SUN STYLE TAIJI

太極拳
TAIJI BOXING
孫劍雲 整理 孫祿堂 原著
by Sun Jianyun, based on original material by Sun Lutang
[published by 人民體育出版社 The People’s Physical Education Press, Sep, 1957]

[translation by Paul Brennan, March, 2015]

目錄
CONTENTS

前言
Foreword
總說
Introduction
上編
Part One [Solo Set]
 第一式 起式
 Posture 1: BEGINNING POSTURE
 第二式 懶扎衣
 Posture 2: TUCK IN THE ROBE
 第三式 開手
 Posture 3: OPENING HANDS
 第四式 合手
 Posture 4: CLOSING HANDS
 第五式 單鞭
 Posture 5: SINGLE WHIP
 第六式 提手上式
 Posture 6: RAISE THE HAND
 第七式 白鶴亮翅
 Posture 7: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
 第八式 開手
 Posture 8: OPENING HANDS
 第九式 合手
 Posture 9: CLOSING HANDS
 第十式 摟膝拗步(左式)
 Posture 10: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (LEFT)
 第十一式 手揮琵琶(左式)
 Posture 11: PLAY THE LUTE (LEFT)
 第十二式 進步搬攔捶
 Posture 12: ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH
 第十三式 如封似閉
 Posture 13: SEALING SHUT
 第十四式 抱虎推山
 Posture 14: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
 第十五式 開手(右轉)
 Posture 15: OPENING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT)
 第十六式 合手
 Posture 16: CLOSING HANDS
 第十七式 摟膝拗步
 Posture 17: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [RIGHT]
 第十八式 懶扎衣
 Posture 18: TUCK IN THE ROBE
 第十九式 開手
 Posture 19: OPENING HANDS
 第二十式 合手
 Posture 20: CLOSING HANDS
 第二十一式 單鞭
 Posture 21: SINGLE WHIP
 第二十二式 肘下看捶
 Posture 22: GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW
 第二十三式 倒攆猴(左式)
 Posture 23: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (LEFT)
 第二十四式 倒攆猴(右式)
 Posture 24: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (RIGHT)
 第二十五式 手揮琵琶(右式)
 Posture 25: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)
 第二十六式 白鶴亮翅
 Posture 26: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
 第二十七式 開手
 Posture 27: OPENING HANDS
 第二十八式 合手
 Posture 28: CLOSING HANDS
 第二十九式 摟膝拗步(左式)
 Posture 29: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (LEFT)
 第三十式 手揮琵琶(左式)
 Posture 30: PLAY THE LUTE (LEFT)
 第三十一式 三通背
 Posture 31: THREE THROUGH THE BACK
 第三十二式 懶扎衣
 Posture 32: TUCK IN THE ROBE
 第三十三式 開手
 Posture 33: OPENING HANDS
 第三十四式 合手
 Posture 34: CLOSING HANDS
 第三十五式 單鞭
 Posture 35: SINGLE WHIP
 第三十六式 雲手
 Posture 36: CLOUDING HANDS
 第三十七式 高探馬
 Posture 37: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
 第三十八式 右起腳
 Posture 38: RIGHT LIFTING KICK
 第三十九式 左起腳
 Posture 39: LEFT LIFTING KICK
 第四十式 轉身踢腳
 Posture 40: TURN AROUND, KICK
 第四十一式 踐步打捶
 Posture 41: STEP SUCCESSIVELY, PUNCH
 第四十二式 翻身二起
 Posture 42: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK
 第四十三式 披身伏虎
 Posture 43: DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING TIGER
 第四十四式 左踢腳
 Posture 44: LEFT KICK
 第四十五式 右蹬腳
 Posture 45: RIGHT PRESSING KICK
 第四十六式 上步搬攔捶
 Posture 46: STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH
 第四十七式 如封似閉
 Posture 47: SEALING SHUT
 第四十八式 抱虎推山
 Posture 48: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
 第四十九式 開手(右轉)
 Posture 49: OPENING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT)
 第五十式 合手
 Posture 50: CLOSING HANDS
 第五十一式 摟膝拗步
 Posture 51: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
 第五十二式 懶扎衣
 Posture 52: TUCK IN THE ROBE
 第五十三式 開手
 Posture 53: OPENING HANDS
 第五十四式 合手
 Posture 54: CLOSING HANDS
 第五十五式 斜單鞭
 Posture 55: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
 第五十六式 野馬分鬃
 Posture 56: WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE
 第五十七式 開手
 Posture 57: OPENING HANDS
 第五十八式 合手
 Posture 58: CLOSING HANDS
 第五十九式 單鞭
 Posture 59: SINGLE WHIP
 第六十章 右通背掌
 Posture 60: RIGHT THROUGH-THE-BACK PALM
 第六十一式 玉女穿梭
 Posture 61: MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE
 第六十二式 懶扎衣
 Posture 62: TUCK IN THE ROBE
 第六十三式 開手
 Posture 63: OPENING HANDS
 第六十四式 合手
 Posture 64: CLOSING HANDS
 第六十五式 單鞭
 Posture 65: SINGLE WHIP
 第六十六式 雲手
 Posture 66: CLOUDING HANDS
 第六十七式 雲手下勢
 Posture 67: LOWERING FROM CLOUDING HANDS
 第六十八式 更雞獨立
 Posture 68: ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
 第六十九式 倒攆猴
 Posture 69: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY
 第七十式 手揮琵琶(右式)
 Posture 70: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)
 第七十一式 白鶴亮翅
 Posture 71: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
 第七十二式 開手
 Posture 72: OPENING HANDS
 第七十三式 合手
 Posture 73: CLOSING HANDS
 第七十四式 摟膝拗步
 Posture 74: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
 第七十五式 手揮琵琶
 Posture 75: PLAY THE LUTE
 第七十六式 三通背
 Posture 76: THREE THROUGH THE BACK
 第七十七式 開手
 Posture 77: OPENING HANDS
 第七十八式 合手
 Posture 78: CLOSING HANDS
 第七十九式 單鞭
 Posture 79: SINGLE WHIP
 第八十式 雲手
 Posture 80: CLOUDING HANDS
 第八十一式 高探馬
 Posture 81: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
 第八十二式 十字擺蓮
 Posture 82: CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK
 第八十三式 進步指𦡁捶
 Posture 83: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
 第十八四式 退步懶扎衣
 Posture 84: RETREAT, TUCK IN THE ROBE
 第八十五式 開手
 Posture 85: OPENING HANDS
 第八十六式 合手
 Posture 86: CLOSING HANDS
 第八十七式 單鞭
 Posture 87: SINGLE WHIP
 第八十八式 單鞭下勢
 Posture 88: LOWERING FROM SINGLE WHIP
 第八十九式 上步七星
 Posture 89: STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER
 第九十式 退步跨虎
 Posture 90: STEP BACK TO RIDE THE TIGER
 第九十一式 轉角擺蓮
 Posture 91: TURN-TO-THE-CORNER SWINGING LOTUS KICK
 第九十二式 彎弓射虎
 Posture 92: BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER
 第九十三式 雙撞捶
 Posture 93: DOUBLE RUSHING PUNCHES
 第九十四式 陰陽混一
 Posture 94: PASSIVE & ACTIVE MERGE INTO ONE
 第九十五式 收式
 Posture 95: FINISHING POSTURE
下編 太極拳推手法
Part Two: Taiji Boxing’s Pushing Hands Methods
附參考資料
Appendix: Reference Material
 一、王宗岳:太極拳論
 1. Wang Zongyue’s Taiji Boxing Treatise
 二、武禹襄:太極拳論
 2. Wu Yuxiang’s Taiji Boxing Treatise
 三、十三勢行功心解
 3. Understanding How to Practice the Thirteen Dynamics
 四、十三勢歌訣
 4. Thirteen Dynamics Song
 五、推手歌訣
 5. Pushing Hands Song
 六、李亦畬:五字訣
 6. Li Yiyu’s Five-Word Formula
 七、撒放秘訣
 7. The Trick to Releasing
 八、走架打手行工要言
 8. Essentials in Practicing the Solo Set & Playing Hands

前言
FOREWORD

先父祿堂公,以畢生精力,鑽研形意拳、八卦拳、太極拳,晚年獨常打太極拳。他這趟太極拳受教於郝為真先生。我幼年承先父親授,並督促練習,愧工夫不純,只不過略知皮毛。
為了推廣這趟太極拳,我大膽地根據先父的原書改編,內容解說力求通俗,以便初學者練習參考,其中部分動作是按照先父晚年的練法編寫的,因此與原書稍有不同。至於太極拳的理論,王宗岳、武禹襄和李亦畬諸先生已有詳切論說特附於書後,以供參閱。
先父原書照像圖版已失,由我補照製版,並增加圖數,以補解說的不足。書中簡陋的地方,希望讀者多加指正。
在我改寫這本書時,胡席圃老師兄給了很多的幫助,謹致謝意。
孫劍雲 一九五七年五月
My father, Sun Lutang, was energetic his whole life. He intensively studied Xingyi Boxing, Bagua Boxing, and Taiji Boxing, practicing only Taiji Boxing in his later years. He learned his Taiji set from Hao Weizhen. In my youth, I was taught by my father personally, and I practiced under his supervision and encouragement. I am therefore ashamed that my skill is not high and that I have merely a superficial understanding.
     For the sake of popularizing this Taiji Boxing set, I have dared to base it on my father’s revisions to his original book. I have strived to make the explanations within readable for all so that beginning students can practice according to them. Within the section on movements, they are according to my father’s practice and writings from his later life, and are therefore slightly different from his original book. As for Taiji Boxing theory, there are the detailed essays of Wong Zongyue, Wu Yuxiang, and Li Yiyu, which have been specially included as an appendix section for reference.
     The photographic plates for my father’s original book are already lost. I have compensated for this with photos of myself, also including numerous additional photos to fill in for where the explanations are insufficient. Wherever I have done a poor job in this book, I hope readers will make corrections.
     During the editing of this manuscript, my “elder brother” Hu Xipu gave me much help and I sincerely thank him for it.
     – written by Sun Jianyun, May, 1957

總說
INTRODUCTION

太極拳是我國特有的武術項目。究竟創始於何代、何人,傳說不一。留待考證。實踐證明,太極拳具有強壯身體,卻病延年的功能。因為它是一種“內外兼修”的運動,內主靜心養性,外主鍛煉體魄,使內臟各器官都能得到鍛煉,因而增強了身體對自然環境的抵抗能力,預防和消除了疾病。由於動作緩慢,呼吸自然深長,也可以加強血液的循環和呼吸系統的機能。所以練太極拳能幫助醫療肺病、心臟病及高血壓等癥。更重要的是全部動作都是用意識指揮進行的,因而強化了中樞神經的作用。
太極拳的運動比較柔和,男女老幼都可練習。它有機種不同的架子,各式名稱也有些不同的叫法,但其拳理,是一樣的。
太極拳的姿勢動作,都有一定的要領,也各有其一定的意義,學者必須按照要領練習。茲將它的要領摘要介紹於下:
Taiji Boxing is a peculiarly Chinese martial art, but in exactly what era or from which person it began, traditions differ, and these things still await verification. Yet experience of it will demonstrate that it has the functions of strengthening the body, preventing disease, and prolonging life. This is because it is a kind of exercise in which “inside and out are simultaneously cultivated”,
internally calming the mind and nourishing the temperament, externally tempering the physique, enabling all the organs to become more robust, consequently strengthening the body’s capacity to withstand its surrounding environment, preventing and eliminating illnesses. By doing the movements slowly, the breathing naturally deepens and lengthens, and can strengthen the functioning of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Therefore practicing Taiji Boxing can help you recover from tuberculosis, heart disease, high blood pressure, and other ailments. Of even greater significance is the constant use of consciousness to direct the movements, consequently enhancing the functioning of the nervous system.
     The movements in Taiji Boxing are comparatively mild, and so it can be practiced by both men and women, and by both young and old. Although there are different versions of the practice set, with a few of the postures being giving variant names, the principles of the art are the same.
     Taiji Boxing’s postures and movements all have specific requirements and each has a specific meaning. You must practice in accordance with these requirements. The requirements of the art are presented briefly below:

頭:
Head:

頭要有上頂的意思,但不可用力,頂頭則頭頂正直,精神貫注。
Your head should have an intention of pressing up, but must not do so with exertion. By pressing your head up, the headtop is made upright and spirit is concentrated.

口:
Mouth:

口要虛合,舌頂上顎,用鼻呼吸,並要勻細。
Your mouth should be gently closed, tongue touching your upper palate. Breathe through your nose, and the breath should be even and fine.

肩:
Shoulders:

兩肩要鬆開,並往下垂,切忌聳肩。如肩聳起,則氣向上涌。
Your shoulders should loosen and hang down. They should on no account be lifting, which would cause your energy to rise upward.

肘:
Elbows:

兩肘要往下墜,肘墜則肩垂,腹內之氣就能下沉丹田。肘墜則兩臂彎屈,這就是所說的“曲中求直,蓄而後發”。
Your elbows should drop down. If your elbows are dropped, then your shoulders will hang, and the energy within your belly will then be able to sink to your elixir field. With your elbows dropped, your arms will be bent. This has to do with: “Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue.”

手:
Hands:

五指鬆開(不要併攏),並要塌腕。
Your fingers are to be loose (i.e. should not be held together) and your wrists should sink.

胸:
Chest:

胸要涵虛不可挺出,涵胸則氣沉,挺胸則氣涌。氣涌於上,則上重下輕,腳跟漂浮,拳家所忌。
Your chest should be contained and must not stick out. When your chest is contained, energy sinks, but if your chest sticks out, energy will rise up. If energy rises, then you will be heavy above and light below, and your heels will float up, which is something to be avoided in boxing arts.

