  To illustrate the latter, a mouse and an elephant are completely different in size, but the mouse can scurry up the elephant’s trunk as if to nibble at his brains. Although the elephant has greater strength, he is unable to use it, for the mere sight of a mouse hole causes him to lose his mind with fright. Elephant trainers always dig mouse holes in every direction so that the animal will never dare to step outside of a certain area. This is an example of the small overcoming the large.
  To illustrate the former, an agate stone is hard but very smooth, while the hairs from a horse’s tail are thin and very soft, and yet you need a horsetail bow to cut the stone. Based on this example, you can intuit that softness can defeat hardness. The twelve scenarios of softness are listed below:

(一見剛而囘手)
1. He uses hardness, I withdraw.
吾已出手而還截太猛,則囘身以避其鋒,緩手以挫其銳,俟𨻶而進,乃虛實閃賺之法也。
The opponent blocks my hand with such fiercness that I withdraw my body to evade it, sending out a slowing hand used to blunt his sharpness, then wait for an attackable gap to show up. This is a method of first emptying and then filling, of first avoiding and then snatching.

(二入手而偷手)
2. He enters, I sneak.
彼手纔出,吾已搶先溜進,使不及防,卽一入便偷然,須迅速方能奏效。
He suddenly sends out a hand while I am already advancing. Since it is too late to defend, I continue my advance by switching to sneaking in at an angle. This must be done quickly in order to be effective.

(三截手而滾手)
3. He intercepts, I roll.
彼欲截我手,我卽隨彼手滾入,使所截落空,左右上下最宜用之。
He wants to block my hand, so I go along with his movement and use a rolling technique to get in, causing his block to land on nothing, making the best use of left and right, up and down [by circling clockwise to the right, down, left, and up].

(四棍手而漏手)
4. He ties, I slip.
棍似截而圈,漏似滾而離,實開合收閉兼蓄也。
The tying action is a rounded form of blocking. The slipping technique is a reversal of the rolling technique [i.e. circling counterclockwise]. This is an action of opening and then closing, as though gathering in.

(五直統而抅手)
5. He thrusts, I grab.
彼迎面直衝,吾接手抅入,高則上抅,低則下抅,從外反正,度勢使用。
He does a straight thrust to my face, so I connect to his hand by sending out a grabbing hand. If he goes high, my grab goes upward, and if he goes low, my grab goes downward. After I send his hand outward, I can counter to the center, responding according to the situation.

(六採手而入手)
6. He takes, I enter.
來手突進,我卽隨手而入,或囘手抅滾,或採而閃,或旣採而叠,或中門正入,或裡外反入。
His hand suddenly goes forward, so I go along with it and find a way in, whether hooking back and using a rolling technique, or dodging his attack and using a piling technique, or entering right through the center, or going inward from outside or outward from inside.

(七摟手而進手)
7. He pulls, I advance.
摟者牽取之意。
He pulls, drawing me in [so I go along with it and advance upon him].

(八嗑手而入手)
8. He knocks, I enter.
磕者,從邊撥落,乘機搶進。
He knocks, deflecting me downward, so I take advantage of the opportunity to advance.

(九撲手而入手)
9. He advances, I pat.
彼手激進,左右連環,吾則向下撲之,但不急激,祗輕按之而已。
He shoots out his hands, one after another, so I pat them down. I do not need to use the same aggressiveness as him, for to press his attacks down lightly is sufficient.

(十挑手而入手)
10. He carries, I enter.
對方以同上之方式攻我,則向上挑之然後進手。
He attacks in an upward direction, so I go along with him upward and then advance.

(十一開手而叠手)
11. He spreads, I pile.
吾手已出,彼則開手以拒,吾更以叠手反之。
He spreads aside to fling my hand away, so I fold my arm to counter with a piling technique.

(十二粘手而破手)
12. He sticks, I overturn.
彼粘我手,或施擒拿之法,吾則借勢反掌,因其擒拏反擒之。
He sticks to my hand or employs a grabbing technique, so I make use of his momentum and turn my palm over to countergrab.

八打
[FIFTEEN] THE EIGHT ALLOWABLE TARGETS

每部位皆屬次要,雖不致命,亦必重傷,如遇强手,非此不足以致勝,然不可輕予施用,以傷好生之德,惟吾同道愼之。
These are all secondary targets. Although not life-threatening, they are sure to cause injury. If you encounter an attacker who is highly skilled, these will be sufficient to defeat him. But you must not employ them rashly or you may do injury to your own life-sparing virtue. I hope you will be mindful of this point.

