THE TAIJI MANUAL OF JU HAO

孫氏太極拳
SUN STYLE TAIJI BOXING
居浩
by Ju Hao
[published in Taiwan by 真善美出版社 Truth-Goodness-Beauty Press, May, 1967]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Sep, 2020]

孫祿堂先生
Portrait of Sun Lutang

編著者近影
Portrait of the author

居浩著孫派太極拳
for Ju Hao’s Sun Style Taiji Boxing:
延年益壽
“Here is a means of increasing one’s longevity.”
錢大鈞題
– calligraphy by Qian Dajun

之安弟兄
for my brother Ju Zhi’an [Ju Hao]:
發揚國粹
“Let us promote our cultural essence.”
韓振聲題
– calligraphy by Han Zhensheng

孫祿堂先生傳
BIO OF SUN LUTANG

孫福全,字祿堂,晚年號涵齋。生於咸豐十一年,河北完縣人,幼年家貧,習工。性好武,初拜李魁元為師,習形意。後獲侍魁元之師郭雲深,從遊大江南北,增廣見聞,郭氏每與武林高手論藝較技,孫侍側與聞,用心記憶,勤加練習,功夫大進。
在北平時,曾從程廷華習八卦,晝夜揣摩,夜間嘗燃香縛手,香燒至手,則奮起苦練。聞有武藝高强者,必拜訪請益,遇自負者,輒與較量,因身材小巧,動作靈活,常以技勝人,聲譽日隆。
年五十餘歲,居北平,值廣平郝氏為眞,至京訪友,祿堂經友人介紹相識,見郝氏身材魁悟,容貌溫和,知書達理,不類武夫,遂相投契。未幾,適為眞患痢疾,祿堂為延醫診治,朝夕服事,為眞心感,病癒後,盡將郝派太極拳精華相授。
後祿堂虛心求藝,親赴山西太谷,拜謁形意前輩宋世榮。返京時,並將形意、太極、八卦、三項拳術,互相參證,融會貫通,盡得精微。故武藝高强,譽滿武林。
晚年練功益勤,夜間常躺一睡椅,醒卽練功,研究手法不輟。所練太極拳,多跟步,且係高架,蓋老人固不喜低架也,或謂高架較為靈活,容有是理。
祿堂相貌淸癯,性情溫和,為人機警。二十餘歲時,因動作輕快,善形意拳之猴形拳,卽有賽活猴之稱。善用巧力,生平與人交手次數極多,故經驗豐富。出門步行,常持一黑漆鐵杖,不使落地,用以自衛,且練功也。
留鬚後,每晨必用熱水洗鬚,面盆盛水,放置地面,以極低騎馬式站立,將鬚伸入水中,不停擺動者久之始罷。坐時盤膝,能以盤在外面之腿踢人,而在內之腿同時起立。遇有公開表演,常練形意雜式拳,其貓兒洗臉之動作,極為動人。與人推散手,脚常突然由頷下而出,踢人鼻尖,使人鼻尖沾土,而不覺痛。中央國術舘副舘長李景林,功夫驚人,且善用腿。祿堂任武當門門長時,常與推手。景林每次欲用之攻擊方法,均為祿堂先行道破,景林只得笑而作罷。故李氏對祿堂非常欽佩敬重。
民國十八年初,江蘇省國術舘成立於鎭江陽彭山後,省主度鈕永建氏,為鍛鍊全省水陸公安人員之體魄起見,飭該舘設立國術師範講習所,選拔蘇省水陸公安人員較有國術基礎者,每期施以一年之訓練,聘祿堂為敎務長,並由其弟子孫振岱、胡鳳山、分任太極形意敎練,金佳福徐鑄人敎少林,另設女子組,由郝月如(為眞之子)授郝派太極,祿堂每週必親自講述練習要旨,現身說法,語義精闢,身法奧妙,聽者莫不鼓舞忘倦。
是年秋,杭州擧行全國性浙江國術遊藝大會,褚民誼氏建議用西法測驗武術家體力,祿堂以為有武藝者,不一定有體力,有體力者,未必通武藝,並當衆試驗,伸出右手食指,請在坐者挑一身魁力大者搬之,其人剛握住手指,祿堂轉身一圈,其人立足不住,亦隨之轉圈,連轉數圈,其人因無法立足,終不能搬彎祿堂之食指,故褚氏建議作罷。
祿堂善於敎人,對於動作之用意規矩,應用變化,分析詳明透澈。且將畢生武學經驗,編着形意拳學、八卦拳學、八卦劍學、太極拳學、拳意述眞等書。弟子遍南北,所傳以次子孫存周、弟子孫振川、孫振岱、胡鳳山、齊公博、龔仲衡、鄭懹賢等為優。民國二十二年孟秋,無疾而逝,享年七十三歲。
讚曰:唯我大師 沉潛道心 誨人不倦 功昭武林
Sun Fuquan, called Lutang, and in his later years Hanzhai, was born in the eleventh year of the reign of Emperor Xianfeng, in Wan County, Hebei. When he was young, his family was poor, and so he had to work hard. Obsessed with martial arts, he first did obeisance to Li Kuiyuan for instruction, from whom he learned Xingyi, then later was able to learn from Li’s own teacher, Guo Yunshen. Guo traveled widely north and south of the Yangzte River to expand his knowledge, meeting with other martial arts masters to compare skills and theories. Sun accompanied him as his servant and listened to all of these exchanges, carefully memorizing what he heard and diligently practicing what he learned, and his skill made great progress.
  Sun later went to Beijing and learned Bagua from Cheng Tinghua, pondering the art day and night. At night he would tie a stick of burning incense to his hand, so that when the flame had burned all the way down the stick and reached his hand, he would get up and practice more. Whenever he heard about highly skilled martial artists, he would visit them to ask for instruction. When they turned out to be arrogant, he would have a match with them. Because he was small in stature, his movement was very agile, and because he always defeated them with his skill, his fame grew with each passing day.
  When he was already more than fifty years old, Hao Weizhen of Guangping Prefecture happened to come to Beijing to visit a friend. The friend introduced him to Sun, who found Hao to be large in stature but mild in looks, as well as well-read and sensible, not like a typical martial artist at all, and so they got on very well together. Soon after they had met, Hao was stricken with dysentery. Sun sent for a doctor to treat him, then tended to him day and night. Hao was very moved by this, and after he had recovered, he taught Sun the essence of Hao Style Taiji Boxing.
  Still open-minded and wanting to improve his skills even further, he later went to Taigu District in Shanxi to visit the Xingyi master Song Shirong. After returning to Beijing, he found that Song was right about the three boxing arts of Xingyi, Taiji, and Bagua being fundamentally the same thing and that these arts do indeed corroborate each other. Equipped with this more thorough understanding, his achievement became more profound, for his martial skill thereafter became so outstanding that he has been praised throughout the martial arts community ever since. In his later years, he practiced even harder. He would often grab just a little sleep at night in a reclining chair, then awake and continue practicing, his study of these skills never ceasing.
  The Taiji Boxing he practiced involved the use of frequent “follow steps” and very tall stances. This is because old men really do not enjoy doing low stances, though it is sometimes claimed that the reasoning for it is that tall stances are more nimble. Sun was very skinny and yet energetic, and his temperament was mild and yet alert. When he was in his twenties, his movements were very agile and he excelled at Xingyi Boxing’s monkey technique. Thus he earned the nickname of “Lively Monkey”. An expert at employing clever techniques, he fought a great many challenge matches throughout his life, and so he accumulated abundant experience.
  When he left the house to walk anywhere, he would often carry a black-painted iron pole, which he would never allow to touch the ground. While such an object could be used for self-defense, it was also an excellent means of supplemental training. After he had grown a beard, he washed it with hot water every morning. He did this by filling a basin with water, placing it on the ground, standing in front of it in a very low horse-riding stance, then dipping his beard into the water and swishing it to and fro for a long time. He was capable from a crossed-legged sitting position of kicking someone with his outer leg while standing up at the same time on his other leg. During public performances, he always demonstrated Xingyi’s Mixed Postures boxing set, mesmerizing people most of all with his action of “cat washes its face” [which is given only the technical name of “retreating chops” in Sun’s 1915 manual].
  When sparring with others, he would often shoot out his foot from under his chin and kick the person’s nose so that the tip of the nose would only be smudged with dirt and there would not be any pain. Li Jinglin, director of the Central Martial Arts Institute, had truly amazing skills and was likewise an expert at kicking. Sun, the head of the Wudang Department at the Institute, would often practice pushing hands with Li. Every time Li tried to attack, Sun would just break on through before he had hardly started, and so Li could only laugh and give up. Because of this, Li had tremendous admiration for Sun.
  In the beginning of 1929, the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute was established at Mt. Yangpeng in Zhenjiang. Governor Niu Yongjian wanted to build up the physiques of personnel working in public security on both water and land, and so he established a martial arts teacher-training program, into which security personnel were sent for a one-year course in basic martial arts training. Sun Lutang was engaged as the dean of studies. His students Sun Zhendai and Hu Fengshan were appointed as instructors of Taiji and Xingyi. Jin Jiafu and Xu Zhuren taught Shaolin. A course for women was also established, in which they learned Hao Style Taiji from Hao Weizhen’s son, Hao Yueru. Every week, Sun would personally give a lecture on essential principles of practice, demonstrating each point himself. His explanations were insightful, his movements profound. The students were always inspired and forgot their exhaustion.
  In the autumn of that year, Hangzhou held the nationwide Zhejiang Martial Arts & Recreation Conference. Chu Minyi suggested using Western methods to test the strength of martial arts masters, but Sun pointed out that those who possess martial skill do not necessarily possess great strength, while those who possess great strength would not necessarily be adept at martial arts. He stood before the seated crowd, extended his right forefinger, and invited any large strong men among them to come bend his finger. A man got up and firmly gripped his finger, but Sun then turned his body around in a circle. The man could not find his footing, just followed Sun around in circle after circle. Unable to even stand stably, he was thus rendered incapable of bending Sun’s finger, despite his strength. Chu thereupon withdrew his suggestion.
  Sun was an excellent teacher presenting the standard function of every movement and how to apply it adaptively, giving a thorough and detailed analysis. He recorded his lifetime of martial arts experience by writing books: A Study of Xingyi Boxing [1915], A Study of Bagua Boxing [1917], A Study of Bagua Sword [1927], A Study of Taiji Boxing [1921], and Authentic Explanations of Martial Arts Concepts [1924]. His students are everywhere, both to the north and to the south. He passed his art down to his second son, Sun Cunzhou. Among his students, Sun Zhenchuan, Sun Zhendai, Hu Fengshan, Qi Gongbo, Gong Zhongheng, and Zheng Rangxian are the best. In the first month of autumn [winter], 1933, Sun passed away without illness, dying at the age of seventy-three. My eulogy to him:

I think of my master
and his deep Daoist mind.
Tireless in teaching,
his skill shined throughout the martial arts world.

洪序
PREFACE BY HONG MAOZHONG

太極拳在中國拳術中的崛起興盛,不過近一二百年間事。與太極拳同時期而享盛名的,尚有形意拳與八卦拳。這三種拳各有其獨特的優點,槪括言之,太極拳是以輕靈柔發著稱,形意拳是以剛勁渾雄見長,八卦拳是以靈活變化稱勝,是三者俱可稱為我國拳術中之上乘。但能兼集太極形意八卦三家之長,而有偉大成就者,則殊不多見。
過去形意拳同八卦拳有一段故事,據說形意拳大師郭雲深與八卦拳大師董海川,曾經有過一次友誼性的較技,雙方在幾日夜中較量若干次,却難分勝負,遂成莫逆之交。彼此復交換弟子,互傳拳藝,故此後北方拳術界中,形意與八卦門幾成為一家。
國術大師孫祿堂氏,為形意拳與八卦拳名家,早歲卽已馳名海內。嗣並從郝為眞氏研習太極拳,以孫氏在形意拳八卦拳方面造詣之深,故其太極拳功力架式,卓然自成一家。此蓋匯集三家拳術之精奧,融會貫通有以致之。卽世所盛稱之孫派太極拳,於河北江蘇等地傳習甚衆。
武進居浩之安先生,早年與余共事於江都公安局,居君曾選送江蘇省國術師範講習所,修習國術,時主其事者,為敎務長孫祿堂氏,孫氏以一代宗師,其所造就者甚衆,居君少年篤學,為孫氏之入室弟子,得其薪傳,其所擅孫派太極拳造詣尤深。
近以太極拳一門風行海內外,惟坊間尚無孫派太極拳譜之印行,學者無從問津,居君爰本其所學,編印為孫氏太極拳一書,以公同好,亦以示其不忘師門之意云爾。
中華民國五十六年二月 洪懋中序於臺灣
Among Chinese boxing arts, Taiji Boxing has risen to remarkable heights only within the last hundred years or so. Enjoying great fame at the same time as Taiji Boxing, there is also Xingyi Boxing and Bagua Boxing. These three boxing arts each have their own distinctive advantages. To summarize them, Taiji Boxing is known for its lightness and expression of soft power, Xingyi Boxing excels at using hard power and boldness, and Bagua Boxing triumphs because of its nimble transformations. These three arts can each be considered the highest level of our nation’s boxing arts. However, those who have been able to achieve the even higher level of combining the strengths of all three are rather rare.
  Xingyi Boxing and Bagua Boxing share a story. It is said that the Xingyi Boxing master Guo Yunshen and the Bagua Boxing master Dong Haichuan once had a friendly bout that went on for several days with no clear winner, and so they became close friends and then exchanged students to pass on each other’s art. Therefore in the northern boxing arts community, the two arts of Xingyi and Bagua are treated almost as one art.
  Martial arts master Sun Lutang was a famous practitioner of Xingyi Boxing and Bagua Boxing, gaining a widespread reputation even when he was still young. He later also learned Taiji Boxing from Hao Weizhen. Thanks to the depth of his achievement in Xingyi and Bagua, the skill and demeanor he exhibited in his Taiji was outstanding enough to then earn him his own style. The convergence of essentials from these three arts resulted in an unusually thorough understanding. Sun Style Taiji Boxing is praised everywhere, having been taught to a great many people in Hebei, Jiangsu, and other places.
  Ju Hao, called Zhi’an, is from Wujin [district of Changzhou, Jiangsu]. In our youth, he and I worked together in the Jiangdu Security Bureau. Ju was selected by the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute’s teacher-training program to study martial arts. The one in charge of the program at the time was the Institute’s dean of studies, the respected master Sun Lutang, who helped train a great many people. Ju as a young man studied diligently and became a direct student of Sun, receiving personal instruction, and became profoundly accomplished in Sun Style Taiji Boxing.
  Taiji Boxing is now popular throughout the nation and abroad, and yet bookshops still have hardly anything about the Sun style of Taiji Boxing, leaving students with no guidance to turn to. Ju has therefore drawn upon what he has learned to produce this book about it, both in order to share this material with fellow enthusiasts and to not let his teacher’s wisdom be forgotten.
  - written in Taiwan by Hong Maozhong, Feb, 1967

