TAIJI BOXING ACCORDING TO WU TUNAN

科學化的國術太極拳
A MORE SCIENTIFIC MARTIAL ART: TAIJI BOXING
吳圖南
by Wu Tunan
[published by 商務印書館 The Commercial Press, LTD, Oct, 1931]

[translation by Paul Brennan, Feb, 2017]

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科學化的國術太極拳
A More Scientific Martial Art: Taiji Boxing
褚民誼題
– calligraphy by Chu Minyi

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吳啚南著
by Wu Tunan:
科學化的國術太極拳
A More Scientific Martial Art: Taiji Boxing
易培基署
– [calligraphy by] Yi Peiji

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圖南先生
For Wu Tunan:
自衛奮鬥
强種救國
“We will defends ourselves, we will fight,
we will strengthen the masses to rescue the nation.”
張之江
– [calligraphy by] Zhang Zhijiang

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赤手空拳
能禽韓傀
卧薪嘗膽
可報夫差
Even unarmed,
one could capture minister Xia Lei of Han [unlike Nie Zheng, who killed him with a sword].
We are toughening ourselves for whatever may come [“sleeping on sticks and tasting gall” – as did King Goujian after being defeated by King Fuchai].
Let anyone who would threaten us know. [“Go warn Fuchai.” (Fuchai was subsequently defeated by Goujian.)]
李昌述
– [calligraphy by] Li Changshu

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圗南先生屬
For Wu Tunan:
尚武精神
“We cherish the martial spirit.”
柏文蔚
– [calligraphy by] Bai Wenwei

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國術精華
The quintessence of Chinese martial arts!
圖南先生命題 蕭瑜
– inscription for Wu Tunan by Xiao Yu [Xiao Zisheng]

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圗南先生鉴
For Wu Tunan:
深諳三昧
“So deeply versed, you are at the highest level.”
沓公翁徐思安題
– calligraphy by old Xu Si’an (Xu Tagong)

褚序
PREFACE BY CHU MINYI

太極拳者,內家拳術之一種,最為平易而最能發達體育者也。其功用之偉,優點之多,殊非其他拳術所可企及。吾國拳術派別雖夥,要以太極拳為上乘。蓋拳術之本旨,在於鍛鍊身心,振奮精神。顧門類派別旣異,則名稱功用自殊。所謂外家之拳術,專以標新立異趨險騖奇為貴,則已失卻發達體育之本旨矣。
其眞能身心兼修,學養並顧,而使老弱咸能練習,絕無流弊者,惟有太極拳耳。
以言養生,則能活動筋骨,鍛鍊身心,調和血氣,陶冶性情,所謂卻病延年,固非虛語。
以言功用,則能以靜制動,以柔克剛,以輕勝重,以順破逆。而姿勢平穩,動作緩和,猶其餘事。
且不尚筋力,演習旣久,趣味盎然。故老幼咸宜,雖病夫亦能練習之。是故吾人提倡國術,應自提倡太極拳始。
吾人提倡國術之方針,在使國術科學化,太極拳則業經科學化之國術也。何以言之?科學化之國術,在合於力學與心理學;講究生理與衞生。而太極拳之動作,則為無數圜形,一圜之中,卽為重心所在。或能處處立定脚跟,敵人之力雖極頑强,而能以逆來順受之法處之。迨敵人一力旣出,重心已失,然後從而制之,故能舉重若輕,以柔克剛,此則深有得於力學者。
至言心理學,則太極拳不尚用力用氣,而尚用意。蓋因用力者笨,用氣者滯,用意則能使氣沉於丹田,而不停滯於胸臆。力蓄於內,而不流露於外。非研究心理學深造有得者,曷克臻此。
至於生理與衞生,則衞生之運動,貴能適得其分際,無過與不及之弊。吾人之身體,貴能平均發達,生理則有一定之程序。是故劇烈之運動,每有害於健康者,以其運動太過,不合於生理自然發達之程序也。
太極拳則輕軟靈活,一動全身皆動,無偏頗之弊,無過與不及之害。故最合於生理之程序。與衞生之要旨焉。
吳君圖南,與徐君致一,同為吳鑑泉先生之高足。余由粵抵滬後,旣識徐君致一矣。而於首都舉行國術考試時,更獲交吳君圖南。徐君旣有太極拳淺說一書問世,其中精奧之理論,以淺顯之文筆出之,說理已極透澈,今吳君更著有科學化的國術太極拳一書,行將付梓,索序於余,余瀏覧一過,覺其對於太極拳與國術之關係,闡明不少。是其吾國國術科學化之肇端歟?則吳君之有裨於吾國國術前途豈淺鮮哉!因喜其對於余提倡國術科學化之旨趣相符合也,故樂為之序。
民國十八年,二月,十五日,褚民誼序於上海中法國立工業專門學校。
Taiji Boxing is a boxing art of the internal school. It is the most unassuming and yet also the most capable of giving physical development. So great are its uses and so numerous are its strong points that really no other boxing arts can equal it. Even though our nation has a great many boxing arts, Taiji tops them all. The fundamental purpose of boxing arts is to train body and mind, and to rouse the spirit. Looking at the differences between the styles, they each have their own special terminology and uses. But the boxing arts of the external school value showing off in new and exciting ways, thus missing the whole point of delivering physical development.
     This art truly has the ability to train both body and mind, attending to both education and cultivation. An art that grants everyone the chance to practice, whether young or old, and is entirely without counterproductive elements – there is only Taiji Boxing.
     In terms of health, it can exercise the sinews and bones, train body and mind, regulate the emotions, and mold the temperament. It is said of it that it “prevents illness and prolongs life”, and these are indeed not empty words.
     As for its function, it can use stillness to overcome movement, softness to overcome hardness, use lightness to defeat heaviness, smoothness to defeat coarseness. Its postures are steady and its movements are mild. It seems to always leave you with room to do more [instead of spending all of your power with every action].
     Furthermore, as it does not emphasize physical strength, practicing it over a long period will bring abundant delight. Thus it is suitable for young and old alike. Even sick people can practice it. Therefore we who promote boxing arts should start by recommending Taiji Boxing.
     Our guiding principle in promoting martial arts is to make martial arts more scientific. But Taiji Boxing is already a more scientific martial art. Why do I say this? A more scientific martial art conforms to physics and psychology, and gives particular attention to physiology and health. Taiji Boxing’s movements are endless circles, and at the center of a circle lies your center of balance. You can thereby at every moment have stable footing, and even if the opponent has an indomitable strength, there will be a means of receiving whatever comes. Then once he has fully expressed his power, he will have lost his balance and be under your control, thereby enabling you to lift a heavy weight as though it is light, using softness to overcome hardness. This shows there is a deep understanding of mechanics within it.
     As for psychology, Taiji Boxing does not encourage using either exertion or anger, only intention. Using exertion will make you clumsy. Using anger will make you stiff. But using intention can instead cause energy to sink to your elixir field rather than getting stuck in your chest. Strength is stored within rather than outwardly revealed. Without a deep awareness of psychology, it would be difficult for the art to have been brought to such a high level.
     As for physiology and health, health exercises should be able to have appropriate parameters, rather than the errors of overdoing or underdoing. Our bodies should be able to get uniform development, in accordance with regular physiological processes. Strenuous exercise is always harmful to health, for it is excessive exercise, not conforming to physiological processes of natural development. But Taiji Boxing is gentle and nimble. When one part moves, the entire body moves. It is without the error of emphasizing any particular parts, and thus without the harms of overworking some parts and underworking others. Therefore this art conforms the best to physiological processes and principles of health.
     Wu Tunan and Xu Zhiyi are both top students of Wu Jianquan. After I came to Shanghai from Guangdong, I got to know Xu Zhiyi. When the National Tournament [Oct, 1928] was held in the capital, I then met Wu Tunan. Xu has published the book Simple Introduction to Taiji Boxing, containing refined and profound theory. He uses language that is easy to understand and explains concepts with great thoroughness. Now Wu has authored A More Scientific Martial Art: Taiji Boxing, soon to be published, and he has demanded a preface of me. After just a quick readthrough, I already found that the relationship between Taiji Boxing and other martial arts has been clarified in no small way. Here is the commencement of our nation’s martial arts becoming more scientific, and the benefit we receive from Wu is by no means insignificant. Because this work delightfully tallies with my own objective of making martial arts more scientific, I am overjoyed to provide this preface.
     – written by Chu Minyi at the Shanghai French Industrial Training School, Feb 15, 1929

趙序
PREFACE BY ZHAO RUNTAO

吳君圖南,予之同學友也。幼同游戲,長共讀書,故對於吳君知之最深。吳君自幼工於文學,旣入中學,始致志於國術,嘗謂同學曰:『中國欲求自强,非人人有尚武之精神不可,欲求人人有尚武之精神,非練習國術不可……。』彼時同學皆非笑之,而不知吳君乃國術家中之先覺者。
民國甲子春,將去西山敎學,乃謂予曰:『吾將從事國術之著作矣。』予亦笑之。迨百日後,卽以手稿一巨册視予,予駭之!展閱一過,則洋洋萬餘言,對於國術,已闡發無遺矣!予笑謂之曰:『子之毅力,吾不如也!』已而吳君以是稿贈與其師吳鑑泉先生矣。惜乎至今尚未出版也。
吳君今歲入京,參加國考,考畢,卽去浙江南潯中學校充任敎師,到校後,兩月之間,竟於公餘,創此空前之傑作,科學化的國術太極拳一書。予拜讀一過,考其主旨,在喚起民衆,使全民均國術化,使國術科學化。
然吾國國術家能以科學方法治國術者,吳君其造端也。倘國術同志均能本吳君之方法,而研究之,予以為吾國國術界必能別開一新紀元。强族强國,其有賴乎!茲以科學化的國術太極拳行將付印,聊誌數語以贈之。
中華民國十七年,十二月,二十五日。北平趙潤濤序於天津南開中學校。
Wu Tunan is my classmate. As we played together as children and grew up in the same school, I know him very well. Wu has been good at literature since childhood, but once he entered college, he began to focus on martial arts. He once said: “If China wants to get stronger, it won’t work unless everyone has a martial spirit. And if we want everyone to have a martial spirit, it won’t work unless they practice martial arts.” At that time, fellow students responded to him with ridicule, little knowing that he would become a visionary among martial arts experts.
     In the spring of 1924, when I was about to leave to teach in Xishan, he said to me: “I’m going to write martial arts books.” I actually laughed. But then a mere three months later, I was amazed when he showed me an enormous manuscript. Upon reading through it, I found that its vast flow of countless words explained martial arts quite thoroughly indeed. I laughed and said: “You sure have more willpower than I do.” He soonafter gave his manuscript to his teacher Wu Jianquan as a gift. It is a shame it has still not been published.
     Wu came to Nanjing this year to participate in the National Tournament. After the tournament, he took a teaching position at the Nanxun High School, Zhejiang. But once he arrived to teach, he used his spare time over the course of two months to create this unprecedented masterpiece called A More Scientific Martial Art: Taiji Boxing. I read through it attentively and found that its main purpose is to rouse the masses to be more oriented toward martial arts, and also to make martial arts more scientific.
     Our nation’s martial arts experts will be able to use scientific methods in their teaching, thanks to Wu’s contribution. If martial arts comrades all use Wu’s methods to study, it can bring a new era to our nation’s martial arts community. The strengthening of the people and the nation are assured. Now that this book is about to be published, I make a gift of these few words.
     – written by Zhao Runtao of Beijing at Tianjin Southern Gate High School, Dec 25, 1928

自序
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

予幼而多病,先祖父武功將軍子明公,嘗視予而嘆曰:『大丈夫當立功萬里之外,如爾孱弱之身,倘國家有事,將何以効命疆場安百姓乎?』於是命家嚴麗泉公,每日淸晨,授以內功,翌年,則身體頓覺健壯,非復前此疾病時來者矣。
及入中學,仍於治文之外兼習武術。適北平國術大家吳鑑泉先生充任學校太極拳敎師,先祖父囑予受業焉。日夕過從,八異寒暑。旣升大學,雖於功課叢忙之際,亦不稍間斷,以故吾師見予勤愼好學如此,乃盡授其秘。
已而思之,若是優美之國術,只供少數人之研究,非計之得也。倘能普及於我中國,强族强種,利莫大焉!
乃於民國十三年夏,時方敎學於北平之西山,每日抽暇,揮毫自娛,百日之間,卽將太極拳之學理,支派,姿勢,應用推手,……等。編輯成書,定名為吳圖南太極功。以期有志國術者,於最短期間,卽可得太極拳之妙用,不必如予之費時十有餘年也。
書旣成,敬贈吾師,請其撮影,而後卽可出版矣。會京津戰事發生,遂卽中止。時甲子年國慶日也。
今者北伐完成,全國統一,訓政伊始,國基新立,欲求實現三民主義,端賴民族之强盛,自衞衞國,刻不容緩。况當茲提倡國術之際,正應發揚光大之時,國術同志,尤當負責切實指導,使全民均國術化。以促民族主義之實現,而達救國之目的。庶不負提倡國術之初心也。
於是不揣愚陋,在南潯中學敎學之餘,集先賢之明言至論,用科學方法而歸納之。並作圖立說,舉凡太極拳之合於力學及心理,本乎生理與衞生者,無不詳細伸論。故名之曰科學化的國術太極拳。用贈國人,供諸同好。此非宣傳國術之惟一方法歟?倘後之學者,能因是書,而更有所發明,則國術前途,實幸甚矣!是為序。
中華民國十七年,十二月,十一日。北平吳圖南自序於浙江南潯中學校。
When I was young, I was often ill. My grandfather, the accomplished military general Ziming, once looked at me and said with a sigh: “A real man should be able to go thousands of miles away to give his services. If you have a weak body when your nation calls on you, how will you be able to fight on the battlefield and bring peace to the common people?” Therefore he ordered my father Liquan to give me instruction in internal training early in the morning every day. The following year, my body felt markedly more robust and my former illness never returned.
     When I was in high school, I continued practicing martial arts alongside my literary education. As the Beijing martial arts master Wu Jianquan held the position of Taiji Boxing instructor there, my grandfather urged me to learn from him. I learned from Wu from dawn to dusk, even in the peak of winter and summer. When I went to college, even though I was buried in homework, I allowed not the slightest interruption to my practice. Because of this, my teacher saw how hardworking a student I was, and then taught me all his secrets.
     I later on contemplated that if our beautiful martial arts were only available for a minority to study, this would be a great miscalculation. If we can instead spread martial arts throughout our nation to strengthen all of our people, it would be of the utmost benefit.
     Then in the summer of 1924, I was sent to teach in Xishan, the hills to the west of Beijing. Every day I managed to find time to write for my own amusement, and within three months I had set down so much about Taiji Boxing principles, lineages, postures, applications, and pushing hands that I had made a book, which I decided to called Wu Tunan’s Taiji Training. I hoped by way of it that aspiring martial artists would be able to obtain Taiji Boxing’s effects in the shortest possible time and not have to take more than ten years to get there.
     When I finished my manuscript, I respectfully presented it to my teacher and requested to shoot photos of him so I could publish it. But hostilities then broke out in Nanjing and Tianjin, and so we decided to postpone the project. That was on National Day [Oct 10] in 1924.
     Now that the Northern Expedition [July 1926—June 1928] is finished, the nation is unified, and the government has started afresh [the capital now moved to Nanjing], our new nation is henceforth established. If we wish to achieve the Three Principles of the People [Identity of the People, Power of the People, Livelihood of the People], this depends entirely on making our people strong and prosperous, able to defend themselves and the nation, without a moment’s delay. We should be promoting martial arts right now. To carry them forward, our martial arts comrades should especially be giving practical instruction, in order for the whole populace to be affected by martial arts. We will thus more quickly realize national identity and achieve the aim of rescuing the nation. We must not betray this primary goal when promoting martial arts.
     Therefore despite my own limited ability, I have in my spare time from teaching at Nanxun High School gathered together the most valuable wisdom from previous masters and appraised them according to scientific methods. I have also made photos and explanations to show that Taiji Boxing conforms to physics and psychology, is based in physiology and health, and this influences every part of my discussion. Therefore I have called it A More Scientific Martial Art: Taiji Boxing. I offer it as a gift to my compatriots, sharing with all those who are interested. Publishing books is the only real means of truly spreading martial arts. If later generations of students can be inspired by this book to produce further developments, then the future of martial arts will be fortunate indeed. Thus I have written this preface.
     – written by Wu Tunan of Beijing at Nanxun High School, Zhejiang, Dec 11, 1928

例言
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

(一)是書編輯時,承褚民誼先生給予修正,齊鐵恨先生給予校對,王時蔚先生給予撮影,故於卷首敬表謝忱!
– During the making of this book, Chu Minyi did the revisions, Qi Tiegen did the proofreading, and Wang Shiwei took the photographs. Therefore I acknowledge their contribution as a mark of my gratitude.

(一)是書係余來任南潯中學敎職後,偶憶科學化的國術,尚無專著,於是費時兩月,而草始成。正擬詳加删訂,適値國術同志,函請付梓,督促甚急,是以中止。倉卒出書,疵謬不免,倘荷方家賜以敎言,無任感激!
– This book came about after I had taken a teaching position at Nanxun High School, when it dawned on me that there were still no books focused on making martial arts more scientific. Therefore I devoted my time to writing and carefully editing this manuscript, but after only a couple months, martial arts colleagues were sending me letters urging me to publish it, and this pressure has caused me to take some shortcuts with it. As this book is being put together somewhat hurriedly, inevitably there will be errors. If experts would give me corrections, I would appreciate it very much.

(一)是書拳勢名目,多為國術專用名詞,深恐閱者不解其意,故以略釋說明之。
– The names of the boxing postures in this book often use special martial arts terminology. I worry that readers will not understand their meanings, and so I have included brief explanations of the names.

(一)『打虎勢』及『雙風貫耳,』在太極拳之故有名目內不載,乃後人增加者。余詳審二勢之動作,尚有可取處,故亦列入。
– FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE and DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS do not appear among the names of the postures in older versions of the solo set and were added by later generations. I have carefully examined these two postures and find that they still have merit, and thus I have included them.

(一)是書撮影時,因身為西裝束縛,故姿勢未能盡美盡善,請閱者諒之!
– When we shot the photographs, I wore restrictive western clothes, causing the postures to be not as good or as pretty as they could have been. Please forgive me for this.

目次
CONTENTS

第一章 國術槪論
Chapter One: General Discussion of Martial Arts
 第一節 國術在世界上所佔之地位
 Section One: Martial Arts and Their Place in the World
 第二節 國術經濟之研究
 Section Two: A Discussion of How this Martial Art is Economical
 第三節 國術與體操之比較
 Section Three: Martial Arts Compared with Sports
 第四節 國術墮落之原因
 Section Four: Causes of the Degradation of Martial Arts
 第五節 提倡國術之目的
 Section Five: The Purpose of Promoting Martial Arts
 第六節 提倡國術之方針
 Section Six: The Guiding Principles for Promoting Martial Arts
 第七節 國術合於物理之研究
 Section Seven: How this Martial Arts Conforms to the Principles of Physics
第二章 太極拳總論
Chapter Two: Taiji Boxing Classics
 第一節 太極拳論
 Section One: Taiji Boxing Treatise
 第二節 太極拳用功祕訣
 Section Two: Secrets of Applying Taiji Boxing
 第三節 太極拳行功心法
 Section Three: Understanding How to Practice Taiji Boxing
 第四節 太極十三勢歌
 Section Four: Taiji Thirteen Dynamics Song
 第五節 太極拳十六關要說明
 Section Five: Taiji Boxing’s Sixteen Key Points
 第六節 太極拳主宰賓輔說明
 Section Six: Taiji Boxing’s Process of Command & Obey
第三章 太極拳史略傳
Chapter Three: A Brief Biographical History of Taiji Boxing
 第一節 許宣平傳
 Section One: Xu Xuanping
 第二節 李道子傳
 Section Two: Li Daozi
 第三節 程靈洗傳
 Section Three: Cheng Lingxi
 第四節 胡境子傳
 Section Four: Hu Jingzi
 第五節 張三丰列傳
 Section Five: Zhang Sanfeng
 第六節 王宗岳傳
 Section Six: Wang Zongyue
 第七節 南派名家略傳
 Section Seven: Famous Masters of the Southern Branch of the Art
 第八節 北派名家略傳
 Section Eight: Famous Masters of the Northern Branch of the Art
第四章 太極拳勢說明
Chapter Four: The Taiji Boxing Postures Explained
 太極勢
 [1] BEGINNING POSTURE
 攬雀尾
 [2] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
 單鞭
 [3] SINGLE WHIP
 提手上勢
 [4] RAISE THE HAND, STEPPING FORWARD
 白鶴亮翅
 [5] WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS
 摟膝拗步
 [6] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
 手揮琵琶式
 [7] PLAY THE LUTE
 進步搬攔捶
 [8] ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH
 如封似閉
 [9] SEALING SHUT
 抱虎歸山
 [10] CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
 攬雀尾(圖略)
 [11] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photo)
 斜單鞭
 [12] DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
 肘底看捶
 [13] GUARDING FIST UNDER ELBOW
 倒攆猴
 [14] RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY
 斜飛勢
 [15] DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
 提手上勢(圖說略)
 [16] RAISE THE HAND, STEPPING FORWARD (no photo or text)
 白鶴亮翅(圖說咯)
 [17] WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (no photo or text)
 摟膝拗步(圖說略)
 [18] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (no photo or text)
 海底珍
 [19] TREASURE UNDER THE SEA
 山通背
 [20] MOUNTAIN THROUGH THE BACK
 撇身捶
 [21] TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
 退步搬攔捶
 [22] RETREAT, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH
 上勢攬雀尾(圖略)
 [23] STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photo)
 單鞭(圖說略)
 [24] SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 雲手
 [25] CLOUDING HANDS
 單鞭(圖說略)
 [26] SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 高探馬
 [27] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
 左右分脚
 [28] KICKING TO THE LEFT & RIGHT
 轉身蹬脚
 [29] TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
 進步栽捶
 [30] ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH
 翻身撇身捶
 [31] TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
 高探馬(圖略)
 [32] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (no photo)
 翻身二起脚
 [33] TURNING-BODY DOUBLE KICK
 打虎勢
 [34] FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE
 雙風貫耳
 [35] DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS
 披身踢脚
 [36] DRAPING THE BODY, KICK
 轉身蹬脚
 [37] TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
 上步搬攔捶(圖略)
 [38] STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH (no photo)
 如封似閉(圖說略)
 [39] SEALING SHUT (no photo or text)
 抱虎歸山(圖說略)
 [40] CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN (no photo or text)
 攬雀尾(圖說略)
 [41] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photo or text)
 斜單鞭(圖說略)
 [42] DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 野馬分鬃
 [43] WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE
 玉女穿梭
 [44] MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE
 上勢攬雀尾(圖說略)
 [45] STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photo or text)
 單鞭(圖說略)
 [46] SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 雲手(圖說略)
 [47] CLOUDING HANDS (no photo or text)
 單鞭(圖說略)
 [48] SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 下勢
 [49] LOW POSTURE
 金鷄獨立
 [50] GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG
 倒攆猴(圖說略)
 [51] RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (no photo or text)
 斜飛勢(圖說略)
 [52] DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE (no photo or text)
 提手上勢(圖說略)
 [53] RAISE THE HAND, STEPPING FORWARD (no photo or text)
 白鶴亮翅(圖說略)
 [54] WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS (no photo or text)
 摟膝拗步(圖說略)
 [55] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (no photo or text)
 海底珍(圖說略)
 [56] TREASURE UNDER THE SEA (no photo or text)
 山通背(圖說略)
 [57] MOUNTAIN THROUGH THE BACK (no photo or text)
 翻身撇身捶(圖說略)
 [58] TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH (no photo or text)
 上步搬攔捶(圖說略)
 [59] STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH (no photo or text)
 上勢攬雀尾(圖說略)
 [60] STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photo or text)
 單鞭(圖說略)
 [61] SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 雲手(圖說略)
 [62] CLOUDING HANDS (no photo or text)
 單鞭(圖說略)
 [63] SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 高探馬(圖說略)
 [64] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE (no photo or text)
 十字擺蓮
 [65] CROSSED-HANDS SWINGING LOTUS KICK
 摟膝指襠捶
 [66] BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
 上勢攬雀尾(圖說略)
 [67] STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL (no photo or text)
 單鞭(圖說略)
 [68] SINGLE WHIP (no photo or text)
 下勢(圖說略)
 [69] LOW POSTURE (no photo or text)
 上步七星
 [70] STEP FORWARD, BIG DIPPER POSTURE
 退步跨虎
 [71] STEP BACK, SITTING TIGER POSTURE
 轉身雙擺蓮
 [72] TURN AROUND, DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK
 彎弓射虎
 [73] BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER
 合太極
 [74] CLOSING POSTURE
第五章 太極拳打手法總論
Chapter Five: A General Introduction to Taiji Boxing’s Playing Hands Methods
 第一節 太極拳打手論
 Section One: Discussing Playing Hands
 第二節 太極拳打手歌
 Section Two: Playing Hands Songs
第六章 太極拳打手法說明
Chapter Six: Descriptions of Playing Hands Methods
 太極拳打手法之基本坐腿法
 Playing Hands Basic Sitting Stance
 太極拳打手法之基本搭手法
 Playing Hands Basic Connecting Hands Posture [Versions 1 & 2]
 掤捋擠按打手法
 Playing Hands Method for Warding Off, Rolling Back, Pressing, and Pushing
 掤之打手法
 WARDING OFF
 捋之打手法
 ROLLING BACK
 擠之打手法
 PRESSING
 按之打手法
 PUSHING
 太極拳打手法之基本搭手法
 Playing Hands Basic Connecting Hands Posture [Versions 3 & 4]
 捋挒肘靠打手法
 Playing Hands Method for Plucking, Rending, Elbowing, and Bumping
 採之打手法
 PLUCKING
 挒之打手法
 RENDING
 肘之打手法
 ELBOWING
 靠之打手法
 BUMPING