(一打)眉頭雙睛
1. the spot between the eyebrows
(二打)唇上人中
2. the Renzhong acupoint above the upper lip [GV 26 (also called Shuigou)]
(三打)穿腮耳門
3. the hollow between cheek and earlobe
(四打)背後骨縫
4. the spine
(五打)脅內肺腑
5. the lungs underneath the upper ribs
(六打)撩陰高骨
6. the pelvic bone
(七打)鶴膝虎頭
7. the soft tissue just below the kneecap
(八打)破骨千斤
8. the shins

八不打
[SIXTEEN] THE EIGHT FORBIDDEN TARGETS

是皆致命之處,苟非性命相搏,幸毋施用,若對方不念人命之為重,亦祗招之而已。
All of these targets are for life-threatening situations [and are thus the primary targets]. If you are not fighting for your life, I hope you will not employ them. Only use them if your attacker clearly does not consider human life to be of any value.

(一不打)太陽為首
1. the temples
(二不打)正中鎖喉
2. the windpipe
(三不打)中心兩壁
3. the solar plexus
(四不打)兩肋太極
4. the false ribs
(五不打)海底撩陰
5. the groin
(六不打)兩腎對心
6. the kidneys
(七不打)尾閭風府
7. the tailbone
(八不打)兩耳扇風
8. the ears

錄宋太祖訪友歌
[SEVENTEEN] EMPEROR TAIZU OF THE SONG DYNASTY SEEKS OUT MASTERS

太祖長拳甚可嘉。天下雲邀訪大家。閙裡奪粹高一着。韓通從此把名窪。
强中自有强中手。何須稱强太自誇。鄭恩傍觀看得破。通背猿猴更不差。
通拳又被纏封打。只顯他人不顯咱。寰中武士參不透。深如東海如如蔴。
Emperor Taizu’s Long Boxing is highly praiseworthy.
He traveled everywhere in search of the best masters.
Sorting out the wheat from the chaff, he reached the highest skill.
  But then Han Tong humbled him with his Tongbei Boxing.
Among the best, there is always someone better.
Do not become proud and start boasting.
  Zheng En looked on and saw how he could defeat him too.
First Tongbei Boxing… then Monkey Boxing… and one remarkable style after another emerged, each more flawless than before.
As the process went on, it was discovered that Jin Xiang’s piercing punches could be defeated by Zheng En’s twining & sealing.
  The art seems to be revealed only to others, not to us ordinary people.
The palace of great warriors is a place we might peek into, but most will not pass through.
Such skills are as deep as the eastern sea and as meticulous as woven thread.

各種器械術語錄
[EIGHTEEN] WEAPON MAXIMS

單刀看手。雙刀看走。大刀看鋒。劍無過腦。鈎不入肘。棍取中平實難當。槍出一條綫。槍軋一條龍。刀出如猛虎。劍舞如飛鳳。救命用花槍。千日可軋槍。練劍萬日難。百日練單刀。雙刀須平匀。雙劍尚柔活。暗中施軟械,須防強者用鈎破。長一寸强一寸,短一寸巧一寸。迎頭劈一着,須防漏下來。『若成强上强,須下苦中苦』『練藝不練功,到老總成空』
“With the single saber, be mindful of your other hand. With the double sabers, be mindful of your footwork. With the large saber, be mindful of the tip.”
  “The sword should not pass around the head. The hooks should not go near the elbows.”
  “When the staff attacks the center, it is very difficult to block.”
  “The spear rolls like a dragon and shoots out like a thread.”
  “The saber goes out like a fierce tiger. The sword dances like a flying phoenix.”
  “When life is at stake, flourish a spear.”
  “To train to stab well with a spear takes a thousand days. To train skill with a sword takes ten thousand days of hard work. A hundred days is all that is needed to train competence with a saber.”
  “The double sabers should be wielded evenly. The double swords should be supple and lively.”
  “If your concealed weapon is a soft weapon [such as a rope-dart], you must guard against it getting snapped by a strong opponent wielding hooks.”
  “Longer by an inch means stronger by an inch. Shorter by an inch means subtler by an inch.”
  “When chopping to his head, you must beware of leaving yourself unguarded below. If you focus only on dominating the upper area, your lower area or middle area is sure to suffer.”
  “If you develop artistry but fail to train skill, for your whole life you will have achieved nothing.”