周序
PREFACE BY ZHOU JIANNAN

今之太極拳,以姿勢及練法之不同,可分為五派,卽陳派、楊派、武派、孫派、及八卦太極是也。陳派太極拳,為陳家溝所傳習者,分老架及新架。新架,又分為陳溝派及趙堡派。因陳家溝及趙堡鎭僻處河南之一隅,陳家溝出外敎太極拳者,前後僅有陳績甫、陳發科、陳子明,故外間練習者不多。
楊派,為楊露蟬所留傳。楊氏從陳家溝陳長興學得陳派太極拳老架,專心致志者數十年,功至化境。在北京創立盛名後,學者甚衆。以後其子孫及弟子輩,以敎拳為業者頗多,故傳授甚廣,迄今,為太極拳最流行之一派。
武派,為武禹襄所留傳。武氏學太極拳新架於趙堡鎭,陳淸平,又因其兄武秋瀛,獲得王宗岳太極原譜,默識揣摩者數十年,對於太極拳之理論功用,甚有發明,為太極拳功至化境之另一人。惟武氏及其傳人李亦畬,再傳弟子郝為眞,均非以敎拳為業,故傳授甚少,直至郝月如,傳授方衆。
孫派,為孫祿堂所留傳者。孫氏旣精形意拳及八卦掌,復得郝為眞氏授以武派太極拳,摻以數十年之工力,融會貫通,卓然自成一家。曾在河北江蘇等地傳授。
八卦太極,為擅太極拳及八卦掌之人士所創,甚為靈活適用。傳授此派太極拳者,有吳峻山及蔣馨山諸氏,此五派太極拳,雖傳流不盡普遍,但功效上各有特色,藝術價値上,無分軒輊。
武進居浩先生,擅孫派太極拳,余因此派太極拳,省內見者甚少,建議居先生將其編著為書,以供愛好人士之研究,居先生採納建議,今已成書,囑序於余,余喜省內愛好太極拳人士得見孫派太極拳之面目,爰略述太極拳之流派及居先生撰此書之顚末。如居先生能更進一步,以此書為敎本,公開傳授,俾欲進孫派太極拳之門者,問道有所,尤余所企望者也。
中華民國五十六年一月二十九日皖北周劍南序於台北市
Taiji Boxing nowadays has a variety of postures and practice methods, which can be divided into five styles: Chen Style, Yang Style, Wu Yuxiang Style, Sun Style, and Bagua Taiji.
  Chen Style Taiji Boxing was passed down from the Chen Family Village. It is divided into an “old frame” and a “new frame”. The new frame is further subdivided into the Chen Village version and the Zhaobao Village version. Because the Chen Village and Zhaobao Village are in a secluded corner of Henan, the only teachers to leave the Chen Village to teach Taiji Boxing were Chen Jifu [Zhaopi], Chen Fake, and Chen Ziming, and thus there are not many practitioners of Chen Style outside the Chen Village.
  Yang Style was passed down from Yang Luchan. Yang learned the “old frame” Chen Style Taiji Boxing from Chen Changxing of the Chen Village. Due to decades of single-minded dedication, his skill reached a level of perfection. Once his celebrated reputation had been established in Beijing, he gained many students. His descendants and disciples have taught it for a living to an enormous number of people, and thus it is very widespread and remains the most popular style of Taiji Boxing to this day.
  Wu Yuxiang Style was of course passed down from Wu Yuxiang. Wu learned the “new frame” Chen Style Taiji Boxing in Zhaobao Village from Chen Qingping, and his brother Qiuying [Chengqing] also happened to obtain the original Taiji manual by Wang Zongyue, which Yuxiang then spent decades absorbing and pondering. Wu Yuxiang was very innovative in the areas of Taiji Boxing theory and application, and is one of the people whose skill reached a level of perfection. He taught his art to Li Yiyu, who in turn taught it to Hao Weizhen, neither of whom taught the art for a living, and so it was passed down to very few people until Hao’s son Yueru taught it more widely.
  Sun Style was passed down from Sun Lutang. Sun, having already mastered Xingyi Boxing and Bagua Boxing, then received instruction from Hao Weizhen in Hao Style Taiji Boxing. Mixing together his decades of experience brought him to such a thorough understanding that he was considered more than worthy to deserve his own style. It has since been taught to a great many people in Hebei, Jiangsu, and other places.
  Bagua Taiji was created by someone who was an expert in both Taiji Boxing and Bagua Boxing. It is very adaptable and applicable. This style was taught by Wu Junshan and Jiang Xinshan.
  Although these five styles of Taiji Boxing are not equally widespread, they nevertheless are just as worthy as each other for their effectiveness and artistry.
  Ju Hao of Wujin is an expert at Sun Style Taiji Boxing. Because this style is rarer to find, I suggested to him that he write a book about it in order to supply study material for enthusiasts. Ju accepted my suggestion and has now completed this book, for which he then asked me to provide a preface. I am delighted that Taiji Boxing enthusiasts are now able to get a good look at Sun Style, and thus I have briefly outlined the styles and given a glimpse of the making of this volume. Ju has surpassed my suggestion by producing a genuine textbook to properly teach the art to the public, ensuring that all those who have been wanting to learn Sun Style Taiji Boxing will now have a good means of doing so. This is exactly what I was hoping for.
  - written in Taiwan by Zhou Jiannan of northern Anhui, Jan 29, 1967

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

余幼年偏好國術,初從馬錦標先生習少林,民國十六年至江都,繼從由占魁先生習少林。民國十八年,江蘇省國術舘奉命調訓各縣市水陸公安局優秀學員,余由江都警局保送應考受訓。
初期專習形意拳,課餘輒向敎官袁偉、馬承智、李慶蘭等練習劈卦、八極、武當劍、曁各種器械,後見孫祿堂先生練太極拳,有剛有柔,式簡意閑,動作輕靈,心竊慕之。
是年冬日,經孫振岱、胡鳳山、兩師兄介紹,惠蒙先生推愛,許列門牆,得遂心願,拜習孫派太極。畢業後,返江都,設江都國術舘,敎授國術,以强身强國為主旨。
廿四年遷閩,工作繁忙,時練時輟。卅八年來台,因行色怱促,未帶國術書籍,頗引為憾,常就記憶所及,時予溫習。邇來擧國及歐美人士,咸以太極拳為最佳健身運動,紛紛研習,風起雲湧。坊間太極拳書籍,以楊派為多,孫師所著太極拳學,尚不普遍。經友好鼓勵,不揣譾陋,謹將孫師所傳太極拳,逐一演式,攝製圖片,釋明每一動作之先後起落背向,使習者一目瞭然,同時將孫師親授練習太極拳要領編入,並附錄名家重要理論,以供同好參照研閱。惟以編印怱促,難免魯亥之誤,尚祈高明予以指正,則不勝幸甚。
本書承錢大鈞將軍曁中國太極拳學術研究會理事長韓振聲先生題字,洪懋中、周繼春先生賜序,吳維屏先生題額、宋今人、趙錫民先生協助編校印行,何雲凌張祥浩兩先生攝影,謹誌謝忱。
中華民國五十六年武進居浩自序
In my youth, I was obsessed with martial arts. I first studied Shaolin from Ma Jinbiao, then in 1927, I went to Jiangdu [district of Yangzhou, Jiangsu] and continued my Shaolin studies under Zhang Zhankui. In 1929, the Jiangsu Martial Arts Institute was ordered to give training to public security bureau personnel. I was recommended to undergo training by the Jiangdu Police Department.
  I started by focusing on Xingyi Boxing, but then after the classes, I approached Yuan Wei, Ma Chengzhi, and Li Qinglan, from whom I also learned Pigua, Baji, Wudang Sword, and various weapons. And then I saw Sun Lutang practicing his Taiji Boxing. There was both hardness and softness, the postures were simple and leisurely, and the movements were light and nimble. I was full of admiration.
  During that winter, I was introduced to Sun by my fellow elder students Sun Zhendai and Hu Fengshan. He kindly gave me encouragement and allowed me to change my main focus, and thus I was able to fulfill my wish and became a formal student in Sun Syle Taiji. After graduating from the course, I returned to Jiangdu and established the Jiangdu Martial Arts Institute to provide instruction in martial arts, with the aim of “strengthening the body to strengthen the nation”.
  In 1935, I moved to Fujian. There I became very busy with work, and thus my training became more sporadic. In 1949, I came to Taiwan. Because the situation at the time required leaving the mainland in rather a hurry, I was not able to bring any martial arts books with me, which is an unending source of regret. Without books to consult, I was constantly reviewing whatever material I could remember.
  Recently, Chinese people, Europeans, and Americans have all come to the conclusion that Taiji Boxing is the best kind of exercise, having one after another been drawn to the study of it, and it has become immensely popular. Taiji Boxing manuals now fill bookshops, with books about Yang Style being the most numerous. Master Sun wrote A Study of Taiji Boxing, but it is still not as widespread as the Yang manuals.
  Due to the encouragement I have received from close colleagues, I have decided to ignore my limited ability and shallow understanding in order to present the Taiji Boxing taught to me by Master Sun. There is a photograph provided for each posture and a description detailing each movement so that everything will be clear at a glance. I have also included essentials of practice that were taught to me personally by Sun, as well as important texts from famous masters, to supply fellow enthusiasts with reference material.
  Because this book was produced somewhat hurriedly, there are inevitably errors, and so I hope that those who are more qualified than myself will give me corrections, for which I would feel very fortunate indeed. General Qian Dajun and Han Zhensheng, chairman of the Chinese Taiji Boxing Research Association, contributed calligraphy. Hong Maozhong and Zhou Jichun [Jiannan] wrote prefaces. Wu Weiping did the typesetting, while Song Jinren and Zhao Ximin assisting with the final proofreading. He Yunling and Zhang Xianghao produced the photographs. To all of these gentlemen, my sincere thanks.
  - written by Ju Hao of Wujin, 1967

孫氏太極拳目錄
CONTENTS

孫祿堂先生玉照
Portrait of Sun Lutang
編著者近影
Portrait of the author
錢大鈞先生題字
Calligraphy by Qian Dajun
韓振聲先生題字
Calligraphy by Han Zhensheng
孫祿堂先生傳
Bio of Sun Lutang
洪懋中先生序
Preface by Hong Maozhong
周繼春劍南先生序
Preface by Zhou Jichun [Jiannan]
自序
Author’s Preface
第一章 拳路圖說
Chapter One: The Illustrated Boxing Set
 第一式 預備式
 Posture 1: PREPARATION
 第二式 太極開式
 Posture 2: BEGINNING POSTURE
 第三式 懶扎衣
 Posture 3: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
 第四式 開合手左轉
 Posture 4: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT)
 第五式 單鞭
 Posture 5: SINGLE WHIP
 第六式 提手上勢
 Posture 6: RAISE THE HAND
 第七式 白鶴亮翅
 Posture 7: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
 第八式 抱虎推山
 Posture 8: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN
 第九式 開合手
 Posture 9: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS
 第十式 左摟膝拗步
 Posture 10: BRUSH PAST YOUR LEFT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
 第十一式 手揮琵琶左式
 Posture 11: LEFT PLAY THE LUTE
 第十二式 進步搬攔捶
 Posture 12: ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
 第十三式 如封似閉
 Posture 13: SEALING SHUT
 第十四式 抱虎推山
 Posture 14: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN
 第十五式 開合手右轉
 Posture 15: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT)
 第十六式 右摟膝拗步
 Posture 16: BRUSH PAST YOUR RIGHT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
 第十七式 手揮琵琶右式
 Posture 17: RIGHT PLAY THE LUTE
 第十八式 懶扎衣
 Posture 18: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
 第十九式 開合手左轉
 Posture 19: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT)
 第二十式 單鞭
 Posture 20: SINGLE WHIP [repeat of Posture 5]
 第二十一式 肘底看捶(肘下捶)
 Posture 21: GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW (or just PUNCH UNDER ELBOW)
 第二十二式 倒輦猴
 Posture 22: TURN AROUND TO DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY
 第二十三式 白鶴亮翅(同第七式)
 Posture 23: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (repeat of Posture 7)
 第二十四式 抱虎推山(同第八式)
 Posture 24: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN (repeat of Posture 8)
 第二十五式 開合手(同第九式)
 Posture 25: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (repeat of Posture 9)
 第二十六式 左摟膝拗步(同第十式)
 Posture 26: BRUSH PAST YOUR LEFT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (repeat of Posture 10)
 第二十七式 手揮琵琶(同十一式)
 Posture 27: LEFT PLAY THE LUTE (repeat of Posture 11)
 第二十八式 海底針
 Posture 28: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
 第二十九式 三通背
 Posture 29: THREE THROUGH THE BACK
 第三十式 懶扎衣(同第三式)
 Posture 30: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (repeat of Posture 3)
 第三十一式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
 Posture 31: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (repeat of Posture 4)
 第三十二式 單鞭(同第五式)
 Posture 32: SINGLE WHIP (repeat of Posture 5)
 第三十三式 雲手
 Posture 33: CLOUDING HANDS
 第三十四式 高探馬
 Posture 34: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
 第三十五式 右分脚(右起脚)
 Posture 35: KICKING TO THE RIGHT (or RIGHT LIFTING KICK)
 第三十六式 左分脚(左起脚)
 Posture 36: KICKING TO THE LEFT (or LEFT LIFTING KICK)
 第三十七式 轉身蹬脚
 Posture 37: TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
 第三十八式 進步搬攔捶(踐步打捶)
 Posture 38: ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (or STEP SUCCESSIVELY, PUNCH)
 第三十九式 轉身撇捶(撇身捶)
 Posture 39: TURN AROUND, FLINGING PUNCH (or TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH)
 第四十式 披身伏虎
 Posture 40: DRAPING THE BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE
 第四十一式 翻身二起
 Posture 41: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK
 第四十二式 進步捶
 Posture 42: ADVANCE, PUNCH
 第四十三式 如封似閉(同十三式)
 Posture 43: SEALING SHUT (repeat of Posture 13)
 第四十四式 抱虎推山(同十四式)
 Posture 44: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN (repeat of Posture 14)
 第四十五式 開合手右轉(同十五式)
 Posture 45: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT) (repeat of Posture 15)
 第四十六式 右摟膝拗步(同十六式)
 Posture 46: BRUSH PAST YOUR RIGHT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (repeat of Posture 16)
 第四十七式 手揮琵琶右式(同十七式)
 Posture 47: RIGHT PLAY THE LUTE (repeat of Posture 17)
 第四十八式 懶扎衣(同十八式)
 Posture 48: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (repeat of Posture 18)
 第四十九式 開合手半左轉(同第四式)
 Posture 49: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING HALFWAY TO THE LEFT) (repeat of Posture 4)
 第五十式 斜單鞭
 Posture 50: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
 第五十一式 野馬分鬃
 Posture 51: WILD HORSE SENDS ITS MANE SIDE TO SIDE
 第五十二式 懶扎衣(同三十式)
 Posture 52: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (repeat of Posture 30)
 第五十三式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
 Posture 53: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (repeat of Posture 4)
 第五十四式 單鞭(同第五式)
 Posture 54: SINGLE WHIP (repeat of Posture 5)
 第五十五式 玉女穿梭
 Posture 55: MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH
 第五十六式 手揮琵琶右式(同十七式)
 Posture 56: RIGHT PLAY THE LUTE (repeat of Posture 17)
 第五十七式 懶扎衣(同十八式)
 Posture 57: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (repeat of Posture 18)
 第五十八式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
 Posture 58: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (repeat of Posture 4)
 第五十九式 單鞭(同第五式)
 Posture 59: SINGLE WHIP (repeat of Posture 5)
 第六十式 雲手下勢
 Posture 60: CLOUDING HANDS, LOWERING
 第六十一式 更鷄獨立(金鷄獨立)
 Posture 61: ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (or GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG)
 第六十二式 倒輦猴(同二十二式)
 Posture 62: TURN AROUND TO DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (repeat of Posture 22)
 第六十三式 白鶴亮翅(同第七式)
 Posture 63: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (repeat of Posture 7)
 第六十四式 抱虎推山(同第八式)
 Posture 64: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN (repeat of Posture 8)
 第六十五式 開合手(同第九式)
 Posture 65: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (repeat of Posture 9)
 第六十六式 左摟膝拗步(同第十式)
 Posture 66: BRUSH PAST YOUR LEFT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (repeat of Posture 10)
 第六十七式 手揮琵琶左式(同十一式)
 Posture 67: LEFT PLAY THE LUTE (repeat of Posture 11)
 第六十八式 海底針(同二十八式)
 Posture 68: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (repeat of Posture 28)
 第六十九式 三通背(同二十九式)
 Posture 69: THREE THROUGH THE BACK (repeat of Posture 29)
 第七十式 懶扎衣(同三十式)
 Posture 70: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (repeat of Posture 30)
 第七十一式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
 Posture 71: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (repeat of Posture 4)
 第七十二式 單鞭(同第五式)
 Posture 72: SINGLE WHIP (repeat of Posture 5)
 第七十三式 雲手(同三十三式)
 Posture 73: CLOUDING HANDS (repeat of Posture 33)
 第七十四式 高探馬(同三十四式)
 Posture 74: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (repeat of Posture 34)
 第七十五式 十字脚
 Posture 75: CROSS-SHAPED KICK
 第七十六式 進步指擋捶
 Posture 76: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
 第七十七式 退步懶扎衣
 Posture 77: RETREAT, LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
 第七十八式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
 Posture 78: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (repeat of Posture 4)
 第七十九式 單鞭下勢
 Posture 79: SINGLE WHIP, LOWERING
 第八十式 上步七星
 Posture 80: STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE
 第八十一式 退步跨虎
 Posture 81: STEP BACK, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE
 第八十二式 轉身擺蓮
 Posture 82: SPIN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK
 第八十三式 彎弓射虎
 Posture 83: BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER
 第八十四式 雙撞捶(雙抱捶)
 Posture 84: DOUBLE RUSHING PUNCHES (or DOUBLE EMBRACING PUNCHES)
 第八十五式 太極收式
 Posture 85: FINISHING POSTURE
第二章 推手
Chapter Two: Pushing Hands
 崩式
 Ward-off
 捋式
 Rollback
 擠式
 Press
 按式
 Push
第三章 重要理論
Chapter Three: Essential Theory
 一 孫祿堂先生太極拳學述要(編著者)
 1. Sun Lutang’s Essentials for Learning Taiji Boxing (compiled by Ju Hao)
 二 太極拳論(王宗岳)
 2. The Taiji Boxing Treatise (by Wang Zongyue)
 三 十三勢行工歌訣(王宗岳)
 3. Song of Practicing the Thirteen Dynamics (by Wang Zongyue)
 四 打手歌(王宗岳)
 4. Playing Hands Song (by Wang Zongyue)
 五 四字密訣(武禹襄)
 5. The Four-Word Secret Formula (by Wu Yuxiang)
 六 十三勢行工心解(武禹襄)
 6. Understanding How to Practice the Thirteen Dynamics (by Wu Yuxiang)
 七 太極拳要訣(李亦畬)
 7. Taiji Boxing Secrets (The “Five-Word Formula”) (by Li Yiyu)
 八 撒放密訣(李亦畬)
 8. The Trick to Releasing (by Li Yiyu)
 九 走架打手行工要言(李亦畬)
 9. Essentials in Practicing the Solo Set & Playing Hands (by Li Yiyu)
 十 審敵法
 10. Ways of Examining Opponents
附錄
Appendix
 李亦畬本武氏十三勢架名稱
 Li Yiyu’s Original List of Postures for the Wu Yuxiang Style Thirteen Dynamics Solo Set