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褚民誼先生
Portrait of Chu Minyi
圖南兄惠存
A souvenir for “elder brother” Wu Tunan
褚民誼
– [calligraphy by] Chu Minyi

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吳鑑泉先生
Portrait of Wu Jianquan

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著作者吳圖南肖像
Portrait of the Author, Wu Tunan

科學化的國術太極拳
A MORE SCIENTIFIC MARTIAL ART: TAIJI BOXING

第一章 國術槪論
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL DISCUSSION OF MARTIAL ARTS

第一節 國術在世界上所佔之地位
Section One: Martial Arts and Their Place in the World

中國國術,久為世界所景仰,誠可謂純一國粹也。世界列强,雖於體育特別講求,然均失之過於激烈。往往運動之後,喘息不止。以致血脈循環,驟增速率;周身肌肉,頓形緊張。此等運動,不惟不足以强其身,反足以增其疲勞。殊與衞生相齟齬。吾國國術外家拳亦然。
獨所謂內家拳──科學化的國術太極拳一門,則能本人生天然優美之發育;順先天自然之能力,使全體得充分之發展;謀一生永久之健康。
身心兼顧,伶俐活潑,智慧得以增高,心性達於沉靜,技擊通其妙用,道德趨於高尚。知覺敏捷,精神內固。隨意筋可使輕靈奇巧;不隨意筋能令動轉自如。老幼婦孺,皆可習練,自衞衞國,益壽延年,此非修養身心之良法歟?抑為强族强種之國魂歟?世界各國,可望而不可卽者,獨此術也。其地位為何如哉?
無如吾國陋習,祕而不傳,以致獨有之國術,幾乎泯滅而無聞,洵非公開普及之道也。
是以伸明國術之價値與地位,及為吾國之特產,以喚起吾國四萬萬同胞,人人能知國術之重要,羣起學習,共同討論,將吾國國術,發揚而光大之,則異日中華民族,恢復固有獨立之精神,達到國際自由平等之地位,微練習國術,其孰能之?
故歐洲普法之役,普能勝法,則歸功於小學敎員,倘中華民族,能實現三民主義。及廢除不平等條約,則亦歸功於今日所提倡之科學化的國術,其誰曰不然乎?希我同胞共勉旃!
Chinese martial arts have long been respected and admired by the world. They can indeed be called the quintessence of our culture. Although the great powers all pay particular attention to physical education, they fail in that their activities are too strenuous. Frequently after exercising, those people cannot help but gasp for air. Consequently, heart rate is dangerously sped up, and the muscles of the whole body are made overly tight. These kinds of exercises are not only inadequate for strengthening the body, but will instead increasingly wear it out, quite contrary to the needs of health. It is the same for the external school of our martial arts.
     Only something from the internal school, for instance the more scientific martial art of Taiji Boxing, can lead to the natural and graceful development of the body. By being in accordance with the body’s innate natural capacities, the art develops the body fully, promising lifelong health.
     Body and mind are equally attended to, making you both nimble and clever. Intelligence will be enhanced and emotions calmed. Your boxing skills will become more subtle and your moral sense more noble. Your perception will become keener and your spirit more solid within. The voluntary muscles will gain better reflexes and the involuntary muscles made to function more smoothly. The young, elderly, women, children – all can practice. This art brings both self-defense and defense of the nation, and grants longevity. Is this not an excellent means of cultivating body and mind, and for building a national spirit of strengthening the people?
     Every nation in the world can hope for this goal but cannot achieve it, for it is attained only by way of these arts. But what state are they in? Unfortunately, in our culture we have the bad habit of keeping secrets, with the result that a martial art may end up in the care of just one person, almost vanishing to the point that it is hardly even heard of. This is not the way to spread these arts to the public.
     Therefore let us proclaim the value of martial arts, their place in the world, and that it is our specialty. By rousing our nation’s four hundred million compatriots, everyone can understand the importance of martial arts, rally together to learn them, and discuss them with each other. Our nation’s martial arts will thereby be carried on gloriously, and thus the Chinese people will someday regain their intrinsic spirit of independence and then internationally achieve status as a nation of liberty and equality. But if we give only a little bit of practice to our martial arts, how would we be able to do this?
     In the Franco-Prussian War [1870—71], Prussia was able to defeat France due to instruction given in elementary education. If we Chinese can realize the Three Principles of the People and abolish unfair treaties, it can be attributed in large part to the modern push to make martial arts more scientific. Who would say it is not so? I hope my compatriots will spur each other on!

第二節 國術經濟之研究
Section Two: A Discussion of How this Martial Art is Economical

科學化的國術其經濟,約略分為三種:──(一)時間之經濟,(二)力量之經濟,(三)地位之經濟。
There are three ways in which this more scientific martial art is economical: 1. economical in terms of time, 2. economical in terms of effort, 3. economical in terms of space.

(一)時間之經濟
1. Time

每日公餘之暇,往往將此時間,作無謂之犧牲,或與客閒談,或一人悶坐,或庭前散步,或就牀小眠,……此種動作,無聊已極,心思旣易亂雜;精神復能鎖損,對於衞生,大有妨礙,倘能於此虛糜之時間,習有用之國術,非特有益於身心;且作强族之準備,至於練習之時,於經濟之中,仍求經濟,蓋一手一勢,非其時不發,發則必中。以故應敵之際,動作敏捷,手足所至之處,莫不乘時而進,此非時間之經濟歟?
One’s daily free time is often pointlessly sacrificed to gossiping with guests, sitting around bored, pacing to and fro in one’s courtyard, or going back to bed for a nap… These kinds of “activities” are so utterly dull, your thoughts have nothing to do but run wild, which can in turn diminish your spirit and greatly hinder your health. If during such empty time you can instead practice a useful martial art, it would not only be beneficial to your mind and body, you would also be doing your part in the strengthening of the people.
     When practicing, seek within this more economical use of your time to be even more economical still. With each technique, when it is not the right time to issue, do not issue, and then when you do issue, you are sure to be on target. And so when you deal with an opponent, your movement will be nimble, your hands and feet always advancing when it is time to seize the moment. Thus is this art not a bargain in terms of time?

(二)力量之經濟
2. Effort

舉手動足,需力幾何,卽可提起,則當用此相當之力量。待旣達到其目的,而力始發,匪可免為敵誘,且不徒費力量。練習器械,亦莫不然。因其重量而施之,旣可動作自如;又能輕靈活潑,此非力量之經濟歟?
It requires a certain amount of strength to be able to lift up your hands and feet, and that is exactly how much effort you are to use in this art. Once you reach this goal, then when you express power, you will avoid being lured in by your opponent, and you will not have wasted any effort. The same goes for practicing with a weapon. Because you are to be moving it around by making use of its weight, your movement can be smooth, as well as nimble and lively. Thus is this art not a bargain in terms of effort?

(三)地方之經濟
3. Space

練習國術,隨時隨地,無所不可,正所謂小大由之也。此非地方之經濟歟?
This martial art can be practiced at any time, and anywhere! It is truly up to you. Thus is the art not a bargain in terms of space?

故吾國術同志,對於「時間」「力量」「地方」之經濟,不可不注意焉!
Therefore, my martial arts comrades, you should give attention to how economical this art is in terms of time, effort, and space.

第三節 國術與體操之比較
Section Three: Martial Arts Compared with Sports

體操鍛錬,逐節運動,頭、胸、四肢,……各自分習,顧此失彼,偏重一隅。至於球類及田徑賽等,動作激烈,失其常態。不惟徒耗其精力,且足有礙於衞生。以故運動會之後,時有因運動過度而生疾病者,則已失却發達體育之本旨矣!
至於科學化的國術太極拳則不然。動靜得體,舉止自然,全體同時動作,身心一齊發育。不拘時地,均可練習,非若體操之必藉諸操場也。
且體操重在氣力,國術兼顧精神,氣力增身體之外形,精神固軀幹之內部。體操只供鍛錬之資,國術幷有强族之妙。體操不切實用,國術兼通技擊。故國術小之可以卻病延年,大之可以衞身衞國。較之體操,不知相去何遠也。
今者國術重光,幸賴諸同志共同提倡,本科學之方法,作精密之研究,使吾國固有之國術,能令普及於我中國,强族强種,夫復何言。諸同志果能努力向前,不遺餘力,熱心指導,方法適宜,何患國術之不普及哉?
至於體操之入中國也,原於彼時吾國尚無相當之國術,今科學化的國術,旣風行於一時,則與體操自有高下之別也。同志豈可不努力焉!
Sports exercise certain sections of the body more than others, whether the head, chest, limbs, or some other area. When an area is given specific attention, other parts are being neglected while some part is being overemphasized. In the case of ball games or track & field events, the movements are abnormally strenuous, not only greatly expending energy, but also hindering health. Following a sports event, the excessive exercise often generates illness, thereby losing touch with the original intention of promoting physical education.
     In the case of the more scientific martial art of Taiji Boxing, this is not the case. It has the appropriate level of activity and a natural bearing. The whole body is moving at the same time, the body and mind developing in unison. It can be practiced anytime and anywhere, unlike sports, which require special playing grounds.
     Furthermore, sports emphasize strength, whereas martial arts give equal attention to spirit. Strength may build the body externally, but spirit firms the body internally. Sports only give improvement to those who are talented, whereas martial arts have the capacity for strengthening the whole citizenry. Sports have no practical function beyond themselves, whereas martial arts impart self-defense skills. Therefore martial arts can on the smaller scale prevent illness and prolong life, and can on the larger scale defend the self and protect the nation. In comparing martial arts to sports, I am not sure if there is any end to the differences between them.
     Now that martial arts are in the spotlight, I hope my comrades will all promote them using scientific methods to do more accurate research, so that our martial arts can be spread throughout the nation to strengthen the people indeed. Comrades, if we can put a great effort into going forward, doing our utmost to give guidance with the most appropriate methods, these arts are sure to spread widely.
     When those sports started coming into China, our nation already had nothing to equal our martial arts. Now that it is becoming popular for martial arts to be more scientific, it will naturally become clear which is better, sports or martial arts. Comrades, how can we not make a great effort?

第四節 國術墮落之原因
Section Four: Causes of the Degradation of Martial Arts

吾國國術,發明最早,遠自黃唐,攻城野戰,莫不藉國術出奇以致勝。然而至今墮落而不振者何也?雖由於火器之發明,及習尚重文輕武之故,實則能國術者,率皆不學無文之徒,旣不能公開講習,又不能筆之於書。往往偶得一鱗一爪,卽自以為無上眞諦,遂祕而不宣。或因門戶之見,互相仇視,如是研究國術,宜乎其不能振興也。
况中人以上,見其如此,方恐遠避之不暇;何肯虛心而問業。是以文人自文,武人自武。殊與古人文武兼重之旨,大相背謬矣!三代盛時,干戈之術,童而習之,蓋期國術之普及,而强民族也。
今者革命成功,國基新立,思及已往吾國衰弱之原因,于是本先總理之遺訓,提倡國術,發揚國威,去已往之陋習,作普及之建設。使吾國全民,均國術化;國術須科學化。則老幼婦孺,均可學習,外增體力,內固精神,有研究之價値;合動力之原理。庶乎國術之地位日益增高,易於普及,固不待言矣!
曩者科學化的國術太極拳其墮落為尤甚,何則?以其方法簡易,動作中和,時人多不注意焉!故此高尚獨一之國術,幾乎絕滅而不可考!所幸諸賢倍出,銳意經營,詳審太極拳,對于生理衞生、心理、力學均有莫大之關係,於是文人雅士,多喜為之,如以黨國領袖,復以身作則,竭力提倡,國人始悉內家拳而科學化者,太極拳其最著者也。以故科學化的國術遂風行於斯時矣!此非中華民國之惟一國術乎?
旣知夫國術以往墮落之原因;又明乎今後提倡之方法,國術倡明,將在於是。同志其共勉焉!
Our nation’s martial arts were the earliest to be invented. Since as far back as the time of legendary emperors, whether besieging cities or battling in the wilderness, martial skills always produced extraordinary successes. Why is it then that by our time these arts had degraded into such a lackluster state? Apart from the invention of firearms, as well as the custom of treating literary concerns as being of more worth than martial ones, mainly it was due to the fact that skillful martial artists were generally uneducated and illiterate, and so were incapable of teaching their art publicly or of recording it in books. Often someone chanced upon a mere part of an art [“a scale or a claw (of a dragon, unable to see the whole beast)”], treated it as the highest truth, and then kept it to himself. There has also been sectarian bias, schools resenting each other. Studying martial arts in these ways [illiteracy, secrecy, feud], we would be unable to promote them.
     Furthermore, when ordinary people notice these issues, they hesitate to go near these arts or put any time into them, much less be willing to open their minds and ask for instruction. Thus people who are inclined toward literature tend to stick with literature, while only those inclined toward martial arts give time to martial arts. This is farcically contrary to the ideal that ancient people had of giving equal emphasis to both civil and martial affairs. During the three earliest dynasties [Xia, Shang, Zhou], skill with weapons [“shields and halberds”] was practiced by young boys. Thus martial arts in those days were universal and the people were strengthened by them.
     In the present era, our revolution has succeeded [1911] and our new nation has been founded. After thinking over the causes for our nation’s previous weakness, Sun Yat-sen then taught that we should promote our martial arts to develop our national prestige, throwing out those parts of our culture that are corrupt and instead spreading what is constructive. In order to get everyone in the nation to be more inclined toward martial arts, martial arts must be made more scientific. Then all will be able to practice – young and old, women and children. These arts will outwardly build strength and inwardly bolster spirit. There will be value in studying them, for they align with the principles of mechanics. That the status of these arts will increase and easily be spread thus goes without saying.
     In the past, the more scientific martial art of Taiji Boxing degraded most of all. Why so? Because its methods are simple and easy, and its movements are balanced and harmonious, and so people at the time gave it no attention. Thus this noble and unique martial art almost vanished to the point that it could not be examined. Fortunately wise people have emerged who are determined to do the work of carefully examining Taiji Boxing, especially in terms of physiology, psychology, and physics. Consequently, it is scholars who are often fond of this art. If leaders in government will then set an example by strongly endorsing it, the people will start to understand just how scientific the internal styles of boxing are, Taiji Boxing most of all, and this more scientific martial art will rise in popularity as we speak. Is it not without equal among all of our martial arts?
     Knowing the reasons why our martial arts have degraded, the methods for promoting them will henceforth become clear, and these arts will flourish as a result. Comrades, let us encourage each other!

第五節 提倡國術之目的
Section Five: The Purpose of Promoting Martial Arts

吾國之衰弱久矣!世界列强,不云「東亞病夫;」輒曰「老大之邦。」推原其故,由於我中華民族衰微之所致也。
先總理有鑑於斯,於是首先提倡民族主義,力求中國之自由平等。且曰:『無論個人,團體,及國家,有自衞之能力,方能生存。』故生存必須先能自衞也明矣。然欲求人人能自衞可乎?曰「可。」於是練習科學化的國術太極拳尚焉!
夫國術者,發揚國光,個人自衞之惟一方法也。舉國民衆,均有自衞之精神;自衞之能力,何患國之不强哉!故數百年泯滅無聞之國術,乃得重光於此時也。
今歲十月十五日,復在新都,舉行國考,南北英才,各盡其長。雖設施不甚完全,數百年來,未嘗有此盛典也。
要之,此次在喚起民衆,使舉國同胞,均知國術之重要,强國强種,舍此無由。於是風聲所及,國術分館,武術會,中華國術協會……等,先後成立。國術同志,努力經營,期於最短期間,使吾國四萬萬同胞,均有練習國術之機會。亦可謂自衞之能力,達於全民。內除一切之障礙;外消列國之强權,進而實現世界大同。然此非竭力提倡,胡可得也。
故國術同志,努力團結,發揚先哲特創之技能,多方宣傳,勤於鍛鍊。使中華民族,早日達到與世界列强平等之地位。則國術救國,非虛語也。同志豈可忽乎哉?
Our nation has long been weak. If the great powers of the world are not calling us “the sick men of Asia”, then they are saying “it’s a country of old men”. And the reason for this is because the Chinese people have indeed been in decline.
     In view of this, the first president [Sun Yat-sen] started by promoting our sense of national identity as a means of striving for liberty and equality in China. He furthermore said [from his first speech on the Power of the People, delivered Mar 9, 1924]: “Whether on the scale of individual, group, or nation, there should be the capacity for self-defense. Then there will be the ability to survive.” It is clear from this that to survive there must first be an ability to defend oneself. But can we hope for everyone to have this ability? I say that we can, as long as we practice material such as is in this book.
     Our martial arts express our national glory. They are unparalleled methods of individual self-defense. If the masses throughout the nation all have a spirit of self-defense and an ability for self-defense, there is no need to worry that the nation is not “powerful”. After several centuries of our martial arts being forgotten, they are now shining bright.
     On October 15th of this year [1928], I returned to the new capital [Nanjing] for the National Tournament. Masters from both north and south all showed their great skills. Even though the facilities were inadequate, such a grand occasion had not been witnessed for many centuries. Because of it, the masses have been roused, our compatriots throughout the nation now know the importance of martial arts for strengthening the nation and the people, and there is no turning back. Therefore as word of it spread, the Martial Arts Institute, Martial Arts Society, Chinese Martial Arts Association, and so on, have been established one after another.
     My martial arts comrades, let us make a great effort so that in the shortest possible time our nation’s four hundred million compatriots will all have the opportunity to practice martial arts. Then we will be able to say the “capacity for self-defense” has reached all of the people. By getting rid of things within our nation that hold us back, and by reducing the power other nations have over us, we will then progress until we have brought about universal brotherhood. But if we do not do our utmost to promote these arts, we will not be able to achieve this.
     Therefore, my martial arts comrades, let us unite our efforts to promote the special skills created by the early masters and spread them in every direction. By training diligently, the Chinese people will soon attain equal status with the world’s great powers. Thus “martial arts will rescue the nation” is no exaggeration. Comrades, how can we overlook these arts?

第六節 提倡國術之方針
Section Six: The Guiding Principles for Promoting Martial Arts

國術之地位與重要,已詳論之矣。今後提倡之方針,應如何指導之,始能達於强族强種之目的?非用科學方法,使全民均有練習國術之機會與技能不可。
蓋科學化的國術,不受經濟之壓迫,不拘貧富,不拘老幼,不拘時間,不拘性別,不拘人數,不拘場所,均可練習,是為平民化的國術。
本乎生理衞生發達體育之程序;合於心理力學之原理。考其功效,確能增長精神,調和血脈動作中和,無過不及。旣無劇烈之危險;又無鍛鍊之不足。能令頭胸腹四肢……等,協同動作。無使偏於一肢,或一部分之發育。是為科學化的國術。
簡而易學,用之不絕,外示安逸,內固精神。使全民均有練習之機會。是為團體化的國術。
國術果能平民化,科學化,與團體化。如之何不能普及哉?褚民誼博士主張國術宜科學化,與團體化,良有以也。
故欲求實現民族主義,非民衆有自衞之能力不可。欲求人人有自衞之能力,舍練習國術,別無門徑。
然則國術其合於平民化,科學化,與團體化者,惟太極拳一門耳。此非中華民國之國術乎?衞身衞國,斯術有焉。
夫今後提倡國術之方針,宜平民化,科學化,與團體化,則提倡太極拳斯可矣。希我同志,本三化之標準;作提倡之方針,國術前途幸甚!中華民族幸甚!
I have already discussed the status and importance of martial arts in detail. Now I will discuss guidelines for promoting them. What is the best way to teach these arts in order to fulfill the goal of strengthening the people? It will not work if we do not use scientific methods in order to give the entire populace the opportunity to practice them. A more scientific martial art would not be held back by any restrictions. Regardless of income, age, time, gender, number of people, or place, all can practice. Thus this art is the kind of martial art that will transform the people.
     It is based in the standards of physiological health and physical education, and conforms to the principles of psychology and physics. Examining its effects, it truly can increase spirit, and can regulate blood circulation so that it is neither excessive nor insufficient. It neither overly strains nor insufficiently trains. It can bring the head, chest, abdomen, limbs, and so on, into coordinated movement, instead of overemphasizing one particular limb or overdeveloping one particular area. This then is a more scientific martial art.
     Simple and easy to learn, its uses are without end. Outwardly you will show ease as you inwardly bolster spirit. It gives to everyone the opportunity to practice. It is a martial art for whole groups of people. If martial arts can be more available, more scientific, and more organized, how could they not be popular? Chu Minyi holds the view that martial arts should be more scientific and more organized in order to be of more use.
     If we wish to achieve national identity, it will not work if the people do not have the capacity for self-defense. And if we wish for everyone to have the capacity for self-defense but were to discard the practicing of martial arts, there would be no other means left. However, the martial art that is best at being more available, more scientific, and more organized is Taiji Boxing. Is this not the martial art for the Chinese people? For defending the self and protecting the nation, this is the art that is up to the task.
     Henceforth the guiding principles for promoting martial arts should be that they be more available, more scientific, and more organized. It is Taiji Boxing that best fits these requirements. I hope my comrades will take these three “mores” as the standard. If these are made the guiding principles for promoting these arts, then the future of Chinese martial arts and of the Chinese people will be prosperous indeed!