推拏治病法
[NINETEEN] TUINA METHODS FOR TREATING INJURIES

習拳者,恆有觸傷手足之弊,如不懂手術治療之法,時捱痛楚矣。
羅師有見及此,曾於民國廿八年間,將此異術公開傳授,以廣流傳,時編者適從武漢南返,任職島上,同志中有不諳國語者,故每次講授多由編者作舌人,其中法門畧分為五種,主要手法曰推,拏,揉,搖,搓,凡有傷者,其面積大,則以掌心輕輕按之,另以一手把持傷處之上端,使不移動,然後將掌左右揉之,切勿將掌離開傷處,以防擦傷皮肉,若傷處小,則祗用大指,放平按之便得,此是第一步揉之手法,第二步則用推法從下推上,則須以另一手把持下瑞,反之則把持上端,推之數十次,便改用第三種手法,以雙手之指端向傷處慢慢拏之便可,如非傷在手足,則無須用搖搓之法,如傷在近骨較處,則必須用搖法,使其接較處受搖動之力透發骨中之瘀,容易消散,搓法是以雙掌夾持傷處,運內力搓之,使其舒流血脈。
羅師言此是上古之法,當時醫藥之學未如今日之高明,北方之人至現在仍不乏用此法治療各種病症,該手術擅治偏正頭風,筋骨扭傷,跌打後患等症。
Boxing arts practitioners are bound to get hurt at some point. If they have no understanding of methods of treating injuries, then they will be bound to not only get hurt, but also suffer. Recognizing this problem, Master Luo in 1939 decided to teach this unique treatment skill in order to spread it more widely. At that time, I had come south from Wuhan to teach in Hong Kong. Some among my colleagues there did not understand Mandarin, and so I often had to serve as an interpreter during the lectures, describing how this skill is divided into five major methods: pushing, grabbing, rubbing, trembling, and twisting.
  If the surface area of an injury is large, press gently with the palm of one hand while using the other hand to hold the upper part of the injured area steady so that it does not shift around. Then rub with the palm to the left and right, being careful not to let the palm come away from the area so that this does not cause any chafing to the skin.
  If the injured area is small, press with the flat part of the thumb rather than the whole palm. The first step is use rubbing methods. The second step is to apply pushing methods, pushing with down→up strokes, while using the other hand to hold the lower part of the injured area steady and then switching to holding the upper area. After applying such pushing dozens of times, then the third step is to apply grabbing methods, using the fingers of both hands, working slowly toward the injured area.
  If the injury is not to the limbs, there will be no need to use trembling and twisting methods. If an injury to the limbs is close to the bones, trembling methods are required, creating a vibration all the way through to the bone to help dissipate any stagnation of blood. Twisting methods involve gripping around the injured area with both palms and applying an action of twisting inward to loosen the blood vessels.
  Master Luo said these are ancient methods, from a time when medical studies were not as advanced as they are nowadays, but northerners still use this art to treat all sorts of illnesses. It is an excellent means of treating concussions, sprains, and physical trauma from strikes and falls.

經騐實效跌打藥方
[TWENTY] EFFECTIVE MEDICAL PRESCRIPTIONS FOR INJURIES

「復元活血湯」專治跌打瘀血積滯胸隘脹悶通脈定痛
“Recover-Health & Invigorate-Blood Soup” (for treating injuries that result in blood clots and chest pain):
當歸尾二錢 柴胡二錢 山甲(炙)三錢 紅花二錢 括蔞仁三錢 川朴(後下)二錢 沒藥二錢 莪木二錢 乳香二錢 茛羗二錢 蘇木二錢 九製燃銅三錢 米酒半碗 水二碗 煎至一碗之八分服
dong quai – 10 grams, bupleurum – 10 grams, pangolin scales – 15 grams, safflower – 10 grams, Chinese cucumber seeds – 15 grams, magnolia bark – 10 grams, myrrh – 10 grams, white turmeric – 10 grams, frankincense – 10 grams, genjiang – 10 grams, sapanwood – 10 grams, purified copper – 15 grams, rice wine – half bowl, water – two bowls. One dose is one bowl’s worth. Cook one bowl for eight minutes and consume.

「加味八珍湯」專治流血過多暈眩體虛受驚過度之症
“Eight Best Flavors Soup” (for treating injuries that result in excessive bleeding, dizziness, and fear):
川芎二錢 當歸二錢半 白芍二錢半 生地二錢半 防黨二錢半 貢朮二錢半 雲苓(殊砂伴)二錢半 炙草二錢 龍牙(先煎)五錢 沒藥二錢半 正牛胆星二錢 粒乳香二錢 淸水三碗煎服 加米酒半杯冲
Sichuan lovage – 10 grams, dong quai – 12.5 grams, peony root – 12.5 grams, Chinese foxglove – 12.5 grams, dangshen – 12.5 grams, gongshu – 12.5 grams, ground tuckahoe – 12.5 grams, licorice root – 10 grams, fried dragon tooth – 25 grams, myrrh – 12.5 grams, danxing – 10 grams, granulated frankincense – 10 grams, clean water – three bowls. Cook a dose, then gulp it down with a half cup of rice wine.