孫氏太極拳
SUN STYLE TAIJI BOXING
居浩著
by Ju Hao

第一章 拳路圖說
CHAPTER ONE: THE ILLUSTRATED BOXING SET

第一式 預備式
Posture 1: PREPARATION

按立正姿勢站定,(如圖)(面向者為正前方)屛退雜念,週身放鬆,頸直頭頂,但不用力,所謂虛靈頂勁,臂垂肩沉,兩掌心向腿,自然而不靠緊,目平視,神內歛,氣沉丹田,屬於無極之境。
Stand still as though standing at attention, facing directly forward. Ignoring distracting thoughts, your whole body relaxes. Your neck is straight and your headtop presses up, but without using exertion to do so, as it is said: “Forcelessly press up your headtop.” Your arms hang and your shoulders sink. Your palms are facing toward your thighs naturally, not tightly pressing against them. Your gaze is level. Spirit is gathered within and energy is sinking to your elixir field. You are in a state of nonpolarity [i.e. without a sense of differentiating between things, or “oneness”]. See photo 1:

第二式 太極開式
Posture 2: BEGINNING POSTURE

將右脚向中移直,成半面向左,不偏不倚,勿傾勿屈,涵胸拔背,舌抵上顎,(如圖甲)
Your right foot pivots toward the middle to point straight as you turn to face halfway to the left. Neither lean nor incline, neither collapse nor bend, contain your chest and pull up your back, and touch your tongue to your upper palate. See photo 2a:

雙手向左前方平擡,手指自然鬆開而微屈,手掌相向,左略前右略後,左脚卽向左前方邁出一小步,身微下挫,脚尖微翹,目視雙手,(如圖乙)
Your hands lift forward to the left until parallel with the ground, the fingers naturally spread and slightly bent, the palms facing each other, your left hand slightly farther forward, right hand slightly farther back, as your left foot takes a small step out forward to the left, the toes slightly raised, your body slightly sitting. Your gaze is toward your hands. See photo 2b:

再以兩掌下沉,由下而上,向前平伸,如畫弧狀,伸掌時上體向前,左脚落實,右脚靠向左脚,留一拳距離,動作時用意不用力,呼吸自然,鼻息調匀,使氣下沉至丹田,精神貫注,手眼相隨。
Then your hands sink, go upward from below, and extend straight forward, drawing an arc. As your hands extend, your upper body also goes forward, your left foot coming down fully, and your right foot steps up almost next to your left foot, stopping just a fist’s distance away from it. During the movement, use intention rather than exertion. Breathe naturally and evenly, causing energy to sink to your elixir field and spirit to be concentrated. Your gaze follows along with the movement of your hands.

第三式 懶扎衣
Posture 3: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE

按前式左右兩掌同時緩緩向右翻轉,掌心相向,左臂微屈,如捧球狀,由左向右平移至右前方,卽將雙掌收縮至胸間,目視雙掌之移動,上體隨移掌時轉向右側,右脚不動,左脚尖略向右移,右實左虛,將右掌自右肩處平運翻轉,掌向前,指向上,如運球狀,左手指微扶右手腕間,作推助狀,掌心向下,臂曲肘垂,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands slowly move across to the right, the palms facing toward each other as though carrying a ball, your left arm slightly bending, your upper body turning to the right, your right foot staying where it is, your left foot slightly turning inward to the right. Your feet are now: right foot full, left foot empty. Then your hands withdraw in front of your chest, your right hand turning over in front of your right shoulder so that the palm is facing forward, the fingers pointing upward, as though rotating a ball, your left fingers slightly supporting at your right wrist with an appearance of pushing in support, the palm facing downward, the elbow slightly bent and hanging down. Your gaze follows the movement of your hands. See photo 3a:

再將右掌向前平推,右臂推出不可過直,宜稍帶灣屈,同時右脚進半步,脚尖向前,跟左脚,目視出掌,(如圖乙)。
Then your right palm goes forward with a level push, the arm not becoming completely straight but staying slightly bent, as your right foot advances a half step, the toes still pointing inward, and your left foot follows it forward. Your gaze is toward your right palm. See photo 3b:

第四式 開合手左轉
Posture 4: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT)

接前式就地轉囘正面,雙手以陰掌由右至正面平運向胸間收住,成合手式,雙肘下垂,兩掌相距約兩拳,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, stay where you are and turn your torso to the left to return to facing your starting direction as your hands withdraw to be in front of your chest, the palms facing inward, making the “closing hands” position, the elbows hanging down, the palms about two fists apart. See photo 4a:

開手時勿擡肘,祗將兩掌就原式向左右略分開,寬勿過肩,(如圖乙)
Then your hands spread apart into the “opening hands” position, and as they do so, do not allow your elbows to lift, just let your palms slightly separate to the sides, going no wider than your shoulders. See photo 4b:

合手時,卽將左右分開之掌囘復原合手式卽可,目視雙掌。
Then return to the closing hands position, your palms closing toward each other back to where they were. Your gaze is toward your hands.

第五式 單鞭
Posture 5: SINGLE WHIP

接前式雙掌左右外翻,再向左右平推,掌心向外,手指向上,臂略垂,推掌時左脚同時橫移半步至左方,目左視,體略蹲,𦡁圓,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms turn outward and push out to the left and right, your hands level, the fingers pointing upward, your elbows slightly hanging, as your left foot shifts a half step sideways to the left, your body slightly squatting, your crotch rounded. Your gaze is to the left. See photo 5:

第六式 提手上勢
Posture 6: RAISE THE HAND

接前式左手由左略向上提,止於額前,肘斜垂,掌心向外,同時右手向下垂至𦡁前,掌心內向,如護𦡁狀,右脚左靠,成左實右虛,目前視,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lifts from the left side to be in front of your forehead, the elbow hanging at an angle, the palm facing outward, as your right hand lowers to hang down in front of your crotch, the palm facing inward to protect the area, and your right foot comes in to stand next to your left foot. Your feet are left foot full, right foot empty. Your gaze is forward. See photo 6:

第七式 白鶴亮翅
Posture 7: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

接前式右手在外,左手在裡,上下交提,左手落至胸前停止,掌心右向,指尖朝上,肘下垂,成護胸勢,右手提高止於額前,肘斜垂,掌心外向,右脚邁出半步,脚尖略翹,左實右虛,目前視,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands switch places, right hand on the outside and left hand on the inside as they move past each other, your left hand lowering until in front of your chest, the palm facing to the right, the fingertips pointing upward, elbow hanging down, in a posture of guarding your chest, your right hand lifting until in front of your forehead, the elbow hanging at an angle, the palm facing outward, as your right foot goes forward a half step, the toes slightly raised. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. Your gaze is forward. See photo 7:

第八式 抱虎推山
Posture 8: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN

接前式右手下落與左手相並,雙掌同向前方平推,兩掌寬與兩肩齊,右脚落實,上體向前,跟左脚與右脚並立,成右實左虛,目視推出雙掌向上之指尖,雙臂仍略帶灣屈,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand lowers to be next to your left hand and your palms go forward in unison with a level push at shoulder width, the arms remaining slightly bent, as your right foot comes down fully and your upper body moves forward, your left foot following to stand next to your right foot. Your feet are: right foot full, left foot empty. Your gaze is toward the fingertips of both hands. See photo 8 [side view]:

第九式 開合手
Posture 9: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS

接前式雙掌同時縮至胸前作合手式,照第四式開合一次。(按開為開勁,屬陽,合為合勁,屬陰。)
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms withdraw in front of your chest, making the closing hands position, the same as in Posture 4. (Note: The energy of opening is active and the energy of closing is passive.)

第十式 左摟膝拗步
Posture 10: BRUSH PAST YOUR LEFT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

接前式左右兩手轉掌,右手指轉左,左手指轉右,右掌心向上,左掌心向下,先以右掌向下拖至右膝間,同時左手下捺,依左膝向左平摟,止於左腰際,掌心向下,左脚向左同時邁出一步,上體左轉,成左弓右箭步,一面提右掌順耳邊向左前方平推,肘略垂,(如圖)再將右脚跟步至左脚處,左實右虛,推出之掌,掌心略向左側,臂宜稍屈,目注推掌,
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands rotate so that your right palm is facing upward, left palm facing downward, right fingers pointing away to the left, left fingers pointing away to the right. First your right hand pulls downward toward your right knee, then your left hand pushes down and brushes across past your left knee, stopping at the left side of your waist, the palm facing downward, as your left foot steps out to the left, your upper body turning to the left, making a posture of left leg a bow and right leg an arrow, and your right hand lifts up beside your ear and pushes forward to the left, the elbow slightly hanging. Your right foot will then do a follow step to stand next to your left foot and your feet will be: left foot full, right foot empty. When your right hand pushes out, the palm is facing slightly to the left and the arm should be slightly bent. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photo 10:

移步宜如貓行,輕靈而圓穩,推掌時應以氣運臂,以氣貫指,功到內勁自通,轉身時注意腰部,腰宜鬆,則雙脚有力而下盤穩固,所有虛實變化,恒以腰為主宰,有源頭在腰際之稱,手脚之運行,尤宜注意上下呼應相隨。
Your stepping should be like a cat, both nimble and stable. When pushing, use energy to move your arm, letting it reach all the way to your fingertips, training until internal power is naturally flowing through you. When turning your body, pay attention to your waist, which should be loosened, and your feet will have strength and your lower body will be stable. With every transformation of empty and full, it is always driven by your waist, as it is said: “The command comes from your lower back.” In the movements of your hands and feet, there should be particular focus on the upper and lower body working in concert and coordinating with each other.

第十一式 手揮琵琶左式
Posture 11: LEFT PLAY THE LUTE

接前式右脚退後一小步,身略後挫並偏右,重點落右脚,左手卽以掌向右平揮至胸前,肘略垂,同時右掌應與呼應,由右略向左揮,止於胸前左肘間,目視左掌,脚左虛右實,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot takes a small step back, your body slightly sitting back and turning to the right, the weight going onto your right foot, as your left hand wipes across to the right until in front of your chest, the elbow slightly hanging, and your right hand slight wipes inward to the left until between your chest and left elbow. Your gaze is toward your left hand. Your feet are: left foot empty, right foot full. See photo 11:

第十二式 進步搬攔捶
Posture 12: ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH

接前式左掌右翻,左脚尖左徧,擰身半向左轉,雙腿略絞,右手卽以陽掌斜向左前方由左肘下探出,虎口向前,同時左掌卽以陰掌斜向左角下抹,止於腰間,兩掌上下相交運行,目視前掌,謂之搬,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left toes turn out to the left, your body twisting halfway to the left, your legs slightly crossing, as your right hand reaches out diagonally forward from below your left elbow, the palm turning over to be facing upward, the tiger’s mouth facing forward, and your left hand wipes downward diagonally to the rear until at your waist, the palm turning over to be facing downward, your palms passing each other above and below in the midst of the movement. Your gaze is toward your right palm. This action constitutes the “parry”. See photo 12a:

再以左右兩掌互翻,變為左陽右陰,左掌上探,右掌下抹,右脚邁出左脚前半步,脚尖偏右,身亦側右,雙腿反絞,謂之攔,(如圖乙)
Then your left hand reaches upward and your right hand wipes downward, your palms turning over in unison so that your left palm is facing upward, right palm facing downward, as your right foot takes a half step in front of your left foot, turning out to the right, your torso turning to the right, your legs again crossing, this time with your right leg on top. This action constitutes the “block”. See photo 12b:

再以左手握拳反扣橫於前胸,邁左脚於右脚前一步,右手握拳虎口向上,直向左腕下推捶,謂之捶,(如圖丙)捶略過左腕下,同時跟右脚,成左實右虛,目前視。
Then your left hand grasps into a fist and covers inward, the forearm placed sideways in front of your chest, as your left foot steps forward in front of your right foot, and your right hand grasps into a fist and punches straight out from under your left wrist, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, as your right foot does a follow step. This action is of course the “punch”. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. Your gaze is forward. See photo 12c:

第十三式 如封似閉
Posture 13: SEALING SHUT

接前式右拳略向前伸,左拳縮藏至右脇下時,雙拳齊鬆開,左右手齊向上翻,成雙陽掌,同時抽右掌探左掌交叉止於胸前,手背均向外,退右脚,跟左脚於右脚之前,以脚尖點地,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist slightly extends forward as your left fist withdraws below your right armpit, both fists opening, the hands turning over so that the palms are facing upward, then your right hand withdraws and your left hand extends so that your hands crossing in front of your chest, the backs of the hands facing outward, as your right foot retreats and your left foot follows it back, touching down with the toes. See photo 13:

第十四式 抱虎推山
Posture 14: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN

接前式雙掌齊向外翻平推,指尖朝上,進左步,跟右步,照第八式演練。
Continuing from the previous posture, your palms turn outward and go forward in unison with a level push, the fingertips pointing upward, as your left foot advances and your right foot follows. It is the same as in Posture 8 [the photo of which would in this case be showing the proper view].

第十五式 開合手右轉(同第四式)
Posture 15: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT) (same as in Posture 4 [except turning to the right])

第十六式 右摟膝拗步
Posture 16: BRUSH PAST YOUR RIGHT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE

接前式左脚向後斜退半步,脚尖向右前方,身右轉,右手摟膝,邁右步,推左掌,跟左脚,演勢同第十式,僅向左向右不同,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot retreats a half step diagonally to the left, the toes pointing inward, your body turning to the right, as your right hand brushes past your right knee, your right foot stepping out, and your left hand pushes, your left foot then following. It is the same as in Posture 10, except with left and right reversed. See photo 16:

第十七式 手揮琵琶右式
Posture 17: RIGHT PLAY THE LUTE

接前式左脚向後退半步,身略後挫並略偏左,右掌向左平揮,左掌與呼應,演勢同第十一式,僅右揮左揮之不同,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot retreats half a step, your body slightly sitting back and turning to the left, as your right hand wipes across to the left, your left hand correspondingly wiping inward to the right. It is the same as in Posture 11, except with left and right reversed. See photo 17:

第十八式 懶扎衣
Posture 18: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE

接前式將右掌收至前胸,微翹右脚,推掌時跟左脚,演式同第三式
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand withdraws to be in front of your chest, your right foot slightly raising, and then your right hand pushes out, [your left hand supporting,] your left foot following, the same as in Posture 3.

第十九式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
Posture 19: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (same as in Posture 4)

第二十式 單鞭(同第五式)
Posture 20: SINGLE WHIP (same as in Posture 5)

第二十一式 肘底看捶(肘下捶)
Posture 21: GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW (or just PUNCH UNDER ELBOW)

接前式左脚略向左偏,身左轉,左掌改拳肘略下垂,右手握拳由右下方以拳口向左肘上迎,止於左肘尖之下端,跟右脚,目視左拳,(如圖)脚左實右虛。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot slightly turns to the left, your body turning to the left, your left hand becoming a fist, the elbow slightly dropping, as your right hand grasps into a fist, goes downward, forward, and stops under your left elbow, the fist mouth facing to the left, your right foot coming forward with a follow step. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. Your gaze is toward your left fist. See photo 21:

第二十二式 倒輦猴
Posture 22: TURN AROUND TO DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY

接前式撤右步,身向左轉,(背向正前方)左脚向左角邁出一步,左掌摟左膝,推出右掌,右脚跟上一步,再以左脚右轉,同時轉身至正前方,邁右脚,斜落右前方,右掌摟右膝,推出左掌,左脚跟上一步,再接演左右式各一次,運行同摟膝拗步。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot steps back, your body turns to the left (your back now facing toward your starting direction), and your left foot steps out to the left as your left hand brushes past your left knee and your right hand pushes out, your right foot then going forward with a follow step. Then your left foot turns to the right, your body turns to the right (your chest now facing toward your starting direction), and your right foot steps out to the right as your right hand brushes past your right knee and your left hand pushes out, your left foot then going forward with a follow step. Repeat both sides one more time. The movement is the same as in BRUSH PAST YOUR KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE.