第七節 國術合於物理之研究
Section Seven: How this Martial Art Conforms to the Principles of Physics

科學化的國術太極拳之力,約略可分三時期:──(一)未擊至身之時期,(二)正擊至身之時期。(三)旣擊至身之時期。
In the more scientific martial art of Taiji Boxing, power can be divided into roughly three moments: 1. before, 2. when. 3. after.

(一)未擊至身之時期
1. The moment before his strike reaches my body:

視其力之方向,引入落空,如其力向前,則自左、右、上、下,任取一方,向前引之,斯其力自空而無疑,如其力向上,則自左右,前、後,任何方向平移,其向上之力仍存,自受其力之制,以致反向左、右、前、後傾斜矣!如其重心出於體外,則卽仆矣,其餘方向亦然。
I notice the direction of the opponent’s force and lead him into emptiness. If his force is going forward, I take it to the left or right, up or down, drawing it in so that his force is sure to miss. If his force is going upward, I shift it to a horizontal direction, whether left or right, forward or back, and if he continues to exert force upward, he gives me control over his force, with the result that he will be leaned away to the left or right, forward or back. If his center of balance goes beyond his body, he will fall. The same goes for the other directions.

(二)正擊至身之時期
2. The moment when his strike reaches my body:

以身順其力之方向,使成斜角,其力自分,然後以手向任何方面擊之,其必自爾傾斜,如其重心出於體外,卽自仆矣。
I go along with the direction of his force, causing it to veer off at an angle and divide. Then when I use a hand to strike him anywhere, it is sure to make him lean. If his center of balance goes beyond his body, he will naturally fall.

(三)旣擊至身之時期
3. The moment when his strike has already reached my body:

以身引其力之方向,使成環形,其力自銷,則等於零,復循其落空處而擊之,其力旣無,自必因受擊而傾斜矣!倘重心出於體外,則必自倒。
I draw him in along the direction of his force, making a ring around him, causing his force to melt away until it is almost nothing. Then I strike him at the instant he has fallen into emptiness, and as his force is already spent, this is sure to make him lean. If his center of balance goes beyond his body, he is sure to fall.

以上不過略舉力之方向而言,至於力之離而未發,卽能知其將發。其何處欲動,卽知其將動。其心之所至,無不知之,此皆由於明乎動靜之理之所致也。
蓋一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜,虛實分淸,自能明乎力之所以然矣!
然後因力致勝,假力致勝,順力致勝,逆力致勝,分力致勝,合力致勝,……久而久之,自能遇力便曉,此非合於物理學中之力學乎?學者果能盡心研究之,則力之全豹,不難自明也。
The descriptions above are but brief glimpses of dealing with direction of force. As for force that has not yet been expressed, I can know when the opponent is about to issue, and no matter what part he wants to move, I know when it is about to move. Wherever his mind goes, I will know it. This is entirely the result of understanding the principle of movement and stillness.
     If one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still. Clearly distinguish between emptiness and fullness, and thereby you will be able to understand how force works. Then whether initiated force or borrowed force, followed force or countered force, divided force or combined force, you will succeed. After a long time, you will be able to easily understand whatever force you encounter. Does this art not conform to principles of physics? If you can study wholeheartedly, then force as a whole will not be difficult to understand.

第二章 太極拳總論
CHAPTER TWO: TAIJI BOXING CLASSICS

第一節 太極拳論
Section One: Taiji Boxing Treatise

太極者,無極而生動靜之機;陰陽之母也。動之則分;靜之則合。無過不及;隨曲就伸。人剛我柔謂之走;我順人逆謂之黏;動急則急應謂之連;動緩則緩應謂之隨。雖變化萬端,而理為一貫:由着熟,而漸悟懂勁。由懂勁,而階及神明。然非用力之久,不能豁然貫通焉!
虛領頂勁。氣沉丹田。中立不依,乍隱乍現。左重則左必輕;右重則右必輕。虛實兼到,仰高鑽堅。進之則長;退之則促。一羽不能加;蠅蟲不能落。人不知我;我獨知人。英雄所向無敵,蓋皆由於此也。
斯技旁門甚多。雖勢有區別,蓋不外乎壯欺弱,慢讓快耳!有力打無力,手慢讓手快。是皆先天自然之能,非關於學力而有為也。
察四兩撥千斤之句,顯非力勝,觀耄耋能禦衆之情,快何能為!惟立如平準;活似車輪。偏沉則隨;雙重則滯。每見數年純功,不能運化者,率皆自為人制,雙重之病未悟耳!
欲避此病,須知陰陽,黏卽是走,走卽是黏,陰不離陽,陽不離陰,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁。懂勁後,愈練愈精。默識揣摩,漸至從心所欲。本是舍己從人,多悞舍近求遠。所謂:『差之毫釐,謬之千里。』學者不可不詳辨焉!是為論。
Taiji [“grand polarity”] is born of wuji [“nonpolarity”]. It is the manifestation of movement and stillness, and the mother of yin and yang [the passive and active aspects]. When there is movement, passive and active become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being indistinguishable.
     Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend. He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking. If he moves fast, I quickly respond – this is connecting. If his movement is slow, I leisurely respond – this is following. Although there is an endless variety of possible scenarios, there is only this single principle [of yielding and sticking] throughout. Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will gradually progress toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.
     Forcelessly press up your headtop. Energy sinks to your elixir field. Stand centered and not leaning. Suddenly hide and suddenly appear. When there is pressure on the left, the left must become neutral. When there is pressure on the right, the right must become neutral. Emptiness and fullness manifest simultaneously. When looking up, it is still higher. When drilling in, it only becomes harder. When advancing, it is even farther. When retreating, it is even nearer. A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land. The opponent does not understand me, only I understand him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved.
     There are many other schools of boxing arts besides this one. Although the postures are different between them, they generally do not go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast. The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability and bear no relation to skill that is learned.
     Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.
     Stand like a scale. Move like a wheel. If you drop one side, you can move. If you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck. We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is always under the opponent’s control, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been understood.
     If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active. In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies. Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.
     The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent. We often make the mistake of ignoring what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances. For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” You must understand all this clearly. That is why it has been written down for you.

第二節 太極拳用功祕訣
Section Two: Secrets of Applying Taiji Boxing

一舉動周身俱要輕靈,猶須貫串,氣宜鼓盪,神宜內斂,無使有缺陷處,無使有凸凹處,無使有斷續處,其根在脚,發於腿,主宰於腰,形於手指,由脚而腿而腰,總要完整一氣,向前退後,乃能得機得勢,有不得機得勢處,身便散亂,其病必於腰腿求之。上下前後左右皆然,凡此皆是意,不在外面,有上卽有下,有前卽有後,有左卽有右,如意欲向上,卽寓下意。若將物掀起,而加以挫之之意,斯其根自斷,乃壞之速而無疑。
虛實宜分淸楚,一處自有一虛實,處處總此一虛實,周身節節貫串,無令絲毫間斷耳!
Once there is any movement, your entire body must be aware and alert. There especially needs to be connection from movement to movement. Energy should be roused and spirit should be collected within. Do not allow there to be cracks or gaps anywhere, pits or protrusions anywhere, breaks in the flow anywhere.
     Starting from your foot, issue through your leg, directing it at your waist, and expressing it at your fingers. From foot through leg through waist, it must be a fully continuous process, and whether advancing or retreating, you will then be able to catch the opportunity and gain the upper hand. If not and your body easily falls into disorder, the problem must be in your waist and legs, so look for it there. This is always so, regardless of the direction of the movement, be it up, down, forward, back, left, right. And in all of these cases, the problem is a matter of your intent and does not lie outside of you.
     With an upward comes a downward, with a forward comes a backward, and with a left comes a right. If your intention wants to go upward, then harbor a downward intention, like when you reach down to lift up an object. You thereby add a setback to the opponent’s own intention, thus he cuts his own root and is defeated quickly and certainly.
     Empty and full must be distinguished clearly. In each part there is a part that is empty and a part that is full. Everywhere it is always like this, an emptiness and a fullness. Throughout your body, as the movement goes from one section to another there has to be connection. Do not allow the slightest break in the connection.

第三節 太極拳行功心法
Section Three: Understanding How to Practice Taiji Boxing

以心行氣,務令沉着,乃能收斂入骨。以氣運身,務令順遂,乃能便利從心。精神能提得起,則無遲重之虞,所謂頂頭懸是也。
意氣須換得靈,乃有圓活趣味,所謂變動虛實也。
發動須沉着鬆靜,專主一方,立身須中正安舒,支撐八面,行氣如九曲珠,無微不利,氣遍身軀之謂也。
運勁如百練鋼,何堅不摧,形如搏兔之鵠;神似捕鼠之貓,靜如山岳,動似江河。
蓄勁如開弓,發勁如放箭,曲中求直,蓄而後發,力由脊發,步隨身換,收卽是放,斷而復連,往復須有摺疊,進退須有轉換,極柔軟然後極堅硬;能呼吸然後能靈活。
氣以直養而無害,勁以曲蓄而有餘,心為令,氣為旗,腰為纛,先求開展,後求緊凑,乃可臻於縝密矣!
一動無有不動,一靜無有不靜,牽動往來,氣貼背斂入脊骨,內固精神,外示安逸,邁步如貓行,運勁如抽絲,全身意在蓄神,不在氣,在氣則滯,有氣者無力,有力者無氣,無氣者純剛,卽得乾行健之理,所以氣如車輪,腰如車軸也。
先在心,後在身,以心行氣斂入骨,神舒體靜,刻刻在心切記!
Use mind to move the energy. You must get the energy to sink. It is then able to collect in the bones. Use energy to move your body. You must get the energy to be smooth. Your body can then easily obey your mind.
     If you can raise your spirit, then you will be without worry of being slow or weighed down. Thus it is said [in the Thirteen Dynamics Song]: “Your whole body will be aware and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.”
     Your mind must perform alternations nimbly, and then you will have the delight of being rounded and lively. Thus it is said [also in the Song]: “Pay attention to the alternation of empty and full.”
     When issuing power, you must sink and relax, concentrating it in one direction. Your posture must be upright and comfortable, bracing in all directions.
     Move energy as though through a winding-path pearl, penetrating even the smallest nook – meaning that the energy is everywhere in the body.
     Wield power like tempered steel, so strong there is nothing tough enough to stand up against it.
     The shape is like a falcon capturing a rabbit. The spirit is like a cat pouncing on a mouse.
     In stillness, be like a mountain, and in movement, be like a river.
     Store power like drawing a bow. Issue power like loosing an arrow.
     Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue.
     Power comes from your spine. Step according to your body’s adjustments.
     To gather is to release. Disconnect but stay connected.
     In the back and forth [of the arms], there must be folding. In the advance and retreat [of the feet], there must be variation.
     Extreme softness begets extreme hardness. Your ability to be lively lies in your ability to breathe.
     By nurturing energy with integrity, it will not be corrupted. By storing power in crooked parts, it will be in abundant supply.
     The mind makes the command, the energy is its flag, and the waist is its banner.
     First strive to open up, then strive to close up, and from there you will be able to attain a refined subtlety.
     If one part moves, every part moves, and if one part is still, every part is still.
     As the movement leads back and forth, energy sticks to and gathers in your spine.
     Inwardly bolster spirit and outwardly show ease.
     Step like a cat and move energy as if drawing silk.
     Throughout your body, your mind should dwell on the spirit rather than on the energy, for if you are fixated on the energy, your movement will become sluggish. Whenever your mind is on the energy, there will be no power, and likewise whenever your mind is on the power, there will be no energy. But if you ignore the energy and let it take care of itself, there will be pure strength.
     And if you only seek a principle of healthy movement – the energy is like a wheel and the waist is like an axle.
     First in the mind, then in the body. Using mind to move energy, it collects in your bones. Spirit comfortable, body calm – at every moment be mindful of this.

第四節 太極十三勢歌
Section Four: Taiji Thirteen Dynamics Song

十三總勢莫輕視,命意源頭在腰隙,變轉虛實須留意,氣遍身軀不稍癡,靜中觸動動猶靜,因敵變化示神奇,勢勢留心揆用意,得來工夫不顯遲。
刻刻留心在腰間,腹內鬆靜氣騰然,尾閭正中神貫頂,滿身輕利頂頭懸,仔細留心向推求,屈伸開合聽自由,入門引路須口授,工夫無息法自修。
若言體用何為準?意氣君來骨肉臣。想推用意終何在!延年益壽不老春。歌兮歌兮百四十,字字眞切義無遺,若不向此推求去,枉費工夫貽歎息!
Do not neglect any of the thirteen dynamics,
their command coming from your lower back.
You must pay attention to the alternation of empty and full,
then energy will flow through your whole body without getting stuck anywhere.
     In stillness, movement stirs, and then in moving, seem yet to be in stillness,
for the magic lies in making adjustments based on being receptive to the opponent.
In every movement, very deliberately control it by the use of intention,
for once you achieve that, your technique will never be gummed up.
     At every moment, pay attention to your waist,
for if there is relaxation and stillness within your belly, energy is primed.
Your tailbone is centered and spirit penetrates to your headtop,
thus your whole body will be aware and your headtop will be pulled up as if suspended.
     Pay careful attention in your practice that you are letting bending and extending,
contracting and expanding, happen as the situation requires.
Beginning the training requires personal instruction,
but mastering the art depends on your own unceasing effort.
     Whether we are discussing in terms of theory or function, what is the constant?
It is that mind is sovereign and body is subject.
If you think about it, what is emphasizing the use of intention going to lead you to?
To a longer life and a longer youth.
     Repeatedly recite the words above,
all of which speak clearly and hence their ideas come through without confusion.
If you pay no heed to those ideas, you will go astray in your training,
and you will find you have wasted your time and be left with only sighs of regret.

第五節 太極拳十六關要說明
Section Five: Taiji Boxing’s Sixteen Key Points

活潑於腰;靈機於頂;神通於背;流行於氣;行之於腿;蹬之於足;運之於掌;足之於指;斂之於髓;達之於神;凝之於耳;息之於鼻;呼吸於腹;縱之於膝;渾噩一身;發之於毛。
[1] Liveliness lies with your waist.
[2] Inspiration penetrates to your headtop.
[3] Spirit courses through your spine.
[4] Flowing lies with your energy.
[5] Movement lies with your legs.
[6] Pressing is felt at the foot.
[7] Wielding lies with your palms.
[8] Sufficiency reaches to your fingers.
[9] Gathering is a matter of your marrow.
[10] Arriving is a matter of your spirit.
[11] Concentration depends on your ears.
[12] Breathing occurs through your nose.
[13] Breathing operates from your abdomen.
[14] Springiness lies with your knees.
[15] Simplify things by using your whole body.
[16] Issuing is expressed at every hair.

第六節 太極拳主宰賓輔說明
Section Six: Taiji Boxing’s Process of Command & Obey

腰脊──為第一之主宰。
The lower back is first to command,
喉頭──為第二之主宰。
the throat second to command,
地心──為第三之主宰。
the solar plexus third to command.
丹田──為第一之賓輔。
The elixir field is first to obey,
掌指──為第二之賓輔。
the palms second to obey,
足掌──為第三之賓輔。
the soles of the feet third to obey.

第三章 太極拳史略傳
CHAPTER THREE: A BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF TAIJI BOXING

第一節 許宣平傳
Section One: Xu Xuanping

許宣平。唐,江南,徽州府,歙縣人也。隱城陽山,結簷南陽。身長七尺六寸,髯長至臍,髮長至足,行及奔馬。
每負薪於市中,獨吟曰:『負薪朝出賣,沽酒日夕歸,借問家何處,穿雲入翠微。』
李白訪之不遇,題詩望仙橋而回。
所傳太極拳名三十七,因三十七勢而名之也。又名長拳因其滔滔無間也。宋遠橋受業焉。
Xu Xuanping of the Tang Dynasty was from Xi County, Huizhou Prefecture, in the Jiangnan area. He lived as a hermit at Mt. Chengyang, dwelling in a thatched hut on the south-facing slope. He was over seven feet tall. His beard reached his navel and his hair reached his feet. He walked like a galloping horse. He often carried firewood to sell in the marketplace, chanting to himself:

At dawn I carry firewood to sell.
By dusk I have spent all my money on wine.
Pardon me, where do I live?
Go through those clouds up into Green Hills.

Li Bai went to visit Xu but did not meet him, then carved a poem [about not meeting him] onto Gazing Immortal’s Bridge and went home. The Taiji Boxing that Xu taught was called Thirty-Seven, because it had thirty-seven posture names. It was also called Long Boxing, as in: “It is like a long river flowing into the wide ocean, on and on ceaselessly…” The art was taught to Song Yuanqiao.

第二節 李道子傳
Section Two: Li Daozi

李道子,唐,江南,安慶人也。嘗居武當山南岩宮,不火食,第啖麥麩數合。時人名之曰夫子李云。
所傳太極拳名先天拳,亦名長拳。江南寧國府涇縣人俞淸慧,俞一誠,俞蓮舟,……等受業焉。
Li Daozi of the Tang Dynasty was from Anqing in the Jiangnan area. He lived in the Wudang Mountains at the Southern Cliffs Temple. There he did not cook his food, instead snacking on wheat bran several times a day, and people called him “master”. The Taiji Boxing he taught was called Innate Nature Boxing, also called Long Boxing. He taught his art to these men from Jing County, Ningguo Prefecture: Yu Qinghui, Yu Yicheng, Yu Lianzhou, as well as others.

第三節 程靈洗傳
Section Three: Cheng Lingxi

程靈洗,字元滌。江南徽州府休寧人也。其太極拳受業於韓拱月先生。
侯景之亂,惟歙縣能保全者,皆靈洗之力也。
梁元帝授以本郡太守,卒諡忠壯。
傳至程珌,改太極拳名為小九天。珌為紹興中進士,授昌化主簿,累官吏部尚書,拜翰林學士。卒,追封新安郡侯,以端明殿學士致仕。
珌居家時,常平糶以濟人,凡有利於民衆者,必盡心焉!著有落水集。
Cheng Lingxi, called Yuandi, was from Xiuning, Huizhou Prefecture, in the Jiangnan area. His Taiji Boxing was learned from Han Gongyue. During the Houjing Rebellion [548—552], She County [in Anhui] was protected entirely due to Cheng. The first Liang emperor thus gave him command over the region. After Cheng died, he was given the posthumous name of Zhongzhuang [“loyal and mighty”].
     The art was later passed down to Cheng Bi, who changed the name of his Taiji Boxing art to Small Highest Heaven. Cheng Bi [in 1193] was a graduate of the court-level examinations in Shaoxing Prefecture. He was made Head of Records for Changhua County, as well as Minister of Personnel, was honored with a degree from the Hanlin Academy, and finally, given the title of Marquis of Xin’an prefecture [modern day Huizhou in Anhui], as well as Scholar of the Hall of Clarity. While he ran his estate, he often sold grain for a much lower price to relieve people when there was less to go around, sincerely wanting to benefit the masses. He is the author of the Ming River Collection.

第四節 胡境子傳
Section Four: Hu Jingzi

胡境子,不知其姓氏,在揚州自稱之名也。宋仲殊受業焉。
仲殊,安州人也。嘗遊姑蘇臺,柱上倒書一絕云:『天長地久任悠悠,你旣無心我亦休,浪迹天涯人不管,春風吹笛酒家樓。』
所傳太極拳名後天法,傳殷利亨。
We do not know what Hu Jingzi’s name actually was, only that this is what he called himself in Yangzhou. He taught Zhong Shu of the Song Dynasty. Zhong was from Anzhou. He traveled to Gusu Tower, where he wrote this poem on a pillar:

Universe eternal, on and on forever,
you have no mind, so I likewise quiet mine.
I wander to the ends of the Earth, nobody paying me any attention,
but when spring breezes come, I blow my flute for them in taverns.

The Taiji Boxing he taught was called Acquired Nature Method. He taught it to Yin Liheng.