腰:
Waist:

練拳時,須塌腰,因為腰是全身之主,左轉右旋,向前,退後,全仗腰勁貫串。
When practicing the set, it is necessary to settle your waist, because the waist is the controller of the whole body. In turning left or right, and in advancing or retreating, by way of complete reliance on your waist there will be power coursing through.

腿:
Legs:

兩腿要屈不要直,要分虛實(體重放在一條腿上)。否則動作不靈活。
Your legs should be bent and should not be straight, and there should be distinction between empty and full (i.e. the weight placed onto one leg at a time), otherwise the movement will not be nimble.

氣:
Energy:

所謂氣沉丹田(臍下三寸處)就是深呼吸的意思,這種深呼吸,在太極拳中具有很重要的意義,但不可用力往下壓氣,應當任其自然。
It is said that “energy sinks to your elixir field” (three inches below the navel), which signifies deep breathing. Deep breathing is always a very important idea in Taiji Boxing, but you must not forcefully press the energy down and should instead let it happen naturally.

動與靜:
Movement & Stillness:

我國的靜坐法,是靜中求動,太極拳則是動中求靜。練拳時心情要靜,精神集中,這樣動作才能圓活。
In our nation’s meditation methods, we seek movement within stillness, but in Taiji Boxing we seek stillness within movement. When practicing the set, your mind should be calm and your spirit focused, and thereby the movements can be nimble.

意與力:
Intention & Exertion:

太極拳特點之一,是用意、不用力,因太極拳要求用活力,要求極柔軟而極堅剛,極沉重而極靈活。意到力到,活力自生。倘用拙力,則遲滯不靈,力浮於外,不合內家拳的要求了。
A characteristic of Taiji Boxing is the use of intention rather than exertion. Because Taiji Boxing seeks to use a lively strength, you should seek for both extreme softness and extreme hardness, for both extreme heaviness and extreme nimbleness. Where intention goes, power goes, and a lively strength is naturally generated. If you instead use an awkward exertion, it will be sluggish and ineffective, strength only on the outer surface, and this is incompatible with the requirements of internal boxing arts.

上編
PART ONE [SOLO SET]

第一式 起式
Posture 1: BEGINNING POSTURE

1.身體直立,兩手下垂,兩肩鬆開,兩足尖分開約九十度,心情安靜,稍停。兩眼向前平看(圖一)。
Your body stands straight, your hands hanging down, shoulders loosened. Your feet are spread at the toes to make nearly a ninety degree angle. Your emotions are at peace. Slightly pause here. Your gaze is ahead and level. See photo 1:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 1

2.右足尖翹起,用腳跟作軸半面向左轉,與左足成四十五度。要塌腰,不可用拙力,舌頂上顎,呼吸要自然(圖二)。
Your right toes lift. Use your heel to pivot the foot halfway to the left to make a forty-five degree angle with your left foot. Your waist should be sinking and there must be no use of awkward effort. Your tongue is touching your upper palate. Your breathing should be natural. See photo 2:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 2

第二式 懶扎衣
Posture 2: TUCK IN THE ROBE

1.兩臂自下向前上方慢慢舉起,與肩相平,兩手手心相對如抱球狀。兩腿不動。(圖三)。
Your arms go forward and upward until at shoulder level, palms facing each other as though you are holding a ball. Your legs do not move. See photo 3:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 3

2.前式似停未停之時,兩手即下落至腹前。同時兩腿慢慢向下彎屈,左足跟隨著慢慢提起(圖四)。
Once the previous posture seems to stop but not yet stop, your hands then lower in front of your belly. At the same time, your legs slowly bend, your left heel slowly lifting. See photo 4:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 4

3.左足向前邁出,足跟先著地,同時兩手從兩肋前慢慢伸出,兩手仍為抱球狀,胳膊略彎屈。右足隨兩手伸出,向前跟步,停於左足後方,離左足跟二三寸許,腳尖著地。左足於右足跟步時,亦漸漸全腳著地,眼看兩手當中(圖五、六)。
Your left foot steps out forward, heel touching down. At the same time, your hands slowly extend forward from your ribs, the hands still in the shape of holding a ball, arms slightly bent. Your right foot goes along with your hands as they extend forward by doing a forward follow step, stopping behind your left foot, about two or three inches away from it, toes touching down. As your right foot does the follow step, your left foot gradually comes down fully. Your gaze goes between your hands. See photos 5 & 6:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 5

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 6

4.將兩手平著往右邊轉動。轉至正面時,右手心上翻,左手向下。在手開始轉動之時,左足尖翹起,足跟著地,一同向右邊轉動,右足跟亦同時慢慢著地,眼看右手(圖七、八)。
Your hands arc horizontally to the right, and once they are angled straight ahead, your right palm turns over to face upward, left hand facing downward. As your hands begin to turn, your left toes lift, heel touching down, and the foot pivots to the right along with your hands, your right heel at the same time slowly touching down. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photos 7 & 8:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 7

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 8

5.隨前式,右手心向上,平著肩向右向後畫一半圓圈,左手亦隨著右手轉,兩手轉至手心向外,左手似扶著右腕往前推,兩臂略彎屈。在兩手向後畫時,右足尖翹起,向外扭直,兩手往前推時,右足往前邁出,足跟著地,漸漸落實。左足隨著跟在右足的後邊,足尖著地,距右足跟二三寸許,兩眼望著右手,微停。自起點至此,所有動作,要一氣貫串,不要間斷(圖九、十)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm, facing upward and at shoulder level, draws a half circle to the right and rear, your left hand going along with the action of your right hand. Both hands turn until the palms are facing outward, your left hand seeming to support your right wrist, and they push forward, arms slightly bent. As your hands arc to the rear, your right toes lift and the foot twists outward until straight. As your hands push forward, your right foot steps out forward, heel touching down and the foot gradually coming down fully. Your left foot then does a follow step behind your right foot, toes touching down about two or three inches away from your right heel. Your gaze is toward your right hand. Slightly pause. From the beginning to this point, the movement should be continuous and uninterrupted. See photos 9 & 10:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 9

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 10

第三式 開手
Posture 3: OPENING HANDS

接前式,右足尖翹起向左扭轉,身體也隨之左轉,同時兩手心相對,往左右分開,如象抱著氣球(球中之氣往外放大的意思)。開至兩手虎口與兩肩相對。兩手食指尖向上,兩手離肩部約一二寸許,五指張開,微停(圖十一)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right toes lift and the foot pivots to the left, your body turning to the left. At the same time, your palms face each other and spread apart to the sides as though holding a balloon (which is inflating) until the tiger’s mouths are in front of your shoulders, fingertips pointing upward, hands about one or two inches away from your shoulders, fingers spread. Slightly pause. See photo 11:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 11

第四式 合手
Posture 4: CLOSING HANDS

接前式,兩手心相對慢慢往裡合。合至兩手距離與臉同寬時稍停。此時兩腿彎屈,右足著地,左足跟抬起,足尖著地。兩眼看兩手當中,全身要放鬆,不可有一毫勉強之力(圖十二)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands slowly close inward toward each other until their distance from each other is the same as their distance from your face, and there is a slight pause. At the same time, your legs bend, your right foot comes down, and your left heel lifts, toes touching down. Your gaze goes between your hands. Your whole body should loosen and there must not be the slightest bit of strained effort. See photo 12:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 12

第五式 單鞭
Posture 5: SINGLE WHIP

先將兩手腕往外轉,再如捋長竿一樣,往左右慢慢分開成兩臂平舉狀態。兩手心朝外,兩手掌直立,高矮與眼相平,眼看右手食指。左足在兩手分開的時候,同時往左邊橫著邁出,斜橫著落地,腿微弓,稍停。此時上體要直,兩肩要鬆開,呼吸要自然。腹內的氣,不可用拙力往下壓(圖十三)。
First your wrists turn outward, then as though they are stroking along a long pole, they slowly spread apart to the sides until your arms are raised horizontally, palms facing outward and standing upright at eye level. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. As your hands spread apart, your left foot steps sideways to the left, coming down with the toes slanted outward, legs slightly bent, and there is a slight pause. At this time, your upper body should be upright, your arms should loosen, and your breathing should be natural. The energy within your belly must not be pressed down with an awkward exertion. See photo 13:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 13

第六式 提手上式
Posture 6: RAISE THE HAND

接前式,先將身體重心移於左腿,塌腰,隨後左手向面前畫弧,停於額前,手心向外。右手與左手同時向下畫弧,停於腹前,手指向下,同時右足靠攏左腿,足尖著地,與左足尖相齊,兩足跟相離半寸許,兩腿略彎屈,身體仍直著穩往(圖十四)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first shift the weight to your left leg, sink your waist, then your left hand draws an arc forward until in front of your forehead, palm facing outward, as your right hand arcs downward until in front of your belly, fingers pointing downward. At the same time, your right foot draws close to your left leg, toes touching down in line with your left toes, the heels about half an inch apart, legs slightly bent. Your body maintains stability. See photo 14:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 14

第七式 白鶴亮翅
Posture 7: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

1.接前式,左手從前額往下落,落至胸前,肘靠著肋。右手從小腹處往上提起至頭部,手背靠著前額,右足在兩手起落時往前邁步,足跟著地,兩足的距離以不致牽動身子的重心為合適(圖十五)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lowers from your forehead to be in front of your chest, elbow close to your ribs, and your right hand lifts from your lower abdomen to your head, the back of the hand close to your forehead. As your hands lift and lower, your right foot steps forward, heel touching down. As for the distance between your feet, as long as it does not get to the point that it leads the weight to shift, it is appropriate. See photo 15:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 15

2.再將右手順著臉的右側(似挨未挨)往下落,肘要直著往下垂,落至與左手相齊,再一齊向前推去。右足尖在兩手前推時,慢慢著地,身體重心移在右腿上;左足跟在右足尖落地時,也同時提起,往前跟步,跟至右腳跟後邊,足尖著地,塌腰,兩臂略彎屈,兩眼看兩手當中,稍停(圖十六、十七)。
Continuing, your right hand passes along the right side of your face (as though near but not near), lowering (elbow hanging straight downward) until level with your left hand, and then together they push out forward. As your hands push forward, your right toes slowly come down, and the weight shifts to your right leg. As your right toes come down, your left heel lifts, and does a follow step forward until behind your right heel, toes touching down. Sink your waist. Your arms are slightly bent. Your gaze goes between your hands. Slightly pause. See photos 16 & 17:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 16

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 17

第八式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖十八)
Posture 8: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 18:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 18

第九式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖十九)
Posture 9: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 19:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 19

第十式 摟膝拗步(左式)
Posture 10: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (LEFT)

接前式,左手往右邊落,再從心口右邊,往下斜著摟一弧線。摟至左胯處,大指和食指撐開,大指離胯約一二寸。在左手摟時,左足往左邊斜邁一步;同時右手於左手往右邊落時,手心翻轉向上,並往右邊分開。開至大指與右肩相平,隨即往左邊平著推去。推時手的高矮以食指尖,離口角寸許為準,胳膊略彎屈,並要塌腕。右足於右手往前推時,同時往前跟步,跟至左足脛骨前落下。足尖著地。兩眼仍看右手食指尖,重心移在左腿上,微停(圖二十、二十一)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lowers to your right side, lowering in an arc to brush diagonally downward from the right side of your solar plexus until at your left hip, the thumb and forefinger spread open, the thumb about an inch or two from the hip. As your left hand brushes, your left foot takes a step to the left corner. At the same time, your right hand lowers to the right side, the palm turning to face upward, and spreads away to the right side until the thumb is level with your right shoulder, then pushes out horizontally to the left side. When pushing, the height of the hand uses the tip of the forefinger at about an inch away from the corner of your mouth as a standard, arm slightly bent, and you should sink the wrist. As your right hand pushes forward, your right foot does a follow step forward, coming down behind your left lower leg, toes touching down. Your gaze is again toward the tip of your right forefinger. The weight has shifted to your left leg and there is a slight pause. See photos 20 & 21:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 20

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 21

第十一式 手揮琵琶(左式)
Posture 11: PLAY THE LUTE (LEFT)

接前式,兩手五指伸直,虎口朝上,右足往後撤步,足尖著地。撤步之遠近,以不牽動重心為合適。同時右手向後拉,左手往前伸,左手在前,右手在後。右手指與左腕齊,兩肘下垂。左足亦同時往後撤至右足前邊,足跟離右足寸許,足尖著地。右足亦於左足撤回時,足跟著地(圖二十二)。
Continuing from the previous posture, the fingers of both hands extend so the tiger’s mouths are facing upward, and your right foot withdraws a step, toes touching down. As for the distance of the withdrawing step, as long as it does not lead the weight to shift, it is appropriate. At the same time, your right hand pulls back and your left hand extends forward, left hand forward, right hand behind. Your right fingers are beside your left wrist and your elbows are hanging down. Your left foot at the same time withdraws to be in front of your right foot, the heel about an inch away from your right foot, toes touching down, and as your left foot withdraws, your right heel touches down. See photo 22:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 22

第十二式 進步搬攔捶
Posture 12: ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH

接前式,先將左手往左肋摟去,手心朝下,同時左足往前邁步,足尖向外,斜著落地。右手手心向上,從左手下面往前伸出。右手轉為手心向下,往右肋摟去。同時右足往前邁步,足尖向外斜著落地,式子不要停,再將左手往前伸去又往下扣。這時左足直著往前邁步。右手握拳,從右肋往左手腕上邊直著打出,拳與心口平。左手背朝上,並在右拳打出的同時握拳,順著右臂往回彎至右肘下停住。右足於右手打出時,同時跟步。離左足跟二三寸許,停住。兩眼看右手食指中節(圖二十三、二十四、二十五、二十六)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left hand brushes toward your left ribs, palm facing downward, while your left foot steps forward to come down diagonally with the toes pointing outward, and your right hand, palm facing upward, extends forward from under your left hand. Your right hand turns so the palm is facing downward and brushes toward your right ribs, your right foot stepping forward to come down diagonally with the toes pointing outward. The posture should not come to a halt, for your left hand then extends forward, covering downward, as your left foot steps directly forward. Your right hand grasps into a fist and strikes from your right ribs straight over the top of your left wrist (fist at solar plexus level). The back of your left hand is facing upward, the hand grasping into a fist as your right fist strikes out, and moves along your right forearm arm, your left arm bending in, until under your right elbow. As your right hand strikes out, your right foot does a follow step that stops about two or three inches away from your left heel. Your gaze is toward the middle knuckle of your right forefinger. See photos 23-26:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 23