第二十三式 白鶴亮翅(同第七式)
Posture 23: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (same as in Posture 7)

第二十四式 抱虎推山(同第八式)
Posture 24: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN (same as in Posture 8)

第二十五式 開合手(同第九式)
Posture 25: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (same as in Posture 9)

第二十六式 左摟膝拗步(同第十式)
Posture 26: BRUSH PAST YOUR LEFT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (same as in Posture 10)

第二十七式 手揮琵琶(同十一式)
Posture 27: LEFT PLAY THE LUTE (same as in Posture 11)

第二十八式 海底針
Posture 28: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA

接前式右手向後抽,再從右耳邊以掌直向兩脚前俯身下揷,掌心向左(亦可以掌下捺指尖左向而練習)同時左掌變陰掌收至腰際,以左手大拇指微觸左腰,左脚略後收,仍在右脚之前,以脚尖點地,重心在右脚,目視右手,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand draws back to the rear, rises up beside your right ear, then inserts straight downward in front of your feet, your torso bending over, the palm facing to the left (or it can also be done with the fingertips pointing to the left), as your left hand withdraws to your waist, the palm turning to be facing downward, the thumb lightly touching the left side of your waist, your left foot slightly drawing back, still in front of your right foot and touching down with the toes, the weight on your right foot. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photo 28:

第二十九式 三通背
Posture 29: THREE THROUGH THE BACK

接前式左脚仍踏出左前方一步,趾向前,右腿略屈,脚尖偏右,平推左掌,虎口向上,目視左掌,右掌由下上提,擋於額前上方,肘斜垂,掌心向外,名左通背掌,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps forward with the toes pointing forward, your right leg slightly bent with the toes pointing to the right, as your left hand pushes out, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, and your right hand lifts up from below, blocking in front of and above your forehead, the elbow hanging diagonally, the palm facing outward. Your gaze is toward your left hand. This position is called “left through-the-back palm”. See photo 29a:

再將推出之左掌由左向上與右掌成左右同式,左脚同時轉正,再將上身右轉,右掌落平,名右通背掌,式與左同,再以右脚退至左脚後一步,左脚跟退併向右脚,雙掌改為握拳由上而下,拳心向上,收至腹前停止,目前視,(如圖乙)再出左脚一步,同時以雙拳自腹間由下斜上而向敵方面部衝擊一下,
Then your left hand comes up to take the place of your right hand as your left foot turns inward and your body turns around to the right, your right hand lowering until level. This position is called “right through-the-back palm”, same as on the left side. Then your right foot steps back behind your left foot and your left foot follows it back to stand next to your right foot as your hands grasp into fists and come down from above, withdrawing to be in front of your belly, the centers of the fists facing upward. Your gaze is forward. Then your left foot steps out as your fists go diagonally upward from your belly to strike to the opponent’s face. Your gaze follows the movement of your fists. See photo 29b:

立將右脚跟上,收囘雙拳於腹間,雙目隨雙拳之運行而予注視,(如圖丙)。
Your right foot then steps forward as your fists again withdraw to your belly. See photo 29c:

第三十式 懶扎衣
Posture 30: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE

接前式右拳變陽掌前探,左拳以陰掌扶送,出掌時進右步跟左步,收掌時退左步跟退右步,(亦可不跟退右步而僅翹起右脚尖練習)再出右掌時,仍進右步跟左步,演勢同第三式。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right fist becomes a palm and extends forward, the palm facing upward, your left fist becoming a palm and going along with your right hand in support, your left palm facing downward, as your right foot advances and your left foot follows it forward. Then your hands withdraw as your left foot retreats and your right foot follows it back (or stays in front and merely lifts its toes), and then your right hand goes out as again your right foot advances and your left foot follows it forward, the same as in Posture 3.

第三十一式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
Posture 31: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (same as in Posture 4)

第三十二式 單鞭(同第五式)
Posture 32: SINGLE WHIP (same as in Posture 5)

第三十三式 雲手
Posture 33: CLOUDING HANDS

接前式左脚向右橫收併向右脚後立卽又向左復原,同時左掌由左下垂,再提經胸前向左平翻出掌,(如圖甲)一如用掌由左向下經前方再向左方畫一圓圈然,左掌翻出時,右掌卽向下垂,如左掌一般運行,
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot withdraws to stand next to your right foot and then goes back to where it was as your left hand draws a circle which takes it downward, to the right, upward, and then across to the left, passing in front of your chest, and while the palm is turning over to be facing outward, your right hand then lowers and commences the same circular action as your left hand. See photo 33a:

亦經胸前向右平翻出掌,並將右脚靠向左脚,(如圖乙)
Your right hand continues by going to the left, upward, and then across to the right, passing in front of your chest, the palm turning over to be facing outward, as your right foot steps next to your left foot. See photo 33b:

再將左右掌照上述方法,各演一次,雲手一次,左脚卽橫左一步,右脚亦跟一步,此式應三次,目注雙掌之運行,上體隨雲手而偏左偏右,手脚宜上下呼應,連綿而不斷。
Each hand repeats its circle as described above, and with each clouding of your hands, your left foot steps sideways and your right foot follows. This action is performed three times, your gaze following the movement of your hands, your upper body going along with the movement by turning to the left and right. Your hands and feet should be working in concert, and the movement should be continuous and uninterrupted.

第三十四式 高探馬
Posture 34: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

接前式雲手至第三次時,右手畫圈至胸前卽停止,立將左脚向後直退一步,體略挫,以右掌向前平揮,左掌由左揮向右肘灣間,脚前虛,目視右掌,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, once your hands have clouded for the third time, your right hand arcing until in front of your chest, your left foot promptly takes a step to the rear, your body slightly sitting, your right foot emptying, as your right hand wipes forward and your left hand wipes inward toward your right elbow. Your gaze is toward your right palm. See photo 34a:

再將身左轉,右掌收囘橫於前胸,覆在左掌之上,指尖左右向,如捧球狀,收囘右脚併向左脚,成倒八字形,面左向,目視雙掌,(如圖乙)。
Then your body turns to the left as your right hand withdraws across in front of your chest to cover over your left palm, your right fingers pointing away to the left, left fingers pointing away to the right, your hands looking as though they are carrying a ball, and your right foot withdraws to stand next to your left foot, but pointing inward so that your feet are making a triangle shape. Your gaze is toward your hands. See photo 34b:

第三十五式 右分脚(右起脚)
Posture 35: KICKING TO THE RIGHT (or RIGHT LIFTING KICK)

接前式將雙脚跟相併,雙手變為合掌式,兩肘下垂,身略下蹬,重心落於左脚,然後將右脚向右上方平起,高約近肩,(最低宜過腰)脚底朝外,同時雙手左右分開,右掌略觸右脚尖,左掌向外,目右視,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your heels now come together and your hands switch to the closing hands position, your elbows dropping, your body slightly squatting down, the weight going onto your left foot. Then your right foot lifts up to the right, rising to about shoulder height (or at least higher than your waist), the sole of the foot facing outward, as your hands spread apart to the left and right, your right hand lightly touching your right toes, your left palm facing outward. Your gaze is to the right. See photo 35:

第三十六式 左分脚(左起脚)
Posture 36: KICKING TO THE LEFT (or LEFT LIFTING KICK)

接前式落脚收手作合手式,重心落右脚,起左脚分開左右手,左手略觸左脚尖,目視左脚(如圖),
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down as your hands withdraw to the closing hands position, the weight going onto your right foot. Then your left foot lifts as your hands spread apart to the left and right, your left hand lightly touching your left toes. Your gaze is toward your left foot. See photo 36:

起脚後落下時,卽順勢將身左轉,與正前方相背。
Then your left foot comes down, your body making use of the momentum and turning to the left so that your back is now facing toward your starting direction.

第三十七式 轉身蹬脚
Posture 37: TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

接前式於左脚落地時,收囘雙手仍作合手式,用左脚尖略一點地卽再飛起直向左方蹬出,並分雙手,(如圖)
Continuing from the previous posture, when your left foot comes down, the toes only lightly touching the ground, your hands withdraw to the closing hands position, and then your left foot flies up and presses out to the left, your hands again spreading apart. See photo 37:

再將左脚偏左落下成弓步,左掌橫於前胸,掌心向下,右掌則收至右腰際,掌心向上,作前探之勢,目向前注視。
Then your left foot comes down to the left, making a bow stance, as your left hand is placed sideways in front of your chest, the palm facing downward, and your right hand withdraws to the right side of your waist, the palm facing upward. You are now making a posture of reaching forward, your gaze forward.

第三十八式 進步搬攔捶(踐步打捶)
Posture 38: ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH (or STEP SUCCESSIVELY, PUNCH)

接前式照第十二式演,惟所出之捶,係俯身下捶,目視出拳,脚左實右虛,左掌止於腰間,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, perform the same as in Posture 12 [except in the opposite direction]. The third part of the movement is somewhat different, for in this case you are leaning forward and punching downward, your left hand drawing back to your waist and remaining as a palm. Your gaze is toward your right fist. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. See photo 38:

第三十九式 轉身撇捶(撇身捶)
Posture 39: TURN AROUND, FLINGING PUNCH (or TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH)

接前式用雙脚跟自右轉身後向,右脚尖偏右,絞雙腿,上體半面向右,將右拳於轉身時由上向下反擊,立卽順勢將拳收於右腰間,同時左手以掌向前方平推,掌心略偏右,指尖向上,肘微垂,(如圖)。注意轉身時卽應將拳擊出。
Continuing from the previous posture, turn around to face behind you, pivoting on both heels, your right foot turning out to the right, your legs crossing, your body turning so that your chest is facing halfway to the right, as your right fist goes downward from above with a backfist strike and then withdraws to the right side of your waist, your left hand pushing out forward with the palm facing slightly to the right, the fingers pointing upward, the elbow slightly hanging. Pay attention that your fist striking out is driven by the turning of your body. See photo 39:

第四十式 披身伏虎
Posture 40: DRAPING THE BODY, CROUCHING-TIGER POSTURE

接前式左脚前進一步,左掌收至腰間,右脚平起,右手與右脚呼應,左手則不動,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps forward, your left hand withdrawing to your waist, and then your right foot lifts up, your right hand going out to meet it, your left hand staying where it is. See photo 40a:

立卽落脚於左脚後半步,並將左脚後退一步,以雙掌斜向左方下捋,(如圖乙)
Your right foot comes right back down, going a half step behind your left foot, and then your left foot retreats a full step as your hands go diagonally to the left with a downward rollback. See photo 40b:

然後再擰身向右轉至正前方,絞雙腿,身略下蹲,作合手式,目平視,(如圖丙)。
Then your body twists to the right so that your chest is facing toward your starting direction, your legs crossing, your body slightly squatting down, as your hands make the closing hands position. Your gaze is level [toward your hands according to the photo]. See photo 40c:

第四十一式 翻身二起
Posture 41: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK

接前式左脚向左前方平起,脚尖向上,目左視,(如圖甲)兩手用掌向左右分開,起脚分掌均應同時,
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot lifts forward to the left, the toes pointing upward, your hands spreading apart to the left and right. Your gaze is to the left. See photo 41a:

落脚時以重心移於右脚,擰身右轉至面向後方,仍作合手式,將重心換為左脚,卽向身右前方平起右脚,同時分開左右掌,(如圖乙)
When your left foot comes down, the weight is on your right foot as your body twists to the right until facing behind you, your hands again making the closing hands position, then the weight goes onto your left foot as your body continues to turn the rest of the way around, and then your right foot lifts forward to the right, your hands again spreading apart to the left and right. See photo 41b:

落腿時,右手翻掌握拳,抽止於右腰間,左手卽以陽掌向前推出,(如圖丙)兩腿作互絞狀,右脚尖略偏右,目視左掌,注意,轉動宜輕靈,所謂活如車輪是也,上體宜直勿傾。
When your right leg comes down, your legs crossing with your right foot slightly turned out to the right, your right hand turns over, grasping into a fist, and draws back to the right side of your waist, your left hand pushing forward with the palm facing outward. Your gaze is toward your left hand. The movement of turning around should be nimble, as it is said: “Move like a wheel.” Your upper body should be upright and not leaning. See photo 41c:

第四十二式 進步捶
Posture 42: ADVANCE, PUNCH

接前式左掌握拳反扣擡左臂橫於胸前,上左步跟右脚,右手握拳虎口向上,於跟步時從左腕下捶出,脚左實,目前視,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand grasps into a fist and covers inward, the forearm placed sideways in front of your chest, as your left foot steps forward, and your right hand grasps into a fist and punches out from under your left wrist, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, as your right foot does a follow step. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. Your gaze is forward. See photo 42:

第四十三式 如封似閉(同十三式)
Posture 43: SEALING SHUT (same as in Posture 13)

第四十四式 抱虎推山(同十四式)
Posture 44: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN (same as in Posture 14)

第四十五式 開合手右轉(同十五式)
Posture 45: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT) (same as in Posture 15)

第四十六式 右摟膝拗步(同十六式)
Posture 46: BRUSH PAST YOUR RIGHT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (same as in Posture 16)

第四十七式 手揮琵琶右式(同十七式)
Posture 47: RIGHT PLAY THE LUTE (same as in Posture 17)

第四十八式 懶扎衣(同十八式)
Posture 48: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (same as in Posture 18)

第四十九式 開合手半左轉(同第四式)
Posture 49: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING HALFWAY TO THE LEFT) (same as in Posture 4 [except only turning halfway])

第五十式 斜單鞭
Posture 50: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

接前式左脚向左方斜橫一步,再照第五式演單鞭。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps diagonally sideways to the left. It is again the same as in Posture 5 [except at an angle].

第五十一式 野馬分鬃
Posture 51: WILD HORSE SENDS ITS MANE SIDE TO SIDE

接前式將左脚收囘與右脚並立,左掌同時落下至腰際,再以左掌掌心向上提至面前,離面約半尺
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot withdraws to stand next to your right foot as your left hand lowers to your waist and then lifts to be about half a foot away in front of your chest, the palm facing upward. See photo 51a:

卽翻掌向左推出,如雲手然,(如圖甲)同時左脚向左橫一步,仍為單鞭式,再將右脚左靠,落右掌
Your left palm then turns outward and pushes out to the left, in the manner of the clouding hands, as your left foot steps sideways to the left, returning to its position from the whip posture, and then your right foot withdraws to stand next to your left foot as your right hand lowers [and lifts in front of your chest]. See photo 51b:

再翻右掌向右推,(如圖乙)右脚再向右橫一步,仍為單鞭式,再以左脚用橫步邁出右脚之前,雙手左右下垂經腹前交叉,掌心下向,右掌在上,左掌在下,齊向前上方掀起,(如圖丙)
Your right palm then turns outward and pushes out to the right as your right foot steps sideways to the right, likewise returning to its position in the whip posture. Then your left foot does a sideways step in front of your right foot, your hands lowering and crossing in front of your belly, the palms facing downward, right hand on top, left hand underneath, and lift forward in unison. See photo 51c:

再分由兩側落下止於腹前,右手為陽掌,左手卽以陰掌用指微觸右腕,目前視。
Your hands then spread apart to the sides and again lower in front of your belly, your right palm now facing upward, your left palm facing downward with the fingers lightly touching your right wrist. Your gaze is forward.

第五十二式 懶扎衣(同三十式)
Posture 52: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (same as in Posture 30)

第五十三式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
Posture 53: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (same as in Posture 4)

第五十四式 單鞭(同第五式)
Posture 54: SINGLE WHIP (same as in Posture 5)

第五十五式 玉女穿梭
Posture 55: MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH

接前式(一)上體擰向右方,將左掌向左上方擧至左額上方停止,掌心向外,右掌不變,身略後挫,成右通背掌式,再偏右脚將左脚向左角邁出一步,左掌於額前不動,同時右掌縮囘至胸前再行平推,掌心略向左,手指向上,目視右掌,跟右脚,左實右虛,(如圖甲)
1. Continuing from the previous posture, your upper body twists to the right as your left hand lifts up over the left side of your forehead, the palm facing outward, your right hand staying where it is, your body slightly sitting back, making the position of “right through-the-back palm”. Then your right foot turns outward and your left foot steps out to the left corner as your right hand withdraws in front of your chest and then pushes out forward, the palm facing slightly to the left, the fingers pointing upward, your left hand staying where it is, your right foot going forward with a follow step. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photo 55a:

(二)以左脚遶落於右脚之前,右手以陽掌上探,左手以陽掌下拖,止於右臂灣間,眼視右掌,(如圖乙)
2. Your left foot coils inward and comes down sideways in front of your right foot, [your body twisting to the right,] as your right hand reaches out with the palm facing upward and your left hand comes down pulling in with the palm also facing upward, stopping at the bend of your right arm. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photo 55b [reverse view]:

向右角邁出右步,跟左步,翻擧右掌於額前,出左掌,同前,
Then your right foot then steps out to the right corner and your left foot follows as your right hand rises up in front of your forehead, the palm turning over, your left hand going out, the same as on the other side.
(三)右脚向左角斜出一步,同時探左掌拖右掌,進左步擧左掌推出右掌,跟右步,同前,
3. Your right steps out to the left corner as your left hand reaches out and your right hand comes down pulling in. Then your left foot advances as your left hand lifts up and your right hand pushes out, your right foot following as before.
(四)再以左脚遶落橫於右脚之前,擰身右轉,右脚邁向右角一步,探右掌,拖左掌,出右脚跟左脚,翻擧右掌推左掌,同前,
4. Your left foot coils inward and comes down sideways in front of your right foot, your body twisting to the right, as your right hand reaches out and left hand comes down pulling in. Then your right foot steps out to the right corner as your right hand lifts up, the palm turning over, and your left hand pushes out, your left foot following as before.
此式共四手,分四角推擊。
This posture is altogether four techniques, a pushing attack to each of the four corners.