第五節 張三丰列傳
Section Five: Zhang Sanfeng

先師張三丰,名通,字君實,先世為江西龍虎山人。祖父裕賢公,携本支眷屬徙遼陽懿州,有子名居仁,亦名昌,字子安,號白山,卽先師父也。壯負奇氣,元太宗收召人才,分三科取士,子安赴試,策論科入選。悉性素恬淡,無意仕宦。終其身於林下。定宗丁未夏,先師母林太夫人誕先師,時四月初九日子時也。
先師風姿奇異,龜形鶴骨,大耳圓睛。十二歲,始專究儒業,然過目便曉,幷能會通大意。中統元年,舉茂才異等,二年稱文學才識,列名上聞,以備擢用,然非其素志也。
元甲子秋,遊燕京,時方定鼎於燕,詔令舊列文學才識者待用,栖遲於此,聞望日隆,始與平章政事廉公希憲識,公異其才,奏補中山博陵令,遂之官,政暇,遊葛洪山,相傳為稚川修煉處,因念一官蕭散,頗同勾漏,予豈不能似稚川哉?越明年,而丁艱矣!又數月,而報憂矣!先師遂絶仕進意,奉諱歸遼陽,終日哀毀,覓山之高潔者營厝,甫畢制居數載,乃束裝出遊,田產悉付族人,囑代掃墓。挈二行童相隨,北抵燕趙,東至齊魯,南達韓魏,往來名山古刹,吟咏閒觀,且行且住,如是者幾三十年,均無所遇,乃西之秦隴,挹太華之氣,納太白之奇,走褒斜,度陳倉,見寶雞山澤,幽邃而淸,乃就居焉!中有三尖山,三峯挻秀,蒼潤可喜,因自號為三丰居士云。
延佑元年,年六十七,始入終南,得遇火龍,傳以大道,遂更名玄素,一名玄化,合號玄玄子,別號昆陽,山居四載,功效寂然。
泰定甲子春,南至武當,調神九載,而道始成。於是湘雲巴雨之間,隱顯遨遊,又十餘歲,乃於至正初,由楚還遼陽省墓,訖。復之燕市,公卿故交,死亡已盡矣!
遂之西山,復至秦蜀,由荊楚之吳越,僑寓金陵,至正十九年仍還秦,居寶鷄金台觀。
又二年,元紀忽終,明運復啓,先師乃結庵于太和,故為瘋漢,人目為邋遢道人。
洪武十七年甲子,太祖以華夷賓服,詔求先師,不赴,二十五年,乃遯入雲南。
建文元年,完璞子訪先師於武當,適從平越歸來,相得甚歡。
永樂四年,侍讀學士胡廣奏言,先師深通道法,拳技絕倫,五年丁亥,卽命胡濙等遍游天下訪之,十年壬辰,又命孫碧雲於武當建宮拜候,幷致書相請,終不可得。
天順三年,英宗錫誥贈為通微顯化眞人。
所傳太極拳名十三勢,一名長拳云。
Master Zhang Sanfeng, called Tong, as well as Junshi, was from Mt. Longhu in Jiangxi. Zhang’s grandfather, the wealthy Duke Xian, moved his family to Yi Prefecture, Liaoyang. He had a son named Juren, called Chang, as well as Zi’an or Baishan. This was Zhang’s father. He was a robust man with an unusual air about him. The Yuan emperor Taizong [Ögedei Khan] had established three departments for selecting talented men for government service [based on literary skill]. Zhang Zi’an took the examination and was chosen by the “questions & themes” department [the other two departments being “meanings of the classics” and “ancient prose”]. Knowing his own nature and that he was indifferent to fame, he had no interest in being an official, and so spent the rest of his life in the woods. Then in the summer of the 44th year of the cycle [1247] during the reign of Emperor Dingzong [Güyük Khan], his wife Lin gave birth to the master, at about noon on the ninth day of the forth month.
     Master Zhang had an unusual appearance, hunched like a tortoise, a skeleton like a crane, big ears, round eyes. When he was twelve, he focused on studying Confucianism, which he learned easily, able to thoroughly understand its main ideas. In the first year of the Zhongtong era [1260] of the reign of Emperor Shizu [Kublai Khan], he was recognized as a remarkable talent. The following year, he was proclaimed to have literary insight and was put on a list of people to attend the imperial court for promotion to a governmental position. However, such a path was not his ambition.
     In the fall of the first year of the cycle [1264] during the Yuan Dynasty [actually seven years before it was formally declared], Zhang went to Yanjing [Beijing], which had just been made the new capital [the former capital being Xanadu (Shangdu)]. By imperial decree, literary talents had been called there to await employment. While waiting, Zhang’s reputation increased by the day. His comments on government affairs were noticed by Lian Xixian, who singled out his talent and had him made magistrate of Boling in Zhongshan. During his spare time from governing, Zhang went to Mt. Gehong. Tradition has it that he practiced asceticism at Zhichuan [“young river”]. Because he was so carefree and neglectful of his duties, how could he not be compared to a young river? But then the following year, his parents died, and several months later, he received the sad news. He quit his position and returned to Liaoyang. In constant grief, he searched the hills for a good burial spot.
     After completing the three-year mourning period, he packed his things to go traveling, leaving his estate to his clansmen and instructing them to pay the visits to the graves of his parents on his behalf. Accompanied by two Buddhist novices, he went north through Yan and Zhao, east to Qi and Lu, south to Han and Wei, wandering to famous mountains and ancient monasteries, reciting verse and spending time in contemplation. Moving on, staying for a while, moving on again, his life went on like this for almost thirty years, no place to call home. Then he went west into Shaanxi and Gansu, took the air of Taihua, saw the marvels of Taibai, went to Baoxie, spent time at Chencang. And he found the valley of Mt. Baoji, so invigorating and fresh that he decided to stay. There was a place there called Triplepoint Mountain. It had three peaks [“san feng”] that stood tall and elegant, and were a hearteningly lush green. That is why Zhang became known as the Scholar who Lived at Three Peaks.
     In the first year of the Yanyou era [1314] of the reign of Emperor Renzong [Buyantu Khan], Zhang at age sixty-seven went to Zhongnan to meet Huolong [“fire dragon”] and be taught of the Great Way. Zhang Sanfeng’s name was then changed to Xuanji, as well Xuanhua, and Xuanxuanzi, and also Kunyang. He dwelled in the mountains for four years and achieved quietude. In the spring of the first year of the reign of Emperor Taiding [1324], he went further south to Wudang, where he regulated his spirit for nine years and then achieved the Way.
     He thereafter disappeared while traveling somewhere between the mists of Hunan and the drizzle of Sichuan for about a decade. Then in the first year of the Zhizheng era [of Emperor Huizong (1341)], he returned to Liaoyang from Chu [Hunan/Hubei area] to visit a relative’s grave. After that, he went to Yanshi [in Henan], where an old friend who was a high-ranking official had just died. He then traveled westward to Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, then went from the territories of Jing and Chu to Wu and Yue [making an eastward path from Sichuan to Zhejiang], and lived in Jinling [i.e. Nanjing]. In the nineteenth year of the Zhizheng era [1359], he returned to Shaanxi and dwelled at Mt. Baoji’s Golden Tower View.
     Two years later, he suddenly disappears from Yuan Dynasty records, but reappears later during the Ming Dynasty. Zhang joined a temple on Mt. Taihe. Because he looked like a madman, people called him the “Slob Immortal”. In the seventeenth year of the reign of Emperor Hongwu [1384], the emperor greatly admired Zhang and gave orders that he was to be found. But Zhang would not go to the emperor, and by the twenty-fifth reign year [1392], he had fled to Yunnan. In the first year of the reign of Emperor Jianwen [1398], Wan Puzi went to visit Zhang at Wudang and they took a trip to Pingyue, where they had a delightful time in each other’s company.
     In the fourth year of the reign of Emperor Yongle [1406], the royal tutor Huguang dramatically told of Zhang’s deep understanding of the Way and his peerless boxing skill. In the fifth year [1407], the emperor ordered Huying and others to travel through the realm and find Zhang. In the tenth year [1412], the emperor now ordered Sun Biyun to build a temple at Wudang honoring Zhang, as well as sending letters inviting Zhang to court, but none of these things worked. In the third year of the Tianshun era [1459], Emperor Yingzong bestowed upon him the title of “The Comprehending-the-Profound Demonstrating-Transformation Perfected Man.”
     The Taiji Boxing he passed down was called Thirteen Dynamics, also known as Long Boxing.

第六節 王宗岳傳
Section Six: Wang Zongyue

王漁洋先生云:『拳勇之技,少林為外家,武當張三丰為內家。』三丰之後,有王宗岳者,西安人也,得先師眞傳,名聞宇內,著作甚多,於太極拳中之奧理,闡發無遺,誠所謂經緯之才也。傳溫州陳州同,及河南蔣發。
Wang Yuyang said: “Of the boxing arts, Shaolin is the external school and Zhang Sanfeng of Wudang is the internal school.” After Zhang Sanfeng, there was Wang Zongyue of Xi’an. Having obtained Zhang’s true teachings, he then became famous for producing many writings in which he thoroughly explains Taiji Boxing’s profound principles. Truly he can be called an “all-around talent” [i.e. good at both the practical and theoretical]. He taught Chen Zhoutong of Wenzhou and Jiang Fa of Henan.

第七節 南派名家略傳
Section Seven: Famous Masters of the Southern Branch of the Art

太極拳自山陜傳入溫州,則浙東之地,能者日衆。後有海鹽張松溪者,南派中最著名者也。傳寧波葉繼美近泉。近泉傳單思南。思南又傳王征南。王征南來咸淸順治中人也。征南意氣忼慨,勇敢好義,明之末季,可稱獨步,黃宗羲甚器之,及征南卒,為之作墓誌銘,可謂愛慕之極矣!其門生黃百家主一,將征南之內家拳法筆之於書,以廣其傳,後傳至甘鳳池。鳳池後,不得其傳焉!
Taiji Boxing went from the area of Shaanxi and Shanxi to Wenzhou. In eastern Zhejiang, skillful practitioners became more numerous by the day. Zhang Songxi of Haiyan was the most famous exponent of the southern branch of the art. He taught Ye Jinquan, called Jimei, of Ningbo. Ye taught Dan Sinan, who then taught Wang Zhengnan.
     Wang Zhengnan, called Laixian, lived during the reign of the Qing emperor Shunzhi [1643—1661]. His temperament was generous, courageous, chivalrous. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, he was considered peerless. Huang Zongxi was a great [literary] talent and wrote a memorial inscription for Wang when he died to show how very much he admired him. Huang Baijia, Wang’s pupil [and Zongxi’s son], recorded Wang’s teachings in Boxing Methods of the Internal School to spread his teachings. The art was later taught to Gan Fengchi, but it is not known how it was passed down after Gan.

第八節 北派名家略傳
Section Eight: Famous Masters of the Northern Branch of the Art

王宗岳旣傳太極拳於河南蔣發,發又傳陳長興,長興係河南,懷慶府,陳家溝人也。其人立身中正,形似木雞,時人稱為牌位先生云。
有楊福魁露蟬者,直隸廣平府,永年縣人也。聞其名與同里李白魁,同往受業,初至時,二人之外,均陳姓,異視之,二人刻苦求學,嘗夜不寢,先生見二人之好學,盡授其祕。遂名造一時,後露蟬先生遊京師,淸王公貝勒多從之學,稱弟子焉。
先生有子三人,長名錡,夭亡,次名鈺,字班侯,三名鑑,字健侯,亦稱鏡湖。皆獲盛名。
健侯先生生子三人,長名兆熊,字夢祥,號少侯。次名兆元,早亡。三名兆淸,字澄甫。均以技擊名於世。
初,露蟬先生客居京師時,得其傳者僅三人,吳全佑公甫,萬春,凌山。然承先生之命,均拜班侯之門。
公甫先生有子一人,名愛紳,字鑑泉。得太極眞傳,名聞海內。有子二人,長名潤澤,字子鎭。次名潤霈,字雨亭。均善技擊。
公甫先生傳王茂齋,齊閣臣等數人。
鑑泉先生曾在京師敎授太極拳二十餘年矣。得其傳者,在北方有北平吳圖南,趙元生、吳潤臣,趙壽椿,東錫珍,趙仲博,金雲峯,金壽峯,葛馨吾等數人耳。在南方者,有褚民誼,徐致一,王志羣等數人。趙仲博又傳關傑三。均為國術專家。
楊夢祥先生在京師時,得其傳者,有海甸東潤芳,北平馬潤之,尤志學,田肇麟,烏拉布等數人。潤芳為人,慷慨好義。工詩文,善書畫,與同里韓久亭先生。均以文名。予時從潤芳先生游焉。
志學傳其姪尤廣聲金鐸。金鐸天資英挺,才氣過人。與予相交最久,惜乎已早年去世矣!未能將其心得,供諸於世,誠遺憾耳!
楊澄甫先生傳武匯川,陳微明等數人。
Wang Zongyue taught Taiji Boxing to Jiang Fa of Henan. Jiang then taught it to Chen Changxing of the Chen Family Village in Huaiqing Prefecture, Henan. Chen always stood balanced upright, as expressionless as a rooster made of wood, and so people called him “Mr. Board”.
     There was a Yang Luchan, called Fukui, of Yongnian County, Guangping Prefecture, Hebei. He heard of Chen’s fame and went with his fellow villager Li Bokui to learn him. When they arrived, other than the two of them, everyone had the surname Chen, and so they were looked upon as outsiders. But they worked very hard to learn the material, often practicing throughout the night instead of sleeping. Chen saw that they were good students and taught them all his secrets. Yang’s fame thereafter grew and later he went to Beijing, where Qing Dynasty royals, nobles, and men of rank learned from him, and were called his disciples.
     Yang had three sons. The eldest was named Qi, but he died young. The second was named Yu, called Banhou, and the third was named Jian, called Jianhou, also known as Jinghu. Both of them achieved great fame. Jianhou had three sons. The eldest was named Zhaoxiong, called Mengxiang, and known as Shaohou, the second was named Zhaoyuan, who died young, and the third was named Zhaoqing, called Chengfu. They both [the surviving sons] have become famous for their skill everywhere.
     During Yang Luchan’s early days in Beijing, he taught only three people: Wu Quanyou, Wan Chun, and Ling Shan. Then carrying out his instructions [after he died], they all become disciples of Yang Banhou.
     Master Wu had a son named Aishen, called Jianquan, who received the authentic Taiji teachings and is famous throughout the nation. Wu Jianquan has two sons, the elder named Runze, called Zitian, and the younger called Runpei, called Yuting. They both have outstanding skill. Wu Quanyou also taught Wang Maozhai, Qi Gechen, and many others.
     Wu Jianquan taught Taiji Boxing for more than twenty years while in Beijing. In the north, he has taught Wu Tunan of Beijing, Zhao Yuansheng, Wu Runchen, Zhao Shouchun, Dong Xizhen, Zhao Zhongbo, Jin Yunfeng, Jin Shoufeng, Ge Xinwu, and many others. In the south [i.e. Shanghai], he has taught Chu Minyi, Xu Zhiyi, Wang Zhiqun, and many others. Zhao Zhongbo then taught Guan Jiesan. These men are all martial arts experts.
     While Yang Shaohou was in Beijing, he taught Dong Runfang of Haidian, Ma Runzhi of Beijing, You Zhixue, Tian Zhaolin, Wu Labu, and many others.
     Dong Runfang is generous and chivalrous. He is accomplished at poetry and prose, an expert in calligraphy and painting. He and Han Jiuting, from his hometown, both enjoy fame. Dong and I frequently travel together.
     You Zhixue taught his nephew You Jinduo, called Guangsheng. Jinduo was gifted and handsome, and had a surpassing literary talent. He and I had a long friendship, but unfortunately he passed away some years ago, and it is truly a pity that he cannot share his learning with the world.
     Yang Chengfu has taught Wu Huichuan, Chen Weiming, and many others.

太極拳世系表
TAIJI BOXING LINEAGE CHART

許宣平─宋遠橋
Xu Xuanping > Song Yuanqiao
李道子─{ 俞一誠 俞淸慧 俞蓮舟
Li Daozi > Yu Yicheng, Yu Qinghui, Yu Lianzhou
韓拱月─程靈洗─程珌
Han Gongyue > Cheng Lingxi > Cheng Bi
胡鏡子─宋仲殊─殷利亨
Hu Jingzi > Zhong Shu of the Song Dynasty > Yin Liheng
張三丰─王宗岳─陳州同─張松溪─葉近泉─單思南─王征南─黃百家─甘鳳池
Zhang Sanfeng > Wang Zongyue > Chen Zhoutong > Zhang Songxi > Ye Jinquan > Dan Sinan > Wang Zhengnan > Huang Baijia > Gan Fengchi
張三丰─王宗岳─蔣發─陳長興─楊露蟬{ 楊班侯 楊錡 楊健侯
Zhang Sanfeng > Wang Zongyue > Jiang Fa > Chen Changxing > Yang Luchan > Yang Banhou, Yang Ji, Yang Jianhou
楊班侯{ 萬春 吳公甫 凌山
Yang Banhou > Wan Chun, Wu Gongfu, Ling Shan
吳公甫{ 王茂齋 吳鑑泉 齊閣臣
Master Wu [Quanyou] > Wang Maozhai, Wu Jianquan, Qi Gechen
吳鑑泉{ 褚民誼 徐致一 王志羣 吳子鎭 吳潤臣 趙元生 吳圖南 吳雨亭 東錫珍 趙壽椿 趙仲博 金雲峯 金壽峯 萬聲吾
Wu Jianquan > Chu Minyi, Xu Zhiyi, Wang Zhiqun, Wu Zizhen, Wu Runchen, Zhao Yuansheng, Wu Tunan, Wu Yuting, Dong Xizhen, Zhao Shouchun, Zhao Zhongbo, Jin Yunfeng, Jin Shoufeng, Wan Shengwu
趙仲博─關傑三
Zhao Zhongbo > Guan Jiesan
楊健侯{ 楊兆元 楊夢祥 楊澄甫
Yang Jianhou > Yang Zhaoyuan, Yang Mengxiang, Yang Chengfu
楊夢祥{ 東潤芳 馬潤之 尤志學 田肇麟 烏拉布
Yang Mengxiang [Shaohou] > Dong Runfang, Ma Runzhi, You Zhixue, Tian Zhaolin, Wu Labu
尤志學─尤金鐸
You Zhixue > You Jinduo
楊澄甫{ 武匯川 陳微明
Yang Chengfu > Wu Huichuan, Chen Weiming

第四章 太極拳勢說明
CHAPTER FOUR: THE TAIJI BOXING POSTURES EXPLAINED

太極拳者,口授之學也。雖有名目,而姿勢應用,未有說明,是以往往一勢而姿態參差,無所適從。茲特於名目下擇要略加註釋;次依吾師之傳,作姿勢說明;再依予十餘載之經驗,作應用說明。但恐猶多不合。希海內明哲之士,不惜敎言是幸!
開展之勢,便於初學,故是書之圖,均採用之。更假定太極勢所面之方為前,背為後,左為左,右為右,不論何勢均宗之。僅依十三勢之原有名目,循序作圖立說,以備好學之士,為入道之門焉。
Taiji Boxing was passed down orally. However, the names, postures, and applications did not get explained, and so there are often inconsistencies in the way the postures are performed, leaving us unsure as to exactly how we are supposed to do them. Specially presented below are brief explanations for the names. There are also descriptions for the postures, which are according to my teacher’s instructions. Furthermore, there are application explanations, which are drawn from my own experience of more than ten years, but which I worry are often still not quite entirely apt. I hope wiser scholars throughout the nation will not hold back in giving me corrections, for which I would feel fortunate indeed.
     It is easier for beginners if the postures are opened up, thus I have chosen to perform them this way in the photos throughout this book.
     Consider the direction you are facing when in the BEGINNING POSTURE to be the “Front”, behind you to be the “Rear”, to your left the “Left”, and to your right the “Right”. Let these be the standard orientations no matter what posture you are doing.
     The postures in the Thirteen Dynamics solo set are explained and accompanied by a photo only the first time they appear in the sequence [instead of explaining and showing them all over again whenever they repeat] to make them easier for you to learn and thereby find your way into the art.

方向圖
ORIENTATION CHART:

右後   後   左後
Right Rear  Rear  Left Rear

右   太極勢   左
Right (Beginning Posture) Left

右前   前   左前
Right Front  Front  Left Front

太極勢
[1] BEGINNING POSTURE

略釋
Explanation of the name:
太極勢者,動靜未分之謂也。作此勢時必須神舒體靜,心專於一儼如天地未分,元氣混沌之象。
In this posture, there is not yet a distinction between movement and stillness. While making this posture, your spirit must be relaxed, your body calm, your mind focused on a oneness resembling the condition at the beginning of the universe when there was only a primal energy and nothing had yet been formed.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
頭宜正,頸宜直,涵胸,拔背,裹襠,護臀,兩臂從容下垂,十指向前,掌心下按,但不用力。目平視,息之於鼻,凝之於耳,呼吸於腹,虛領頂勁,氣沉丹田,中立不依,乍隱乍現。感物而動,應物自然,兩足間之距離,以肩為度。
Your head should be upright, your neck straight. Contain your chest and pluck up your back. Withdraw your crotch and tuck in your buttocks. Your arms hang downward leisurely, fingers pointing forward, palms pushing downward, but without putting forth any effort. Your gaze is level. Breathe through your nose and from your abdomen, focusing with your ears. Forcelessly press up your headtop and sink energy to your elixir field. From a balanced and unleaning position, suddenly disappear and suddenly appear. Move when you feel the opponent is moving, and respond to him naturally. The distance between your feet is shoulder width.

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攬雀尾一
[2.1] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
攬雀尾,為太極拳動作之基礎,練之宜熟宜精,學者須注重焉。
This posture is the basis of Taiji Boxing movement. It should be practiced to familiarity and then skillfulness. You must give it special attention.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足前上一步,足根點地,足尖翹起,膝微曲,右足不動,而腿下踞,全體重心,均負右足,同時左臂向前曲肱垂肘,五指向右,掌心胸向,作環狀上提,至胸前止。右手五指向上,掌心向前,亦提至胸前。掌心撫左肱以助之。至其頭,脛,胸,背……等之姿勢,與太極勢同,後倣此。
Your left foot steps forward to the Front, heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your right foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifting entirely to your right foot. At the same time, your left arm goes forward with the forearm bent in, elbow hanging down, fingers pointing to the Right, palm facing to your chest, making a ring shape, lifting until in front of your chest, your right hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front, also lifting until in front of your chest, the palm touching your left arm to assist. The status of your head, shin [neck], chest, back, and so on is the same as in the BEGINNING POSTURE, and so is not repeated here.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以雙手按我,我以左肱迎之,右手助之,用掤力以掤之。
An opponent uses both hands to push me, so I use my left forearm to receive it, my right hand assisting, and I use ward-off energy to send him away.

攬雀尾二
[2.2] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足尖向右前方(卽四十五度角)下落,膝曲而腿下踞,全體重心,移於左足,同時右足向右方(卽九十度角)進一步,足根點地,足尖翹起,膝微曲,身亦隨之面右。同時右手立掌(五指向上掌心向前)垂肘,向右方伸出,至胸前止,左手亦立掌(五指向上掌心向後)垂肘,向右伸出,至右手與胸之間止。惟右手大指,約與鼻齊,左手大指,則僅與喉齊耳。
Your left toes come down pointing to the Right Front (i.e. shifting forty-five degrees), the knee bending, the leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your left foot, and your right foot advances a step to the Right (redirecting ninety degrees), heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your torso also going along with the movement to be facing to the Right. At the same time, your right hand as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front), elbow hanging down, reaches out to the Right to be in front of your chest, while your left hand also as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear), elbow hanging down, stretches out to the Right to be between your right hand and your chest. Your right thumb is at about nose level, your left thumb at only throat level.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我向左微移,以洩其力,然後以右手進擊其胸。
An opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I slightly shift to the Left to dispel his force, then I use my right hand to strike forward to his chest.

攬雀尾三
[2.3] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – Part 3

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右手左手向懷內捋,遂將右掌心向上轉,左掌心向下轉,如抱物下攬然,然後垂肘向右方伸出,右手中指,約與眉齊,左手中指,則撫右腕,惟須稍含按意耳。同時右足尖下落,膝右弓(小腿宜直股宜平。)左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,復將右手自右方向右後方旋轉半圓(卽一百八十度角,)左手隨之,至肩與胸之間止。同時左腿隨之下踞,右足尖依然翹起。全體重心,移於左足,然後右手立掌(五指向上掌心向右)垂肘,左手(五指向上掌心。向左)指撫右腕,向右方按出,右臂微曲,掌與肩平,同時右膝右弓(小腿宜直股宜平,)左腿蹬直(足根切莫離地,)全體重心,移於右足。
Your hands do a rollback toward your chest, right palm turning to be facing upward, left palm turning to be facing downward, as though holding an object and pulling it in downward. Then reach out to the Right, elbows hanging down, the middle finger of your right hand at eyebrow level, the middle finger of your left hand touching your right wrist, and there must be a slight intention of pushing. At the same time, your right toes come down, the knee bending to the Right (The lower leg should be vertical and the thigh should be level.), your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. Then your right hand makes a half circle from the Right to the Right Rear [and finally to the Left] (arcing through a hundred and eighty degrees), your left hand moving along with it, to be between your shoulder and your chest, your left leg at the same time squatting down, your right toes lifting again, the weight shifting to your left foot. Then your right hand as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right), elbow hanging down, and your left hand (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left), fingers touching your right wrist, push out to the Right, your right arm slightly bent, palm at shoulder level. At the same time, your right knee bends to the Right (The lower leg should be vertical and the thigh should be level.), your left leg straightening (The heel must not leave the ground.), the weight shifting to your right foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵擊我如偏左,我則捋之,如偏右,我則採之,敵力落空,卽不得逞而我則東西南北上下,無不如意。
If the opponent attacks leaning in, I roll him back. If he then leans away, I pluck him. Once his force has been dispelled, there is nothing he can do, whereas I can do anything I want, in any direction.