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 24

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 25

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 26

第十三式 如封似閉
Posture 13: SEALING SHUT

接前式,先將右手向後抽,同時左手從右臂下邊往前伸出,至兩手相齊,手心均向外。右足於右手收回時,同時往後撤步。撤的遠近,以不牽動重心為合適,隨後兩手與左足同時回撤,兩手大指相離寸許。兩手撤至胸前,輕輕靠住。左足撤至右足前寸許,足尖著地(圖二十七)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first draw back your right hand, your left hand at the same time extending forward from under your right arm until your hands are side by side, palms facing outward. As your right hand withdraws, your right foot withdraws a step. As for the distance of the withdrawing step, as long as it does not lead the weight to shift, it is appropriate. Then your hands withdraw in unison with your left foot, the thumbs an inch apart, withdrawing in front of your chest until gently pressing against it. Your left foot withdraws until an inch in front of your right foot, toes touching down. See photo 27:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 27

第十四式 抱虎推山
Posture 14: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN

接前式,兩手心向外,一齊往前推出,高與胸平,兩臂略彎屈,兩眼看兩手當中,稍停。左足於兩手往前推時,同時往前邁步,右足隨後跟步,離左足二三寸許(圖二十八)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands, palms facing outward, go forward together to “push the mountain” at chest height, arms slightly bent. Your gaze goes between your hands. As your hands push forward, your left foot steps forward and your right foot does a follow step to be about two or three inches away from your left foot. Slightly pause. See photo 28:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 28

第十五式 開手(右轉)
Posture 15: OPENING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT)

接前式,左足尖翹起,足跟著地向右轉。兩手大指離胸部一二寸許,平著分開,開至兩手虎口與兩肩相對為止,兩手五指張開,微停(圖二十九)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left toes lift, heel touching down, and the foot pivots to the right. With your thumbs about one or two inches away from your chest, your hands spread apart horizontally, stopping when the tiger’s mouths are in front of your shoulders, fingers spread. Slightly pause. See photo 29:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 29

第十六式 合手(同第四式。見圖三十)
Posture 16: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 30:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 30

第十七式 摟膝拗步(右式)
Posture 17: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (RIGHT)

動作同第十式,惟左右相反(圖三十一、三十二)。
The movement is the same as in Posture 10, except with lefts and rights reversed. See photos 31 & 32:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 31

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 32

第十八式 懶扎衣
Posture 18: TUCK IN THE ROBE

接前式,左手腕向裡扭至手心向上,同時右手往前伸。伸時手心向下,兩手成抱球狀。在兩手動作的同時,左足向後撤,斜著落地,隨將兩手一同往下畫弧,並落至小腹處。在兩手向下畫時,右足同時撤至左足前寸許,足尖著地。接著兩手(仍為抱球狀)翻轉右手手心向上,左手心向下,提至胸前,再一齊向前攜出,同時右足往前邁出,左足隨著跟至右足後寸許,足尖著地。左足微停即往後撤,同時兩手平著往後畫一半圓圈。轉至右肩處手心向外,同時身體重心往後移至左腿,右足尖翹起。然後兩手自右肩處一齊往前推出,兩臂略屈,左手挨著右手腕。在兩手往前推時,右足尖漸漸著地,左足亦隨著跟至右足後約二三寸處(圖三十三、三十四、三十五、三十六、三十七、三十八)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left wrist twists inward until the palm is facing upward, and at the same time, your right hand extends forward, palm facing downward, and your hands make a shape of holding a ball. As your hands move, your left foot withdraws, coming down with the toes slanted outward. Your hands then arc downward together until they are by your lower abdomen. As your hands arc downward, your right foot withdraws until about an inch in front of your left foot, toes touching down. Then your hands (still in a shape of holding a ball) turn over so the right palm is facing upward and left palm is facing downward, lift in front of your chest, and then carry forward together. At the same time, your right foot steps forward, your left foot then doing a follow step to be about an inch behind your right foot, toes touching down. Your left foot slightly pauses there, then withdraws, and your hands at the same time draw a level half circle to the rear. Once they are by your right shoulder, the palms turn to face outward. The weight is now shifted to your left leg and your right toes are lifted. Then your hands push out forward together from your right shoulder, arms slightly bent, left hand close to your right wrist. As your hands push forward, your right toes gradually come down and your left foot then does a follow step to be about two or three inches behind your right foot. See photos 33-38:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 33

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 34

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 35

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 36

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 37

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 38

第十九式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖三十九)。
Posture 19: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 39:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 39

第二十式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖四十)
Posture 20: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 40:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 40

第二十一式 單鞭(解說同第五式。見圖四十一)
Posture 21: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 41:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 41

第二十二式 肘下看捶
Posture 22: GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW

接前式,先將左手扭順,隨後右手握拳,胳膊屈回靠在肋旁,並從腹前往左肘下伸出,同時右足往前邁步,至左足後落下,足尖著地,兩足相離半寸許。稍停後即將右足撤回。左足隨後亦撤至右足前邊落下,足尖著地,兩手保持原姿勢不動(圖四十二)。
Continuing from the previous posture, First your left hand twists in, then your right hand grasps into a fist, the arm bending and drawing in close to your ribs, then extends under your left elbow from in front of your belly. At the same time, your right foot steps forward to come down behind your left foot, toes touching down, your feet about half an inch apart. After a slight pause, your right foot withdraws and your left foot then withdraws to come down in front of your right foot, toes touching down, your hands maintaining their original posture. See photo 42:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 42

第二十三式 倒攆猴(左式)
Posture 23: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (LEFT)

接前式,先將左手收回胸前,大指離胸部二三寸許,手心往下扣。同時右手手心向上,向右邊斜著下落。右足亦於兩手扣落時,將足尖翹起,足跟著地,如同擰螺絲一樣往裡扭轉。扭至足尖正直,或微往裡扣,並使足尖落地。接著將左手從胸前斜著往左邊摟一弧線,摟至大指離左胯一二寸許,同時左足亦斜著往左邊邁步,足跟著地。然後再右手手心向上,並往上抬到與右肩相平,同時手心向左,食指尖從右口角往前推出。兩手的屈直,都與摟膝拗步相同。右足亦於右手前推時,同時往前跟步,跟至左足後邊。相離二三寸許落下,並使足尖著地。兩手兩足動作,始終要一氣貫串,不可間斷(圖四十三、四十四)
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left hand withdraws in front of your chest, the thumb about two or three inches away from your chest, palm covering downward, and your right hand, palm facing upward, lowers diagonally to the right. While your hands cover and lower, your right foot, toes lifting, heel touching down, twists inward as though turning a screw, and once the toes are pointing straight or at least slightly covering inward, bring the toes down. Then your left hand goes from in front of your chest and brushes in an arc diagonally to the left until the thumb is about an inch or two away from your left hip, your left foot at the same time stepping diagonally to the left side, heel touching down, and your right hand, palm facing upward, lifts up until level with your right shoulder, the palm now facing to the left. With the forefinger passing the right corner of your mouth, your right hand pushes out forward. The bending and extending of your arms is the same as in BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE. As your right hand pushes forward, your right foot does a follow step forward to be behind your left foot, coming down about two or three inches away from it, toes touching down. The movements of your hands and feet from beginning to end should be continuous and must not be interrupted. See photos 43 & 44:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 43

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 44

第二十四式 倒攆猴(右式)
Posture 24: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (RIGHT)

接前式,先將左足尖翹起,足跟如擰螺絲一樣往裡扭轉,並將右手往右邊斜著摟一弧線。摟至大指離右胯一二寸許,再使左手手心向上,並往上抬到與右肩相平。接著手心向右,食指尖從左口角往前推出。兩足兩手以及周身的動作,均與右式相同。左右式循環練習,動作次數多少不拘,但須成雙數(圖四十五、四十六)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left toes lift, the heel twists inward like turning a screw, and your right hand brushes in an arc diagonally to the right side until the thumb is about an inch or two from your right hip. Your left hand meanwhile lifts up, palm facing upward, and once at shoulder level the palm is facing to the right, then with the tip of the forefinger passing the left corner of your mouth, pushes forward. The movements of your hands, feet, and body are all the same as on the other side. When practicing, the posture is to be repeated on each side, and though the number of repeats is not restricted, it must total an even number. See photos 45 & 46:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 45

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 46

第二十五式 手揮琵琶(右式)
Posture 25: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)

接前式,手足動作與第十一式同,惟左右相反(圖四十七)
Continuing from the previous posture, the movement is the same as in Posture 11, except the orientations are reversed. See photo 47:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 47

第二十六式 白鶴亮翅(解說同第七式。見圖四十八)
Posture 26: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS – Same as in Posture 7. See photo 48 [photos 48, 16 & 17]:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 48

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 16

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 17

第二十七式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖四十九)
Posture 27: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 49:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 49

第二十八式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖五十)
Posture 28: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 50:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 50

第二十九式 摟膝拗步(左式)(解脫同第十式。見圖五十一、五十二)
Posture 29: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (LEFT) – Same as in Posture 10. See photos 51 & 52:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 51

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 52

第三十式 手揮琵琶(左式)(解說同第十一式。見圖五十三)
Posture 30: PLAY THE LUTE (LEFT) – Same as in Posture 11. See photo 53:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 53

第三十一式 三通背
Posture 31: THREE THROUGH THE BACK

1.接前式,先將右手手心轉向上,再往下往後畫一圓圈。畫至前額時,再自臉前使手心向下垂直下按。按至距左足尖尺許停住。左手於右手往後畫時,同時收回。收到左胯處手心向下。左足於右手往下按時,同時往後撤。撤至右足前寸許,足尖著地,兩腳微彎屈。兩眼看右手(圖五十四、五十五)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand first turns so the palm is facing upward, then draws a circle downward and to the rear. It arcs upward to your forehead, then pushes straight down from in front of your face, stopping a foot away from your left toes. When your right hand arcs to the rear, your left hand withdraws to your left hip, palm facing downward. When your right hand pushes down, your left foot withdraws until an inch in front of your right foot, toes touching down, legs slightly bent. Your gaze is to your right hand. See photos 54 & 55:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 54

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 55

2.接著把右臂往上抬起,手背靠著前額,身體隨著直起,同時左手從胯處往前伸直,與心口平,塌腕。左足於兩手動作的同時往前邁出,兩足距離,要隨人的高矮有所不同,要使兩腿彎屈而不牽動重心為合適。兩眼看左手食指(圖五十六)。
Continuing, your right arm lifts so the back of the hand is close to your forehead, your body going along with it and straightening up, your left hand at the same time going from the hip to extend forward at solar plexus level, the wrist sinking. During the movement of your hands, your left foot steps out forward, the distance between your feet depending on your height. Your legs should be bent, and the size of the step will be appropriate as long as it does not lead the weight to shift. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger. See photo 56:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 56

3.接著把左足尖翹起,向右轉體,轉到面向後時,右足尖翹起扭直後落實。在轉身時,左手向上畫一弧線,手背靠著前額。右手於左手向上畫弧線時,自前額處向前推出,與肩平,塌腕。此時姿勢與第二節相同,惟方向相反(圖五十七)。
Continuing, your left toes lift and the foot pivots to the right. As your body turns until you are facing behind, your right toes lift and the foot pivots to point directly to the rear then comes down fully. As your body turns, your left hand arcs upward, the back of the hand close to your forehead. As your left hand arcs, your right hand pushes out forward from your forehead at shoulder level, the wrist sinking. The posture is now the same as in the previous posture, except the orientations are reversed. See photo 57:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 57

4.接著左手從前額往前伸至與右手相齊,兩手心相對,同時右足撤到左足後邊,斜著落下(兩足之遠近仍隨人的高矮而有所不同)。兩手再從前邊虛握著拳往下畫弧,一直畫到小腹處,同時左足往回撤至右足前寸許,足尖著地,腰往下塌住(圖五十八、五十九)。
Continuing, your left hand extends forward from your forehead until beside your right hand,
palms facing each other, your right foot at the same time withdrawing behind your left foot, coming down with the toes slanted outward (the distance between the feet again depending on your height, since everyone is not the same). Your hands then arc downward from in front, loosely grasping into fists, until right in front of your lower abdomen. At the same time, your left foot withdraws until an inch in front of your right foot, toes touching down, and your waist sinks. See photos 58 & 59:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 58

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 59

5.接著,兩拳同時靠著身體往上舉起,舉到心口上邊,再往前上方伸出,高與眉齊,微停。同時左足往前邁步,足尖往外斜著落下,身體重心仍不移動,然後再將兩拳下落,仍落在小腹處,同時右足直著往前邁出,足跟離左足前寸許,足尖著地。身體正直不要有起落(圖六十、六十一)。
Continuing, your fists lift in unison, rising close along your body until above your solar plexus, then extending forward and upward to eyebrow level. At the same time, your left foot steps out forward, coming down with the toes slanted outward, the weight still not shifting. Slightly pause. Then your fists lower and again come down to your lower abdomen. At the same time, your right foot steps out directly forward, the heel about an inch in front of your left foot, toes touching down. Your body is upright and should neither have lifted nor lowered. See photos 60 & 61:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 60