打傷各部藥引
Supplements for healing injury of particular parts:

『頭部』加白芷 川芎 京子 黃麻各二錢
For the head: Chinese angelica, Sichuan lovage, jingzi, jute – 10 grams each.
『中部』加枳壳 桔梗 羗蠶 元胡 乙金各二錢
For the midsection: medicinal orange, Chinese bellflower, medicinal silkworm, Chinese poppy, yijin – 10 grams each.
『下部』加大王 枳實 牛七各二錢
For the lower body: dawang, dried citron, ox knee root – 10 grams each.
『傷中氣』用川朴 香付 木香
For internal energy: magnolia bark, flatsedge tuber, costus root.
『手部』用桔梗 桂枝
For the hand: Chinese bellflower, cassia twig.
『腰部』用杜仲
For the waist: eucommia bark.
『足部』用木瓜 牛七
For the foot: papaya skin, ox knee root.
『傷在上部用方』澤蘭 乙金 紅花 製川烏 桂枝 法夏 枝子 五加皮 碎補 千年健 羗活各二錢煎服
Prescription for injury to the upper area: thoroughwort, yijin, safflower, processed chuanwu, cassia twig, pinellia root, Japanese clover, Siberian ginseng, squirrel’s foot fern, homalomena occulta, angelica – 10 grams each.
『傷在中部用方』元胡 乙金 莪朮 靈芝 枝子 桃仁 羗活 當歸 靈仙 紅花各二錢煎服
Prescription for injury to the middle area: Chinese poppy, yijin, white turmeric, lingzhi, Japanese clover, taoren nuts, angelica, dong quai, clematis root, safflower – 10 grams each.
『傷在下部用方』木通 枳壳 牛七 生地 歸尾 羗活 紅花 莪朮各二錢煎服
Prescription for injury to the lower area: akebi, medicinal orange, ox knee root, Chinese foxglove, dong quai, angelica, safflower, white turmeric – 10 grams each.
『跌打難治之症』傷頂破骨難治,傷眼尾左右太陽穴血流不止難治,傷兩耳大筋流血不止難治,傷脊髓第接骨斷難治,傷乳上胸骨手肉自收者難治,傷大小便直流不治,傷後失笑不治,跌傷顚狂不治,跌傷眼開不合不治。
(Difficult injuries to treat: The most difficult injuries to treat are fractures of the skull, spine, and sternum, as well as ceaseless bleeding from the corners of the eyes or the temples, or ceaseless bleeding from the ears. Further problems that are extremely difficult to treat are incontinence of urination or defecation after receiving an injury, a fit of uncontrollable laughter after an injury, an episode of madness after falling, and not being able to close one’s eyes after a fall.)

增錄少林真傳卷四之實驗藥方
Additional Prescriptions from Volume Four of Authentic Shaolin Teachings:

「辛香散洗」
Bitter-Fragrance Wash:
防風十錢 劉寄奴二両 柏葉一錢 朋礬五錢 蒼耳子一錢 澤蘭一錢 銀花一錢 苦參五錢 乳香五錢 荊芥穗十両 白芷一錢 當歸一錢 棓子五錢 獨活五錢 細茶一錢
parsnip root, liujinu – 100 grams, Chinese arborvitae leaves – 5 grams, alum – 25 grams, cocklebur – 5 grams, thoroughwort – 5 grams, honeysuckle – 5 grams, sophora flavescens root – 25 grams, frankincense – 25 grams, catnip grains, Chinese angelica – 5 grams, dong quai – 5 grams, gallnut – 25 grams, angelica – 25 grams, powdered tea – 5 grams.

「寬筋散洗」
Sinew-Stretching Wash:
當歸三錢 桂枝二錢 伸筋草二錢 艾葉三錢 劉寄奴二錢 生葱十枝 沒藥一錢 川斷二錢 五加皮三錢 紅花錢半 制閙楊花二錢 乳香一錢 紫稍花二錢 香附二錢 樟木二両
dong quai – 15 grams, cassia twig – 10 grams, ground pine – 10 grams, mugwort leaves – 15 grams, liujinu – 10 grams, raw scallions – 10 sticks, myrrh – 5 grams, teasel root – 10 grams, Siberian ginseng – 15 grams, safflower – 7.5 grams, naoyanghua – 10 grams, frankincense – 5 grams, zishao flower – 10 grams, flatsedge tuber – 10 grams, camphor – 100 grams.

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[View an original Chinese edition of Secrets of the Mantis Boxing Art, provided by the Ravenswood Academy.]

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