單鞭
[3] SINGLE WHIP

略釋
Explanation of the name:
單鞭在禦敵之時,有以單手乘勢擊敵之作用。
When defending against an opponent, a “single whip” has the function of using a single hand to take advantage of an opportunity to strike him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右手下垂作鈎狀,同時右足根自左方向右後方旋轉,至與足尖成前後直線(卽九十度角)止,然後左足向左方撤半步,左足尖自右方向前方旋轉,至左前方(卽一百三十五度角)止。雙腿下踞(小腿宜直左右股宜平。)同時右鈎不動,左手立掌(五指向上)垂肘,自右而前,經過胸部,向左方伸出(卽一百八十度角)。臂微曲,掌心向左,五指向上,身體隨之向前(卽九十度角。)惟頭以目注左掌故,故向左方(卽一百八十度角。)全體重心,移於兩足間之中點,蓋以身居中央也。
Your right hand hangs downward to make a hook shape as your right heel pivots to go from pointing to the Left to pointing to the Right Rear [Left Rear] and finally making a line with the toes to the Front and Rear (i.e. turning ninety degrees). Then your left foot withdraws a half step to the Left, the toes turning from pointing to the Left to pointing to the Front and finally pointing to the Left Front (i.e. turning a hundred and thirty-five degrees), both legs squatting down. (Your lower legs should be vertical and your thighs should be level.) At the same time, with your right hooking hand staying as it is, your left hand as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward), elbow hanging down, goes from the Right to the Front, passes by your chest, and reaches out to the Left (i.e. covers a hundred and eighty degrees), the arm slightly bent, palm facing to the Left, fingers pointing upward. Your torso goes along with the movement to be facing to the Front (i.e. turning ninety degrees), but your head follows your left palm to look to the Left (i.e. turning a hundred and eighty degrees). The weight shifts to be between your feet, your body positioned in the center.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我身下踞以避其勢,迨其力落空,然後以左手向其胸部按之,敵倘抽身欲脫,我卽因彼之力而順擊之。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I squat my body down to evade it, then once his force lands on nothing, I use my left hand to push to his chest. If he withdraws his body in an attempt to get away, I follow the force of it to strike him.

提手上勢一
[4.1] RAISE THE HAND, STEPPING FORWARD – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
提手上勢者,向上提手,有若持物上舉者然,同時身體亦向前進步,故亦有進步上提手之稱。
In this posture, I lift a hand up as though raising something that I am holding. At the same time, my body is also advancing a step, hence I am stepping forward while raising a hand.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足前上一步(卽九十度角),足根點地,足尖翹起,膝前曲,左足不動而腿下踞,全體重心,移於左足,同時右臂之鈎變掌(掌心胸向五指向左,)曲肱垂肘而作環狀,移至胸前,左手立掌(掌心向前五指向上)按右肱以助其勢,頭亦因之面前方(卽九十度角。)
Your right foot steps forward to the Front, (changing the line of your feet by ninety degrees), heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your left foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your right hooking hand changes to a palm (palm facing your chest, fingers pointing to the left), the forearm bending in, elbow hanging down, and makes a ring shape, shifted to be in front of your chest, while your left hand as an upright palm (palm facing to the Front, fingers pointing upward) pushes on your right forearm to assist the posture, your head also going along with the movement to face to the Front (shifting by ninety degrees).

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵如以雙手按我,我以右肱迎之,左手助之用掤力以掤之。
An opponent uses both hands to push me, so I use my right forearm to receive it, my left hand assisting, and I use ward-off energy to send him away.

提手上勢二
[4.2] RAISE THE HAND, STEPPING FORWARD – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右手橫掌(五指向左)上提,至頂上止,掌心自內而下而前旋轉,至向前上方(卽二百二十五度角)止,左手(五指向前掌心向下)下按,至左胯側止,同時右足尖下落,右腿前弓,左足遂向前幷步,與右足齊,身體直立,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。
Your right hand as a sideways palm (fingers pointing to the left) lifts up until higher than your headtop, the palm turning over to go from facing inward to downward to the Front and finally facing upward to the Front (i.e. rotating two hundred and twenty-five degrees), while your left hand (fingers pointing forward, palm facing downward), pushes downward until beside your left hip. At the same time, your right toes come down, the leg bends to the Front, your left foot steps forward to be next to your right foot, and your body stands upright, the weight shifting to be between your feet.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵如以雙手推我右肱,乃欲下按以避我左手,及雙手旣避,則彼可制勝,但我可因彼按力,將右手丢開而上提,用腕部擊彼之頷部。
If an opponent is using both hands to push on my right forearm and then tries to push down, I evade with my left hand. If I take both of my hands away, he would be able to defeat me. Instead I can go along with the force of his push and then lift up my right hand to cast him off, or use the wrist to strike to his chin.

白鶴亮翅
[5] WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

略釋
Explanation of the name:
此勢之動作,兩臂向上高舉左右兩分,恰如白鶴亮翅之狀,故名。
In this posture’s movement, your arms are raised up high and are spread apart to the left and right, like a white crane showing its wings, hence the name.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右手向左微移,左手(五指向上掌心向前)向左作環狀上提,然後右手右移,至頭上之右側方止,左手(五指向右掌心向前上方)至頭上之左側方止,掌心均向前上方。
Your right hand slightly shifts to the Left as your left hand (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front), arcs to the Left and lifts up. Then your right hand shifts to the Right until to the right side of your head, your left hand (fingers pointing to the right, palm facing upward to the Front), finishing to the Left side of your head, both palms facing upward to the Front.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵如從左側方擊我,我以右手引之,彼力旣出,必落空,我卽乘機以左手順其力而擊之。
An opponent attacks me from the left side, so I use my right hand to draw him in, then once his force is spent, he is sure to lose his balance, so I take advantage of the opportunity by using my left hand to go along with his force and strike him.

摟膝拗步一
[6.1] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
拗步者,不順之步,卽進左步而右手前伸,或進右步而左手前伸也。摟膝則以手下摟拗步之膝之謂。
A “crossed stance” is the opposite of a straight stance [same hand and foot forward]. Thus if I advance with my left foot, I reach forward with my right hand, and if I advance with my right foot, I reach forward with my left hand. To “brush the knee” means I use my other hand to brush downward past my knee.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足向左方開一步,身亦隨之左面(卽九十度角,)然後左膝左弓(小腿宜直股宜平),右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手(五指向左掌心向下)自鼻端而下,經胸前,由膝之左前方,向左後方摟左膝,至左胯側止,臂微曲,五指向左,掌心下按,右手(五指向左掌心向後)自右耳側(掌心以幾與耳相擦為宜)向左方伸出,臂微曲,掌與肩平,五指向上,掌心向左。
Your left foot steps out to the Left, your torso going along with the movement to be facing to the Left (i.e. turning ninety degrees), then the knee bends to the Left (The lower leg should be vertical and the thigh should be level.), your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing downward), goes downward from in front of your nose, passing in front of your chest, and goes from the Left Front to the Left Rear, brushing past your left knee until to the side of your left hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Left, palm pushing downward, as your right hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing to the Rear), goes from beside your right ear (The palm should be almost rubbing the ear.) and reaches out to the Left, the arm slightly bent, the palm at shoulder level, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵之自左下方以右手擊我,我以左手向左外方摟之,彼力旣空,身必前傾,復進左足攔敵之右踵,而以右手進擊其胸。
An opponent sends his right hand from below in the Left to attack me, so I use my left hand to brush outward to the Left. Once his force is dissipated, his body is sure to lean forward, so I then advance my left foot to obstruct his right heel and send my right hand forward to strike to his chest.

摟膝拗步二
[6.2] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足左上一步,膝左弓(小腿宜直股宜平,)左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手(五指向左掌心向下)自膝之左後方,向左前方摟右膝,至右胯側止,臂微曲,五指向左,掌心下按,左手(五指向左掌心向前)自左耳側(掌心以幾與耳相擦為宜)向左方伸出,臂微曲,掌與肩平,五指向上,掌心向左。
Your right foot steps forward to the Left and the knee bends to the Left (The lower leg should be vertical and the thigh should be level.), your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing downward), goes from the Left Rear to the Left Front, brushing past your right knee until to the side of your right hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Left, palm pushing downward, as your left hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing to the Front), goes from beside your left ear (The palm should be almost rubbing the ear.) and reaches out to the Left, the arm slightly bent, the palm at shoulder level, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手自右下方擊我,我以右手向右外方摟之,然後進右足攔敵之左踵,而以左手進擊其胸。
The opponent sends his left hand from below in the Right to attack me, so I use my right hand to brush outward to the Right, then advance my right foot to obstruct his left heel and send my left hand forward to strike to his chest.

摟膝拗步三
[6.3] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE – Part 3

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足左上一步,膝左弓(小腿宜直股宜平),右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手(五指向左掌心向下)下摟左膝,至左胯側止,臂微曲,五指向左,掌心下按,右手(五指向左掌心向後)自右耳側(掌心以幾與耳相擦為宜)向左方伸出,臂微曲,掌與肩平,五指向上,掌心向左。
Your left foot steps forward to the Left and the knee bends to the Left (The lower leg should be vertical and the thigh should be level.), your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing downward), brushes downward past your left knee until to the side of your left hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Left, palm pushing downward, as your right hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing to the Rear), goes from beside your right ear (The palm should be almost rubbing the ear.) and reaches out to the Left, the arm slightly bent, the palm at shoulder level, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自左下方以右手擊我,我以左手向左外方摟之,然後進左足攔敵之右踵,而以右手進擊其胸。
The opponent sends his right hand from below in the Left to attack me, so I use my left hand to brush outward to the Left, then advance my left foot to obstruct his right heel and send my right hand forward to strike to his chest.

手揮琵琶式一
[7.1] PLAY THE LUTE – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
此勢之動作,兩手相抱,有如懷抱琵琶然,故名。
The movement of this posture involves my hands embracing toward each other, as though I am holding a lute, hence the name.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足右撤半步,足根點地,足尖翹起,膝微曲,右腿下踞,全體重心,移於右足,同時左手自左胯側向左作環狀提起,立掌(五指向上掌心向前)垂肘移至胸前,右手亦立掌(五指向上掌心向後)垂肘移至左手與胸之間,惟左手大指,約與鼻齊,右手大指,則僅與喉齊,身體依然左面。
Your left foot withdraws a half step to the Right, heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your right leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your left hand lifts toward the Left from beside your left hip to make a ring shape, palm upright (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front), elbow hanging down, shifting to be in front of your chest, while your right hand also as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear), elbow hanging down, shifts to be between your left hand and your chest, your left thumb at about nose level, your right thumb at only throat level, your torso inclining to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我用右手將彼吸起,敵若乘勢以右手進擊吾胸,我卽因彼之力,以左手順捋其右臂。
An opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to absorb it. If he takes advantage of the opportunity to use his right hand to strike forward to my chest, I then go along with his force by using my left hand to do a rollback to his right arm.

手揮琵琶式二
[7.2] PLAY THE LUTE – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足向左後方(卽四十五度角)開半步,右足隨之幷步,全體重心,移於右足,同時左手右手自左而後,旋轉半圓(卽一百八十度角,)仍至原處止,惟左掌心向左下方,右掌心向右上方。左右手指,均向左方。
Your left foot takes a half step out to the Left Rear (shifting in direction forty-five degrees) and your right foot follows to stand next to it, the weight then shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your hands make a half circle from the Left to the Rear (arcing through a hundred and eighty degrees) and returning to their original position, your left palm now facing downward to the Left, right palm now facing upward to the Right, the fingers of both hands pointing toward the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵已為我吸起,如抽身欲逃我卽因其力進步推之,敵若乘我之推力,將右手抽出,復自我之左後方來擊,則用左手向左後方捋之,彼力旣空,然後用左手推之,右手輔之。
As I start to absorb the opponent’s force, he draws back his body to get away, so I go along with the force of this and advance a step to push him. If he goes along with the force of my push, pulling back his right hand, and then attacks me from the Left Rear, I send my left hand to the Left Rear to roll him back, and once his force has been dispelled, I then use my left hand to push, my right hand assisting.

進步搬攔捶一
[8.1] ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
進步搬攔捶者,向前進步,用手移開敵手,而阻敵人之前進,復乘勢以拳擊敵也。
In this posture, advance a step and use a hand to move aside the opponent’s hand, preventing him from coming forward, then take advantage of the opportunity to punch him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足左上一步,膝左弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手(五指向左掌心向下)右手(五指向左掌心向上)隨身向左方伸出,左手中指,約與眉齊,右手中指,則撫左腕,稍向左後方旋轉,然後左足尖翹起,足根點地,膝微曲,身體右移,右足不動,而腿下踞,全體重心,移於右足,同時左手立掌(五指向上掌心向前)垂肘移至胸前,右手握拳,循腰帶右撤,至右脅側止,惟拳眼向上耳。身體依然左面。
Your left foot steps forward to the Left and the knee bends to the Left, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing downward), and your right hand (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing upward), go along with your body by reaching out to the Left, the middle finger of your left hand at about eyebrow height, the middle finger of your right hand touching your left wrist, and you slightly turn toward the Left Rear. Then your left toes lift, heel touching down, the knee slightly bent, as your body shifts to the Right, your right foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your left hand as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front), elbow hanging down, shifts to be in front of your chest, while your right hand grasps into a fist and withdraws to the Right along your waist until beside your right ribs, the fist eye facing upward, your torso still facing to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手向右前方捋之,同時進左步阻敵之右踵,右手握拳,以待其變。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to roll it back to the Right Front as I advance my left foot to obstruct his right heel, my right hand grasping into a fist to await what he will do next.

進步搬攔捶二
[8.2] ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足尖下落,膝左弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左掌不動,右拳循左掌向左方伸出,臂微曲,拳與肩平,拳眼向上,左手指撫右肱,以助其勢。
Your right toes come down and the knee bends to the Left, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left palm staying as it is, your right fist goes along your left palm to reach out to the Left, the arm slightly bent, the fist at shoulder level, the fist eye facing upward, your left fingers touching your right forearm to assist the posture.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵抽右手欲逃,我卽因彼之抽力,用拳進擊其胸。
The opponent withdraws his right hand to try to get away, so I go along with his withdrawing force by using my fist to strike to his chest.

如封似閉一
[9.1] SEALING SHUT – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
如封似閉為封閉敵人之意。蓋禦敵之時,自衞而避敵,乘勢而擊敵。非避敵而不出擊也。
In this posture, there is an intention of sealing off an opponent. When dealing with an opponent, defend yourself by evading him, then take advantage of an opportunity to attack him. If you cannot evade his attacks, there will be no point in trying to attack him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足尖翹起,膝微曲,右足不動,而腿下踞,全體重心,移於右足,四時左手自右腋下伸出,五指向上,掌心向右,循右臂外而行,右手將拳變掌,徐徐向胸間撤回,左右手交叉至胸前時,然後左右各自分開,手指向上,掌心向右,雙肘下垂,兩手間之距離,以肩為度。
Your left toes lift, the knee slightly bent, and your right foot stays where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your left hand reaches out from below your right armpit, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right, and goes along the outside of your right arm, while your right fist becomes a palm and slowly withdraws toward your chest until your hands are crossed in front of your chest. Then your hands spread apart to the sides, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right, elbows hanging down, the hands shoulder width apart.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手握我右肱,我以左手攔着敵手,而將右臂抽回,恐敵乘勢進擊吾胸,於是以左右手偽封之,以待其變。
The opponent uses his left hand to grab my right forearm, so I use my left hand to block his hand while withdrawing my right arm. In case he then tries to strike forward to my chest, I use my hands to seal him away and then wait for what he will do next.

如封似閉二
[9.2] SEALING SHUT – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足尖下落,膝左弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左右手合掌向左方推出,臂微曲(雙臂,)掌與肩平(雙掌,)五指向上,掌心向左,兩掌間之距離,以肩為度。
Your left toes come down and the knee bends to the Left, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your hands push out in unison to the Left, arms slightly bent, palms at shoulder level, fingers pointing upward, palms facing to the Left, the space between your palms being shoulder width.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以雙手推我,我左右分之,彼力旣空,然後向彼胸間推之。
The opponent uses both hands to push me, so I spread apart to the sides, causing his force to miss, then push toward his chest.

抱虎歸山一
[10.1] CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
抱虎歸山者,謂敵之勢猛如虎。我乘勢,以手抱持而歸也。
In this posture, the opponent’s technique is as fierce as a tiger, so I take advantage of the opportunity by using a hand to take hold of him and send him back where he came from.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
雙手下落,至左膝之左右側止,然後身轉向前(卽九十度角,)右足不動,左足向右幷步,同時左手向左,右手向右,徐徐提起,至頂上止,掌心相向交叉,右手前而左手後,然後交叉下落,至胸前止。全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。
Your hands lower to the sides of your left knee. Then your body turns to the Front (i.e. turning ninety degrees), your right foot staying where it is and your left foot stepping to the Right to stand next to your right foot. At the same time, your left hand goes to the Left as your right hand goes to the Right, and they slowly lift until above your headtop, palms crossing, right hand in front, left hand behind, then they lower crossed in front of your chest. The weight has shifted to be right between your feet.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
如敵欲分我雙手而進擊,我雙手下探敵力而吸引之。
If the opponent wants to spread my hands apart and strike forward, I lower my hands to overextend his force and draw him in.

抱虎歸山二
[10.2] CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足向左前方(卽四十五度角)開半步,弓膝,右腿蹬直,身亦面左前方,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手下摟左膝,至左胯側止,臂微曲,五指向左前方,掌心下按。右手提至右耳側止,五指向左前方,掌心幾與耳相接着。
Your left foot steps out a half step to the Left Front (i.e. stepping to a forty-step degree angle) and the knee bends, your right leg straightening, your torso also moving to be facing to the Left Front, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left hand brushes past your left knee until to the side of your left hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Left Front, palm pushing downward, as your right hand lifts until beside your right ear, fingers pointing to the Left Front, the palm almost rubbing against your ear.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自左前方以右手擊我,我以左手摟開,提起右手,以待其變,卽所謂『彼不動己不動』也。
An opponent from the Left Front uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to brush it aside and lift my right hand to await what he will do next. This is called: “If he takes no action, I take no action.”

抱虎歸山三
[10.3] CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – Part 3

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
身體自左前方而前方而右方旋轉之,至面右後方(卽一百八十度角)止,然後右足向右後方邁半步,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手下摟右膝,至右胯側止,臂微曲,五指向右後方,掌心下按,左手自左耳側向右後方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向右後方。
Your body turns around from the Left Front to the Front to the Right to be facing to the Right Rear (i.e. turning a hundred and eighty degrees), then your right foot takes a half step to the Right Rear and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand brushes past your right knee until to the side of your right hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Right Rear, palm pushing downward, as your left hand goes from beside your right ear and reaches out to the Right Rear, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right Rear.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自脊背後以左手擊我,我卽轉身,以右手摟開,用左手進擊其胸。
An opponent from behind uses his left hand to attack me, so I turn around, using my right hand to brush it aside, and use my left hand to strike to his chest.

攬雀尾一
[11.1] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足向左前方撤回半步,足根點地,足尖翹起,膝微曲,左足不動,而腿下踞,全體重心,移於左足,同時右手自右胯側,立掌(五指向上掌心向右前方)垂肘作環狀提起。至胸前止。大指約與鼻齊,左手亦立掌(五指向上掌心向左後方)垂肘移至右手與胸之間止,惟大指約與喉齊耳。
Your right foot withdraws a half step to the Left Front, heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your left foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your right hand goes from beside your right hip and as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right Front), elbow hanging down, makes a ring shape, lifting to be in front of your chest, thumb about nose level, while your left hand also as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left Rear), elbow hanging down, shifts to be between your right hand and your chest, the thumb at about throat level.
應用說明
Explanation of the application:
我以左手進擊敵胸,敵以胸相抗,我因彼之力而吸力,敵乃乘勢以左手上擊我頭,我用右手順其力捋之。
When I use my left hand to strike forward to his chest, if he sticks out his chest to resist against it, I will go along with his force and absorb it. If he then takes advantage of the opportunity to use his left hand to strike to my head, I will use my right hand to go along with his force and do a rollback.

攬雀尾二
[11.2] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手合掌(右掌心向上左掌心向下指撫右腕)向懷內捋,然後向右後方伸出,同時右足尖下落,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,然後右手左手復由右後方而後而左,旋轉半圓(卽一百八十度角,)至左前方肩與胸之間止。同時右足尖依然翹起,左腿下踞,全體重心,移於左足,然後右手立掌(五指向上掌心向右後方)垂肘向右後方推出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向右後方,左手指撫右腕,掌心向左前方,同時右足尖下落,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。
Your hands with your palms facing each other (right palm facing upward, left palm facing downward, fingers touching your right wrist), do a rollback toward your chest, then reach out to the Right Rear as your right toes come down, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. Then your hands make a half circle from the Right Rear to the Rear to the Left and finally to the Left Front (arcing through a hundred and eighty degrees) to be between your shoulder and your chest, your right toes at the same time lifting again, your left leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your left foot. Then your right hand as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right Rear), elbow hanging down, pushes out to the Right Rear, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right Rear, your left hand’s fingers touching your right wrist, palm facing to the Left Front, as your right toes come down, the knee bending, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot.
應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我以右手順捋其臂,以冀乘勢致擊,敵乃因我之力,將左手抽出,復自我之右側方進攻,我乃採其力而推之。
An opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to go along with his movement and roll his arm back, hoping for a chance to counter. But he goes along with my force, pulls back his left hand, and then attacks from my right side, so I pluck his force and then push him.

斜單鞭
[12] DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

略釋
Explanation of the name:
斜單鞭者,單鞭勢所佔之方位斜向而不正也。
This is simply the SINGLE WHIP posture oriented to a corner rather than a cardinal direction [and with the head turned the other way].
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右掌下垂作鈎狀,右足根向右後方旋轉一直角(卽九十度角,)同時左足向左前方撤半步,右鈎不動,左手立掌(五指向上)垂肘經胸前,向左前方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向左前方,身亦隨之旋轉,至面右前方止,惟頭以目注右鈎故,仍面右後方,兩腿下踞,身居中央,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。
Your right hand hangs downward to make a hook shape as your right heel pivots to point to the Right Rear [Left Rear] (i.e. turning ninety degrees). At the same time, your left foot withdraws a half step to the Left Front, and with your right hooking hand staying as it is, your left hand as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward), elbow hanging down, passes in front of your chest to reach out to the Left Front, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left Front. Your torso goes along with the turning movement to be facing to the Right Front, but your head stays with your right hooking hand, still looking to the Right Rear. Your legs are squatting down, your body positioned in the center as the weight shifts to be between your feet.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
當我應敵之際,忽有自後方來者,欲乘我之不備,以右手擊我之背,我則將身下踞,以避其掌,而用左手進擊其胸。
While dealing with the opponent, another suddenly approaches from behind me, wanting to catch me where I am unprepared by using his right hand to attack my back, so I squat my body down to evade his palm, then use my left hand to attack his chest.