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 61

第三十二式 懶扎衣
Posture 32: TUCK IN THE ROBE

接前式,兩手張開,並向上提。這時右手手心向上,左手手心向下。提至胸前,再一齊向前推出,同時右足往前邁出,左足隨著跟在右足後寸許,足尖著地,微停即往後撤。然後兩手平著往後畫一半圓。轉至右肩處,手心向外,同時身體重心往後移至左腿,右足尖翹起。然後兩手自右肩處一齊往前推去,兩臂微屈,左手挨著右手腕。在兩手往前推時,右足尖漸漸著地,左足亦隨著跟至右足後,約二三寸許(圖六十二、六十三、六十四、六十五)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands open and lift until in front of your chest, right palm facing upward, left palm facing downward, then carry forward in unison. At the same time, your right foot steps out forward and your left foot then does a follow step to be about an inch behind your right foot, toes touching down. Slightly pause and then withdraw, your hands drawing a level half circle to your right shoulder, whereupon the palms are facing outward. At the same time, the weight shifts back to your left leg and your right toes lift. Then your hands push out forward together from your right shoulder, arms slightly bent, left hand close to your right wrist. As your hands push forward, your right toes gradually come down and your left foot then does a follow step to be about two or three inches behind your right foot. See photos 62-65:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 63

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 62

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 64

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 65

第三十三式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖六十六)
Posture 33: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 66:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 66

第三十四式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖六十七)
Posture 34: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 67:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 67

第三十五式 單鞭(解說同第五式。見圖六十八)
Posture 35: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 68:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 68

第三十六式 雲手
Posture 36: CLOUDING HANDS

1.接前式,左手向下、向右畫一半圓圈,兩臂靠著身體。畫至右肩下微停。在左手向下畫的同時,左足向右足靠攏約距寸許,足尖著地(圖六十九)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand arcs a half circle downward and to the right, the arm drawing close to your body, arcing until below your right shoulder. As your left hand arcs downward, your left foot draws close to your right foot to be about an inch away from it, toes touching down. Slightly pause. See photo 69:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 69

2.接著將左手從右肩下向上向左畫一半圓圈,同時右手向下向左畫一半圓圈。畫至左肩下微停。在左右手動作時,左足向左橫著邁出,足尖微向外斜。在左右手畫至左邊時,右足同時靠近左足,在相距二三寸處落下。兩足尖均向左邊微斜。接著右手向上畫,左手向下畫。在兩手同時畫至右邊時,左足又橫著向左邁出。落地之遠近,隨人之高矮而定,以不牽動重心為合適。接著左手再向上畫,右手向下畫,右足跟過來。如此循環三次。在左右手向上畫的時候,都要翻掌心向外。練時,左手向右,身體亦隨著向右微轉;右手向左,身體亦隨著向左微轉(圖七十)。
Continuing, your left hand goes from below your right shoulder, arcing a half circle upward and to the left, your right hand at the same time arcing a half circle to the left until below your left shoulder. During the movement of your hands, your left foot steps sideways to the left, toes somewhat slanted outward. Slightly pause. When your hands arc to the left side, your right foot draws close to your left foot, coming down about two or three inches away from it, the toes of both feet slightly slanted toward the left side. Then your right hand arcs upward and your left hand arcs downward. When your hands arc to the right side, your left foot again steps out sideways to the left side, the distance when it comes down depending on your height and should not lead the weight to shift. Then your left hand again arcs upward, your right hand arcs downward, and your right foot comes over with a follow step. It cycles in this way three times. When your hands arc upward, the palms should always turn outward. When practicing, as your left hand goes to the right, your body goes along with it by slightly turning to the right, and as your right hand goes to the left, your body goes along with it by slightly turning to the left. See photo 70:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 70

第三十七式 高探馬
Posture 37: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

1.接前式,兩手從左向右雲時,左手向下。雲至胸前,肘靠身體,虎口向上。右手雲至臉前時,由前下落。此時虎口向上,高與胸平,兩臂微屈。在兩手動作時,左足向後撤步。右足隨著右手向前落時,直著落至左足前,足尖著地,與左足成丁字形。兩腿微屈(圖七十一)。
Continuing from the previous posture, while your hands are clouding from left to right, your left hand goes downward, clouding until in front of your chest, elbow close to your body, tiger’s mouth facing upward, and when your right hand clouds in front of your face, it then goes downward from in front, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, until at chest height, and your arms are slightly bent. While your hands move, your left foot withdraws a step, your right foot following it as your right hand goes forward and downward, coming down in front of your left foot, toes touching down pointing straight, making a T-shape with your left foot, legs slightly bent. See photo 71:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 71

2.接著,左手翻成手心向上,右手同時翻成手心向下,停在左手上三四寸的位置,兩手距心口一二寸許。在右手向下翻的同時,右足足尖內扣,並與左足尖相對,足尖著地(圖七十二)。
Continuing, your left hand turns so the palm is facing upward and your right hand turns so the palm is facing downward, stopping three or four inches above your left hand, your hands about one or two inches away from your solar plexus. As your right hand turns to face downward, your right toes twist inward so that they and your left toes are pointing toward each other, toes touching down. See photo 72:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 72

3.接著,兩手一同擰動,手指向上,塌腕,形式與合手式相同的姿勢,同時左足跟提起,微向右擰,與右足相齊。微停(圖七十三)。
Continuing, your hands twist in unison for the fingers to be pointing upward, wrists sinking. The posture is the same as in the CLOSING HANDS posture. At the same time, your left heel lifts and twists slightly to the right to be parallel with your right foot. Slightly pause. See photo 73:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 73

第三十八式 右起腳
Posture 38: RIGHT LIFTING KICK

接前式,兩手如單鞭式分開。在兩手分開的同時踢起右腿,足尖向上,起至與右手相觸。兩眼看著右手,腰微塌。式不停,隨即將右足落下。著地時右腳距左足的遠近,根據個人身體的高矮來定。然後左足隨即向右足併攏,足尖著地,同時兩手往一處合,形式與合手式相同,兩眼向左看,微停(圖七十四)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands spread apart as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. As your hands spread, your right leg kicks, toes pointing upward, lifting to meet your right hand. Your gaze is toward your right hand. Your waist slightly sinks. The posture does not stop there. Your right foot then lowers, coming down at a distance from your left foot according to your height. Then your left foot goes next to your right foot, toes touching down, while your hands close inward toward each other as in the CLOSING HANDS posture. Your gaze is to the left. Slightly pause. See photo 74:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 74

第三十九式 左起腳
Posture 39: LEFT LIFTING KICK

接前式,再將兩手如單鞭式分開,右足踢起、足尖向上,起至與左手相觸,隨即將左足落回原處,足尖著地,同時兩手作合手式。微停(圖七十五)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands again spread apart as in the SINGLE WHIP posture, and your left foot kicks, toes pointing upward, lifting to touch your left hand. Then the foot comes down, returning to its original place, toes touching down, while your hands make the CLOSING HANDS posture. Slightly pause. See photo 75:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 75

第四十式 轉身踢腳
Posture 40: TURN AROUND, KICK

接前式,右足及身體微向左轉,隨將左足踢起,兩手分開,手足相交,眼看左手食指。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot and your body turn slightly to the left, then your left foot kicks, your hands spreading apart, and hand and foot meet. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger.

第四十一式 踐步打捶
Posture 41: STEP SUCCESSIVELY, PUNCH

接前式,左足往前落地,足尖往外斜著。左手於左足落的同時往左胯處摟回,並停住。右手於左足落地時,從後邊向下向前伸出,手心向上,微停,隨將右足往左足前邊邁出一步,橫腳落下。右足再前邁一步,足尖往外斜指。在右足邁出時,左手從左胯處往前伸出,手心向上。右手在左手向前伸出時,往回拉至胸前微停,手心向下。左足向前邁步,足尖向裡扣。在左足向前邁時,左手翻至手心向下握拳,並拉至左胯處。右手亦握拳自右胯向上向後畫弧線經前額處,向左足腕打出。身體隨著往下彎屈,在右拳向後畫弧線時,視線隨著右拳上下彈動。以上各種動作均要一氣貫串,腰要塌住(圖七十六、七十七、七十八、七十九)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down in front, toes slanted outward. As the foot comes down, your left hand brushes back toward your left hip and stops, and your right hand goes downward from behind and extends forward, palm facing upward. Slightly pause. Then your right foot takes a step in front of your left foot, coming down with the toes slanted outward. As your right foot steps out, your left hand extends forward from your left hip, palm facing upward, your right hand pulling back in front of your chest, palm facing downward. Slightly pause. Your left foot steps forward, toes twisted inward. At the same time, your left hand turns so the palm is facing downward, grasps into a fist, and pulls back to your left hip, while your right hand grasps into a fist, goes from your right hip, arcs upward and behind, passes your forehead, and strikes toward your left ankle, your body going along with it by bending down. As your right fist arcs to the rear, watch it as it arcs and then as it suddenly switches from upward to downward. All of the movements above should be continuous and your waist should sink. See photos 76-79:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 76

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 77

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 78

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 79

第四十二式 翻身二起
Posture 42: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK

接前式,先將右足尖往裡扣,同時右拳從額前往後畫一上弧線,拳心朝上,身體隨著往右邊扭轉。右拳隨即落在右胯前邊,同時把右足微往後撤,足尖往外斜指。在右拳往下落時,左手從左胯處往上起再從左臉處往心口前邊摟下去,摟至左胯處停住。在左手往上起時,左足往前邁步,邁至右足前邊落下,足尖向外斜指。右拳從右胯處張開向上向前伸出,手心向外。右足從後邊提起,往前踢出,同時右手向右腳面拍去。手足之高矮與胸平。接著即將右足撤至左足後邊來。此時右手直伸著不動。在右足往後撤的同時,左手向前伸出。右手在前,左手在後,兩手心向裡斜,腰往下塌,微停(圖八十、八十一、八十二、八十三、八十四)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right [left] toes twist inward while your right fist passes in front of your forehead, drawing an arc upward toward the rear, the center of the fist facing upward, and your body goes along with it, twisting around to the right. Your right fist then lowers in front of your right hip, your right foot at the same time slightly withdrawing, the toes slanted outward. When your right fist lowers, your left hand lifts from your left hip, passes the left side of your face, passes in front of your solar plexus, and brushes downward until at your left hip area. As your left hand lifts up, your left foot steps forward, coming down in front of your right foot, toes slanted outward. Your right fist leaves your right hip area, extending upward and forward, palm facing outward. Your right foot lifts from behind and kicks out forward, your right hand at the same time going out to slap the top of the foot. The height of the hand and foot is chest level. Continuing, your right foot promptly withdraws behind your left foot, your right hand staying extended. As your right foot withdraws, your left hand extends forward, right hand in front, left hand behind, both palms facing diagonally inward, and your waist sinks. Slightly pause. See photos 80-84:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 80

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 81

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 82

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 83

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 84

第四十三式 披身伏虎
Posture 43: DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING TIGER

接前式,先將左足撤至右足後邊,兩手隨即握拳往下往回拉。在兩手往回拉時,右足足尖翹起向左扭直。兩手拉回時不停,連續從左胯處往後往上落至小腹處成一圓形,微停。同時左足跟提起略向外扭,兩拳自小腹處張開變掌,提至胸前如合手式。在兩手往上提的同時,右腿略抬起,足尖向外斜著落下,兩腿彎屈,左膝微屈,並靠近右腿內側。在兩手腕往下塌時,腰亦同時下塌。身體直立,眼往前看,微停(圖八十五、八十六、八十七)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot withdraws behind your right foot, then your hands grasp into fists and pull downward and to the rear. As your hands pull back, your right toes lift and the foot pivots to the left to point straight. Your hands do not come to a halt when they pull back, but continue past your left hip, to the rear, upward, and downward to your lower abdomen, making a circle. Slightly pause. Then your left heel lifts and slightly twists outward, while your fists lift from your lower abdomen, becoming palms, until in front of your chest as in the CLOSING HANDS posture. As your hands lift, your right leg slightly lifts, coming down with the toes slanted outward. Both legs are bent, your left knee bending slightly inward to be close to the inside of your right leg. As your wrists sink, your waist does also, but your body stands straight. Your gaze is forward. Slightly pause. See photos 85-87:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 85

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 86

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 87

第四十四式 左踢腳
Posture 44: LEFT KICK

接前式,兩手如單鞭式分開。兩手分開時,左足向左手踢去,手足相觸。眼看左手食指。姿勢與第四十式轉身踢腳相同(圖八十八)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands spread apart as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. As your hands spread apart, your left foot kicks to your left hand, the hand and foot touching each other. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger. The posture is the same as in Posture 40. See photo 88:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 88

第四十五式 右蹬腳
Posture 45: RIGHT PRESSING KICK

接前式,左足不要落地,即將腿屈回,足心微靠右膝,身體向後扭轉一個四分之三的圓圈。左足落下時,兩足尖相對。在身體向後轉的同時,兩手往一處合併,如合手式。右足亦於身體向後轉的同時提起足跟,足尖著地。接著身體轉過來,兩手作單鞭式左右分開,同時右足蹬起。眼看右手食指(圖八十九、九十、九十一)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left leg does not come down, but instead promptly bends and retracts, the sole of the foot slightly nearing your right knee. Your body turns around to the rear, turning three quarters of a circle. When your left foot comes down, the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. As your body turns to the rear, your hands close inward toward each other, as in the CLOSING HANDS posture, and your right heel lifts, the toes touching down. Once your body has finished its turn, your hands make the SINGLE WHIP posture, spreading apart to the sides, and your right foot lifts and does a pressing kick. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. See photos 89-91:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 89

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 90

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 91

第四十六式 上步搬攔捶
Posture 46: STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH

接前式,右足落在前邊,足尖向外斜指,同時左手往下往前伸出,手心向上。右手摟至右胯處,再上左步,足尖要直,同時左手心向下翻,隨將兩手握拳。接著右拳往前打去,左拳屈至右肘下。右足同時跟至左足後寸許,足尖著地。〔圖九十二、九十三、九十四〕
Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down forward, toes slanted outward, while your left hand goes downward and extends forward, palm facing upward, your right hand brushing back until at your right hip area. Then your left foot steps forward, toes pointing straight ahead, as your left hand turns over to face downward. Your hands then grasp into fists, your right fist striking out forward and your left fist bending in until under your right elbow. Your right foot at the same time does a follow step until about an inch behind your left foot, toes touching down. [See photos 92-94:]