第五十六式 手揮琵琶右式(同十七式)
Posture 56: RIGHT PLAY THE LUTE (same as in Posture 17)

第五十七式 懶扎衣(同十八式)
Posture 57: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (same as in Posture 18)

第五十八式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
Posture 58: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (same as in Posture 4)

第五十九式 單鞭(同第五式)
Posture 59: SINGLE WHIP (same as in Posture 5)

第六十式 雲手下勢
Posture 60: CLOUDING HANDS, LOWERING

接前式先照三十三式演雲手,至最後一手,左掌以陽掌探向左前方,同時右手以陽掌自腰際平向前方探出,雙掌至相並時均變為陰掌下按至小腿間,兩腿灣屈,上體下蹲,目前視,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first perform CLOUDING HANDS, same as in Posture 33. When clouding for the third time, your left hand reaches out forward to the left as an upward facing palm and your right hand reaches forward from your waist, also as an upward facing palm, [your body turning to the left,] your hands coming together [with your right hand on top]. Then your hands turn over so that the palms are facing downward and push down in front of your legs, both legs bending, your upper body squatting down. Your gaze is forward. See photo 60:

第六十一式 更鷄獨立(金鷄獨立)
Posture 61: ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG (or GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG)

接前式提右腿使左腿獨立站起,左手垂直以掌略貼腿部,屈右臂使肘尖與膝蓋相對,手掌右向,指尖朝上,目視右掌,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg lifts, your left leg standing one-legged, as your left hand hangs down to be lightly touching your left thigh, and your right arm bends, the elbow aligning with your right knee, the palm facing to the left, the fingers pointing upward. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photo 61a:

再蹲身向下,右掌同時下垂,卽提左腿使右腿獨立,垂右手,提左手,演式同右手,(如圖乙)。
Then your body squats down, your right hand lowering, and your left leg lifts, your right leg standing one-legged, as your left hand lifts, your right hand now hanging down. It is the same posture as on the right side. See photo 61b:

第六十二式 倒輦猴四式(同二十二式)
Posture 62: TURN AROUND TO DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (same as in Posture 22)

第六十三式 白鶴亮翅(同第七式)
Posture 63: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (same as in Posture 7)

第六十四式 抱虎推山(同第八式)
Posture 64: HIDING TIGER PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN (same as in Posture 8)

第六十五式 開合手(同第九式)
Posture 65: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (same as in Posture 9)

第六十六式 左摟膝拗步(同第十式)
Posture 66: BRUSH PAST YOUR LEFT KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (same as in Posture 10)

第六十七式 手揮琵琶左式(同十一式)
Posture 67: LEFT PLAY THE LUTE (same as in Posture 11)

第六十八式 海底針(同二十八式)
Posture 68: NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA (same as in Posture 28)

第六十九式 三通背(同二十九式)
Posture 69: THREE THROUGH THE BACK (same as in Posture 29)

第七十式 懶扎衣(同三十式)
Posture 70: LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE (same as in Posture 30)

第七十一式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
Posture 71: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (same as in Posture 4)

第七十二式 單鞭(同第五式)
Posture 72: SINGLE WHIP (same as in Posture 5)

第七十三式 雲手(同三十三式)
Posture 73: CLOUDING HANDS (same as in Posture 33)

第七十四式 高探馬(同三十四式)
Posture 74: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (same as in Posture 34)

第七十五式 十字脚
Posture 75: CROSS-SHAPED KICK

接前式右脚偏右,右脚跟上並立,身向右轉,重心落左脚,雙掌右上左下相向,約距一球,指尖左右向,立即變握雙拳,作交叉狀右外左內止於胸前,拳心均內向,然後將雙拳由前向左右分開,臂勿過直,身成十字形,同時將右脚直向前方蹬出,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot turns out to the right and your left foot follows forward to stand next to it, your body turning to the right, the weight then going onto your left foot, as your hands come toward each other as though they are holding a ball, your right hand above with its fingers pointing away to the left, your left hand below with its fingers pointing away to the right. Then your hands promptly grasp into fists and cross in front of your chest, your right fist on the outside, left fist on the inside, the centers of the fists facing inward, and then spread apart to the sides [the centers of the fists turning outward], your arms not fully straightening, your body now making a cross shape, as your right foot presses out forward. See photo 75:

第七十六式 進步指擋捶
Posture 76: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

接前式蹬出之右脚落下時,雙拳左右向下收至腰際,拳心向上,右脚落在左脚前一小步,再以左脚邁出右脚前一小步,又將右脚邁出左脚前一小步,再跟左脚,以右拳虎口向上而挫身對敵方𦡁前衝擊,左手握拳貼左腰間,目視出拳,脚右實左虛,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists lower and withdraw to your waist, the centers of the fists facing upward, as your right foot comes down a small step in front of your left foot, your left foot takes a small step in front of your right foot, and your right foot again takes a small step in front of your left foot, and then your left foot does a follow step as your right fist strikes forward to the opponent’s crotch, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, your body bending forward, your left fist staying at the left side of your waist. Your gaze is toward your right fist. Your feet are: right foot full, left foot empty. See photo 76:

第七十七式 退步懶扎衣
Posture 77: RETREAT, LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE

接前式先退左步,跟退右步,再進右步,跟進左步,左右進退步時,卽照三十式演懶扎衣
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot retreats and your right foot follows it back, then your right foot advances and your left foot follows it forward. While your feet retreat and advance, your hands perform the same movements as in Posture 30.

第七十八式 開合手左轉(同第四式)
Posture 78: OPENING & CLOSING HANDS (TURNING TO THE LEFT) (same as in Posture 4)

第七十九式 單鞭下勢
Posture 79: SINGLE WHIP, LOWERING

接前式先演單鞭式,再將上體稍向右傾而下挫,重心落右足,伸出左腿於左方,雙脚尖向前,左脚底不可掀起,右掌平擡,左掌立即收囘沿左腿向左穿,掌心向外,目視左掌,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first perform SINGLE WHIP. Your torso then shifts to the right and sits down, the weight going onto your right foot, your left leg extending to the left, the toes of both feet pointing toward to the right, the sole of your left foot staying flat on the ground instead of lifting up, your right hand remaining raised in a level position, as your left hand immediately withdraws and threads out to the left along your left leg, the palm facing outward. Your gaze is toward your left hand. See photo 79:

第八十式 上步七星
Posture 80: STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE

接前式於左掌沿左腿穿至左脚處,下挫之身卽行上提,成面對左方,提身時順以右掌由下向前方上提,使與左掌成交叉形,雙掌心左右向,指尖朝上,高齊鼻尖,肘下垂,跟右步,成左實右虛,目視雙掌(卽七星掌),(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, once your left hand has reached your left foot, your squatting body lifts up onto it, your torso turning to the left, as your right hand goes forward, lifting up from below so that your hands are making an X shape, your right palm facing to the left, left palm facing to the right, the fingertips pointing upward at nose height, the elbows hanging down, your right foot coming forward with a follow step. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. Your gaze is toward your palms (their position being called “big-dipper palms”). See photo 80:

第八十一式 退步跨虎
Posture 81: STEP BACK, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE

接前式撤右步,右手以陽掌抽囘,再由後遶向上方從前方落下,以虎口內向叉向左股膝間,左脚則於右手上遶時,卽隨右步退於右脚前,以脚尖向下略提左腿以迎右手,左手卽以陰掌止於左腿際,以大拇指微觸左腰部,目視右手,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot steps back as your right hand draws back, the palm facing upward, then arcs upward, forward, and downward, the tiger’s mouth facing inward toward your left thigh, your left foot also retreating in front of your right foot, the leg slightly lifting to meet your right hand, the toes pointing downward, your left hand going toward your left hip, the palm facing downward, the thumb lightly touching the left side of your waist. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photo 81:

第八十二式 轉身擺蓮
Posture 82: SPIN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK

接前式提左脚以右脚着力,擰身向右轉旋一圈至近原位置時,左脚落地着實,卽飛起右脚,向右方平掃,脚高約與肩齊,同時雙手以陰掌由右向左平揮,兩掌手指次第與右脚前端相碰擊,目隨手脚之運行,體直勿屈勿傾,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, twist your body to the right, pivoting on your right foot, and spin around to the right in a full circle so that you are again facing your original direction, your left foot coming down with the weight going onto it fully, and then your right foot immediately flies up and sweeps across to the right, the toes at about shoulder height, as your hands wipe across from right to left, the palms facing downward, the fingertips of each hand hitting the tip of your right foot in succession. Your gaze follows the movements of your hands and right foot. Your body should stay upright and should not bend or lean. See photo 82:

第八十三式 彎弓射虎
Posture 83: BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER

接前式右脚斜落右下方,成弓步,重心在右脚,身側向左,左手握拳反扣,向前平伸,臂高略齊肩,右手握拳向裡平拉,拳心向下,拉至平肩而止,如拉弓射箭之狀,目視前拳,(如圖)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down diagonally to the right rear, making a bow stance, the weight going onto your right leg, your torso turning to the right, as your left hand grasps into a fist and extends forward at about shoulder height, the center of the fist facing downward, and your right hand grasps into a fist and pulls inward until in front of your right shoulder, the center of the fist facing downward. The appearance is that of drawing a bow to shoot an arrow. Your gaze is toward your left fist. See photo 83:

第八十四式 雙撞捶(雙抱捶)
Posture 84: DOUBLE RUSHING PUNCHES (or DOUBLE EMBRACING PUNCHES)

接前式收囘左脚與右脚並立,雙拳下收止於腰間,拳心向上,肘灣,目前視,(如圖甲)
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot withdraws to stand next to your right foot as your fists lower and pull back to your waist, the centers of the fists facing upward, the elbows bent. Your gaze is forward. See photo 84a:

再以雙拳翻轉齊向左方撞擊,雙臂平而雙拳虎口相向,同時邁出左步跟右步,成左實右虛,(如圖乙),上體仍略下挫。
Then your fists strike to the left in unison, the arms level, the fists turning over so that the tiger’s mouths are facing each other, as your left foot steps out and your right foot follows it forward, your upper body still slightly sitting down. Your feet are: left foot full, right foot empty. See photo 84b:

第八十五式 太極收式
Posture 85: FINISHING POSTURE

接前式左脚右轉略後退,雙拳平運向右轉身至正前方相交叉,左外右丙,拳心向內,距胸約一球,右脚在前,脚尖略翹起,名為陰陽混一,(如圖甲)先退右脚至左脚後半步
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot turns inward to the right, slightly retreating, as your fists also move across to the right, your body turning to be facing squarely toward your starting direction, your fists crossing, left fist on the outside, right fist on the inside, the centers of the fists facing inward about a soccer ball’s distance from your chest, your right foot retreating until a half step behind your right foot, your left foot now forward with the toes slightly lifted. This position is known as “passive and active merge into one”. See photo 85a:

再收囘左脚並立,一面將雙拳化為雙掌,由內而向外翻,再由兩側徐徐下按,此時雙脚全實,兩掌按下後卽與原起式立正姿勢相同而復於無極,完成收式,(如圖乙)。
Your left foot then withdraws to stand next to your right foot as your fists become palms, turn outward, and slowly push down at your sides. Your feet are now both full. Once your palms have pushed down, you will then resume the position in the preparation posture, thereby returning to a state of nonpolarity, which completes the finishing posture. See photo 85b:

第二章 推手
CHAPTER TWO: PUSHING HANDS

推手為太極拳之用法,先練拳式為體,再練推手悟用,練拳式可以單獨,練推手必須兩人,其法分為掤、捋、擠、按、採、挒、肘、靠、八種,
Pushing hands is Taiji Boxing in application. Start with practicing the boxing postures to build a foundation, then practice pushing hands to understand the function. Practicing the boxing postures can be done solo, but practicing pushing hands must be done with a partner. Its eight techniques divide into: ward-off, rollback, press, push, pluck, rend, elbow, and bump.

掤為粘架彼勁,蓄勢掤放,
To “ward off” means to stick to and prop up the opponent’s energy, and to store up power to fling him away.
捋為引進落空,巧化彼勁,
To “roll back” means to draw him in to land on nothing and thereby skillfully neutralize his energy.
擠為推擠彼方,阻其施展,
To “press” means to push out in his direction and thus obstruct his ability to extend.
按為乘機下按,沉彼擠勢,
To “push” means to seize the opportunity to push down, sinking away the momentum of his press.
採為採摘牽拉,失彼重心,
To “pluck” means to pluck his arm and drag him in, ruining his balance.
挒為轉腰捩扯,扭擲彼方,
To “rend” means to suddenly turn your waist and pull across in the opposite direction, twisting him off his root to throw him.
肘為以肘蓄勁,撞擊彼胸,
To “elbow” means to focus power at your elbow and crash it against his chest.
靠為肩胯並用,挨近撞打,
To “bump” means to bring your shoulder or hip near him and smash it against him.

法雖八種,變化萬端,另有前進、後退,左顧、右盼、中定五法、合為太極十三勢,練習時仍宜心靜神凝,虛靈頂勁,涵胸拔背,氣沉丹田,並注意沾連粘隨,不丢不頂,再細心體會,詳研其奧,始能領悟其運用之妙,茲將推手之掤、捋、擠、按、四式,附圖擧例簡釋於左:
Although there are only eight methods, they can be transformed into one another limitlessly. There are also five kinds of footwork – advancing and retreating, going to the left and going to the right, and staying put – which combine with the eight to make Taiji Boxing’s “Thirteen Dynamics”. When practicing, you should always: keep your mind calm and your spirit concentrated, forcelessly press up your headtop, contain your chest and pull up your back, and sink energy to your elixir field. Also pay attention to the principles of sticking, connecting, adhering, and following, and to neither coming away nor crashing in. Then with attentive understanding and a detailed study of the art’s subtleties, you can start to comprehend the wonders of its movements. The four techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push are demonstrated below by way of photos and simple explanations:

崩式 甲乙互崩(假定右立者為甲方)
WARD-OFF (A and B warding off each other – Person A being on the right in the photos)

甲乙兩方相對,同時跨出左步,各伸右臂崩向對方,甲乙兩臂相値,成為互崩之勢,各以左手遙相扶接,靜待變化,如圖。
A and B, facing each other, step forward with your right foot and extend your right arm to ward off your opponent. When your arms connect [“locking horns”], you are each making the ward-off posture, your left hand standing by to assist, and you calmly await whatever changes may come. See photo 1:

捋式 甲捋乙
ROLLBACK (A rolling back B)

甲見雙方成互崩之勢,立將右掌下翻,扣帶乙右臂之肘腕間,並以左手粘壓乙之右上臂,挫身斜向右側而捋化乙之崩勁,如圖。
A, noticing that you are both warding off each other, immediately turn your right hand over to cover and lead away B’s right forearm, your left hand sticking to and holding down B’s right upper arm, as your body sits back and turns to the right, thereby neutralizing B’s ward-off energy. See photo 2:

擠式 乙擠甲
PRESS (B pressing A)

乙見甲改崩為捋,己之崩勁被化,立卽順甲下捋之勢,將右臂彎屈,以左手扶持肘腕間,而改用擠式擠向甲胸,化去甲之捋勢,如圖。
B, noticing that A has switched from a ward-off to a rollback, change your own ward-off energy, immediately going along with A’s momentum of rolling back by bending your right arm, using your left hand to assist at your right forearm, and applying the pressing technique, pressing toward his chest, thereby neutralizing A’s rollback. See photo 3:

按式 甲按乙
PUSH (A pushing B)

甲見所用捋式,為乙識破,被乙改用擠式擠來時,乃立卽以雙手粘住乙臂,順其擠勢而用按式涵胸下按,沉化乙之擠勁,如圖。
A, noticing that your use of the rollback technique has been seen through by B and he has adapted by attacking with a pressing technique, immediately use both hands to stick to his left arm, go along with his pressing momentum, and apply the pushing technique, hollowing your chest and pushing down, thereby sinking away and neutralizing B’s pressing energy. See photo 4:

上列四式,僅略擧推手常用之掤、捋、擠、按、四法,為初學入門之根基,餘則變化萬端,實難於詳述也。
The four postures above provide only a brief depiction of the commonly applied four techniques of ward-off, rollback, press, and push, which forms the foundation for beginners and then goes on into endless transformations that are very difficult to describe in detail.