肘底看捶
[13] GUARDING FIST UNDER ELBOW

略釋
Explanation of the name:
肘底看捶者,肘下看守以捶之謂。蓋禦敵之時,我以肘擊之,惟恐敵人乘勢由肘下進擊吾胸腹……各部,故以捶保護之。
In this posture, there is a fist guarding below my elbow. While defending against an opponent, I use my elbow to strike him, but I fear he may take advantage of the opportunity to strike under my elbow to my chest, abdomen, or some other area, so I use this posture to safeguard against it.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
以左足為軸,右足提起,自右後方而右而前旋轉之,至右足與左足成前後直線止,身亦隨之左面,同時右鈎變掌(五指向外掌心向下)隨身旋轉,自右後方而右而前而左,至後方止,左手自左前方而左而後,至右方止,然後左手握拳,循腰帶向左方伸出,折而上提,至頭之左後方,肩之左方止,肘下垂與拳成垂直線,拳眼向右方,右手亦握拳,置左肘下,同時左足提起,向左前方邁半步,足根點地,足尖翹起,膝微曲,右腿下踞,全體重心,移於右足。
Your left foot pivots and your right foot lifts and turns from the Right Rear to the Right to point to the Front, until it is making a straight line forward and back with your left foot, your torso going along with the movement to be facing to the Left. At the same time, your right hooking hand changes to a palm (fingers pointing outward, palm facing downward), and goes along with the turning of your body by going from the Right Rear to the Right to the Front to the Left and finally to the Rear, as your left hand goes from the Left Front to the Left to the Rear and finally to the Right. Then your left hand grasps into a fist and moves alongside your waist to reach out to the Left, bending in and lifting up to the Left Rear in relation to your head and to the Left in relation to your shoulder, a vertical line from hanging elbow to fist, the fist eye facing to the Right, as your right hand also grasps into a fist and is placed below your left elbow. At the same time, your left foot lifts and takes a half step to the Left Front, heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your right leg squatting down, the weight shifted to your right foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵之以右拳擊我,我以左手捋之,彼力旣空,身必前傾,然後用右拳以擊其脇。
An opponent uses his right fist to strike me, so I use my left hand to roll it back. Once his force has missed, he is sure to lean forward, so I then use my right fist to strike to his ribs.

倒攆猴一
[14.1] RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
倒攆猴者,後退引敵也。猴遇人前撲,我旣退而引之,猴必追擊,我遂乘勢襲擊其頭部。
In this posture, I retreat to draw the opponent in. When a monkey encounters a person, he pounces forward. As I retreat to draw him in, the monkey [i.e. the troublesome opponent] is sure to chase and attack, so I take advantage of the opportunity to make a surprise attack to his head.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足右退一步,左腿蹬直,右足不動而弓膝,全體重心,仍負右足。同時左手立掌向左方伸出,掌與肩平,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向左,右手下摟右膝,至右胯側止,臂微曲,五指向左,掌心下接。
Your left foot retreats a step to the Right, the leg straightening, your right foot staying where it is, the knee bending, the weight shifting onto your right foot. At the same time, your left hand as an upright palm reaches out to the Left, the palm at shoulder level, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left, while your right hand brushes downward past your right knee until to the side of your right hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Left, palm pushing downward.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵來勢甚凶,我先後退以避,而乘勢以右手摟敵之手(或足,)然後以左手迎擊其頭部。
An opponent attacks with great fierceness, so I retreat in successive steps to evade it and take advantage of the opportunity to use my right hand to brush aside his hand (or foot), then use my left hand to strike to his head.

倒攆猴二
[14.2] RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足右退一步,右腿蹬直,左足不動而弓膝,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手下摟左膝,至左胯側止,臂微曲,五指向左,掌心下按,右手自右胯側提起,至右耳側止,然後向左方伸出,臂微曲,掌與肩平,五指向上,掌心向左。
Your right foot retreats a step to the Right, your right leg straightening, your left foot staying where it is, the knee bending, the weight shifting onto your left foot. At the same time, your left hand brushes downward past your left knee until to the side of your left hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Left, palm pushing downward, as your right hand lifts from beside your right hip until beside your right ear, then reaches out to the Left, the arm slightly bent, the palm at shoulder level, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
與前同。惟左右手互易其用。
Same as before, only with your hands reversed left and right.

倒攆猴三
[14.3] RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY – Part 3

姿勢與應用,與倒攆猴一略同。
The posture and application are the same as in Part 1.

斜飛勢
[15] DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE

略釋
Explanation of the name:
斜飛勢以其類似鳥之舉翅斜飛而名。
This posture is like a bird spreading its wings to fly away at an angle.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足左上一步,弓膝,右腿蹬直,身左傾,而頭右顧,左手向左上方伸出,臂微曲,五指向左上方,掌心向右上方,右手向右下方伸出,臂微曲,五指向右下方,掌心向左下方,左右手若鳥之斜展其翅,而飛舉然。全體重心,移於左足,惟以右手稱之,目注之,身雖左傾,而不仆者,良以此也。
Your left foot steps forward to the Left and the knee bends, your right leg straightening, your body leaning to the Left, but your head looking to the Right, as your left hand reaches out upward to the Left, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward to the Left, palm facing upward to the Right, and your right hand reaches out downward to the Right, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing downward to the Right, palm facing downward to the Left. Your arms are like a bird’s wings spreading open diagonally, about to take flight. With the weight shifted to your left foot, your gaze is toward your right hand while your body is leaning to the Left, a good means of keeping you from toppling.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手捋之,彼力旣空,身必前傾,敵懼其仆,退步欲脫,我則因彼力以左手穿其右腋下而擲之。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to do a rollback. Once his power has missed, his body is sure to lean forward, and when he feels he is about to topple, he will want to retreat and try to get away, so I go along with his force and use my left hand to thread through under his right armpit and throw him out.

〔提手上勢〕
[(16) RAISE THE HAND, STEPPING FORWARD]
〔白鶴亮翅〕
[(17) WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS]
〔摟膝拗步〕
[(18) BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE]

海底珍
[19] TREASURE UNDER THE SEA

略釋
Explanation of the name:
海底珍,亦作海底針,以手向下點刺之意。
This posture is also called NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA. The idea is to use your hand to poke downward.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足右撤半步,足尖點地,膝微曲,右腿下踞,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手向胸前撤回,然後折而向左下方伸出,指尖下指,至膝下止(五指向下掌心向後,)左手自左胯側立掌垂肘,移至胸前,掌按右肱,五指向上,掌心向前。
Your left foot withdraws a half step to the Right, toes touching down, knee slightly bent, as your right leg squats down, the weight shifted onto your right foot. At the same time, your right hand withdraws in front of your chest, then bends and extends downward to the Left, the fingers pointing downward until lower than your [left] knee (fingers pointing downward, palm facing to the Rear), as your left hand shifts from beside your left hip to be in front of your chest, the palm upright, the elbow hanging down, the palm touching your right forearm, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
我以右手引敵,乘其力鬆曳向下而點刺之。
I use my right hand to draw in the opponent, then dispel his force by diverting it downward with a poke.

山通背
[20] MOUNTAIN THROUGH THE BACK

略釋
Explanation of the name:
山通背者,其背勁一發,山亦難阻也。
In this posture, power is issued from your back. Having a structure like a mountain, it is difficult to defend against.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足左上半步,身體向前方,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點,同時右臂向左提起,掌約與額齊,五指向左,掌心向後,左手指撫右肱,亦隨之向左提起,掌約與鼻齊。然後右掌心由後而下而前旋轉之,至掌心向前止,而後右移,至頂上止,五指向左,掌心向前上方。左手立掌垂肘,向左平伸,臂微曲作環形,五指向右上方,掌心向前,頭稍左顧,目注左掌。
Your left foot takes a half step forward to the Left, your torso faces to the Front, and your legs squat down, the weight shifted to be between your feet. At the same time, your right arm lifts to the Left, the palm almost level with your forehead, fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing to the Rear, the fingers of your left hand touching your right forearm, lifting along with it to the Left, the palm at about nose level. Then your right palm goes from the Rear, arcing downward, to the Front, palm facing to the Front, and shifts to the Right Rear to finish higher than your headtop, fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing upward to the Front, as your left hand extends level to the Left, palm upright, elbow hanging down, arm slightly bent to make a curved shape, fingers pointing upward to the Right, palm facing to the Front. Your head is looking slightly to the Left, your gaze toward your left palm.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
我以海底珍進擊,敵以右手猛擊我頭,我以右手刁而捋之,而以左手進擊敵脇。
As I use TREASURE UNDER THE SEA to attack, the opponent fiercely uses his right hand to strike to my head, so I use my right hand to draw in with a rollback while sending my left hand forward to strike to his ribs.

撇身捶
[21] TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH

略釋
Explanation of the name:
撇身捶者,敵自後方來擊,我將身撇開,而後以拳擊敵也。
In this posture, an opponent attacks from behind, so I whip his attack aside from my torso, and will then use my fist to strike him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
雙手握拳,置於左脇下,身體稍向左移,而頭右顧,全體重心,移於左足,然後右足向右後方開半步弓膝,左腿蹬直,身體面右方,同時右拳垂肘向右撇出,至胸之右後方止,拳與肘平,腕門向上,左手立掌(五指向上掌心向後)垂肘移至胸前,至右拳之右上方止,身亦右傾,全體重心,移於右足。
Your hands grasp into fists placed below your left ribs, your torso slightly shifting to the Left, your head looking to the Right, the weight shifting to your left foot. Then your right foot steps out a half step to the Right Rear and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, and your torso faces to the Right. At the same time, your right fist swings out to the Right and is placed to the Right Rear near your chest, the forearm horizontal, the pulse area facing upward, while your left hand as an upright palm (fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear), elbow hanging down, shifts to be in front of your chest, going to the Right over your right fist, your torso also inclining to the Right, the weight shifting to your right foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵之以右手自背後擊我,我撇身後轉,以洩其力,乃以右拳下攔敵腕而採之,倘敵抽臂欲逃,我卽因其抽力而順擊之。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me from behind, so I whip my torso around to dispel his force, sending my right fist downward to block his wrist with a plucking action. If he pulls back his arm to try to get away, I will then go along with the force of it to strike him.

退步搬攔捶一
[22.1] RETREAT, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
退步搬攔捶者,向後退步,搬開敵手,攔阻敵人之前進,而後乘勢以拳擊敵也。
In this posture, retreat a step and parry aside the opponent’s hand, preventing him from coming forward, then take advantage of the opportunity to punch him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足左退一步,膝曲而腿下踞,左足尖翹起,足根點地,膝微曲,全體重心,移於右足,同時右拳循腰帶左撤,至右脇側止,拳眼向上,左手立掌乘肘,隨身左撤,仍居胸前,身體依然面右,目注右方。
Your right foot retreats a step to the Left, the knee bends, and the leg squats down, your left toes lifting, heel touching down, knee slightly bent, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right fist withdraws to the Left alongside your waist until beside your right ribs, the fist eye facing upward, while your left hand as an upright palm, elbow hanging down, goes along with your body as it withdraws to the Left, staying in front of your chest. Your torso is still facing to the Right, your gaze to the Right.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
退步以洩敵力,復乘勢搬攔敵手以待其變。
I retreat to drain away his force, then take advantage of the opportunity to do a parrying block to his hand, and wait for what he will do next.

退步搬攔捶二
[22.2] RETREAT, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左膝右弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時右拳循左掌向右方伸出,臂微曲,拳與肩平,拳眼向上,左手指撫右肱,以助其勢。
Your left knee bends to the Right, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your right fist goes alongside your left palm to reach out to the Right, the arm slightly bent, the fist at shoulder level, the fist eye facing upward, your left fingers touching your right forearm to assist the posture.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
方我搬攔敵手,敵抽身欲逃,我卽因彼之力,以拳擊之。
Once I have parried away the opponent’s hand, he withdraws his body to try to get away, so I go along with his force by using my fist to strike him.

上勢攬雀尾
[23] STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL

與前攬雀尾三略同。
Same as in CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL – Part 3.

〔單鞭〕
[(24) SINGLE WHIP]

雲手一
[25.1] CLOUDING HANDS – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
雲手者,雙手動作如雲旋繞之狀。
The meaning of “clouding hands” is that both hands move in the manner of swirling vapors.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右膝右曲,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手變鈎為掌,向上提起,至頭之右上方止,五指向左上方,掌心向右上方,左手自左方下落,至小腹與臍之間止(五指向右掌心向上。)然後向右方提起,至指撫右腕止,掌心仍向上方。
Your right knee bends to the Right, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand changes from hook to palm and lifts up to be near your head, fingers pointing upward to the Left, palm facing upward to the Right, as your left hand lowers from the Left to be near your navel (fingers pointing to the Right, palm facing upward), then lifts to the Right so the fingers are touching your right wrist, palm still facing downward.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自右方擊我,我以右手接彼之臂,向上托之,倘敵欲抽其臂,我卽因其力而擲之,倘彼欲用力下壓,我則上提而挒之。
An opponent attacks me from the Right, so I use my right hand to connect to his arm and prop it upward. If he tries to draw his arm back, I go along with the force of it and throw him, or if he tries to forcefully push down, I lift up and rend him away.

雲手二
[25.2] CLOUDING HANDS – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左膝左曲,右足向左幷步,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手提起,由右而上,至頂上止,然後掌心外播,向左方下落,至與肩成水平線止。臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向左。右手自右方而下,至小腹與臍之間止(五指向左掌心向上。)然後向左方提起,至指撫左腕止,惟掌心仍向上耳。
Your left knee bends to the Left and your right foot steps to the Left to stand next to your left foot, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left hand lifts up from the Right to be near your head, then turns so the palm is facing outward, and lowers to the Left until the arm is level, slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left, as your right hand lowers from the Right to be near your navel (fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing upward), then lifts to the Left so the fingers are touching your left wrist, palm still facing upward.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自左方擊我,我以左手向外捋之,然後擊敵之胸。
An opponent attacks me from the Left, so I send my left hand outward to roll it back and then strike to his chest.

雲手三
[25.3] CLOUDING HANDS – Part 3

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足左開一步,左腿蹬直,右膝右曲,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手向上提起,至頂上止,掌心外播,向右方下落,至掌與臂成水平線止,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向右。左手自左方下落,至小腹與臍之間止,五指向右,掌心向上,然後向右方提起,至指撫右腕止,惟掌心仍向上耳。
Your left foot steps out to the Left, your left leg straightening, your right knee bending to the Right, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand lifts up to be near your head, then turns so the palm is facing outward, and lowers to the Right until the arm is level, slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right. as your left hand lowers from the Left to be near your navel, fingers pointing to the Right, palm facing upward, then lifts to the Right so the fingers are touching your right wrist, palm still facing upward.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自右方擊我,我以右手向外捋而擲之。
An opponent attacks me from the Right, so I send my right hand outward to roll it back and throw him away.

〔單鞭〕
[(26) SINGLE WHIP]

高探馬一
[27] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
高探馬者,身體向上探出,攀登如乘馬也。
In this posture, your body goes upward and you reach out, as if to climb up to ride on a horse.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足右撤半步,足尖點地,足根提起,膝微曲,身體左面,全體重心,移於右足,同時左手掌心向上,垂肘右撤,至胸前止,右手掌心向下,自右而左,經胸前,至左手之左上方止,掌約與鼻齊。
Your left foot withdraws a half step to the Right, toes touching down, heel lifted, knee slightly bent, your torso facing to the Left, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your left hand, palm facing upward, elbow hanging down, withdraws to the Right until in front of your chest, as your right hand, palm facing downward, goes from the Right to the Left, passing in front of your chest, until above your left hand, the palm at about nose level.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵擊我,我以左手捋之,右手迎擊其面。
An opponent strikes at me, so I use my left hand to do a rollback while using my right hand to strike straight to his face.

左右分脚一
[28.1] KICKING TO THE LEFT & RIGHT – Part 1 [right]

略釋
Explanation of the name:
左右分脚者,左右脚向左右分踢也。
In this posture, each foot will kick to its respective side.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手向右後方捋,雙手握拳,交叉於左脇側,右拳外,而左拳內,然後上提至頂,拳均變掌,左右分開,右掌向左前方,左掌向右後方,兩臂幾成一線,臂均微曲,掌均與肩平,指均向上,同時右足提起,向左前方循右掌踢出,膝微曲,足指向上,足心向左前方。全體重心,移於左足。
Your hands do a rollback to the Right Rear, then both grasp into fists and cross beside your left ribs, right fist on the outside, left fist on the inside. Then they lift up until above your headtop, both fists becoming palms, and spread apart to the sides, right palm facing to the Left Front, left palm facing to the Right Rear, your arms almost making a straight line, both arms slightly bent, the palms at shoulder level, fingers pointing upward. At the same time, your right foot lifts and goes along with your right palm to kick out to the Left Front, the knee slightly bent, toes pointing upward, the sole of the foot facing to the Left Front, the weight shifted onto your left foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我以右手向右後方捋之,敵上抽其臂,撤身欲逃,我順其上抽之力,以右手外拋其臂,乘其後撤之力,以右足前踢其身。
An opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to roll it back to the Right Rear. If he pulls his arm upward and withdraws his body to try to get away, I then go along with his withdrawing force by using my right hand to fling his arm outward and take advantage of the opportunity by using my right foot to kick to his body.

高探馬二
[28.2] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足落地,膝微曲,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時兩手握拳,內抱於胸前,腕門胸向,右拳外,而左拳內,然後左拳變掌,經右拳向左後方伸出,曲臂,垂肘,五指向上,掌心向左前方,右拳亦變掌,下移至胸前,五指向左,掌心向上。
Your right foot comes down, the knee slightly bending, left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your hands grasp into fists and embrace inward in front of your chest, the pulse area of each hand facing toward your chest, your right fist on the outside, left fist on the inside. Then your left fist changes to a palm and passes along your right fist, reaching out to the Left Rear, the arm bent, elbow hanging down, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left Front, as your right fist also changes to a palm and shifts downward in front of your chest, fingers pointing to the Left, palm facing downward.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以右手向右前方採之,更以左手進擊敵面。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to pluck toward the Right Front while using my left hand to strike forward to his face.

左右分脚二
[28.3] KICKING TO THE LEFT & RIGHT – Part 2 [left]

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手向右前方捋,而後握拳交叉於右脇側,左拳外而右拳內,然後上提至頂,拳均變掌,左右分開,左掌向左後方,右掌向右前方,兩臂幾成一線,臂均微曲,指均向上,掌均與肩平,同時左右提起,向左後方循左掌踢出,膝微曲,足指向上,足心向左後方。
Your hands do a rollback to the Right Front, then grasp into fists and cross beside your right ribs, left fist on the outside, right fist on the inside. Then they lift up until above your headtop, both fists becoming palms, and spread apart to the sides, left palm facing to the Left Rear, right palm facing to the Right Front, your arms almost making a straight line, both arms slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, the palms at shoulder level. At the same time, your left foot lifts and goes along with your left palm to kick out to the Left Rear, the knee slightly bent, toes pointing upward, the sole of the foot facing to the Left Rear.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手向右前方捋之,倘敵臂上抗,我則順其力上拋,彼力旣空,身必後傾,乃乘勢以足踢之。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to roll it back to the Right Front. If his arm resists upward, I then go along with this force and fling upward to dissipate it, assuredly causing his body to lean back, and then I take advantage of the opportunity to use my right foot to kick.

轉身蹬脚
[29] TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

略釋
Explanation of the name:
轉身蹬脚者,將身後轉,以足前蹬而蹴敵。
In this posture, turn around to face behind you, then use a foot to press forward and trample on the opponent.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手握拳內抱,置於右脇下,左手外而右手內,同時左股不動,小腿下垂,以右足為軸,自左而後而右旋轉半圓,身體面右,然後雙拳變掌,提至頂上,左右分開,掌與肩平,左掌向右方,右掌向左方,兩臂微曲,幾成直線,指均向上,同時左足小腿向右方蹬出,膝微曲,足指向上,足心向右。
Your hands grasp into fists and embrace inward to be placed below your right ribs, left hand on the outside, right hand on the inside. At the same time, with your left thigh staying as it is, the lower leg hanging down, use your right foot as a pivot to make a half turn from the Left to the Rear to the Right so your body is facing to the Right. Then your fists become palms, lift until over your headtop, and spread apart to the Left and Right, the palms at shoulder level, left palm facing to the Right, right palm facing to the Left, both arms slightly bent, almost making a straight line, fingers pointing upward. At the same time, your left lower leg presses out to the Right, the knee slightly bent, toes pointing upward, the sole of the foot facing to the Right.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自身後擊我,我轉身以迎之,更以左手上擊其面,敵必防其頭部,我遂以左脚蹬。
An opponent attacks me from behind, so I turn around to face him and use my left hand to strike to his face. He will surely try to defend his head, so I will then use my left foot to do a pressing kick.

進步栽捶一
[30.1] ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
進步栽捶者,向前進步,以捶下擊,有若將物植入地中然。
In this posture, step forward and use your fist to strike downward, as though you are planting something into the ground.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足落地,膝右弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手下樓左膝,至左胯側止,臂微曲,五指向右,掌心下按,右手自右耳側向右方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向右。
Your left foot comes down and the knee bends to the Right, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left hand brushes downward past your left knee until to the side of your left hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Right, palm pushing downward, as your right hand reaches out to the Right from beside your right ear, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手摟我左腿,我將左腿下落,而以左手摟開敵手,以右手進擊其胸。
The opponent uses his right hand to brush aside my left leg, so I bring my left leg down, use my left hand to brush aside his hand, and use my right hand to strike forward to his chest.

進步栽捶二
[30.2] ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足向右放開一步,膝右弓,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手下摟右膝,至右胯側止,臂微曲,五指向右,掌心下按。左手自左耳側向右方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向右。
Your right foot steps out to the Right and the knee bends to the Right, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand brushes downward past your right knee until to the side of your right hip, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing to the Right, palm pushing downward, as your left hand reaches out to the Right from beside your left ear, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我以右手摟開,而以左手進擊其胸。
The opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to brush it aside and use my left hand to strike forward to his chest.

進步栽捶三
[30.3] ADVANCE, PLANTING PUNCH – Part 3

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足右上一步,膝右弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時右手自右耳側向右下方握拳擊之,左手下摟左膝,而後手撫右肱,以助其勢。
Your left foot steps forward to the Right and the knee bends to the Right, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your right hand goes from beside your right ear, grasping into a fist, and strikes downward to the Right, your left hand brushing downward past your left knee and then moving to touch your right forearm in order to assist the posture.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手摟開,以右手進擊敵面,敵乃以左手下摟我右手,我卽順其力握拳而擊其腹。
The opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to brush it aside and use my right hand to strike toward his face, but he then uses his left hand to brush my right hand downward, so I go along with his force by making a fist and striking to his abdomen.