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 92

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 93

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 94

第四十七式 如封似閉(解說同第十三式。見圖九十五)。
Posture 47: SEALING SHUT – Same as in Posture 13. See photo 95:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 95

第四十八式 抱虎推山(解說同第十四式。見圖九十六)。
Posture 48: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – Same as in Posture 14. See photo 96:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 96

第四十九式 開手(右轉)(解說同第十五式。見圖九十七)
Posture 49: OPENING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT) – Same as in Posture 15. See photo 97:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 97

第五十式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖九十八)
Posture 50: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 98:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 98

第五十一式 摟膝拗步(解脫同第十七式。見圖九十九、一百)
Posture 51: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE – Same as in Posture 17. See photos 99 & 100:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 99

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 100

第五十二式懶扎衣(解說同第十八式。見圖一〇一、一〇二、一〇三、一〇四、一〇五、一〇六)
Posture 52: TUCK IN THE ROBE – Same as in Posture 18. See photos 101-106:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 101

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 102

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 103

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 104

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 105

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 106

第五十三式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖一〇七)
Posture 53: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 107:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 107

第五十四式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖一〇八)
Posture 54: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 108:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 108

第五十五式 斜單鞭
Posture 55: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

接前式,將左足往左前方邁出,兩手平著分開,與單鞭式相同(圖一〇九)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps to the left forward corner and your hands spread apart. It is the same as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. See photo 109:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 109

第五十六式 野馬分鬃
Posture 56: WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE

接前式,先將左足撤回與右足並齊。在左足往右撤的同時,左手下落。落至小腹處,再往上起;至胸前右邊,再往上起;至眼前再往左邊畫一弧線,一直畫到原起點處,同時左足從右足處往左邊邁出,足尖稍往外指。待左手畫到左邊時,右手亦往下落至小腹處。接著再往上起,從眼前往右邊畫一弧線至原起點處,同時右足先靠攏左足後(足尖著地,兩足距離二三寸許),仍向右邊邁出至原處。此時仍恢復單鞭形式。然後左足向右足前邁出,足尖往外斜著落地,兩腿彎屈。在左足往前邁時,兩手往下往前交叉。兩手手心微向外,左手在上,兩臂微屈。接著兩手向左右分開各畫一圓圈,右手手心翻至向上。左手手心向下至胸前時,兩手相交,並向前推去。同時右足往前邁出。左足跟至離右足後寸許時,足尖落地微停又往後撤,同時左手靠著右手腕一同向右向後平著肩繞至右手心向外。身體重心移至左腿,右足尖翹起,再將兩手一齊向前推出。左足隨著跟至右足後邊二三寸許,足尖著地,眼看右手食指(圖一一〇、一一一、一一二、一一三、一一四、一一五、一一六、一一七、一一八、一一九)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot withdraws to be next to your right foot, your left hand at the same time lowering to your lower abdomen. The hand then lifts to the right side of your chest, then in front of your eyes, then arcs toward the left side, right back to its original place, and at the same time, your left foot goes from your right foot, stepping out to the left side, toes slightly pointed outward. Once your left hand’s arc has reached the left side, your right hand also lowers to your lower abdomen, then again lifts and goes from in front of your eyes to arc back to its original place on the right side. At the same time, your right foot first draws close to your left foot (toes touching down, the distance between the feet about two or three inches), then steps back to its original place on the right side. You have now resumed the SINGLE WHIP posture. Then your left foot steps out in front of your right foot, coming down with the toes slanted outward, legs slightly bent. As your left foot steps forward, your hands go down and forward, crossing with the palms slightly facing outward, left hand on top, arms slightly bent. They then spread apart to the sides and each make a circle, your right palm turning over to face upward. When your left palm, facing downward, is in front of your chest, your hands intersect and carry forward, your right foot at the same time stepping out forward and your left foot doing a follow step to be about an inch behind your right foot. The toes touch down, slightly pause there, and again withdraw. Your left hand at the same time draws close to your right wrist, and together they circle to the right and rear, at shoulder level, until your right palm is facing outward. The weight has shifted to your left leg and your right toes are lifted. Then your hands push out forward together and your left foot does another follow step to be about two or three inches behind your right foot, toes touching down. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. See photos 110-119:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 110

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 111

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 112

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 113

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 114

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 115《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 116

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 117

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 118

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 119

第五十七式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖一二〇)
Posture 57: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 120:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 120

第五十八式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖一二一)
Posture 58: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 121:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 121

第五十九式 單鞭(解說同第五式。見圖一二二)
Posture 59: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 122:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 122

第六十章 右通背掌
Posture 60: RIGHT THROUGH-THE-BACK PALM

接前式,將左手從左邊往上畫一弧線,手背靠住前額,身體往右轉,左足翹起亦隨著右轉,右足亦同時往外扭,足尖往裡微扣,兩足不離原處。右手塌腕不動,眼看右手食指(圖一二三)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand draws an arc upward from the left side and the back of the hand goes close to your forehead. Your body turns to the right, your left toes lifting and going along with the rightward turn, your right foot at the same time twisting outward, but with the toes slightly hooking inward. Your feet do not leave their original location your right hand sinks its wrist but does not otherwise move. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. See photo 123:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 123

第六十一式 玉女穿梭
Posture 61: MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE

1.接前式,右手收回,手腕內側對著胸前。在右手往回抽時,左手手腕裡轉並往下落。落至右手上邊,手心向上,兩肘靠著身體。右足與兩手抽落時,同時亦微往回撤。落地足足尖往外斜指,兩腿微屈,兩眼看左手,不停(圖一二四)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand draws back, the inside of the wrist toward your chest. As your right hand draws back, your left hand, the wrist turning inward so the palm is facing upward, lowers to be above your right hand, both elbows close to your body. As your hands draw back and lower, your right foot slightly withdraws a step, coming down with the toes slanted outward, both legs slightly bent. Your gaze is toward your left hand. The posture does not pause. See photo 124:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 124

2.接著,再左手腕外轉,並往上翻,手背靠著前額,左足往左前方邁出,右足跟步,落在距左足跟二三寸的地方,同時右手放在胸前,並輕輕向前推出,不必太遠;肘部靠著身體(圖一二五)。
Continuing, your left wrist again turns outward, turning over to face upward, the back of the hand close to your forehead. Your left foot steps to the left forward corner and your right foot does a follow step, coming down two or three inches away from your left heel. At the same time, your right hand, placed at your chest, gently pushes out forward, but must not go too far, for your elbows are to stay close to your body. See photo 125:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 125

3.接著,左足裡扣,同時身體右轉,左手往下落,手心向下,手腕內側對著心前。在左手往下落時,右手翻至手心向上,微往上起,兩肘仍靠著身體。然後再右手腕外轉,並往上翻起,手背靠著前額。此時右足往右前方邁去,左足跟步至右足後約二三寸處落地。同時左手從胸前輕輕向前推出,不必太遠;肘部仍靠著身體(圖一二六)。
Continuing, your left foot twists inward, your body at the same time turning around to the right, and your left hand lowers, palm facing downward [to the right], the inside of the wrist against your chest. As your left hand lowers, your right hand turns over until the palm is facing upward, slightly lifting, but keeping both elbows close to your body. Then your right wrist turns outward and lifts up, turning over so the back of the hand is close to your forehead. At the same time, your right foot steps out to the right forward corner and your left foot does a follow step, coming down about two or three inches behind your right foot, while your left hand goes from in front of your chest, slightly pushing forward, but must not go too far so that your elbows remain close to your body. See photo 126:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 126

4.接著,右足稍向前邁,同時右手下落至胸前,手心向下,左手翻至手心向上,並微往上起,兩肘靠著身體,姿勢與1節相同。然後左足往左前方邁去,左手腕外轉,並往上翻起,右足跟步,姿勢與2節相同(圖一二七、一二八)。
Continuing, your right foot steps slightly forward, your right hand at the same time lowering until in front of your chest, the palm facing downward, your left hand turning over so the palm is facing upward and slightly lifting, both elbows close to your body. The posture is the same as in movement 1. Then your left foot steps out to the left forward corner, your left wrist turning outward and turning over upward, and your right foot does a follow step. The posture is the same as in movement 2. See photos 127 & 128:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 127

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 128

5.接著,身體右轉,以下手足動作及姿勢與3節相同,但右足要往正面邁去。左手推出,左肘微彎(圖一二九、一三〇)。
Continuing, your body turns around to the right, and the rest of the movements and postures of the hands and feet are the same as in movement 3, except that this time your right foot should step out directly forward and your left hand pushes out, elbow slightly bent. See photos 129 & 130:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 129

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 130

第六十二式 懶扎衣
(解說同第十八式。見圖一三一、一三二、一三三、一三四、一三五、一三六)
Posture 62: TUCK IN THE ROBE – Same as in Posture 18. See photos 131-136:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 131

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 132

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 133

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 134

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 135

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 136

第六十三式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖一三七)
Posture 63: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 137:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 137

第六十四式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖一三八)
Posture 64: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 138:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 138

第六十五式 單鞭(解說同第五式。見圖一三九)
Posture 65: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 139:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 139

第六十六式 雲手(解說同第三十六式。見圖一四〇、一四一)
Posture 66: CLOUDING HANDS – Same as in Posture 36. See photos 140 & 141 [141 & 70]:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 141

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 70

第六十七式 雲手下勢
Posture 67: LOWERING FROM CLOUDING HANDS

接前式,待兩手雲至右邊時,右手心翻轉向上,左手仍向上畫一弧線,並落至右胯處。右手隨即平著向前推出,腕要下塌。右足隨右手向前推時,跟至左足後約一寸的地方落地。左手向前從右手背上推出,右手同時拉回至右胯處。在兩手動作的同時,左足直著向前邁出,兩腿要彎屈。身體重心移至右腿,眼看左手(圖一四二、一四三、一四四)。
Continuing from the previous posture, from the CLOUDING HANDS on the right side, your right palm turns to face upward as your left hand continues its arc and lowers to your right hip. Your right hand then pushes out straight ahead. Your waist should sink. Your right foot goes along with your right hand as it pushes forward, coming down about an inch behind your left foot. Your left hand pushes forward from over the top of your right hand, your right hand at the same time pulling back to your right hip. During the movement of your hands, your left foot steps forward, pointing straight ahead. Your legs should be bent and the weight is on your right leg. Your gaze is toward your left hand. See photos 142-144:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 142

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 143

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 144

第六十八式 更雞獨立
Posture 68: ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG

1.接前式,右手從右胯處向前向上提起,手指與耳齊,同時右腿貼著左腿向上提,足尖上翹,足跟下蹬,塌腰。在右手向上提起的同時,左手畫下弧線,向下落至左胯處,手指向下。微停(圖一四五)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand goes forward and upward from your right hip until the fingers are at ear level. At the same time, your right leg lifts up, staying close to your left leg, toes raised up, heel pressed down, waist sinking. As your right hand lifts, your left hand draws an arc downward, lowering to your left hip, fingers pointing downward. Slightly pause. See photo 145:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 145

2.接著將右足微向前落下,腿仍彎屈,塌腰,身體要直,同時右手往下畫弧線,落至右胯處,手尖向下。左手從左胯處向上抬起,抬至手尖與耳齊。這時左腿貼著右腿向上提,姿勢均與1節右腿抬起相同(圖一四六)。
Continuing, your right foot comes down slightly forward, leg still bent, waist sinking, though your body should be upright. At the same time, your right hand draws an arc downward, lowering to your right hip, fingers pointing downward, as your left hand lifts up from your left hip until the fingers are at ear level, and your left leg lifts, staying close to your right leg. The posture is the same as with the right leg lifting in movement 1. See photo 146:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 146

第六十九式 倒攆猴
(解說同第二十三、二十四式。見圖一四七、一四八、一四九、一五〇)
Posture 69: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY – Same as in Postures 23 & 24. See photos 147-150:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 147

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 148

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 149

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 150

第七十式 手揮琵琶(右式見圖一五一)
Posture 70: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)

接前式,手足動作與第十一式相同,惟左右相反。
Continuing from the previous posture, the movement is the same as in Posture 11, except the orientations are reversed. See photo 151:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 151

第七十一式 白鶴亮翅(解說同第七式。見圖一五二、一五三)
Posture 71: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS – Same as in Posture 7. See photos 152 & 153 [& 17]:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 152

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 153

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 17

第七十二式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖一五四)
Posture 72: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 154:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 154

第七十三式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖一五五)
Posture 73: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 155:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 155

第七十四式 摟膝拗步(解脫同第十式。見圖一五六、一五七)
Posture 74: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE – Same as in Posture 10. See photos 156 & 157:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 156

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 157

第七十五式 手揮琵琶(解說同第十一式。見圖一五八)
Posture 75: PLAY THE LUTE – Same as in Posture 11. See photo 158:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 158

第七十六式 三通背
(解說同第三十一式。見圖一五九、一六〇、一六一、一六二、一六三、一六四、一六五、一六六)
Posture 76: THREE THROUGH THE BACK – Same as in Posture 31. See photos 159-166 [160-166 & 61-65]:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 160

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 161

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 162

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 163

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 164

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 165

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 166

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 61

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 63

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 62

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 64

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 65

第七十七式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖一六七)
Posture 77: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 167:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 167

第七十八式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖一六八)
Posture 78: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 168:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 168

第七十九式 單鞭(解說同第五式。見圖一六九)
Posture 79: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 169:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 169

第八十式 雲手(解說同第三十六式。見圖一七〇、一七一)
Posture 80: CLOUDING HANDS – Same as in Posture 36. See photos 170 & 171 [171 & 70]:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 171