第三章 重要理論
CHAPTER THREE: ESSENTIAL THEORY

一、孫祿堂先生太極拳學述要 編者
1. SUN LUTANG’S ESSENTIALS FOR LEARNING TAIJI BOXING (compiled by Ju Hao)

本篇係根據孫祿堂先生親述,本人就記憶所及,編撰而成。
太極拳卽長拳,架式與名稱,雖有多種,但其練習之要領,並無或異,所謂理唯一貫也。
習者必須持之以恒,細心體會,先求架式準確,再揣摩身法手法步法之協調,使能完整一體,由多鍊而純熟,再由純熟而悟其奧妙,然後融會貫通,至於有成。
練者應注意心意沉靜,屛除雜念,精神貫注。身體中正,不偏不倚。胸涵勿挺,背拔勿灣,能背拔則力能由脊發。頭宜平正,略向上頂,但勿用力,順乎虛靈自然之意。頸項要直,眼要靈活,及時左顧右盼,配合心到眼到手到。耳聽八方,助眼視之不週。鼻司呼吸,能呼吸自然,鼻息調匀,則氣能沉丹田,切勿閉氣逼氣,致令氣浮。口自然閉合,不可用以呼吸,舌頂上顎。肩塌勿聳,名曰沉肩,沉肩則氣能自然下降而不上浮。臂宜略灣曲,曲中求直,出臂不可過直,過直不特運用欠靈,且易為人制。肘亦宜垂,使氣不上浮,蓄而後發。手指要自然鬆開,腕要略塌,(卽沉腕或挫腕)塌腕則肘易垂。能鬆開腰腹,則下盤穩固,且能使氣貫串,進退旋轉有力而靈活,故曰腰為全身之主宰。腿應稍彎曲,更應注意虛實,邁步退步,應如貓行,分淸虛實,則輕巧靈活而不稍滯。凡此種種,均須注意。
此外尤宜體念,練太極拳者,須一氣貫串,聯綿不斷,演式雖有斷而復聯者,但其勁斷而意仍不斷,運勁如抽絲,旋轉如車輪,用意不用力,應以氣運勁,行氣圓如滾珠,運勁硬似鋼鐵。要剛中有柔,柔中有剛,不能過剛過柔,要剛柔並濟。靜止如山岳屹立,運動若江河滔滔。動中取靜靜中動,上下相隨內外合。注意虛實,合乎陰陽。若能悉心研求,庶幾功到有成矣。
(This piece is based on Sun Lutang’s personal instruction, which I have written down from memory.)
  Taiji Boxing is also called Long Boxing [short for “Long River Boxing”, giving the sense of “continuous flow boxing”]. Although there is a great variety of postures and posture names, they do not have different principles for practice, and so it can be said that “there is a single theory running through it” [a nodding reference to Confucius (Lun Yu, 4.15): “My doctrine has a single unifying thread running through it.”)]
  Practitioners must persevere and attentively learn through experience. First seek to get the postures correct, then focus on harmonizing your body, hands, and steps so that all parts will be functioning as an integrated whole. From much practice comes refined skill, from refined skill will come an awareness of subtlety, and then such a comprehensive understanding will take you the rest of the way to accomplishment. Practitioners should pay attention to these things:
  Let your mind be settled and calm, ridding yourself of distracting thoughts, ensuring that spirit will be coursing through.
  Your body should be centered and upright, not leaning in any direction.
  Your chest should hollow rather than stick out. Your upper back should be rounded convex rather than concave. When your back is properly rounded, power can issue from the spine.
  Your head should be perfectly balanced, and also slightly pressing upward, but without exerting any effort to do so, maintaining a sense of naturalness.
  Your neck should be straight and your eyes should be alert. When looking to the left and right, there should be coordination between your mind, eyes, and hands.
  Listen in all directions to compensate for the limitations of your eyes.
  Breathe through your nose, which will cause your breath to be natural. By breathing evenly, energy will sink to your elixir field. Be sure not to hold your breath, which would cause your energy to float up.
  Your mouth should be naturally closed to keep you from breathing through your mouth, and your tongue should be touching your upper palate.
  Your shoulders should settle and not rise, which is what is meant by “sink your shoulders”. By sinking your shoulders, energy is able to naturally descend and will not float up.
  Your arms should be slightly bent, but within bending, seek to be straightening, and yet when straightening, do not straighten all the way. If your arms become too straight, this will not only cause your movement to lack liveliness, it will also be easy for the opponent to control you.
  Your elbows should hang down, keeping energy from floating up, also putting energy in a state of being stored and ready to issue.
  Your fingers should be naturally spread and your wrists should be slightly dropped (also described as “sinking” or “sitting”). With the wrists dropped, it is easy for the elbows to hang.
  Loosen your waist and belly. This will enable your lower body to become more stable and also allow energy to be coursing through. Advancing, retreating, and turning will thus possess both strength and nimbleness. As it is said: “The waist is the driver of the whole body.”
  Your legs should be slightly bent and you should especially know where your weight is. In both advancing and retreating, you should step like a cat. If you know at every moment which foot is empty and which foot is full, you will move with lightness and liveliness, completely free of any sluggishness.
  All of these points need to be given attention, but Taiji Boxing practitioners also have to give particular focus to more abstract concepts:
  Let there be a single flow throughout, continuous and unbroken. Even when postures seem to come to a halt and then movement is resumed, there nevertheless has to be a quality of power finishing but intention continuing.
  Wield power as though drawing silk. Perform actions of rotation like the turning of a wheel.
  Using intention rather than exertion, use energy to generate power. When energy moves, it is with the roundness of a ball. When power is expressed, it is like the hardness of steel.
  It is important that there is softness within hardness and hardness with softness. There should never be excessive hardness or excessive softness, only hardness and softness complementing each other.
  In stillness, be like a mountain standing proudly. In motion, be like a river flowing unstoppably. Seek stillness within movement, movement within stillness.
  Your upper body and lower body must coordinate with each other, and the inside and outside must be joined together.
  Pay attention to emptiness and fullness, acting in accordance with the passive and active aspects.
  If you can study with dedication, you can expect to achieve skill.

歌曰
Principles expressed in poetic form:
虛領頂勁頭頸直 涵胸拔背勿使屈
氣沉丹田神歛聚 舌抵上顎匀鼻息
垂肘曲臂肩莫聳 塌腰鬆腹通夾脊
鬆開手指略挫腕 彎腿移步分虛實
耳目淸靈顧三到 連綿用意不用力
動中取靜靜中動 上下相隨內外合
若能細心去推求 可悟太極各要訣
Forcelessly press up your headtop so that your neck is straight.
Hollow your chest and bulge your back, but do not slouch.
Energy sinks to your lower abdomen, and spirit gathers and concentrates.
With your tongue touching your upper palate, breathe evenly through your nose.
Hang your elbows, bending your arms, and do not let your shoulders rise up.
Settle your waist and loosen your belly, allowing energy to course through your spine.
Spread your fingers and slightly sit your wrists.
Keep your legs bent when you step, always distinguishing which foot the weight is on.
Keep your eyes and ears alert, constantly monitoring the situation.
Continuously use intention rather than exertion.
Seek stillness within movement, movement within stillness.
Your upper body and lower body must coordinate with each other, and the inside and outside must be joined together.
If you can meticulously delve into the art,
you will come to understand Taiji in all of its essentials.

二、太極拳論 王宗岳
2. THE TAIJI BOXING TREATISE (by Wang Zongyue)

太極者,無極而生,陰陽之母也。動之則分,靜之則合,無過不及,隨曲就伸。人剛我柔謂之走,我順人背謂之粘。動急則急應,動緩則緩隨。雖變化萬端,而理唯一貫。由着熟而漸悟懂勁,由懂勁而階及神明,然非用力之久,不能豁然貫通焉。
虛領頂勁,氣沉丹田,不偏不倚,忽隱忽現,左重則左虛,右重則右杳,仰之則彌髙,俯之則彌深,進之則愈長,退之則愈促,一羽不能加,蠅蟲不能落,人不知我,我獨知人,英雄所向無敵,蓋皆由此而及也。
斯技旁門甚多,雖勢有區別,槪不外壯欺弱,慢讓快耳。有力打無力,手慢讓手快,是皆先天自然之能,非關學力而有也。
察四兩撥千斤之句,顯非力勝,觀耄耋禦衆之形,快何能為。立如秤準,活似車輪,偏沉則隨,雙重則滯,每見數年純功,不能運化者,率皆自為人制,雙重之病未悟耳。
欲避此病,須知陰陽,粘卽是走,走卽是粘,陽不離陰,陰不離陽,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁,懂勁後,愈練愈精,默識揣摩,漸至從心所欲。本是舍己從人,多誤舍近求遠,所謂差之毫厘,謬之千里,學者不可不詳辨焉。是為論。
Taiji [“grand polarity”] is born of wuji [“nonpolarity”], and is the mother of yin and yang [the passive and active aspects]. When there is movement, they [passive and active] become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable.
  Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend. He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking. If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow. Although there is an endless variety of possible scenarios, there is only this single principle [of yielding and sticking] throughout.
  Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.
  With your headtop pressing up naturally and energy sinking down to your elixir field, there will be no leaning in any direction. Suddenly vanish then suddenly manifest. If he puts pressure on my left side, my left side empties, or if he puts pressure on my right side, my right side disappears. If he tries to find me above, he has to keep reaching higher, or if he tries to find me below, he has to keep reaching lower. When he advances, he cannot get to me, but once he retreats, he cannot get away from me. A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land. The opponent does not understand me, only I understand him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.
  There are many other schools of martial arts besides this one. Although the postures are different between them, they generally do not go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast. The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability and bear no relation to skill that is learned. Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.
  Standing like a scale, move like a wheel. If you drop one side, you can move, but if you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck. We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is generally under the opponent’s control, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood.
  If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active. In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies. Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.
  The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent. We often make the mistake of ignoring what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances. For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” You must understand all this clearly. That is why it has been written down for you.

三、十三勢行工歌訣 王宗岳
3. SONG OF PRACTICING THE THIRTEEN DYNAMICS (by Wang Zongyue)

十三總勢莫輕視 命意源頭在腰隙 變轉虛實須留意 氣遍身軀不稍癡 靜中觸動動猶靜 因敵變化是神奇 勢勢存心揆用意 得來不覺費工夫 刻刻留心在腰間 腹內鬆靜氣騰然 尾閭中正神貫頂 滿身輕利頂頭懸 仔細留心向推求 屈伸開合聽自由 入門引路須口授 工用無息法自修 若言體用何為準 意氣君來骨肉臣 詳推用意終何在 益壽延年不老春 歌兮歌兮百四十 字字眞切義無疑 若不向此推求去 枉費工夫遺歎惜
Do not neglect any of the thirteen dynamics,
their command coming from your lower back.
You must pay attention to the alternation of empty and full,
then energy will flow through your whole body without getting stuck anywhere.
  In stillness, movement stirs, and then once in motion, seem yet to be in stillness,
for the magic lies in making adjustments based on being receptive to the opponent.
Posture by posture, stay mindful, observing intently.
If something comes at you without your noticing it, you have been wasting your time.
  At every moment, pay attention to your waist,
for if there is complete relaxation within your belly, energy is primed.
Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop,
thus your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.
  Pay careful attention in your practice
that you are letting bending and extending, contracting and expanding, happen as the situation requires.
Beginning the training requires personal instruction,
but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.
  Whether we are discussing in terms of theory or function, what is the constant?
It is that mind is sovereign and body is subject.
If you think about it, what is emphasizing the use of intention going to lead you to?
To a longer life and a longer youth.
  Repeatedly recite the words above,
all of which speak clearly and hence their ideas come through without confusion.
If you pay no heed to those ideas, you will go astray in your training,
and you will find you have wasted your time and be left with only sighs of regret.

四、打手歌 王宗岳
4. PLAYING HANDS SONG (by Wang Zongyue)

掤捋擠按須認眞 上下相隨人難進 任地巨力來打我 牽動四兩撥千斤 引進落空合卽出 粘連黏隨不丢頂
Ward-off, rollback, press, and push must be taken seriously.
With coordination between above and below, the opponent will hardly find a way in.
I will let him attack me with as much power as he likes,
for I will tug with four ounces of force to divert his of a thousand pounds.
Guiding him in to land on nothing, I then close on him and send him away.
I stick, connect, adhere, and follow, neither coming away nor crashing in.

五、四字密訣 武禹襄
5. THE FOUR-WORD SECRET FORMULA (by Wu Yuxiang)

敷 敷者,運氣於己身,敷於彼勁之上,使不得動也。
SPREAD: Spreading means moving energy in your own body to spread over the opponent’s power, making him unable to move.
蓋 蓋者,以氣蓋彼來處也。
COVER: Covering means using energy to cover the area the opponent attacks.
對 對者,以氣對彼來處,認定準頭而去也。
MATCH: Matching means using energy to match the opponent’s attack, knowing for certain where his target is and sending him away from it.
呑 呑者,以氣全呑而入於化也。
ENGULF: Engulfing means using energy to completely absorb the opponent’s attack and neutralize it.
此四字無形無聲,非懂勁後,練到極精地位者,不能知,全是以氣言。能直養其氣而無害,始能施於四體,四體不言而喻矣。
These four words are about something invisible and silent, and if you are not yet identifying energies and have practiced to a point of extreme refinement, you will not be able to understand them. They are entirely about energy. If you can nurture energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted, and you will begin to be able to send it into your limbs, and then your limbs will instinctively know what to do.

六、十三勢行工心解 武禹襄
6. UNDERSTANDING HOW TO PRACTICE THE THIRTEEN DYNAMICS (by Wu Yuxiang)

解曰,以心行氣,務令沉着,乃能收歛入骨。以氣運身,務令順遂,乃能便利從心。精神能提得起,則無滯重之虞,所謂頂頭懸也。意氣須換得靈,乃有圓活之趣,所謂變動虛實也。發勁須沉着鬆靜,專主一方。立身須中正安舒,支撑八面。行氣如九曲珠,無往不到。(氣遍週身之謂)運勁如百鍊鋼,何堅不摧。形如搏兎之鶻,神似捕鼠之貓。靜如山岳,動若江河。蓄勁如開弓,發勁如放箭。曲中求直,蓄而後發。力由脊發,步隨身換。收卽是放,放卽是收,連而不斷。往復須有摺叠,進退須有轉換。極柔軟,然後能極堅剛,能呼吸,然後能靈活。氣以直養而無害,勁以曲蓄而有餘。心為令,氣為旗,腰為纛。先求開展,後求緊湊,乃可臻于縝密矣。
It is said:
  Use mind to move energy. You must get the energy to sink. It is then able to collect in the bones. Use energy to move your body. You must get the energy to be smooth. Your body can then easily obey your mind.
  If your spirit can be raised up, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song]: “Your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended”. Your mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the qualities of roundness and liveliness. Thus it is said [also in the Song]: “Pay attention to the alternation of empty and full”.
  When issuing power, you must sink and relax, concentrating it in one direction. Your posture must be upright and comfortable, bracing in all directions.
  Move energy as though through a winding-path pearl, penetrating even the smallest nook. Wield power like tempered steel, so strong there is nothing tough enough to stand up against it.
  The shape is like a falcon capturing a rabbit. The spirit is like a cat pouncing on a mouse.
  In stillness, be like a mountain, and in movement, be like a river.
  Store power like drawing a bow. Issue power like loosing an arrow.
  Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue.
  Power comes from your spine. Step according to your body’s adjustments.
  To gather is to release and to release is to gather, for there is a flow from one action to the other without interruption.
  In the back and forth [of the arms], there must be folding. In the advance and retreat [of the feet], there must be variation.
  Extreme softness begets extreme hardness. Your ability to be nimble lies in your ability to breathe.
  By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted. By storing power in crooked parts, it will be in abundant supply.
  The mind makes the command, the energy is its flag, and the waist is its banner.
  First strive to open up, then strive to close up, and from there you will be able to attain a refined subtlety.

又曰,先在心,後在身,腹鬆氣歛入骨,神舒體靜,刻刻在心。切記一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜,視靜猶動,視動猶靜,牽動往來,氣貼肌背,歛入脊骨,要靜。內固精神,外示安逸。邁步如貓行,運動如抽絲。全身意在精神,不在氣,在氣則滯,有氣者無力,無氣者純剛,氣如車輪,腰如車軸。
It is also said:
  First in your mind, then in your body. With your abdomen relaxed, energy collects into your bones. Spirit comfortable, body calm – at every moment be mindful of this.
  Always remember: if one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still. Regard stillness as movement and movement as stillness.
  As the movement leads back and forth, energy sticks to your back, gathers in your spine, and there should be stillness.
  Inwardly bolster spirit. Outwardly show ease.
  Step like a cat. Move energy as if drawing silk.
  Throughout your body, your mind should be on the spirit rather than on the energy, for if you are fixated on the energy, your movement will become sluggish. Whenever your mind is on the energy, there will be no power, whereas if you ignore the energy and let it take care of itself, there will be pure strength.
  The energy is like a wheel. The waist is like an axle.

又曰,彼不動,己不動,彼微動,己先動。似鬆非鬆,將展未展,勁斷意不斷。
It is also said:
  If he takes no action, I take no action, but once he takes even the slightest action, I have already acted.
  The power seems relaxed but not relaxed, about to expand but not yet expanding. And then even though my power finishes, my intention still continues…

又曰,一擧動,週身俱皆輕靈,尤須貫串。氣宜鼓盪,神宜內歛,無使有缺陷處,無使有凹凸處,無使有斷續處。其根在脚,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指。由脚而腿而腰,總須完整一氣,向前退後,乃得機得勢。有不得機得勢處,身便散亂,其病必於腰腿求之。上下前後左右皆然,凡此之意,不在外面。有上卽有下,有前卽有後,有左卽有右。如意要上,卽寓下意,若將物掀起,而加以挫之之意,斯其根自斷,乃壞之速而無疑。虛實須分淸楚,一處有一處虛實,處處總此一虛實,用力節節貫串,無令絲毫間斷。
It is also said:
  Once there is any movement, your entire body should have lightness and nimbleness. There especially needs to be connection from movement to movement. Energy should be roused and spirit should be collected within. Do not allow there to be cracks or gaps anywhere, pits or protrusions anywhere, breaks in the flow anywhere.
  Starting from your foot, issue power through your leg, directing it from your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a continuous process, and whether advancing or retreating, you will then catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand. If not and your body easily falls into disorder, the problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there. This is always so, regardless of the direction of the movement, be it up, down, forward, back, left, right. And in all of these cases, the problem is a matter of your own intention and does not lie outside of you.
  With an upward comes a downward, with a forward comes a backward, and with a left comes a right. If your intention wants to go upward, then harbor a downward intention, like when you reach down to lift up an object. You thereby add a setback to the opponent’s own intention, thus he cuts his own root and is defeated quickly and certainly.
  Empty and full must be distinguished clearly. In each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full. Everywhere it is always like this, an emptiness and a fullness.
  When you express power, it has to freely flow through each section of your body. Do not allow the slightest interruption at any point.