翻身撇身捶
[31] TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH

略釋
Explanation of the name:
翻身撇身捶者,敵自後方來擊,我翻身後轉,將身撇開,乘勢以拳擊敵也。
In this posture, an opponent attacks from behind, so I turn around, whipping his attack aside from my torso, and will then take advantage of the opportunity to punch him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
雙手握拳,移至左脇下,右手外而左手內,身體右傾,而頭左顧,然後自右而後而左旋轉半圓,同時左足不動而以之為軸,右足向左前方橫移半步,身體左面,右膝左弓,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手握拳移於胸之左前方,與右肘平,腕門向上,左手立掌垂肘移於右拳前,五指向上,掌心向前。大指約與喉齊。
Your hands grasp into fists placed below your left ribs, right hand on the outside, left hand on the inside, and your torso inclines to the Right, your head looking to the Left. Then make a half turn from the Right to the Rear to the Left, your left foot pivoting where it is, your right foot shifting a half step sideways to the Left Front, so your torso faces to the Left, and your right knee bends to the Left, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand as a fist shifts to the Left Front near your chest, the forearm horizontal, the pulse area facing upward, while your left hand as an upright palm shifts in front of your right fist, elbow hanging down, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front, the thumb at about throat level.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自背後以右手擊我,我撇轉己身以避之,復以右拳採其右臂,倘彼上抗,或向懷內抽之,我卽因彼之力而順擊之。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me from behind, so I whip my torso around to prevent it, using my right fist to pluck his right arm. If he resists upward or withdraws toward his chest, I will then go along with the force of it to strike him.

高探馬
[32] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足向左後方開一步,弓膝,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手掌心向上,五指向左,移至胸之左後方,與左肘平,右拳變掌,移至左掌之左上方,五指向上,掌心向後,大指約與喉齊。
Your left foot steps out to the Left Rear and the knee bends, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left palm faces upward, fingers pointing to the Left, and shifts to the Left Rear until in front of your chest, the forearm horizontal, as your right fist changes to a palm and shifts to the Left to be above your left palm, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear, thumb at about throat level.
應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自左後方擊我,我以左手捋之,敵力旣空,身必前傾,我乃以右手迎其面而擊之。
An opponent attacks me from the Left Rear, so I use my left hand to do a rollback. Once his force has missed, his body is sure to lean forward, so I then use my right hand to strike to his face.

翻身二起脚
[33] TURNING-BODY DOUBLE KICK

略釋
Explanation of the name:
翻身二起脚者,向後翻身,左右脚相繼踢起也。
In this posture, your torso turns toward the Rear as your feet, left then right, kick up in succession.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手向右後方捋,而後握拳,置於左脇下,右手外而左手內,然後將兩拳變掌提至頂上,向左前方及右後方分擊,右掌向左前方,左掌向右後方,兩掌均與肩平,指均向上,同時左腿提起,向左方平踢,甫及落地,而右脚提起,循右掌而平踢之,膝微曲,足指向上,足心向左前方。全體重心,移於左足。
Your hands do a rollback to the Right Rear, then grasp into fists and are placed below your left ribs, right hand on the outside, left hand on the inside. Then your fists become palms, lift up until above your headtop, and strike toward the Left Front and Right Rear, right palm facing to the Left Front, left palm facing to the Right Rear, both palms at shoulder level, fingers pointing upward. At the same time, your left foot lifts and does a level kick to the Left, then as soon as it comes down, your right foot lifts and goes along with your right palm to do a level kick, the knee slightly bent, toes pointing upward, the sole of the foot facing to the Left Front, the weight switched onto your left foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我以左手向右後方捋之,敵後撤其身,我則因彼之力以左足踢之,敵以右手下摟我左腿,我卽將左腿下落,以右手向左前方抛敵左臂,而以右足平踢其脇部。
An opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to roll it back to the Right Rear. He pulls back with his body, so I go along with the force of this by using my left foot to kick him. He sends his right hand downward to brush away my left leg, so I promptly bring my left leg down and send my right hand to the Left Front to fling away his left arm, then use my right foot to do a level kick to his ribs.

打虎勢一
[34.1] FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
打虎勢者,以其形似而名。
A “fighting tiger” describes the posture’s appearance.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足向右前方撤回下落,左足亦向右前方開半步,足尖點地,足根提起。膝微曲,右腿下踞全體重心,移於右足。同時左右手合掌,自頂上而下落,至胸前止,然後右手握拳下落,經腹脇各部,復上提至頭之前上方止,拳眼向下腕門向左,左手亦握拳移至胸之左前方,與左肘平,拳眼向上,腕門向右,左右拳眼,務須上下相對,目注左方。
Your right foot withdraws and comes down to the Right Front, then your left foot also takes a half step to the Right Front, toes touching down, heel lifted, knee slightly bent, your right leg squatting down, the weight shifted to your right foot. At the same time, your palms in unison lower from your headtop to be in front of your chest, then your right hand grasps into a fist and lowers past your abdomen and ribs, and lifts up to the Right to be beside your head, the fist eye facing downward, the pulse area facing to the Left, as your left hand also grasps into a fist and shifts to the Left Front to be beside your chest, the forearm horizontal, the fist eye facing upward, the pulse area facing to the Right. The fist eyes should be facing toward each other above and below, your gaze to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以右手捋之,以待其變,若蓄勁而備打虎然。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to roll it back and then wait for what he will do next, storing power in readiness like a fighting tiger.

打虎勢二
[34.2] FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足向右後方開一步,右足亦向右後方開一步,同時左拳下落,復向上提,置於頂之後上方,拳眼向下,腕門向左,右拳亦移至胸之左後方,與右肘平,拳眼向上,腕門向右,左右拳眼,務須上下相對,然後將右膝上提,與右肘相接,小腿下垂,全體重心,移於左足,
Your left foot steps out to the Right Rear and your right foot also takes a step to the Right Rear, At the same time, your left fist lowers, then lifts up to the Rear to be beside your head, the fist eye facing downward, the pulse area facing to the Left, as your right fist shifts to the Left Rear to be beside your chest, the forearm horizontal, the fist eye facing upward, the pulse area facing to the Right. The fist eyes should be facing toward each other above and below. Then your right knee lifts up to connect with your right elbow, the lower leg hanging down, the weight shifted onto your left foot.

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同時右手向左前方伸出。臂微曲,五指向上掌心向左前方,左手向右後方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向右後方,右足循右手向左前方踢出,膝微曲,足向指上,足心向左前方。
Then your right hand reaches out to the Left Front, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left Front, as your left hand reaches out to the Right Rear, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right Rear, and your right foot goes along with your right hand to kick out to the Left Front, the knee slightly bent, toes pointing upward, the sole of the foot facing to the Left Front.
應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我以右手捋之,敵乃上抗而抽其臂,我卽因其力而拋擲之,幷以足踢其腹。
The opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to roll it back. He then resists upward to pull back his arm, so I go along with the force of this and fling his arm away while using a foot to kick to his belly.

雙風貫耳
[35] DOUBLE WINDS THROUGH THE EARS

略釋
Explanation of the name:
雙風貫耳者,以兩手擊敵雙耳,運用之速,有如風然。
In this posture, use both hands to strike to both of the opponent’s ears, moving so quick that it is like wind.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足向左前方開一步。弓膝。左腿蹬直。全體重心,移於右足。同時左右手合掌由胸而下,至右膝之上方止。卽握拳向前後兩方分開。由下而上,至與肩平止。然後雙臂均作環狀向左方運行,雙拳對峙,至胸前止。兩臂略成橢圓形。目注左方。
Your right foot steps out to the Left Front and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your palms in unison go downward from your chest until over your right knee, then grasp into fists as they spread away to the Front and Rear, going upward from below until at shoulder level. Your arms form a slightly oval ring shape as they move to the Left, your fists pointed toward each other in front of your chest, your gaze to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以雙手擊我胸部,我以手左右分開,復用雙拳進擊敵之雙耳。
An opponent uses both hands to attack my chest, so I use my hands to spread them away to the left and right, then send fists to strike to both of his ears.

披身踢脚
[36] DRAPING THE BODY, KICK

略釋
Explanation of the name:
披身踢脚者,將身側立,以足前踢也。
In this posture, your body stands sideways as you use a foot to kick forward.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手握拳,交叉於右脇下,右拳外而左拳內。同時右足着地,全體重心,移於右足,左膝上提,然後向左方踢出,膝微曲,足指向上,足心向左。同時左手向左方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向左,右手向右方伸出,臂曲微,五指向上,掌心向右,但兩掌均與肩平,約成左右一直線。
Your hands grasp into fists and cross below your right ribs, right fist on the outside, left fist on the inside, as your right foot adjusts on the ground, the weight shifts further onto your right foot, and your left knee lifts. Then kick out to the Left, the knee slightly bent, toes pointing upward, the sole of the foot facing to the Left. At the same time, your left hand reaches out to the Left, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left, as your right hand reaches out to the Right, arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right, your palms at shoulder level, almost making a straight line.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手捋之,敵乃抽回而擊我頭,我卽以左手外擲其臂,乘其身之後傾,以左足踢其右脇。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to do a rollback. He then pulls back and strikes to my head, so I use my left hand to fling aside his arm, then take advantage of the moment his body is leaning back by using my left foot to kick to his right ribs.

轉身蹬脚
[37] TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手握拳置於右脇側,右拳外而左拳內,同時左股不動,小腿下垂,以右足為軸,身體自左而前而右而後乃復向左,旋轉一周。然後左足落於右足之右後方。全體重心,移於左足。復將右手向左方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向左,左手向右方伸出,臂微曲,五指向上,掌心向右,同時右腿提起,向左循右掌踢出,膝微曲,足指向上,足心向左。
Your hands grasp into fists and are placed below your right ribs, right fist on the outside, left fist on the inside. At the same time, with your left thigh staying as it is, the lower leg hanging down, use your right foot as a pivot to spin your body around in a complete circle from the Left to the Front to the Right to the Rear and again to the Left, then your left foot comes down to the right rear of your right foot and the weight shifts onto your left foot. Then your right hand reaches out to the Left, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left, as your left hand reaches out to the Right, the arm slightly bent, fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right. At the same time, your right leg lifts and goes along with your right palm to kick out to the Left, the knee slightly bent, toes pointing upward, the sole of the foot facing to the Left.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵之自傍側擊我腹,我轉身以避之,敵更以左手擊我,我以右手外抛敵手,而以足乘勢踢之。
An opponent attacks my abdomen from the side, so I spin around to evade it. He then uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to fling his hand aside and take advantage of the opportunity to use a foot to kick him.

上步搬攔捶
[38] STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH

略同前進步搬攔捶。
Almost the same as in ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH.

〔如封似閉〕
[(39) SEALING SHUT]
〔抱虎歸山〕
[(40) CAPTURE THE TIGER AND SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN]
〔攬雀尾〕
[(41) CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL]
〔斜單鞭〕
[(42) DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP]

野馬分鬃一
[43.1] WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
野馬分鬃者,此勢前進之狀,有如野馬之奔馳,風吹其鬃,左右兩分也。
In this posture, you advance like a galloping horse, the wind blowing its mane to the left and right.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足自右後方向右方開半步,足根點地。膝微曲,左足不動而腿下踞。全體重心,移於左足,同時左右手均立掌垂肘移至胸前,右手五指向上,掌心向前,大指約與鼻齊,左手則五指向上,掌心向後,置於右手與胸之間,惟大指約與喉齊耳。然後右足向右後方開一步,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。同時右手掌心向上,五指向右,向右後方伸出,大指約與眉齊。左手掌心向下,五指向右,向前方伸出,大指約與胯齊,惟面向前方,目注左掌。
Your right foot goes from the Right Rear and takes a half step to the Right, heel touching down, knee slightly bent, your left foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifted to your left foot. At the same time, your hands shift to be in front of your chest, palms upright, elbows hanging down, your right hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front, thumb at about nose level, your left hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear, placed between your right hand and your chest, thumb at about throat level. Then your left foot steps forward to the Right Rear and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right palm reaches out to the Right Rear, palm facing upward, fingers pointing to the Right, thumb at about eyebrow level, as your left palm reaches out to the Front, palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the Right, thumb at about hip level. You are looking to the Front, your gaze toward your left palm.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我以左手採之,敵後抽其臂,以避前仆,我則順其力而進右足,攔敵左踵,以右手自敵之左腋下穿出而擲之。
An opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to do a rollback. He then tries to pull his arm back to keep himself from toppling forward, so I go along with his force by advancing with my right foot to catch his left heel and use my right hand to thread through under his left armpit and throw him away.

野馬分鬃二
[43.2] WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足向右前方開一步,弓膝,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時左手掌心向上,五指向右,向右前方伸出,大指約與眉齊,右手掌心向下,五指向右,向後方伸出,大指約與胯齊,面向後方,目注右掌。
Your left foot steps forward to the Right Front and the knee bends, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left palm reaches out to the Right Front, palm facing upward, fingers pointing to the Right, thumb at about eyebrow level, as your right palm reaches out to the Rear, palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the Right, thumb at about hip level. You are looking to the Rear, your gaze toward your right palm.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
與前略同,惟雙方手足之左右互易。
Almost the same as before, just with left and right switched.

野馬分鬃三
[43.3] WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE – Part 3

姿勢與應用,與野馬分鬃一略同。
The posture and application are almost the same as in Part 1.

玉女穿梭一
[44.1] MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
玉女穿梭之勢,週行四隅,態度之貞靜,有如玉女之德容,而其動作之敏捷,變轉之伶俐,有如梭之行於錦中。
In this posture, you travel to all of the four corners. It is performed in the manner of a chaste young woman [i.e. refusing the advances of every suitor]. The movements are nimble, turning around efficiently like the shuttle being moved between the fabric.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足自右後方向右方開半步,足根點地。膝微曲,左足不動,而腿下踞,全體重心,移於左足,同時左右手均立掌垂肘,移至胸前,右手五指向上,掌心向前,大指約與鼻齊,左手五指向上,掌心向後,置於右手與胸之間。大指約與喉齊。然後右足向右後方開一步,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時右手五指向右後方,掌心向上,向右後方伸出,左手五指向右方,掌心向下,向前方伸出。面向前方,目注左掌,然後左足自左前方向右前方開一步,弓膝,右腿蹬直。全體重心,移於左足。同時左手掌心胸向,自右腋下伸出,循右臂外而行,至右手外止。然後左右手掌心外轉,向右前方推出,左手五指向右後方,掌心向右前方,大指約與眉齊。右手五指向上,掌心向右前方,大指約與胸齊。
Your right foot goes from the Right Rear and steps out to the Right, heel touching down, knee slightly bent, your left foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your hands as upright palms shift to be in front of your chest, elbows hanging down, your right hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front, thumb at about nose level, your left hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear, placed between your right hand and your chest, thumb at about throat level. Then your right foot steps out to the Right Rear and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your right hand reaches out to the Right Rear, palm facing upward, fingers pointing to the Right Rear, as your left hand reaches out to the Front, palm facing downward, fingers pointing to the Right. You are facing to the Front, your gaze toward your left palm. Then your left foot goes from the Left Front to step out to the Right Front and the knee bends, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left palm faces toward your chest and reaches out from below your right armpit, moving along the outside of your right arm until to the outside of your right hand. Then your palms turn outward and push out to the Right Front, your left hand’s fingers pointing to the Right Rear, palm facing to the Right Front, thumb at about eyebrow level, your right hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right Front, thumb at about chest level.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手捋之,敵後撤其臂而上挑,我卽因其力而向外挒更以右手進擊其胸。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to roll it back. He then draws back and carries upward with his arm, so I go along with the force of it to rend it away while also using my right hand to strike forward to his chest.

玉女穿梭二
[44.2] MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手掌心胸向,交叉置於胸前,右手外而左手內,然後以左足為軸,身體由右前方而右而後而左而左前方旋轉之,右足由左後方,向左前方開一步,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時左右手掌心外轉,向左前方推出,右手五指向左後方,掌心向左前方,大指約與眉齊,左手五指向上,掌心向左前方,大指約與胸齊。
Your palms face toward your chest and cross as they are placed in front of your chest, right hand on the outside, left hand on the inside. Then using your left foot as a pivot, your torso turns from facing to the Right Front to the Right to the Rear to the Left to the Left Front, and your right foot goes from the Left Rear to step out to the Left Front and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your palms turn outward and push out to the Left Front, your right hand’s fingers pointing to the Left Rear, palm facing to the Left Front, thumb at about eyebrow level. your left hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Left Front, thumb at about chest level.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自身後以左手擊我,我轉身以右手捋之,敵將身後撤而臂上挑,我則順其力而挒之,更以左手進擊其胸。
An opponent from behind uses his left hand to attack me, so I turn around and use my right hand to roll it back. He then withdraws his body and carries upward with his arm, so I go along with the force of it and rend it away while also using my left hand to strike forward to his chest.

玉女穿梭三
[44.3] MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE – Part 3

姿勢與應用,略同玉女穿梭一。
Same as in Part 1 [except going to the Left Rear].

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玉女穿梭四
[44.4] MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE – Part 4

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左右手掌心胸向,交叉內抱,右手外而左手內,同時以左足為軸,身體由左後方而左而前而右而右後方旋轉之,右足向右後方開一步,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足,同時左右手掌心外轉,向右後方推出,右手五指向右前方,掌心向右後方,大指約與眉齊,左手五指向上,掌心向右後方,大指約與胸齊。
Your palms face toward your chest and cross as they embrace inward, right hand on the outside, left hand on the inside. Then using your left foot as a pivot, your torso turns from facing to the Left Rear to the Left to the Front to the Right to the Right Rear, and your right foot steps out to the Right Rear and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your palms turn outward and push out to the Right Rear, your right hand’s fingers pointing to the Right Front, palm facing to the Right Rear, thumb at about eyebrow level, your left hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Right Rear, thumb at about chest level.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同玉女穿梭二。
Same as in Part 2.

〔上勢攬雀尾〕
[(45) STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL]
〔單鞭〕
[(46) SINGLE WHIP]
〔雲手〕
[(47) CLOUDING HANDS]
〔單鞭〕
[(48) SINGLE WHIP]

下勢
[49] LOW POSTURE

略釋
Explanation of the name:
下勢者,將身下降以避敵也。
In this posture, lower your body to evade an opponent.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左腿伸直下降,幾乎到地。右膝蓋外開,而腿下踞,身體直立,下坐於右腿,亦幾乎到地。同時左右手均立掌垂肘,置於胸前,惟左掌置於左膝之前方,右掌置於左掌與胸之間耳。
Your left leg straightens and lowers almost onto the ground, your right knee spreading away outward as the leg crouches down, your body upright and sitting down onto your right leg, also almost to the ground. At the same time, your hands are positioned in front of your chest as vertical palms, your elbows hanging down, your left palm placed in front of your left knee, your right palm placed between your left palm and your chest.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵鋒不可犯,我將身下降,而腿後坐以避之,靜觀其變。
An opponent attacks so fiercely that it cannot be resisted against, so I lower my body, sitting onto my rear leg to evade it, and calmly wait for what he will do next.

金雞獨立一
[50.1] GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG – Part 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
金雞獨立之勢,一足着地,一足提起,雙臂上揚,作展翅狀,其瀟灑態有類金雞,故名。
In this posture, one foot is on the ground, the other lifted, and both arms rise up to make a posture of spreading wings in the flaunting manner of a “golden rooster”, hence the name.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左膝漸漸向左方弓,左右手擦地向左方伸出,身亦隨之左進,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足。同時左足不動,右膝上提,身體直立,右手置於頂之左上方,五指向後,掌心向左上方,左手置於小腹前之右足側,五指向前,掌心向下。
Your left knee gradually bends to the Left and your hands reach out to the Left, almost scraping along the ground, your body going along with the movement by advancing to the Left, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your left foot stays where it is and your right knee lifts up, your torso upright, as your right hand goes upward to the Left to be placed near your headtop, fingers pointing to the Rear, palm facing upward to the Left, and your left hand is placed in front of your lower abdomen beside your right foot, fingers pointing forward, palm facing downward.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手捋之,敵上挑,我因彼之力,以右手上拋其臂,以右膝進擊其小腹,更以左手乘勢進擊其胸。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to roll it back, but he carries upward, so I go along with his force by using my right hand to fling his arm upward and I bring my right knee forward to strike to his lower abdomen, also using my left hand to take advantage of the opportunity to strike forward to his chest.

金雞獨立二
[50.2] GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG – Part 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足下落,左膝上提,左手移於頂之左上方,五指向前,掌心向左上方。右手掌心向下,移於小腹前,全體重心,移於右足。
Your right foot comes down and your left knee lifts up as your left hand shifts upward to the Left to be near your headtop, fingers pointing forward, palm facing upward to the Left, and your right palm shifts to be in front of your lower abdomen, the palm facing downward, the weight now on your right foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手自左後方乘勢而擊我頭,我以左手捋之,以左膝進擊其腹。
The opponent sends his right hand from the Left Rear to take advantage of an opportunity to strike to my head, so I use my left [right] hand to roll it back and use my left knee to strike forward to his abdomen.

〔倒攆猴〕
[(51) RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY]
〔斜飛勢〕
[(52) DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE]
〔提手上勢〕
[(53) RAISE THE HAND, STEPPING FORWARD]
〔白鶴亮翅〕
[(54) WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS]
〔摟膝拗步〕
[(55) BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE]
〔海底珍〕
[(56) TREASURE UNDER THE SEA]
〔山通背〕
[(57) MOUNTAIN THROUGH THE BACK]
〔翻身撇身捶〕
[(58) TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH]
〔上步搬攔捶〕
[(59) STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH]
〔上勢攬雀尾〕
[(60) STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL]
〔單鞭〕
[(61) SINGLE WHIP]
〔雲手〕
[(62) CLOUDING HANDS]
〔單鞭〕
[(63) SINGLE WHIP]
〔高探馬〕
[(64) RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE]

十字擺蓮
[65] CROSSED-HANDS SWINGING LOTUS KICK

略釋
Explanation of the name:
十字擺蓮者,雙手移動,形如十字,同時起脚旁踢,開而復合也。
In this posture, your hands shift to make an X shape, as your foot lifts and kicks sideways, a movement of opening and then closing.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左手立掌向左方推出,右手橫掌移至左腋下,掌心向下,同時左足向左開半步,弓膝,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足。然後身體以左足為軸,由左而前而右旋轉半圓。右手仍居左腋下不動,惟左手移至頂上,掌心向右。然後右腿提起,由前而後,旁撥踢之,
Your left hand as an upright palm pushes out to the Left, your right hand as a sideways palm shifting to be below your left armpit, palm facing downward, while your left foot takes a half step out to the Left and the knee bends, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. Then using your left foot as a pivot, your body makes a half turn from the Left to the Front to the Right, your right hand staying below your left armpit while your left hand shifts to be above your headtop, palm facing to the Right. Then your right leg lifts and kicks across from the Front to the Rear.

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同時左手自後而前拍右足面,右手自前而後亦拍足右面,兩手拍右足面時,略成十字,然後右足落下。
At the same time, your left hand goes from the Rear to the Front to slap the top of the foot and your right hand goes from the Front to the Rear to also slap the top of the foot, your hands in the midst of slapping almost making an X shape with each other, after which your foot will come down.
應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵自後擊我,我身卽後轉,以手撥開敵手,復乘勢以足旁踢之。
An opponent attacks me from behind, so I turn around and use a hand to deflect away his hand, then take advantage of the opportunity by doing a sideways kick.

摟膝指襠捶
[66] BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

略釋
Explanation of the name:
摟膝指襠捶者,上步摟膝,乘勢以拳擊敵之襠也。
In this posture, step forward, brushing past your knee, and take advantage of an opportunity to punch to the opponent’s crotch.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足右上一步,弓膝,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,同時右手握拳,向右下方直擊之。左手下摟左膝,復向上而撫右肱,以助其勢,身體仍面右方。
Your left foot steps forward to the Right and the knee bends, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. At the same time, your right hand grasps into a fist and strikes downward to the Right, your left hand brushing downward past your left knee and then coming upward to touch your right forearm in order to assist the posture. Your body is still facing to the Right.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右手擊我,我以左手摟開,乘勢以右拳進擊其襠。
An opponent uses his right hand to attack me, so I use my left hand to brush it aside and take advantage of the opportunity to use my right fist to strike to his crotch.