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 70

第八十一式 高探馬
Posture 81: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

1.架子與第三十七式第一節相同(圖一七二)。
The posture is the same as in Posture 37, section 1. See photo 172:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 172

2.右足尖向外轉至足跟與左足尖相齊,並斜著落地,同時左手翻成手心向上,右手翻成手心向下,並扣在左手上,兩手心上下相距約三四寸,兩手在胸前約一二寸(圖一七三)。
Your right foot turns outward so the heel is next to your left toes and comes down with the toes slanted outward. At the same time, your left hand turns so the palm faces upward and your right hand turns so the palm faces downward, covering your left hand. The palms face each other about three or four inches apart, your hands about one or two inches in front of your chest. See photo 173:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 173

3.左足向前扣成足尖相對,兩手仍在胸前,並換成右手心向上,左手心向下。兩腿同時往下微屈,兩手腕轉成交叉形,左手拇指微靠前胸(圖一七四、一七五)。
Your left foot goes forward and twists in so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. Your hands remain in front of your chest, but flip so the right palm is facing upward, left palm facing downward. Your legs go downward with a slight bending as your hands turn to cross at the wrists, your left thumb slightly nearing your chest. See photos 174 & 175:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 174

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 175

第八十二式 十字擺蓮
Posture 82: CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK

接前式,右腿抬起,足背向下挺勁,足心在左膝上邊,距腿寸許,同時兩手如單鞭式,左右分開,眼看前方(圖一七六)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg lifts, the top of the foot urging downward, the sole of the foot above your left knee and about an inch away. At the same time, your hands spread apart to the sides as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. Your gaze is forward. See photo 176:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 176

第八十三式 進步指𦡁捶
Posture 83: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

接前式,眼轉看前下方,兩手隨即往前伸出,又往一處合併,左手扣在右手腕上,右手握拳向前伸,眼看右手。當兩手向前隨伸隨並的同時,右足先往前邁出,再邁左足,接著再邁右足,並直著落地。左足跟在右足後約一寸的地方,足尖落地,身體成三折迭形。在邁步時,身體好像飛鳥從樹上夾著羽膀斜往下沖落之勢(圖一七七)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your gaze turns to look forward and downward. Your hands then extend forward, again joining together, your left hand covering your right wrist, your right hand grasping into a fist and extending forward. Your gaze is toward your right hand. As your hands go forward, extending and joining, your right foot steps out forward, then your left foot steps, then your right foot steps again, coming down pointed straight ahead, and your left foot follows to be about an inch behind your right foot, toes touching down. Your body is making a posture of triple folding [bending at the hips, knees, and ankles]. When stepping, your body is like a flying bird leaving a tree and drawing in its wings as it heads diagonally downward to quickly land on the ground. See photo 177:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 177

第十八四式 退步懶扎衣
Posture 84: RETREAT, TUCK IN THE ROBE

接前式,左足先往後撤,右足尖翹起,同時右手心向上平著向右向後畫一半圓圈,左手隨著右手轉至右手心向外,左手扶著右腕向前推出(圖一七八、一七九、一八〇)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot withdraws, your right toes lift, and your right palm turns to face upward, makes a level half circle to the right and rear, your left hand going along with your right hand’s arc until your right palm is facing outward, then with your left hand supporting your right wrist, push out forward. See photos 178-180:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 178

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 179

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 180

第八十五式 開手(解說同第三式。見圖一八一)
Posture 85: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 181:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 181

第八十六式 合手(解說同第四式。見圖一八二)
Posture 86: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 182:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 182

第八十七式 單鞭(解說同第五式。見圖一八三)
Posture 87: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 183:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 183

第八十八式 單鞭下勢
Posture 88: LOWERING FROM SINGLE WHIP

接前式,先使右手手心翻向下方,屈臂至右胯處,左手心向下,與右手同時往下落,身體與兩手同時往下坐,重心移至右腿,眼看左手食指(圖一八四)。
Continuing from the previous posture, first your right palm turns to face downward and then the arm bends until the hand is at your right hip, and your left palm faces downward, lowering at the same time as your right palm. Your body sits down as your hands lower, the weight on your right leg. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger. See photo 184:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 184

第八十九式 上步七星
Posture 89: STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER

接前式,右手先從右胯處畫下弧線,向左手腕下邊伸出,兩腕相交成Ⅹ字形,並收回胸前約三四寸的地方,手指向上。在右手推出時,左足向前微移,同時右足跟在左足後邊約一寸的地方,足尖著地。兩腿彎屈,上體要直,腰要下塌(圖一八五)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand first arcs from your right hip area to extend out from under your left wrist, your wrists crossing to make an X-shape, and together withdraw to be about three or four inches in front of your chest, fingers pointing upward. As your right hand pushes out, your left foot slightly shifts forward, and your right foot follows to be about an inch behind your left foot, toes touching down. Your legs are slightly bent, your upper body should be upright, and your waist should sink. See photo 185:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 185

第九十式 退步跨虎
Posture 90: STEP BACK TO RIDE THE TIGER

接前式,兩手分開,左手向下摟至左胯處停住,同時右手轉至手心向上,接著就往下落,向右後側畫一圓圈,至前額處,手心向下,按至小腹處,同時右足後撤,足尖向外微斜。在右手往下按時,左足直著撤至距右足一寸左右的地方,足尖著地。右手往下按時,同時屈腿塌腰。然後右手心仍向下,並往上抬到胸前。左腿隨著右手往上抬,足尖翹著,身體與手足亦同時往上起(圖一八六、一八七)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands spread apart, your left hand lowering and brushing back to your left hip, your right palm turning to face upward, then lowering and drawing a circle to the right, rear, side, until by your forehead, palm facing downward, and pushing down to the area of your lower abdomen. At the same time, your right foot withdraws, coming down with the toes slanted outward. As your right hand pushes down, your left foot withdraws straight back until an inch away from your right foot, toes touching down, your legs bending, your waist sinking. Then your right hand, palm still facing downward, lifts up in front of your chest. Your left leg goes along with your right hand and lifts, toes raised. Body, hand, and foot all lift in unison. See photos 186 & 187:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 186

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 187

第九十一式 轉角擺蓮
Posture 91: TURN-TO-THE-CORNER SWINGING LOTUS KICK

接前式,身體右轉。轉時,右足跟提起,並隨著身體扭轉。約轉到四十五度時左足落下,兩足尖相對,右足直著向上提,並向右邊擺出,同時左足尖翹起,向右扭轉。在右足向右擺的同時,兩手拍右膝(左手先拍,右手後拍)。接著右足向右後方落下,兩手心向上翻,並靠住肋側。此式身體是轉一整圓圈(圖一八八、一八九)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your body turns around to the right. When turning, your right heel lifts and goes along with the rightward turn of your body, your left foot coming down when your right foot has turned about forty-five degrees, the toes of both feet pointing toward each other. Your right foot immediately lifts up and swings out to the right, your left toes at the same time lifting for the foot to pivot to the right. As your right foot swings to the right, your hands slap your right knee (left hand first, then right hand), then your right foot comes down to the right rear and your palms turn to face upward, close beside your ribs. In this posture, your body turns a complete circle. See photos 188 & 189:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 188

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 189

第九十二式 彎弓射虎
Posture 92: BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER

接前式,兩手同時伸出,手掌隨伸隨翻,手心向下,高與肩平,兩臂微屈。身體重心隨著移至右腿,眼看兩手中間(圖一九〇)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands extend forward at the same time, palms extending and turning over to face downward at shoulder level, arms slightly bent, the weight shifting to your right leg. Your gaze goes between your hands. See photo 190:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 190

第九十三式 雙撞捶
Posture 93: DOUBLE RUSHING PUNCHES

接前式,左足撤至右足處,足尖著地,兩手握拳,手背向上,拉回至胸前。隨後左足向前邁出,兩拳隨著向前撞出,兩臂微屈,同時右足跟步,足尖向外斜著落地,距左足跟約二三寸。兩腿彎屈,腰下塌。微停(圖一九一、一九二)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot withdraws until it is beside your right foot, toes touching down. Your hands grasp into fists, the backs of the hands facing upward, and pull in until they are in front of your chest. Then your left foot steps forward, and your fists rush out forward, arms slightly bent. At the same time, your right foot does a follow step, coming down with the toes slanted outward about two or three inches away from your left heel. Your legs are bent and your waist sinks. Slightly pause. See photos 191 & 192:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 191

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 192

第九十四式 陰陽混一
Posture 94: PASSIVE & ACTIVE MERGE INTO ONE

接前式,兩拳隨著身體向右轉,隨轉隨向裡裹,裹至手心向上。右拳靠在左腕處,兩肘靠著肋。在兩拳向裡裹的同時,左足向裡扭轉,右足後撤。兩足距離的遠近隨人的高矮來定。落地時足尖向外指,隨將左拳由右腕下邊向外挽去,挽至右拳外腕與右拳及腕的內側相觸,腰向下塌,兩腿稍屈,兩手腕一齊向外扭轉,高與胸平,成一叉字形,兩腕距胸前約三四寸。在兩腕向外扭時,左足足尖翹起,並微向前移動。此時重心放在右腿上,兩肘下垂,兩腿彎屈,眼看兩拳中間,微停(圖一九三、一九四)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your fists go along with your body as it turns to the right, turning and wrapping inward until the palms are facing upward, your right fist close to your left wrist, elbows close to your ribs. As your fists wrap inward, your left foot twists inward and your right foot withdraws, the distance between your feet depending on your height, your right foot coming down with the toes slanted outward. Then your left fist rolls outward from under your right wrist, touching with the inside of the wrist to the outside of your right wrist. Your waist sinks and your legs are slightly bent. Your wrists twist outward in unison at chest level, making an X-shape, about three or four inches away from your chest. When your wrists twist outward, your left toes lift and the foot slightly shifts forward, the weight now on your right leg. Your elbows are hanging down and your legs are bent. Your gaze goes between your fists. Slightly pause. See photos 193 & 194:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 193

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 194

第九十五式 收式
Posture 95: FINISHING POSTURE

接前式,兩手同時離開,分向左右胯落下,兩手心分別靠著兩腿側,同時左足靠攏右足,兩足跟相觸,兩足成九十度,同時身體直立,還原(圖一九五)。
Continuing from the previous posture, your hands in unison spread apart to the sides and lower toward your hips so the palms are beside your thighs. At the same time, your left foot draws close to your right foot, heels touching, feet making a ninety degree angle, your body straightening up. You have returned to the original position. See photo 195:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - photo 195

下編 太極拳推手法
PART TWO: TAIJI BOXING’S PUSHING HANDS METHODS

一切拳術,都包含著“體”和“用”兩部分。但“體”、“用”是互相關聯的,練“體”就包含著“用”,練“用”也離不開“體”。本書上編各式,是太極拳的“體”,是知己工夫,雖然“用”在其中,但單人練習,不易找到“用”的妙處。本編推手法,是以“用”為主,是知人工夫。太極拳的用法有八,即掤、捋、擠、按、採、挒、肘、靠。練習推手時,二人相對,先以掤、捋、擠和按四手為基本練法,耐心操練,細心體會,待練到“不丟不頂”,“粘連黏隨”,手足靈活,內外相合,才能得到“引進落空”和“四兩撥千斤”的勁。到此時將能通體虛靈,圓活無礙,變化無窮,太極拳的“體”“用”也可以說是兼備了。
All boxing arts have two aspects: form and function. However, form and function are interrelated, for the training of form embodies function and the training of function cannot be separated from form. The postures in Part One of this book comprise Taiji Boxing in terms of form. The solo set is the practice of knowing the self. Although the function is within it, it is however a solo practice, and so it is not easy to find the subtleties of the function. This section of pushing hands methods emphasizes function. Pushing hands is the practice of knowing the opponent.
     There are eight techniques of function in Taiji Boxing: warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping. When practicing pushing hands, two people face other, first using the four techniques of warding off, rolling back, pressing and pushing as the basic training method, patiently drilling them until they are meticulously understood. Once your training has achieved the qualities of “neither coming away nor crashing in”, “stick, connect, adhere, and follow”, your hands and feet moving with nimbleness, inside and outside joined together, then you will be able to reach the point of “guiding him in to land on nothing” and “four ounces moving a thousand pounds”. When you reach this point, your whole body will be able to move naturally, with an unobstructed liveliness, adapting limitlessly, and you will be able to say your Taiji Boxing has both form and function.

一、靜步推手法起點
1. STARTING POSITION FOR FIXED-STEP PUSHING HANDS

(一)甲乙二人對面站立相距約兩步(圖一)。
i. Persons A and B stand facing each other about two steps apart. See photo 1:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - push 1

(二)甲先進左足,左手在前,手心向後,右手心放在左小臂上,右手腕離胸前約四五寸(圖二)。
ii. A [on the right in these photos], begin by advancing with your left foot, left hand forward, palm facing to the rear, right palm placed on your left forearm, right wrist about four or five inches in front of your chest, as in photo 2:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - push 2

(三)乙與甲的動作相同。
iii. B, your movement is the same as A’s.