七、太極拳要訣(五字訣) 李亦畬
7. TAIJI BOXING SECRETS (THE “FIVE-WORD FORMULA”) (by Li Yiyu)

(一)心靜
1. The mind is CALM.

心不靜,則不專,一擧手,前後左右全無定向,故要心靜。起初擧動,未能由己,要悉心體認,隨人所動,隨屈就伸,不丢不頂,勿自伸縮。彼有力,我亦有力,我力在先。彼無力,我亦無力,我意仍在先。要刻刻留心,挨何處,心要用在何處。須向不丢不頂中討消息。從此做去,一年半載,便能施於全身。此全是用意,不是用勁,久之則人為我制,我不為人制矣。
If your mind is not calm, it will not be focused, and each movement of your hands, be it forward or back, left or right, will not be in any definite direction. Therefore your mind should be calm. At first your movement will not yet be able to come from yourself, and so you should clear your mind and let your body intuit, going along with the opponent’s movements. Bend and then extend, neither coming away nor crashing in, and do not expand and contract on your own. When the opponent has power, I also have power, but my power beats him to the punch. When he has no power, I also have no power, for it is my intention that beats him to the decision. You should constantly pay attention. Wherever the opponent nears you, your mind should go there. You must neither come away nor crash in, and then you will be able to analyze what is going on. After doing this for about a year or so, it will become a natural part of you. This is entirely a matter of using intention and is not a matter of using strength. Over time, you will reach the point in which you can say “he is under my control and I am not under his”.

(二)身靈
2. The body is LIVELY.

身滯,則進退不能自如,故要身靈。擧手不可有呆像,彼之力方礙我皮毛,我之意已入彼骨裡,兩手支撑,一氣貫串。左重則左虛,而右已去,右重則右査。而左已去。腰如車輪,週身俱要相隨,有不相隨處,身便散亂,便不得力,其病須於腰腿求之。先以心使身,從人不從己,然後身能從心,由己仍從人。由己則滯,從人則活。能從人,手上便有分寸,秤彼勁之大小,分厘不錯,權彼來之長短,毫髮無差。前進後退,處處恰合工彌久而技彌精矣。
When your body is sluggish, advancing and retreating cannot be done smoothly. Therefore your body should be lively. When moving your hands, there must be nothing resembling hesitation. When the opponent’s force hinders even the hairs on my skin, my intention instantly enters his bones and my hands are bracing him, all as one event. If he puts pressure on my left side, I empty my left side and my right side goes forth, or if he puts pressure on my right side, I empty my right side and my left side goes forth, the energy like a wheel. Your whole body should be coordinated. If there is a lack of coordination anywhere, your body will then be disorganized, and you will then have no power. Seek for the problem in your hips. First use your mind to command your body, and follow the opponent rather than yourself. Later your body will be able to follow your mind, yet this moving from yourself will still depend on following the opponent. If you act from yourself, you will be sluggish. If you follow the opponent, you will be lively. If you can follow the opponent, your hands on him will detect in finer detail, weighing the size of his power and being accurate to the smallest measure, assessing the length of his attack and not being off by the slightest bit, and you will advance and retreat always at the right moment. The more you work at it, the more perfected your skill will be.

(三)氣歛
3. The energy is COLLECTED.

氣勢散漫,便無含蓄,易散亂,務使氣歛入脊骨,呼吸通靈,週身罔間。吸為合為蓄,呼為開為發。蓋吸則自然提得起,亦拏得人起,呼則自然沉得下,亦放得人出。此是以意運氣,非以力使氣也。
If your energy is scattered, then it will not be stored, and your body will easily fall into disorder. You must cause the energy to collect into your spine. Inhaling and exhaling penetrates and enlivens, influencing every part of your body. Inhaling is contracting and storing. Exhaling is expanding and releasing. Since with inhaling there is a natural rising, take the opponent up. Since with exhaling there is a natural sinking, send the opponent away. This is the use of intention to move energy, not the use of exertion to force energy.

(四)勁整
4. The power is COMPLETE.

一身之勁,練成一家,分淸虛實,發勁要有根源,勁起於脚腿,主於腰間,形與手指,發於脊背。又要提起全付精神,於彼勁將出未發之際,我勁已接入彼勁,恰好不後不先,如皮燃火,如泉湧出,前進後退,絲毫不亂,曲中求直,蓄而後發,方能隨手奏效,此謂借力打人,四兩撥千斤也。
The power of your whole body is trained to become a single unit, distinguishing clearly between empty and full. To issue power, there should be a source of it. Power starts from your heel, it is directed at your waist, and expresses at your fingers, issuing from your spine. With it there should also be a rousing of all your spirit. When the opponent’s power is about to come out but has not yet issued, my power connects with and invades his instantly, neither late nor early, as if my skin is a burning fire or as if a spring is gushing forth. I advance and retreat without the slightest disorder, and seeking the straight within the curved, I store and then issue. Thus I am able to be effortlessly successful. This is called “borrowing his force to hit him with” or “using four ounces to move a thousand pounds”.

(五)神聚
5. The spirit is GATHERED.

上四者俱備,總歸神聚。神聚,則一氣鼓鑄,練氣歸神,氣勢騰挪,精神貫注,開合有致,虛實淸楚。左虛則右實,右虛則左實,虛非全然無力,氣勢要有騰挪,實非全然占煞,精神要貫注。緊要全在胸中腰間運化,不在外面。力從人借,氣由脊發,胡能氣由脊發,氣向下沉,由兩肩收於脊骨,注於腰間,此氣之由上而下也,謂之合。由腰形於脊骨,布於兩膊,於施手指,此氣之由下而上也,謂之開。合便是收,開卽是放,懂得開合,便知陰陽,到此地位,工用一日,技精一日,漸至從心所欲,罔不如意矣。
With the four above prepared, finally spirit gathers. Once spirit is gathered, then energy is tempered, and this smelted energy then reinforces spirit. Energy is ready to move and spirit is concentrated. Expanding and contracting are decisive. Emptiness and fullness are distinct. When left is empty, right is full. When right is empty, left is full. Empty does not mean you are in that area completely weak, but that energy should there be ready to move. Full does not mean you are in that area completely stuck, but that spirit should there be concentrated. It is crucial that changes are within your chest and waist and are not external. Force is borrowed from the opponent. Energy is issued from your spine. How can energy issue from your spine? It sinks downward, going from your shoulders, gathering in your spine, and concentrates in your waist. This energy going from above to below is called “contracting”. Then it goes from your waist to your spine, spreading to your arms to be applied at your fingers. This energy going from below to above is called “expanding”. Contracting is gathering. Expanding is releasing. When you can understand expanding and contracting, then you will understand passive and active. When you reach this state, then daily work will yield daily refinement, and gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want and everything will happen as you imagine.

八、撒放秘訣 李亦畬
8. THE TRICK TO RELEASING (by Li Yiyu)

擎、擎起彼身借彼力。(中藏有靈字)
RAISE: I get the opponent’s body to rise up and I borrow his force. (This has to do with “lively”.)
引、引到身前勁始蓄。(中藏有歛字)
DRAW IN: Once I have drawn him in front of me, my power begins to store. (This has to do with “collected”.)
鬆、鬆開我勁勿使屈。(中藏有靜字)
RELAX: I relax my power, but I do not allow it to collapse. (This has to do with “calm”.)
放、放時腰脚認端的。(中藏有整字)
RELEASE: When I release, it comes from my waist and legs. (This has to do with “complete”.)

九、走架打手行工要言 李亦畬
9. ESSENTIALS IN PRACTICING THE SOLO SET & PLAYING HANDS (by Li Yiyu)

昔人云,能引進落空,能四兩撥千斤,不能引進落空,不能四兩撥千斤,語甚賅括,初學未有領悟,予加數語以解之,俾有志斯技者,得所從人,庻日進有功矣。
要引進落空,四兩撥千斤,先要知己知彼,欲要知己知彼,先要舍己從人,欲要舍己從人,先要得機得勢,欲要得機得勢,先要周身一家,欲要周身一家,先要周身無缺陷,欲要周身無缺陷,先要神氣鼓盪,欲要神氣鼓盪,先要提起精神,神不外散,欲要神不外散,先要神氣收歛入骨,欲要神氣收歛入骨,先要兩股前節有力,兩肩鬆開,氣向下沉,勁起於脚根,變換在腿,含蓄在胸,運動在兩肩,主宰在腰,上於兩膊相繫,下於兩腿相隨,勁由內換,收便是合,放卽是開,靜則俱靜,靜是合,合中寓開,動則俱動,動是開,開中寓合,觸之則旋轉自如,無不得力,纔能引進落空,四兩撥千斤。
平日走架,是知己工夫,一動勢,先問自己周身上下有無不合,少有不合,卽速改換,走架所以要慢不要快。打手是知人工夫,動靜固是知人,仍是問己,自己安排得好,人一挨我,我不動彼絲毫,趁勢而入,接定彼勁,彼自跌出。如自己有不得力處,便是雙重未化,要於陰陽開合中求之,所謂知己知彼,百戰百勝也。
Someone long ago said: “If you can draw the opponent in to land on nothing, you can then use four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds. If you cannot draw the opponent in to land on nothing, you cannot use four ounces to move a thousand pounds.” These words are probably too vague for a beginner to understand. I will explain further so that those who want this skill are in a position to begin and then after much regular training get to possess it:
  - If you want to [10] draw the opponent into emptiness and use four ounces to move a thousand pounds, you must first [9] know both yourself and the opponent.
  - If you want to know both yourself and the opponent, you must first [8] let go of your plans and just respond to the opponent.
  - If you want to let go of your plans and just respond to the opponent, you must first [7] be in the right place at the right time.
  - If you want to be in the right place at the right time, you must first [6] get your whole body to behave as one unit.
  - If you want to get your whole body to behave as one unit, you must first [5] get your whole body to be without cracks or gaps.
  - If you want to get your whole body to be without cracks or gaps, you must first [4] get your spirit and energy to be ready.
  - If you want your spirit and energy to be ready, you must first [3] rouse your spirit rather than letting it be distracted.
  - If you want to keep your spirit from being distracted, you must first [2] get your spirit and energy to gather and collect in your spine.
  - If you want to get your spirit and energy to gather and collect in your spine, you must first [1] get the front of your thighs to have strength, get your shoulders to loosen, and get your energy to sink downward.
  Power starts from your heel, is transferred through your leg, stored in your chest, moved at your shoulders, and controlled at your waist. In your upper body, your arms are connected with each other. In your lower body, your legs are coordinated with each other. Power is transferred from within. Gathering is contracting. Releasing is expanding. When becoming still, everything becomes still. Stillness refers to contracting. When contraction finishes, there will be expansion. When there is movement, everything moves. Movement refers to expanding. When expansion finishes, there will be contraction. Then when there is contact, you can turn smoothly and will be strong everywhere. You will then be able to draw the opponent in to land on nothing and use four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds.
  Whenever you practice the solo set, it is the practice of knowing yourself. Before moving through the postures, make sure your whole body is in accord with the principles as stated above. When the slightest part is off, immediately adjust it. To facilitate this, the set should be done slowly rather than quickly.
  Playing hands is then the practice of knowing the opponent. His movement and stillness must be firmly comprehended. Still examine yourself as well. If I am in good order myself, then when the opponent comes near me, I do not need to act upon him at all, but take advantage of his momentum to find a way in. Connecting firmly to his power, I let him cause himself to fall out. If you do not have a strong position, this is simply a case of double pressure rather than neutralization, and you should seek within passive and active, or contracting and expanding, to fix it. It is said: “Knowing both yourself and your opponent, in a hundred battles you will have a hundred victories.”

十、審敵法
10. WAYS OF EXAMINING OPPONENTS [from Yang Chengfu’s 1931 manual]

與人對敵,先觀其體格大小,如身體大,必有莾力,我以巧應之,如其體瘦小必巧,我以力攻之,此謂遇弱者力取,遇强者智取。無論其人大小,如彼高式,我可以低式,如彼低式,我可以高式,此為高低陰陽之法也。
欲觀敵之動作,先觀其眼目情形,次觀其身手。如敵想用拳打,先觀其肩尖必凸起,或觀其後撤。如敵欲用脚蹬,其身必先昃,理之所在,以定情形。如能先知,何其不勝。如敵喜色交手,我以柔化之,如敵怒目而來,其心不善,我用力十分擊之,此為出乎爾者,反乎爾,練太極者先禮後兵也。
與人對敵出手,快慢不等,如敵手慢,我便沾連黏隨手。如敵手快亂打,我要心靜,膽要壯,觀其最後來近之手,我專注一方,左右化而還擊,常言不慌不忙,順手牽羊,是為動急則急應,動緩則緩隨之理。
與人對敵,其法不一,如敵未近,上搭手下進步,走卽粘,粘卽走。如敵竄躍為能,不敢來近,我以十三式擇一式等之,不要遂其竄躍,如虎待鹿之理。敵為卦外之行走,我為太極之中點。我主靜,穩也。敵主動,燥也。燥火上升而不能忍,十分鐘定來攻擊,此為相生相剋,敵不難而入圈矣,此太極生兩儀四象八卦,定而不可移也。
When facing an opponent, the first thing to notice is whether his build is large or small. If large, he is surely very strong, and so I will use skill as the appropriate answer to it. If small, he is surely skillful, and so I will vigorously attack. This is the defeating of weakness by way of strength and the defeating of strength by way of strategy. Whether he is large or small, when his posture is high I should use a low posture, and when his posture is low I should use a high posture. This is the way of high and low, of passive and active.
  If you want to see what the opponent is up to, look first at what is going on in his eyes and then at his body and hands. If he wants to use his fists to strike, you will first see his shoulder stick up or see him cock his punch. If he wants to use his foot to kick, his body will first lean to the side. The signs are there with which to be sure of the situation. If you can know ahead of time what he is going to do, how can you lose?
  If the opponent crosses hands with me in a pleasant manner, I use softness and neutralize him. But if he glares at me angrily and suddenly charges, his heart is not kind and I will apply power to strike him full on. This is the situation of tit for tat. Looking upon the opponent with no enmity, one who practices Taiji is polite at first and is martial only as a second line of defense.
  When dealing with opponents, some opponents are fast and others are slow. If he is slow, I will stick to him and go along with his movement. If he is fast and throws out a flurry of blows, I should stay calm and keep my courage up. Watching for his decisive attack to get near, I focus along one direction or neutralize to either side, then strike back. It is often said: “Be not flustered or hasty, for it is the gentle hand that guides the goat.” It is this Taiji principle: “If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow”.
  When dealing with opponents, the methods of opponents will vary. When the opponent comes in, bring your hand up to cross him above and step forward to crowd him below, yielding by sticking and sticking by yielding. If the opponent jumps away and is too wary to come back right away, I switch to a different posture from the solo set and wait for him. I should not pursue his retreat but instead be like a tiger waiting for its chance to pounce on a deer. While he walks at circle’s edge, I am at the center. I hold to steadiness while he holds to restlessness. When his restlessness increases until he wears himself out, I attack him with full stability. He has thus generated the means for me to overcome him, and he now presents no difficulty and I enter through his guard. This is the grand polarity [“tai ji”] generating its two polarities which exponentiate into the four manifestations and the eight trigrams while itself remaining stable and immovable.