二、乙捋手、甲擠手
2. B – ROLLING BACK, A – PRESSING

甲先將右手伸向乙的面前。乙即將右手輕輕扣住甲的右手腕,同時左手由甲的右臂下繞到上邊,也輕輕扣在甲的右肘上邊,兩手一齊向右前方捋去。
甲接著伸直右臂,手腕向裡裹,裹至手心向裡,同時左手向自己的右小臂擠去,兩眼看著乙的眼。注意:推手舉動均採用意,不要用力,以後均同此(圖三)。
A, first extend your right hand toward B’s face.
     B, lightly cover A’s right wrist with your right hand while your left hand coils around from under her right arm to lightly cover her right elbow, and roll back to the forward right with both hands.
     A, continue by extending your right arm, wrist twisting inward until the palm is facing inward, while your left hand goes to your own right forearm, and press out, your gaze toward B’s eyes.
     (Pay attention that the pushing hands movements are even and use intention instead of exertion, and that it be so for the following movements the same as here.) See photo 3:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - push 3

三、乙掤手、按手
3. B – WARDING OFF & PUSHING

在甲用擠手時,乙將兩手隨著身體向後撤回,不丟不頂,前足尖翹起。待甲使出力量以後再按。
乙接著將兩手向甲的左臂按去,右手按在甲的右手背上,左手按住甲的右肘(圖四)。
B, while A presses, let your hands go along with your body as it withdraws to the rear, neither coming away nor crashing in, your front toes lifting. Wait for her force to express and then push down. Continue by sending both hands toward her left arm and push out, your right hand pushing on the back of her right hand, your left hand pushing at her right elbow. See photo 4 [5]:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - push 5

四、甲捋手、乙擠手
4. A – ROLLING BACK, B – PRESSING

甲待乙的兩手按來時,隨著向後縮身,同時左手輕輕扣住乙的左手腕,右手從乙的左臂下向上轉,也輕輕扣在乙的左肘上,兩手一齊往左前方捋去。
乙接著伸直左臂,手腕向裡裹,裹至手心向裡,同時右手向自己的左小臂擠去,眼看甲的眼(圖五)。
A, wait for B’s push to come out, then go along with it by shrinking your body to the rear, lightly covering his left wrist with your left hand as your right hand coils around from under his left arm to lightly cover his left elbow, and roll back to the forward left with both hands.
     B, continue by extending your left arm, wrist twisting inward until the palm is facing inward, while your right hand goes to your own left forearm to press out, your gaze toward A’s eyes. See photo 5 [4]:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - push 4

五、甲掤手、按手
5. A – WARDING OFF & PUSHING

在乙擠手時,甲的兩手隨著身體一齊往後撤縮,前足尖翹起。待乙的力量使出後再按(圖六)。
A, while B presses, let your hands go along with your body as it withdraws to the rear, your front toes lifting. Wait for his force to express and then push down. See photo 6:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - push 6

甲接著將兩手向乙的右臂按去。右手按住乙的右手背。左手按住乙的右肘(圖七)。
按以上順序,循環推運。
A, continue by sending both hands toward B’s right arm and push out, your right hand pushing on the back of his right hand, your left hand pushing at his right elbow. (This push then continues the sequence and the pushing hands movements recycle.) See photo 7:

《太極拳》 孫劍雲 (1957) - push 7

六、推手換式法
6. THE METHOD OF SWITCHING FEET

由左式如欲換成右式(即二人都是右足在前),似乙用捋手時,甲不用擠手,改用自己的右手將乙的右手往後帶,左手繞在乙的右肘上邊,如同左式的捋法捋去。同時將左足撤至右足後邊落下。乙即進右足用擠法。以後甲再掤按,乙再捋。循環練習。這是初學推手的換式法。俟熟習後,可以隨便更換。
If you wish to switch from the left posture to the right (i.e. so that you both have your right foot forward):
     A, when B rolls back, do not press, instead use your own right hand to lead his right hand to the rear, your left hand coiling around to be on his right elbow, and do a rollback outward, same as in the rollback technique on the left side. At the same time, withdraw your left foot and bring it down behind your right foot.
     B, now advance with your right foot and apply a press.
     Then A again wards off and pushes, and B again rolls back. The practice then recycles. This is the method of switching the feet in the beginning stage of pushing hands. One it has become familiar, you can switch as you please.

七、活步推手法
7. THE MOVING-STEP METHOD

靜步熟悉後,可以練習活步。手法與靜步相同。惟向前進步時,先進前足;往後退步時,先退後足。向前進三步,往後退三步,進退步法要與上體手法相合。往前上步的人,是按、擠二式;往後退步的人,是掤、捋二式。往來返復,循環推打。這也是初學入門的式子,熟悉後,自能隨機應變,不受成法所拘。
Once the fixed-step version has become familiar, you can practice with moving steps. The hand techniques are the same as in the fixed-step version, except that when you advance, you first advance with your front foot, and when you retreat, you first retreat with your rear foot. Advance three steps, retreat three steps, and the advancing and retreating footwork should coordinate with the upper body’s hand techniques. The person stepping forward is doing push and press. The person stepping back is doing ward-off and rollback. Go back and forth, recycling these techniques. This is the version for beginners, and once it is familiar, you can then adjust as the situation requires, without any rules to restrict you.

附參考資料
APPENDIX: REFERENCE MATERIAL

一、王宗岳:太極拳論
1. WANG ZONGYUE’S TAIJI BOXING TREATISE

太極者,無極而生;動靜之機,陰陽之母也,動之則分,靜之則合。無過不及,隨曲就伸。人剛我柔謂之走,我順人背謂之黏。動急則急應,動緩則緩隨。雖變化萬端,而理惟一貫。由著熟而漸悟懂勁,由懂勁而階及神明。然非用功之久,不能豁然貫通焉。虛靈頂勁,氣沉丹田。不偏不倚,忽隱忽現。左重則左虛,右重則右杳。仰之則彌高,俯之則彌深。進之則愈長,退之則愈促。一羽不能加,蠅虫不能落。人不知我,我獨知人。英雄所向無敵,蓋皆由此而及也。斯技旁門甚多,雖勢有區別,概不外乎壯欺弱,慢讓快耳。有力打無力,手慢讓手快,是皆先天自然之能,非關學力而有所為也。察四兩撥千斤之句,顯非力勝。視耄耋能禦眾之形,快何能為?立如平準,活似車輪。偏沉則隨,雙重則滯。每見數年純功不能運化者,皆自為人制,卒不能制人,則雙重之病未悟耳。欲避此病,須知陰陽。黏即是走,走即是黏。陽不離陰,陰不離陽,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁。懂勁後,愈練愈精,默識揣摩,漸至從心所欲。本是舍己從人、多誤捨近求遠。所謂差之毫釐,謬之千里,學者不可不詳辨焉。
Taiji [“grand polarity”] is born of wuji [“nonpolarity”]. It is the manifestation of movement and stillness, and the mother of yin and yang [the passive and active aspects]. When there is movement, they [passive and active] become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable.
     Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend. He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking. If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow. Although there is an endless variety of possible scenarios, there is only this single principle [of yielding and sticking] throughout.
     Once you have engrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.
     With your headtop pressing up naturally and energy sinking down to your elixir field, there will be no leaning in any direction. Suddenly vanish then suddenly manifest. If he puts pressure on my left side, my left side empties, or if he puts pressure on my right side, my right side disappears. If he tries to find me above, he has to keep reaching higher, or if he tries to find me below, he has to keep reaching lower. When he advances, he cannot get to me, but once he retreats, he cannot get away from me. A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land. He does not know me, only I know him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.
     There are many other schools of martial arts besides this one. Although the postures are different between them, they generally do not go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast. The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability and bear no relation to skill that is learned. Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.
     Standing like a scale, move like a wheel. If you drop one side, you can move, but if you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck. We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is generally under the opponent’s control rather than able to control the opponent, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood.
     If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active. In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies. Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.
     The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent. We often make the mistake of ignoring what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances. For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” You must understand all this clearly.

長拳者,如長江大海滔滔不絕也。十三勢者:掤、捋、擠、按、採、挒、肘、靠,此八卦也;進步、退步、左顧、右盼、中定,此五行也。合而言之:十三勢。掤、捋、擠、按即坎、離、震、兌,四方也;採、挒、肘、靠即乾、艮、巽、坤,四斜角也;進、退、顧、盼、定,即金、木、水、火、土也。
Long Boxing: it is like a long river flowing into the wide ocean, on and on ceaselessly…
     The thirteen dynamics are: warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping – relating to the eight trigrams:

☴☲☷
☳    ☱
☶☵☰

plus advancing, retreating, stepping to the left, stepping to the right, and staying in the center – relating to the five elements. These combined [8+5] are called the Thirteen Dynamics. Warding off, rolling back, pressing, and pushing correspond to ☵, ☲, ☳, and ☱ in the four principle compass directions [meaning simply that these are the primary techniques]. Plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping correspond to ☰, ☶, ☴, and ☷ in the four corner directions [i.e. are the secondary techniques]. Advancing, retreating, stepping to the left, stepping to the right, and staying in the center relate to metal, wood, water, fire, and earth.

二、武禹襄:太極拳論
2. WU YUXIANG’S TAIJI BOXING TREATISE

未有天地以前,太空無窮之中,渾然一氣,乃為無極。無極而太極。太極者,天地之根荄,萬物之原始也。太極拳者,一舉動,周身俱要輕靈,尤要貫串。氣宜鼓蕩,神宜內斂。無使有缺陷處,無使有凸凹處,無使有斷續處。其根在腳,發於腿,主宰于腰,形於手指。由腳而腿而腰,總須完整一氣。向前退後,乃能得機得勢。若有不得機得勢處,身便散亂。其病必於腰腿間求之。上下前後左右皆然。凡此皆是在意,不在外面而在內也。有上即有下,有前即有後,有左即有右,如意要向上即寓下意。若將物掀起而加以銼之之意。斯其根自斷,乃攘之速之而無疑。虛實宜分清楚。一處自有一處虛實,處處總此一虛實。周身節節貫串,無令絲毫間斷耳。(原注云:此係武當山張三丰老師遺論,欲天下豪傑延年益壽,不徒作武藝之末也)。
Before there was a universe, within the infinity of space was the single indistinct energy of nonpolarity [wuji]. From nonpolarity came the grand polarity [taiji], which is the foundation of the universe and the origin of all things.
     In Taiji Boxing, once there is any movement, your entire body should be nimble and alert. There especially needs to be connection from movement to movement. Energy should be roused and spirit should be collected within. Do not allow there to be cracks or gaps anywhere, pits or protrusions anywhere, breaks in the flow anywhere. Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a fully continuous process, and whether advancing or retreating, you will then be able to catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand. If not and your body easily falls into disorder, the problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there. This is always so, regardless of the direction of the movement, be it up, down, forward, back, left, right. And in all of these cases, the problem is a matter of your intent. It is internal and does not lie outside of you.
     With an upward comes a downward, with a forward comes a backward, and with a left comes a right. If your intention wants to go upward, then harbor a downward intention, like when you reach down to lift up an object. You thereby add a setback to the opponent’s own intention, thus he cuts his own root and is defeated quickly and certainly. Empty and full must be distinguished clearly. In each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full. Everywhere it is always like this, an emptiness and a fullness. Throughout your body, as the movement goes from one section to another there has to be connection. Do not allow the slightest break in the connection.
     (This relates to the theory left to us from Zhang Sanfeng of Mt. Wudang. He wanted all the heroes in the world to live long and not merely gain martial skill.)

三、十三勢行功心解
3. UNDERSTANDING HOW TO PRACTICE THE THIRTEEN DYNAMICS

以心行氣,務令沉著,乃能收斂入骨。以氣運身,務令順道,乃能便利從心。精神能提得起,則無遲重之虞,所謂頂頭懸也。意氣須換得靈,乃有圓活之趣,所謂變化虛實是也。發勁須沉著鬆靜,專注一方。立身須中正安舒,支撐八面,行氣如九曲珠,無微不到,運勁如百煉鋼。無堅不摧。形如搏兔之鶻,神如捕鼠之貓。靜如山岳,動如江河。蓄勁如張弓,發勁如放箭。曲中求直,蓄而後發。力由脊發,步隨身換。收卽是放,放即是收,斷而復連,往復須有折迭,進退須有轉換。極柔軟然後極堅硬,能呼吸然後能靈活。氣以直養而無害,勁以曲蓄而有餘。心為令,氣為旗,腰為纛。先求開展,後求緊湊,方臻於縝密也。
Use mind to move the energy. You must get the energy to sink. It is then able to collect in the bones. Use energy to move your body. You must get the energy to be smooth. Your body can then easily obey your mind.
     If you can raise your spirit, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song]: “Your whole body will be nimble and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.” The mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the qualities of roundness and liveliness. Thus it is said [also in the Song]: “Pay attention to the alternation of empty and full.”
     When issuing power, you must sink and relax, concentrating it in one direction. Your posture must be upright and comfortable, bracing in all directions.
     Move energy as though through a winding-path pearl, penetrating even the smallest nook. Wield power like tempered steel, so strong there is nothing tough enough to stand up against it.
     The shape is like a falcon capturing a rabbit. The spirit is like a cat pouncing on a mouse.
     In stillness, be like a mountain, and in movement, be like a river.
     Store power like drawing a bow. Issue power like loosing an arrow.
     Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue.
     Power comes from the spine. Step according to your body’s adjustments.
     To gather is to release and to release is to gather. Disconnect but stay connected.
     In the back and forth [of the arms], there must be folding. In the advance and retreat [of the feet], there must be variation.
     Extreme softness begets extreme hardness. Your ability to be nimble lies in your ability to breathe.
     By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted. By storing power in crooked parts, it will be in abundant supply.
     The mind makes the command, the energy is its flag, and the waist is its banner.
     First strive to open up, then strive to close up, and from there you will be able to attain a refined subtlety.

又曰:先在心,後在身,腹鬆凈,氣斂入骨髓。神舒體靜,刻刻在心。切記,一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜。牽動往來,氣貼肌背,斂入脊骨。內固精神,多示安逸。邁步如貓行,運勁如抽絲。全身意在精神。不在氣;在氣則滯。有氣者帶力,無氣者純剛,氣若車輪,腰若車軸也。
It is also said:
     First in the mind, then in the body.
     With your abdomen relaxed, energy gathers in your marrow. Spirit comfortable, body calm – at every moment be mindful of this.
     Always remember: if one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.
     As the movement leads back and forth, energy sticks to and gathers in your spine.
     Inwardly bolster spirit and outwardly show ease.
     Step like a cat and move energy as if drawing silk.
     Throughout your body, your mind should be on the spirit rather than on the energy, for if you are fixated on the energy, your movement will become sluggish. Whenever your mind is on the energy, there will be no power, whereas if you ignore the energy and let it take care of itself, there will be pure strength.
     The energy is like a wheel and the waist is like an axle.