附錄
APPENDIX

李亦畬本武氏十三勢架名稱
LI YIYU’S ORIGINAL LIST OF POSTURES FOR THE WU YUXIANG STYLE THIRTEEN DYNAMICS SOLO SET

懶扎衣
[1] LAZILY PULLING BACK THE ROBE
單鞭
[2] SINGLE WHIP
提手上式
[3] RAISE THE HAND
白鶴亮翅
[4] WHITE GOOSE SHOWS ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[5] BRUSH PAST YOUR KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
手揮琵琶勢
[6] PLAY THE LUTE
摟膝拗步
[7] BRUSH PAST YOUR KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
手揮琵琶勢
[8] PLAY THE LUTE
上步搬攔垂
[9] STEP FORWARD, PARRY, TAKE IN, PUNCH
如封似閉
[10] SEALING SHUT
抱虎推山
[11] CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
單鞭
[12] SINGLE WHIP
肘底看垂
[13] GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW
倒輦猴
[14] TURN AROUND TO DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY
白鶴亮翅
[15] WHITE GOOSE SHOWS ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[16] BRUSH PAST YOUR KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
三通背
[17] THREE THROUGH THE BACK
單鞭
[18] SINGLE WHIP
雲手
[19] CLOUDING HANDS
高探馬
[20] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
左右起脚
[21] LIFTING KICK TO BOTH SIDES
轉身踢一脚
[22] TURN AROUND, SNAPPING KICK
踐步打垂
[23] STEP SUCCESSIVELY, PUNCH
翻身二起
[24] TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK
披身
[25] DRAPE THE BODY
踢一脚
[26] SNAPPING KICK
蹬一脚
[27] PRESSING KICK
上步搬攬垂
[28] STEP FORWARD, PARRY, TAKE IN, PUNCH
如封似閉
[29] SEALING SHUT
抱虎推山
[30] CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
斜單鞭
[31] DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
野馬分鬃
[32] WILD HORSE SENDS ITS MANE SIDE TO SIDE
單鞭
[33] SINGLE WHIP
玉女穿梭
[34] MAIDEN SENDS THE SHUTTLE THROUGH
單鞭
[35] SINGLE WHIP
雲手下勢
[36] CLOUDING HANDS, LOWERING
更鷄獨立
[37] ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
倒輦猴
[38] TURN AROUND TO DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY
白鶴亮翅
[39] WHITE GOOSE SHOWS ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[40] BRUSH PAST YOUR KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
三通背
[41] THREE THROUGH THE BACK
單鞭
[42] SINGLE WHIP
雲手
[43] CLOUDING HANDS
高探馬
[44] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
十字擺蓮
[45] CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK
上步指𦡁捶
[46] STEP FORWARD, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
單鞭
[47] SINGLE WHIP
上步七星
[48] STEP FORWARD, BIG-DIPPER POSTURE
下步跨虎
[49] STEP BACK, SITTING-TIGER POSTURE
轉脚擺蓮
[50] REVOLVING-BASE SWINGING LOTUS KICK
灣弓射虎
[51] BEND THE BOW TO SHOOT THE TIGER
雙抱垂
[52] DOUBLE PUNCH
手揮琵琶勢
[53] PLAY THE LUTE

– – –

[As a bonus, included below are a couple of bios of Sun which were made while he was still living.]

完縣孫福全
SUN FUQUAN OF WAN COUNTY
[published in 國術名人錄 A Catalogue of Famous Figures in Chinese Martial Arts by 金恩忠 Jin Enzhong (1931)]

孫福全,字祿堂,直隸保府完縣人,幼嗜技擊,曾拜李奎元為師,習形意拳,復拜程廷華李忠元二師學藝,悉心研究,日以繼夜,程李二師,復詳加敎誨,孫遂能批大郤,導大窽神乎其遊刃矣,於是馳名燕趙,淸軍機大臣鹿傳霖之季子,性嗜武,喜馳馬,延孫師之,一日鹿季子,新得駿騎,乞孫同至郊外試馬,季子首先騎騁一匝,霜蹄逐風,誠良驥也,季子復懇孫策馬一試,孫曰,余勉强行之,未有所長,待子放駛數䠀,余再效顰可耳,於是季子整橛飾挾鞭筴,孫俟馬行數弓,乃尾躡其後,縱身若飛燕,穿簾附於馬上,如蜻蜓之點水,以兩手輕按季子之肩,斯時駓駓馳驟,馬行若飛,而季子不之覺也,觀者咸彩聲雷動,歎孫體之矯捷輕靈,得未曾有,孫技雖精絕,遇同道中人,罔不謙遜,如無所能者,而忠義之心,則肝胆照人,尤非常人可相與比也,淸光緒年間,徐世昌,任奉天大吏,徵為內巡捕,旣而保擧縣缺,未莅任,旣隨徐入京,鼎革後,七年入總統府,充校尉副官,尋更承宣官,晉任陸軍少校實官,著有太極拳學,形意拳學,八卦拳學,孫客奉時,曾擊走俄大力士,降伏惡道士,其事蹟均為武術家所稱道者,孫年已古稀,現尚健在焉,
Sun Fuquan, called Lutang, is from Wan County, Bao Prefecture, Hebei. When he was young, he was addicted to martial arts and did obeisance to Li Kuiyuan for instruction, training in Xingyi Boxing. He later also did obeisance to Cheng Tinghua and Li Zhongyuan [Cunyi] for instruction. Because he studied with such dedication from dawn to dusk, Cheng and Li taught him everything they knew, and Sun subsequently achieved the same kind of level as the miraculous “gliding blade” ability [described by the famous butcher in Zhuangzi, chapter 3]: “I act in accordance with natural principles, slipping into the best gaps and sliding along the best hollows, making use of the structure of the animal.”
  Thereupon his fame spread throughout Hebei. The youngest son of Lu Chuanlin, the Qing minister of defense, was as addicted to martial arts as he was to riding horses, and so Sun was hired to teach him. One day, Lu’s son obtained a new horse and he pressed Sun to go riding with him in the countryside to try it out. The son charged off first and made a full circle of the pegged course, the horse’s white hooves stirring up the wind, proving that it was indeed a fine thoroughbred. He then asked Sun to test the animal as well. Sun said: “I’m not good enough. I’ll let you go around again and then I’ll embarrass myself.”
  So the son went back up to the wooden pegs at the start of the course and began to whip the horse on. Sun waited for the horse to go a few strides, creeping up behind it, then leapt up like a swallow flying through a curtain and landed on the horse like a mere dragonfly skimming the water, putting his hands so gently on the son’s shoulders that he was unaware of Sun’s presence as he galloped his horse around like the wind. Onlookers burst into thunderous applause, exclaiming that Sun’s agility and nimbleness were unprecedented. Although Sun’s skill was exquisite, he was always humble with every fellow martial artist he encountered. If he met one who lacked ability, he felt a sense of duty to help them, and thus he had a sincerity far above that of ordinary people.
  During Emperor Guangxu’s reign [1875–1908], Xu Shichang, who governed Fengtian [now Shenyang, in Liaoning], tried to appoint Sun to head his local police forces, because he had protected a county magistrate. Sun did not assume such office, but he later encountered Xu again in Nanjing. In 1918, during the years following the Revolution [1911], Xu had him appointed to the presidential palace as an adjutant, and then seeking further position for him, got him the army rank of major. Sun has authored books such as A Study of Taiji Boxing, A Study of Xingyi Boxing, and A Study of Bagua Boxing. While in Fengtian, Sun once fought a match against a Russian strong man and also discredited deceitful fortune tellers. His achievements are praised by martial arts masters. He is now seventy years old and still in fine health.

孫福全
SUN FUQUAN
[published in 近今北方健者傳 Bios of Recent Northern Masters by 楊明漪 Yang Mingyi (1923)]

孫福全字祿堂。晚號涵齋。直隸完陽人。形意師李魁元李存義。逮事郭雲深。八卦師眼鏡程。太極師郝為真。為真師亦畲先生(逸其姓)亦畲先生師武禹襄。武受之河南懷慶府陳氏清平。蓋與楊陸禪同源也。八卦形意兩家之互合。始自李存義眼鏡程。太極八卦形意三家之互合。始自涵齋。涵齋於三家均造其極。博審篤行者四十年。近著三家拳學行於世。其言明慎。一歸之自然。而力闢心中努力。腹內運氣等說。因拳理悟透易理。及釋道正傳真諦。經史子集釋典道藏之精華。老宿所不能難也。旁及天文幾何與地理理化博物諸學。為新學家所樂聞焉。民國十一年冬。遇之津門。親授三家精意於同人。自黎明談至午夜。指畫口說。無倦容疲態。十餘日如恒。問之。則曰是吾常也。倦則溫太極十三勢一遍。即解耳。先是孫之弟子某。盛道孫設教某縣某寺時。以狸貓上樹勢。手足貼墻上。身離墻外。如弓形。可一時許。足痕去地丈餘。學者至今保之。以為矜式。面詢孫。孫曰兒童輩饒舌哉。言次。手足貼牆上。曰今袛能若斯而已。予老矣。不能踐前跡。乃下。視之。足離地可四五尺。此則中西學理所不能明。蓋重心在背。人之手足無吸盤之構造。不得吸定也。又云。郭先生虎拳。一步可走三丈。罄予能僅及二丈五。先輩之難及。斯其一端耳。請試之。果二丈五。是年孫已六十一歲。體不及五尺。貌清癯。骨如柴。腹如餓狀。無努張之致。而力無窮也。所述各家拳理拳勢極博。擬皆著錄尚未也。近有出世之想。亦未決。問以形意力實。八卦力巧。太極力靈。何以可合。曰譬之物。太極皮球也。八卦鐵絲球也。形意鋼球也。惟其皮。故無屈無伸。不生不滅。惟其透。故無失無得。無障無礙。惟其鋼。故無堅不摧。無物不入。要皆先天之力也。皆一氣之流也。先則不後。一則不淆。乾健也。則視為純剛。坤順之。則執為純柔。固無此理。如執血氣為人之素。或執肌肉為人之素。豈通論也耶。餘載所著之拳學。請各探討焉可也。然予老矣。吾道賴諸師弟光大之。
明漪曰。涵齋形意拳學。所謂心意如同人在平地立竿。將立定之時一語。與淨宗所謂如垂綸釣深潭相似之言正同。八卦拳學。所述程先生。神化功用之言。與丹經無異。太極拳學。述五字决。可謂兼釋道兩家之奥。而涵齋猶曰。以力生血。以血化精易。以精化氣以氣歸神難。此中不祗有甘苦可言直有生死之險矣。學者可於力上求。勿輕向氣上覓。一入歧途。戕生堪虞。古人之不輕傳人。匪吝也。不忍以愛人之術殺人耳。無明師真訣。切不可盲從冒險。三家拳學。為內外交修之極則。然向無圖解。涵齋精心結撰。拍照附圖又全書出自一手所編錄。形理俱臻完善。掬身心性命之學。示人人可由之途。直指本心。無逾此者。鄧完白以隸筆作篆。康南海論書。至以儒家孟子佛家六祖諛之。夫完白以漢篆結胎成體。漢篆固多隸筆。完白無破法之嫌。亦不得謂有尊古之功。一視孟子六祖。闡發之績。瞠乎後矣。涵齋之於拳勇。闡明哲理。存養性命。守先開後。功與禹侔。如以康氏諛鄧之言譽涵齋。可以不愧。顧安得好學敏求心知其意者。而與之論定之哉。然從此衣鉢不傳。而三家拳術遍於宇內。有必然者。至涵齋功候之純。學問之邃。予淺陋未能窺其深。不敢贊一詞也。
Sun Fuquan, courtesy name Lutang, who later also became known as Hanzhai, is from Puyang Village, Wan County, Hebei. Sun learned Xingyi from the masters Li Kuiyuan and Li Cunyi, and was the servant of Master Guo Yunshen. He also learned Bagua from Master “Spectacles Cheng” and Taiji from Master Hao Weizhen. Hao had learned Taiji from Master Li Yiyu, who had learned from Master Wu Yuxiang. Wu had learned it from Chen Qingping of Huaiqing Prefecture, Henan, and so his art had the same origin as Yang Luchan [who had also received it from a member of the Chen family].
  The two arts of Bagua and Xingyi have merged because of Li Cunyi and Spectacles Cheng. The three arts of Taiji, Bagua, and Xingyi have merged because of Sun Lutang, who has himself mastered all three. After forty years of sincere study, he has recently spread his knowledge of all three arts to the world. His careful words present a restoration of naturalness, emphasizing mental effort and the movement of energy within the belly.
  In addition to his background in boxing theory, he also has a thorough understanding of the principles of the Book of Changes. Added to that is such a deep knowledge of the Chinese classics, histories, philosophers, literary collections, Buddhist scriptures, and Daoist texts that he can pass the tests of any renowned scholars. On top of these things, add also his studies in astronomy, geometry, geography, physics, chemistry, and natural science, which are all forms of modern learning that he has absorbed with delight.
  In the winter of 1922, I met Sun in Tianjin and we discussed the essence of the three arts. As we talked from dawn until midnight, he gestured with his hands in his exuberance, never looking fatigued, and then after more than ten days of such discussion, he still remained just as enthusiastic. When I asked him about this, he said: “I’m always this way. Whenever I get tired, I just go through the Taiji Thirteen Dynamics boxing set and it entirely refreshes me.”
  Sun’s student Sheng Daosun once taught for a while at a temple. While he was there, he performed the maneuver of “leopard climbs the tree” by going up a wall with his hands and feet, his body bulging away from the wall with a shape like a bow, and he seemed to stick there for a while. He had left a trail of footprints going up the wall more than ten feet from the ground. His students have preserved those footprints to this day to set themselves an example to emulate. When I asked Sun about this, he said simply: “Kids like to brag.”
  Over the course of our conversation, the subject of hands and feet sticking to the wall came up again. He said: “Since I’m old now, I can only go this far.” He then ran right up a wall. Though he did not produce any footprints before coming back down, I witnessed his feet getting a good five feet away from the ground on his way up. The trick of sticking to the wall does not really seem to be allowed by either Chinese or Western science, for the center of gravity at such a moment lies in the back, and human hands and feet do not have suction cups.
  Sun further explained: “When Guo Yunshen performed the tiger technique, he could cover thirty feet in a single stride. The best I can do is only twenty-five feet. This is an example of how difficult it is to reach the same level of skill achieved by earlier generations.” I asked if he would demonstrate it. He then indeed covered a full twenty-five feet. Sun is this year sixty-one years old. He is barely even five feet tall and very skinny, with bones like sticks for kindling and a belly that looks as though it has been starved. He looks like he would have no strength at all and yet his strength seems to be limitless.
  The books he has produced about these arts contain an abundance of principles and postures, with more writings on the way [with Sun’s Authentic Explanations of Martial Arts Concepts to be published the following year and Bagua Sword three years after that]. Below are a few more brilliant ideas he has recently come up with. I had asked him about how Xingyi’s solidity, Bagua’s ingenuity, and Taiji’s sensitivity can be merged together. He had these things to say:
  “Taiji is like a rubber ball, Bagua is like a ball made of springs, and Xingyi is like a steel ball. With the quality of rubber, there is neither bending nor straightening, and so there is no shape that is either created or destroyed. With the quality of springs, there is nothing lost or gained, and so you will encounter no obstruction or hindrance. With the quality of steel, there is nothing so hard that it cannot be broken through, and so there is no object that can stand up to you.
  “There should always be innate strength and continuous flow. By committing to using innate strength, you will avoid the exertion of acquired strength. By relying on a continuous flow, you will not fall into a jittery confusion.
  “Hexagram 1 of the Book of Changes is associated with vigor, but this vigor is often seen as pure hardness. Hexagram 2 is associated with compliance, but this compliance is often treated as pure softness. Such an interpretation is as unreasonable as saying that the true substance of a man is nothing more than his blood and flesh.
  “I invite you to also explore the texts of other books of boxing theory, for I am now an old man and it is up to the next generation to carry these arts forward.”
  In A Study of Xingyi Boxing, Sun writes: “Your intention is to be like a vertical pole that has been placed in level ground. Once this pole starts to stand stably, [your mind and energy become naturally calm and still, without inclining toward anything.]” This is exactly the same kind of thinking as described in Essentials of Pure Land Buddhism by Zen Master Hanshan Deqing: “It is just like dangling a fishing line into a deep pond. [If you are still distracted by illusion… just straighten your spine and forget anything to the east or west.]” A Study of Bagua Boxing conveys the teachings of Cheng Tinghua and describes miraculous effects, placing it among the ranks of elixirist literature. A Study of Taiji Boxing includes the “Five-Word Formula”, which could be said to contain the mysteries of both Buddhism and Daoism.
  Sun further adds: “It is easy to use strength to build blood and to use blood to transform essence, but it is difficult to use essence to transform energy and to use energy to return to a spiritual state. This point is not merely a matter of joy versus sorrow, but actually addresses an issue of life or death. Students can strive to have strength, but should not lightly seek to possess energy. If you go down the wrong path in this regard, you may end up injuring yourself. Earlier generations did not casually pass on their art to others, rather they somewhat miserly kept it to themselves, for they could not bear the thought that these skills for healing might instead produce harm. Without understanding a teacher’s true meaning, students are liable to blindly lead themselves into taking foolish risks.”
  Sun’s three “Study of” books provide the principles for internal and external cultivation, but because students previously had no illustrations to follow, he also had meticulous photographs made so that his books would be comprehensive. With the postures and theory presented so perfectly, we have in our hands an education for both physical and mental well-being that is accessible for everyone. His basic intention was no more than this.
  The great calligrapher Deng Wanbai [Shiru] used the scribe-style brush to draw seal-style characters. Kang Nanhai [Youwei] has written of him, giving him equal status to the “Six Patriarchs” of Zen Buddhism and the Confucianist Mengzi. [“For Confucianism, there is Mengzi. For seal-style calligraphy, there is Deng Shiru.”] Deng developed a new mode of calligraphy, but there are so many kinds of calligraphy. He did not commit the dubious act of destroying old methods, but it also cannot really be said that his accomplishments are of the same scale as those of the ancients, and so to rank him among the likes of Mengzi and the Six Patriarchs is perhaps going a little far.
  Among the great boxers however, it is Sun who explains philosophy, prioritizes the cultivating of health, and expresses himself only after observing others. I declare that his achievements are equal to Yu the Great! And so in the same manner as Kang’s praise for Deng, I want to praise Sun. I am not really worthy to do so, for I am not studious enough, diligent enough, or smart enough to make a proper assessment of his ideas. Though I have not learned his teachings, I am sure his three boxing arts will be spread everywhere. But as for Sun’s purity of skill and depth of knowledge, they are so far beyond my meager comprehension that I am not qualified even to praise him.

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