四、十三勢歌訣
4. THIRTEEN DYNAMICS SONG

十三總勢莫輕視,命意源頭在腰隙。
變轉虛實須留意,氣遍身軀不少滯。
靜中觸動動猶靜,因敵變化示神奇。
勢勢存心揆用意,得來不覺費工夫。
刻刻留心在腰間,腹內鬆凈氣騰然。
尾閭中正神貫頂,滿身輕利頂頭懸。
仔細留心向推求,屈伸開合聽自由。
入門引路須口授,工夫無息法自修。
若言體用何為準,意氣君來骨肉臣。
想推用意終何在,益壽延年不老春。
歌兮歌兮百四十,字字真切義無遺。
若不向此推求去,枉費工夫貽嘆惜。
Do not neglect any of the thirteen dynamics,
their command coming from your lower back.
You must pay attention to the alternation of empty and full,
then energy will flow through your whole body without getting stuck anywhere.
     In stillness, movement stirs, and then in moving, seem yet to be in stillness,
for the magic lies in making adjustments based on being receptive to the opponent.
In every movement, very deliberately control it by the use of intention,
for once you achieve that, it will all be effortless.
     At every moment, pay attention to your waist,
for if there is complete relaxation within your belly, energy is primed.
Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop,
thus your whole body will be aware and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.
     Pay careful attention in your practice that you are letting bending and extending, contracting and expanding, happen as the situation requires.
Beginning the training requires personal instruction,
but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.
     Whether we are discussing in terms of theory or function, what is the constant?
It is that mind is sovereign and body is subject.
If you think about it, what is emphasizing the use of intention going to lead you to?
To a longer life and a longer youth.
     Repeatedly recite the words above,
all of which speak clearly and hence their ideas come through without confusion.
If you pay no heed to those ideas, you will go astray in your training,
and you will find you have wasted your time and be left with only sighs of regret.

五、推手歌訣
5. PUSHING HANDS SONG

掤捋擠按須認真,上下相隨人難進。
任他巨力來打我,牽動四兩撥千斤。
引進落空合即出,粘連綿隨不丟頂。
Ward-off, rollback, press, and push must be taken seriously.
With coordination between above and below, the opponent will hardly find a way in.
I will let him attack me with as much power as he likes,
for I will tug with four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds.
Guiding him in to land on nothing, I then close on him and send him away.
I stick to him and go along with his movement instead of coming away or crashing in.

六、李亦畬:五字訣
6. LI YIYU’S FIVE-WORD FORMULA

心靜
[1] The mind is CALM.

心不靜則不專,一舉手,前後左右,全無定向,故要心靜,起初舉動未能由己,要息心體認,隨人所動,隨曲就伸,不丟不頂,勿自伸縮。彼有力,我亦有力,我力在先。彼無力,我亦有力,我意仍在先。要刻刻留心,挨何處,心要用在何處,須向不丟不頂中討消息。從此做去,日積月累,便能施之於身。此全是用意,不是用勁,久之則人為我制,我不為人制矣。
If your mind is not calm, it will not be focused, and each movement of your hands, be it forward or back, left or right, will not be in any definite direction. Therefore your mind should be calm. At first your movement will not yet be able to come from yourself, and so you should clear your mind and let your body intuit, going along with the opponent’s movements. Bend and then extend, neither coming away nor crashing in, and do not expand and contract on your own. When the opponent has power, I also have power, but my power beats him to the punch. When he has no power, I also have no power, for it is my intention that beats him to the decision. You should constantly pay attention. Wherever the opponent nears you, your mind should go there. You must neither come away nor crash in, and then you will be able to analyze what is going on. After doing this for about a year or so, it will become a natural part of you. This is entirely a matter of using intention and is not a matter of using strength. Over time, you will reach the point in which you can say “he is under my control and I am not under his”.

身靈
[2] The body is LIVELY.

身滯則進退不能自如,故要身靈。舉手不可有呆像,彼之力方覺侵我皮毛,我之意已入彼骨裡。兩手支撐,一氣貫串,左重則左虛,而右已去,右重則右虛,而左已去。氣如車輪,周身俱要相隨,有不相隨處,身便散亂,便不得力,其病於腰腿,求之。先以心使身,從人不從己,後使身能從心,由己仍從人。由己則滯,從人則活,能從人,手上便有分寸,量彼勁之大小,分釐不錯,權彼來之長短,毫髮無差,前進後退,處處恰合,工彌久而技彌精。
When your body is sluggish, advancing and retreating cannot be done smoothly. Therefore your body should be lively. When moving your hands, there must be nothing resembling hesitation. When the opponent’s force hinders even the hairs on my skin, my intention instantly enters his bones and my hands are bracing him, all as one event. If he puts pressure on my left side, I empty my left side and my right side goes forth, or if he puts pressure on my right side, I empty my right side and my left side goes forth, the energy like a wheel. Your whole body should be coordinated. If there is a lack of coordination anywhere, your body will then be disorganized, and you will then have no power. Seek for the problem in your hips. First use your mind to command your body, and follow the opponent rather than yourself. Later your body will be able to follow your mind, yet this moving from yourself will still depend on following the opponent. If you act from yourself, you will be sluggish. If you follow the opponent, you will be lively. If you can follow the opponent, your hands on him will detect in finer detail, weighing the size of his power and being accurate to the smallest measure, assessing the length of his attack and not being off by the slightest bit, and you will advance and retreat always at the right moment. The more you work at it, the more perfected your skill will be.

氣斂
[3] The energy is COLLECTED.

氣勢散漫,便無含蓄,身易散亂,務使氣斂入脊骨,呼吸通靈,周身罔間。吸為合為蓄,呼為開為發,蓋吸則自然提得起,亦拿得人起,呼則自然沉得下,亦放得人出,此是以意運氣,非以力運氣也。
If your energy is scattered, then it will not be stored, and your body will easily fall into disorder. You must cause the energy to collect into your spine. Inhaling and exhaling penetrates and enlivens, influencing every part of your body. Inhaling is contracting and storing. Exhaling is expanding and releasing. Since with inhaling there is a natural rising, take the opponent up. Since with exhaling there is a natural sinking, send the opponent away. This is the use of intention to move energy, not the use of exertion to force energy.

勁整
[4] The power is COMPLETE.

一身之勁,練成一家,分清虛實,發勁要有根源。勁起腳根,主於腰間,形於手指,發於脊背。又要提起全副精神,於彼勁將出未發之際。我勁已接入彼勁,恰好不後不先,如皮燃火,如泉涌出,前進後退,無絲毫散亂,曲中求直,蓄而後發,方能隨手奏效,此謂借力打人,四兩撥千斤也。
The power of your whole body is trained to become a single unit, distinguishing clearly between empty and full. To issue power, there should be a source of it. Power starts from your heel, it is directed at your waist, and expresses at your fingers, issuing from your spine. With it there should also be a rousing of all your spirit. When the opponent’s power is about to come out but has not yet issued, my power connects with and invades his instantly, neither late nor early, as if my skin is a burning fire or as if a spring is gushing forth. I advance and retreat without the slightest disorder, and seeking the straight within the curved, I store and then issue. Thus I am able to be effortlessly successful. This is called “borrowing his force to hit him with” or “using four ounces to move a thousand pounds”.

神聚
[5] The spirit is GATHERED.

上四者俱備,總歸神聚,神聚則一氣鼓鑄,練氣歸神,氣勢騰挪,精神貫注,開合有致,虛實清楚,左虛則右實,右虛則左實,虛非全然無力,氣勢要有騰挪,實非全然占煞,精神要貴貫注,緊要全在胸中腰間,運用不在外面。力從人借,氣由脊發,胡能氣由脊發,氣向下沉,由兩肩收於脊骨,注於腰間,此氣之由上而下也,謂之合。由腰形於脊骨,布於兩膊,施於手指,此氣之由下而上也,謂之開。合便是收,開便是放,能懂得開合,便知陰陽。到此地位,工用一日,技精一日,漸至從心所欲,罔不如意矣。
With the four above prepared, finally spirit gathers. Once spirit is gathered, then energy is tempered, and this smelted energy then reinforces spirit. Energy is ready to move and spirit is concentrated. Expand and contract are decisive. Empty and full are distinct. When left is empty, right is full. When right is empty, left is full. Empty does not mean you are in that area completely weak, but that energy should there be ready to move. Full does not mean you are in that area completely stuck, but that spirit should there be concentrated. It is crucial that changes are within your chest and waist and are not external. Force is borrowed from the opponent. Energy is issued from your spine. How can energy issue from your spine? It sinks downward, going from your shoulders, gathering in your spine, and concentrates in your waist. This energy going from above to below is called “contracting”. Then it goes from your waist to your spine, spreading to your arms to be applied at your fingers. This energy going from below to above is called “expanding”. Contracting is gathering. Expanding is releasing. When you can understand expanding and contracting, then you will understand passive and active. When you reach this state, then daily work will yield daily refinement, and gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want and everything will happen as you imagine.

七、撒放秘訣
7. THE TRICK TO RELEASING

擎引鬆放四字
Raise, draw in, relax, and release.
擎開彼勁借彼力。中有靈字
引到身前勁始蓄。中有斂字
鬆開我勁勿使屈。中有靜字
放時腰腳認端的。中有整字
I get the opponent’s energy to rise up and I borrow his force. (This has to do with “lively”.)
Once I have drawn him in front of me, my power begins to store. (This has to do with “collected”.)
I relax my power, but I do not allow it to collapse. (This has to do with “calm”.)
When I release, it comes from my waist and legs. (This has to do with “complete”.)

八、走架打手行工要言
8. ESSENTIALS IN PRACTICING THE SOLO SET & PLAYING HANDS

昔人云:能引進落空,便能四兩撥千斤,不能引進落空,便不能四兩撥千斤,語甚該括,初學未由領悟,予加數語以解之。俾有志斯技者,得所從入,庶日進有功矣。欲要引進落空,四兩撥千斤,先要知己知彼。欲要知己知彼,先要捨己從人。欲要捨己從人,先要得機得勢。欲要得機得勢,先要周身一家。欲要周身一家,先要周身無有缺陷。欲要周身無有缺陷。先要神氣鼓蕩。欲要神氣鼓蕩,先要提起精神。欲要提起精神,先要神不外散。欲要神不外散,先要神氣收斂入骨。欲要神氣收斂入骨,先要兩股前節有力。兩肩鬆開,氣向下沉,勁起於腳根,變換在腿,含蓄在胸,運動在兩肩,主宰在腰,上於兩膊相繫,下與兩腿相隨,勁由內換。收便是合,放即是開。靜則俱靜,靜是合,合中寓開。動則俱動,動是開,開中寓合。觸之則旋轉自如,無不得力,才能引進落空,四兩撥千斤。平日走架是知己工夫,一動勢先問自己周身合上數項否?少有不合,即速改換。走架所以要慢不要快。打手是知人工夫,動靜固是知人,仍是問己。自己安排得好,人一挨我,我不動彼絲毫,趁勢而入,接定彼勁,彼自跌出。如自己有不得力處。便是雙重未化,要於陰陽開合,求之。所謂知己知彼。百戰百勝也。
Someone long ago said: “If you can draw the opponent in to land on nothing, you can then use four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds. If you cannot draw the opponent in to land on nothing, you cannot use four ounces to move a thousand pounds.” These words are probably too vague for a beginner to understand. I will explain further so that those who want this skill are in a position to begin and then after much regular training get to possess it:
     If you want to draw the opponent into emptiness and use four ounces to move a thousand pounds, you must first know both yourself and the opponent. If you want to know both yourself and the opponent, you must first let go of your plans and just respond to the opponent. If you want to let go of your plans and just respond to the opponent, you must first be in the right place at the right time. If you want to be in the right place at the right time, you must first get your whole body to behave as one unit. If you want to get your whole body to behave as one unit, you must first get your whole body to be without cracks or gaps. If you want to get your whole body to be without cracks or gaps, you must first get your spirit and energy to be ready. If you want your spirit and energy to be ready, you must first rouse your spirit. If you want to rouse your spirit, you must first keep your spirit from being distracted. If you want to keep your spirit from being distracted, you must first get your spirit and energy to gather and collect in your spine. If you want to get your spirit and energy to gather and collect in your spine, you must first get the front of your thighs to have strength, get your shoulders to loosen, and get your energy to sink downward.
     Power starts from your heel, is transferred through your leg, stored in your chest, moved at your shoulders, and controlled at your waist. In your upper body, your arms are connected with each other. In your lower body, your legs are coordinated with each other. Power is transferred from within. Gathering is contracting. Releasing is expanding. When becoming still, everything becomes still. Stillness refers to contracting. When contraction finishes, there will be expansion. When there is movement, everything moves. Movement refers to expanding. When expansion finishes, there will be contraction. Then when there is contact, you can turn smoothly and will be strong everywhere. You will then be able to draw the opponent in to land on nothing and use four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds.
     Whenever you practice the solo set, it is the practice of knowing yourself. Before moving through the postures, make sure your whole body is in accord with the principles as stated above. When the slightest part is off, immediately adjust it. To facilitate this, the set should be done slowly rather than quickly.
     Playing hands is then the practice of knowing the opponent. His movement and stillness must be firmly comprehended. Still examine yourself as well. If I am in good order myself, then when the opponent comes near me, I do not need to act upon him at all, but take advantage of his momentum to find a way in. Connecting firmly to his power, I let him cause himself to fall out. If you do not have a strong position, this is simply a case of double pressure rather than neutralization, and you should seek within passive and active, or contracting and expanding, to fix it. It is said: “Knowing both yourself and your opponent, in a hundred battles you will have a hundred victories.”

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