〔上勢攬雀尾〕
[(67) STEP FORWARD, CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL]
〔單鞭〕
[(68) SINGLE WHIP]
〔下勢〕
[(69) LOW POSTURE]

上步七星
[70] STEP FORWARD, BIG DIPPER POSTURE

略釋
Explanation of the name:
上步七星者,向前進步作七星勢也,其姿態有類北斗之七星,故名。
To “step forward with the Big Dipper” means to advance and make a Big Dipper posture. The posture is like the seven stars of the Big Dipper [hand, elbow, shoulder, head forming the saucepan; hip, knee, foot forming the handle], hence the name.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左膝左弓,右足左進一步,足尖點地,置左足側,全體重心,移於左足。同時左右手立掌垂肘交叉移至胸前,右手外而左手內,大指約與喉齊。
Your left knee bends to the Left and your right foot advances a step to the Left, toes touching down, to be placed beside your left foot, the weight shifted onto your left foot. At the same time, your palms cross in front of your chest, palms upright, elbows hanging down, right hand on the outside, left hand on the inside, thumbs at about throat level.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
方敵擊我,我以左手外摟敵臂,敵抽身思遁,我卽乘勢上步,以右手進擊其胸。
An opponent strikes at me, so I use my left hand to brush his arm outward. If he then withdraws his body with thoughts of escape, I take advantage of the opportunity to step forward and use my right hand to strike forward to his chest.

退步跨虎
[71] STEP BACK, SITTING TIGER POSTURE

略釋
Explanation of the name:
退步跨虎者,身體下踞,有若伏虎之狀。
In this posture, you squat your body down in the manner of a crouching tiger.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足右退半步,膝微曲,左足右撤,足尖點地,置右足側,全體重心,移於右足,同時左右手下落,向前後分開,兩臂均與肩平,成一直線,惟左手下垂作鈎狀,右手立掌,掌心向前。
Your right foot retreats a half step to the Right, knee slightly bent, and your left foot withdraws to the Right, toes touching down, to be placed beside your right foot, the weight shifted onto your right foot. At the same time, your hands lower and spread apart to the Front and Rear, both arms now making a line at shoulder level, except with your left hand hanging down making a hook shape while your right hand is an upright palm, the palm facing to the Front.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右足踢我下部,我以左手向外摟開,復以右手乘勢擊敵之脇。
An opponent uses his right foot to kick to my lower body, so I send my left hand outward to brush it away, then use my right hand to take advantage of the opportunity to strike to his ribs.

轉身雙擺蓮
[72] TURN AROUND, DOUBLE-SLAP SWINGING LOTUS KICK

略釋
Explanation of the name:
轉身雙擺蓮者,將身旋轉,雙手起舞,同時起脚旁踢,開而復合也。
In this posture, your body spins around and your hands do a flourishing action as your foot lifts and kicks sideways, a movement of opening and then closing.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右手立掌移至左肩前,以右足為軸,身體由左而前而右而後,至仍面左方止,左足則隨之由後而左而前,至右足之右方落下,同時右手立掌向前方伸出,掌與肩平。左手立掌移至右肩前,然後右足提起,自後而前旁踢之,左右手自前而後先後拍右足面。而後兩手握拳,置於左脇側,右足向左前方落下。
Your right hand as an upright palm shifts to be in front of your left shoulder, and then using your right foot as a pivot, your body turns around from the Left to the Front to the Right to the Rear to again be facing to the Left, your left foot going along with the turn by going from the Rear to the Left to the Front, and going down to the Right near your right foot. At the same time, your right hand as an upright palm reaches out to the Front at shoulder level, and your left hand as an upright palm shifts to be in front of your right shoulder. Then your right foot lifts and kicks across from the Rear to the Front as your hands go from the Front to the Rear to slap the top of the foot one after the other, after which your hands will grasp into fists to be placed beside your left ribs and your right foot will come down to the Left Front.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵之擊我,我轉身以避敵之擊,復手撥開敵手,而以足從旁踢之。
An opponent strikes at me, so I spin around to evade it, then use a hand to deflect his hand away and use my foot to kick from the side.

彎弓射虎
[73] BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER

略釋
Explanation of the name:
彎弓射虎之動作,有若獵夫騎馬張弓射虎之狀。
The movement of this posture is in the manner of drawing a bow and shooting at a tiger while hunting on horseback.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
右足向左前方開一步,弓膝,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。同時雙拳拳眼上下相對,右拳上而左拳下,徐徐移至胸前,然後由前而左循半圓形向左方伸出,右拳約與頂齊,左拳約與胸齊。拳眼仍上下相對。
Your right foot steps out to the Left Front and the knee bends, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. At the same time, your fists, the fist eyes facing each other above and below, right fist above, left fist below, slowly shift to be in front of your chest, then extend from the Front to the Left with a semicircle shape, right fist at about headtop level, left fist at about chest level, the fist eyes still facing each other.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以左手擊我,我以右手捋之,敵欲後撤其臂,我順其力而放之。
An opponent uses his left hand to attack me, so I use my right hand to do a rollback, and when he tries to withdraw his arm, I go along with the force of it and issue.

合太極
[74] CLOSING POSTURE

略釋
Explanation of the name:
合太極者,諸勢練習旣畢,動靜歸一,復還其始也。
In this posture, you have finished practicing all of the postures. Movement and stillness return to being the same, restoring you to your starting state.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
左足左上一步,右足向左幷步,身體自左而前旋轉之,面向前方,身體直立,雙臂下垂,復還元太極勢。
Your left foot steps forward to the Left and your right foot goes to the Left to stand next to it, your torso turning from the Left to be facing to the Front, your body standing straight, both arms hanging down, returning you to the BEGINNING POSTURE.

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第五章 太極拳打手法總論
CHAPTER FIVE: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO TAIJI BOXING’S PLAYING HANDS METHODS

第一節 太極拳打手論
Section One: Discussing Playing Hands

打手者,研究懂勁之法也。先師曰:『由着熟,而漸悟懂勁,由懂勁而階級神明。』旨哉言乎!夫究宜如何始能着熟?宜如何始悟懂勁?宜如何階級神明?此本章之所宜急急研究者也。
夫太極拳之各勢旣已練習,則當首先注意姿勢是否正確?動作能否自然?待其旣正確且自然矣,然後進而練習應用,應用旣皆純熟,斯可謂着熟也矣。
雖然,此不過彼往我來之一勢一用而已耳!若彼連用數法,或因我之着而變化之,斯時也,則如之何?於是乎懂勁尚焉。
夫懂勁者,因己之不利處,推及彼之不利處也。方我之欲擊敵也,心中必先具一念,然後始擊之也。反是,彼能無此一念乎?雖智愚賢不肖異等,而其先具之一念,未嘗異也。
故彼念旣興,我念亦起,眞偽虛實,難測異常,苟無一定之主宰,則必至於張皇失措,方恐應敵之不暇,尚何希其致勝哉!
雖然,常擊彼之念旣起,則當存心彼我之着法孰速?欲擊之目的孰當?彼未擊至我身也,可否引其落空?或我之動作是否能動於彼先?待旣擊至我身也,宜如何變其力之方向,使落不及我身?或能因彼之力,而使其力折回而還彼身。此等存心,究宜如何始能得之?蓋因我之某處懼彼之擊也,彼之某處亦懼我之擊,此明顯之理也。然而避我之怕擊處,擊彼之怕擊處,則彼欲勝,豈可得也。孫子曰:『知己知彼,百戰百勝。』此之謂也。
方此時也,可謂懂勁也矣。懂勁後,愈練愈精,漸至舍己從人,因敵變化,不思而得,從容中道,非達於神明矣乎?學者,果能盡心研究之,則出奇入妙,將在於是也。是為論。
Playing Hands is a method of learning to identify energies. A previous master said [in the Treatise]: “Once you have ingrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous.” This is exactly the idea. In our training, what should we do to be able to ingrain the techniques, to be able to identify energies, to be able to reach a miraculous level? This chapter requires your immediate attention.
     Once the solo set has been learned, the first thing to do is check whether or not the postures are correct and the movements are natural. Once everything is correct and natural, move on to practicing applications, and once you are skillful with applications, then you can say you have ingrained the techniques.
     However, they are only single actions of defend and counter. If an opponent continues to attack, adapting to my techniques, then what do I do? This is why identifying energies is important. Through identifying energies, I go from being in an unfavorable position to putting him in an unfavorable position. When I want to attack the opponent, the idea is first in my mind and then there is the attack. Conversely, can he function without the same kind of thought? People have different degrees of intelligence and virtue, but they are all the same in that they all first have the idea of what they will do before they do it.
     When an idea starts in him, an idea also starts in me. What is real or fake, full or empty, is extremely difficult to discern, and if I try to function without being in control, I would surely become so flustered that I think I would be too busy to deal with him, in which case there would be no hope of defeating him.
     Nevertheless, the thought constantly arises of wanting to attack him. Therefore I keep these things in mind: Is it I or the opponent who has the quicker technique? Where is he targeting? Before he has struck my body, can I draw him in to land on nothing? Or can my movement get ahead of his? In the moment his attack is reaching me, how can I alter the direction of his force so that it will miss my body? Or can I cause his force to turn all the way around and be sent back at him?
     In our training, what should we do to be able to gain these qualities? As I have certain areas where I am afraid to be hit, so does the opponent. This is an obvious principle. And so I evade at the places I do not want to be hit and attack the places where he does not want to be hit, and then even if he seeks to win, there is no way he can. Sunzi said [Art of War, chapter 3]: “Knowing both self and opponent, in a hundred battles you will have a hundred victories.” This is the idea.
     You can at that point be said to be identifying energies. “Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be.” Gradually you will reach the point that you are letting go of yourself and going along with the opponent, acting according to his adjustments, catching everything he tries to do, calmly balancing everything out, and have you not then reached a miraculous level? If you can study wholeheartedly, wonders will emerge as a result.

第二節 太極拳打手歌
Section Two: Playing Hands Songs

輕靈活潑求懂勁,陰陽旣濟無滯病,若得四兩撥千斤,開合鼓盪主宰定。
Be nimble and lively, seeking to identify the opponent’s energies.
Passive and active are meant to complement each other, so do not make the error of getting stuck in only of them.
Once you have got the skill of “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”,
it will be determined by your expanding and contracting, and the rousing of your energy.

掤捋擠按須認眞,上下相隨人難進,任他巨力來打我,牽動四兩撥千斤,引入落空合卽出,黏連黏隨不丢頂。
Ward-off, rollback, press, and push must be taken seriously.
With coordination between above and below, the opponent will hardly find a way in.
I will let him attack me with as much power as he likes,
for I will tug with four ounces of force to move his of a thousand pounds.
Guiding him in to land on nothing, I then close up and shoot him out.
I stick, connect, adhere, and follow, neither coming away nor crashing in.

採挒肘靠更出奇,行之不用費心思,果能輕靈幷堅硬,得其環中不支離。
The techniques of plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping are yet more unusual,
and if you execute them unsuccessfully, they will be but wasted ideas.
But if you can be both nimble and solid,
you will be centered on the target and loathe to veer away.

彼不動,己不動。必微動,己先動。似鬆非鬆。將展未展。勁斷意不斷。
If he takes no action, I take no action,
but once he takes even the slightest action, I have already acted.
I seem to be relaxed but not relaxed,
about to extend but not fully extending.
Although the power finishes, the intent of it continues.

第六章 太極拳打手法說明
CHAPTER SIX: DESCRIPTIONS OF PLAYING HANDS METHODS

太極拳之諸勢旣已用畢,應用亦有端倪,乃可作進一步之研究,於是乎打手法尚焉。
夫打手者,二人互相對推,藉習運勁發勁之理,剛柔變化之機,先求己之不利處,然後制人。乃再因己之不利而制人。
雖然談之為易,行之為艱。非有心法,胡可得也。余研究打手有年矣。師友過訪,何千百計,然而剛者有之,柔者有之,能得其剛柔相濟者,蓋不多見也。於是不揣愚陋,擇其柔剛旣濟之法,簡而易學之方,作圖立說,聊備有志之士,為入道之門云爾。
Once you have learned all the Taiji Boxing postures and have a sense of their applications, you can then advance your study to an emphasis on the playing hands methods. Playing Hands is when two people are pushing each other, practicing the principles of moving and issuing energy, experiencing the moments of hardness and softness alternating. First strive for there to be no flaws in yourself and then control the opponent. If you fail to do this, you will instead be controlled by the opponent.
     Although easy to talk about, it is difficult to do. Without personal instruction, you will not be able to achieve it. I studied playing hands for many years. I visited teachers and tried out countless techniques. Some teachers had hardness, some had softness, but those who had the ability of hardness and softness complementing each other were rare. Despite my low level of ability, I have selected for methods of hardness and softness complementing each other in exercises that are simple and easy to learn. I have made photos and have written explanations so that those with aspirations will have a way into the art.

太極拳打手方向圖
ORIENTATION CHART FOR PLAYING HANDS:

右後   後   左後
Right Rear  Rear  Left Rear

右   乙   甲   左
Right (Person B / Person A) Left

右前   前   左前
Right Front Front Left Front

太極拳打手法之基本坐腿法一
PLAYING HANDS BASIC SITTING STANCE – Version 1

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
身體面右而立作太極勢,然後左足向右方邁出一步,足根點地,足尖翹起,膝微曲,右足不動,而腿下坐。全體重心,移於右足。惟須立身中正,頭正頸直,涵胸拔背,裹襠護臀。兩臂立掌垂肘向右方提起,漸漸移至胸前,左手五指向上,掌心向後方,大指約與鼻齊。右手五指向上,掌心向後方,置於左手與胸之間。惟大指約與喉齊。虛領頂勁,氣沉丹田,中立不依,忽隱忽現,全體輕靈活潑,出於自然,勿令絲毫遲滯耳。
Your body is facing to the Right, standing in the BEGINNING POSTURE. Then your left foot steps out to the Right, heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your right foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifted onto your right foot. You must stand upright and balance, your head upright, neck straight. Contain your chest and pluck up your back. Withdraw your crotch and tuck in your buttocks. Your arms lift toward the Right, palms upright and elbows hanging down as they slowly shift to be in front of your chest, your left hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear, the thumb at about nose level, your right hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear [Front], placed between your left hand and your chest, the thumb at about throat level. Forcelessly press up your headtop and sink energy to your elixir field. From a balanced and unleaning position, suddenly disappear and suddenly appear. Your whole body is nimble and lively. Perform with naturalness and do not allow the slightest stagnation.

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太極拳打手法之基本坐腿法二
PLAYING HANDS BASIC SITTING STANCE – Version 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
身體面右而立作太極勢,然後右足向右方邁出一步,足根點地,足尖翹起,膝微曲,左足不動,而腿下坐。全體重心,移於左足。惟須立身中正,頭正頸直,涵胸拔背,裹襠護臀。兩臂立掌垂肘向右方提起,漸漸移至胸前,右手五指向上,掌心向前方,大指約與鼻齊。左手五指向上,心向後方,置於右手與胸之間。惟大指約與喉齊。虛領頂勁,氣沉丹田,中立不依,忽隱忽現,全體輕靈活潑,出於自然,勿令絲毫遲滯耳。
Your body is facing to the Right, standing in the BEGINNING POSTURE. Then your right foot steps out to the Right, heel touching down, toes lifted, knee slightly bent, your left foot staying where it is, the leg squatting down, the weight shifted onto your left foot. You must stand upright and balance, your head upright, neck straight. Contain your chest and pluck up your back. Withdraw your crotch and tuck in your buttocks. Your arms lift toward the Right, palms upright and elbows hanging down as they slowly shift to be in front of your chest, your right hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Front, the thumb at about nose level, your left hand’s fingers pointing upward, palm facing to the Rear, placed between your right hand and your chest, the thumb at about throat level. Forcelessly press up your headtop and sink energy to your elixir field. From a balanced and unleaning position, suddenly disappear and suddenly appear. Your whole body is nimble and lively. Perform with naturalness and do not allow the slightest stagnation.

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太極拳打手法之基本搭手法一
PLAYING HANDS BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 1

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本坐腿法一,相距約一步遠。然後甲之右腕與乙之右腕相搭,甲之左手貼乙之右肘,乙之左手貼甲之右肘。惟須神舒體靜,處處輕靈,以待敵之變化耳。
A and B stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both in the BASIC SITTING STANCE – Version 1, about a step away from each other. Then A’s right wrist and B’s right wrist connect with each other, A’s left hand sticking to B’s right elbow, B’s left hand sticking to A’s right elbow. The spirit must be relaxed, the body calm, and there must everywhere by lightness and sensitivity while awaiting the opponent’s changes.

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太極拳打手法之基本搭手法二
PLAYING HANDS BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 2

姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本坐腿法二,相距約一步遠。然後甲之左腕與乙之左腕相搭,甲之右手貼乙之左肘,乙之右手貼甲之左肘。惟須神舒體靜,處處輕靈,以待敵之變化耳。
A and B stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both in the BASIC SITTING STANCE – Version 2, about a step away from each other. Then A’s left wrist and B’s left wrist connect with each other, A’s right hand sticking to B’s left elbow, B’s right hand sticking to A’s left elbow. The spirit must be relaxed, the body calm, and there must everywhere by lightness and sensitivity while awaiting the opponent’s changes.

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掤捋擠按打手法
PLAYING HANDS METHOD FOR WARDING OFF, ROLLING BACK, PRESSING, AND PUSHING

掤捋擠按者,四正方練習應敵之法也。為太極拳中之最重要者。然已往諸賢名著,只載其名,而於練習之法,如何應用,未曾題及。以致學者無從學起。今用科學方法將諸法分析說明,待其根基旣立,然後從事於採挒肘靠打手法之練習,庶不至望洋興嘆也。
The playing hands method for warding off, rolling back, pressing, and pushing is a means of practicing the four primary techniques for dealing with an opponent. It is the most important exercise within Taiji Boxing. However, previous masters only recorded the names of the techniques, not the practice method for learning to apply them, leaving students with nothing to work from. I have analyzed these techniques according to modern scientific methods. Once you are grounded in this fundamental exercise, then you may move on to the playing hands method for plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping so that you do not end up feeling that your training is incomplete.

掤之打手法一
WARDING OFF – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
掤者,捧也,敵擊我,而我因彼力斜上方捧之,使其力復還於其身,而不得下降也。
To “ward off” means to carry. The opponent attacks me, so I go along with his force and carry it diagonally upward, causing his force to return to his own body and make him unable to lower himself.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本搭手法一,則甲以右腕搭乙之右腕,甲之左手貼乙之右肘,向乙身之斜上方掤去,同時甲之左膝右弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,面向右方,目注乙面。
Both of you stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both making the BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 1. A, with your right wrist connecting to B’s right wrist and your left hand sticking to his right elbow, ward off diagonally upward toward B’s body. At the same time, your left knee bends to the Right, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵為我掤起,則失其固有之能力,我向右上方承其力而拋擲之。
Once the opponent begins to ward me off, he gives himself away, so I carry his force upward to the Right and then throw him out.

掤之打手法二
WARDING OFF – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
同前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本搭手法一,則乙以右腕搭甲之右腕,乙之左手貼甲之右肘,向甲身之斜上方掤去,同時乙之左膝左弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足,面向左方,目注甲面。
Both of you stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both making the BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 1. B, with your right wrist connecting to B’s right wrist and your left hand sticking to his right elbow, ward off diagonally upward toward A’s body. At the same time, your left knee bends to the Left, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前,惟右上方為左上方。
Same as before, except right foot forward instead of left.

掤之打手法三
WARDING OFF – Version 3

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本搭手法二,則甲之左腕搭乙之左腕,甲之右手貼乙之左肘,向乙身之斜上方掤去,同時甲之右膝右弓,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。面向右方,目注乙面。
Both of you stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both making the BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 2. A, with your left wrist connecting to B’s left wrist and your right hand sticking to his left elbow, ward off diagonally upward toward B’s body. At the same time, your right knee bends to the Right, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前一。
Same as in Version 1.

掤之打手法四
WARDING OFF – Version 4

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本搭手法二,則乙以左腕搭甲之左腕,乙之右手貼甲之左肘,向甲身之斜上方掤去,同時乙之右膝左弓,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。面向左方,目注甲面。
Both of you stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both making the BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 2. B, with your left wrist connecting to A’s left wrist and your right hand sticking to his left elbow, ward off diagonally upward toward A’s body. At the same time, your right knee bends to the Left, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前二。
Same as in Version 2.

捋之打手法一
ROLLING BACK – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
捋者,舒也,敵掤我,我向斜下方捋之,以舒其力。
To “roll back” means to extend. The opponent sends out his ward-off at me, so I roll him back diagonally downward to overextend his force.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由掤之打手法一,則乙旣為甲掤起,乙卽涵胸,將身向後微移,用右手攬甲之右腕,左手貼甲之右肘,向前下方捋之。同時乙之左足尖翹起,右腿下踞,全體重心,移於右足。面向左方,目注甲面。
From WARDING OFF – Version 1, B, when A starts to ward off, hollow your chest, slightly shifting your body back, as you use your right hand to grab his right wrist, your left hand sticking to his right elbow, and roll him back downward to the Front. At the same time, your left toes lift and your right leg squats down, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
方我被敵掤起之時,我卽因彼之力,向前下方順其力而捋之。
When I have started to get warded off by the opponent, I go along with his force and roll him back downward to the Front.

捋之打手法二
ROLLING BACK – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
同前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由掤之打手法二,則甲旣為乙掤起,甲卽涵胸,將身向後微移,用右手攬乙之右腕,左手貼乙之右肘,向後下方捋之,同時甲之左足尖翹起,右腿下踞。全體重心,移於右足,面向右方,目注乙面。
From WARDING OFF – Version 2, A, when B starts to ward off, hollow your chest, slightly shifting your body back, as you use your right hand to grab his right wrist, your left hand sticking to his right elbow, and roll him back downward to the Rear. At the same time, your left toes lift and your right leg squats down, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前,惟前下方為後下方。
Same as before, except rolling back downward to the Rear instead of downward to the Front.

捋之打手法三
ROLLING BACK – Version 3

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由掤之打手法三,則乙旣為甲掤起,乙卽涵胸,將身向後微移,用左手攬甲之左腕,右手貼甲之左肘,向後下方捋之。同時乙之右足尖翹起,左腿下踞,全體重心,移於左足。面向左方,目注甲面。
From WARDING OFF – Version 3, B, when A starts to ward off, hollow your chest, slightly shifting your body back, as you use your left hand to grab his left wrist, your right hand sticking to his left elbow, and roll him back downward to the Rear. At the same time, your right toes lift and your left leg squats down, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前二。
Same as Version 2.

捋之打手法四
ROLLING BACK – Version 4

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由掤之打手法四,則甲旣為乙掤起,甲卽涵胸,將身向後微移,用左手攬乙之左腕,右手貼乙之左肘,向前下方捋之,同時甲之右足尖翹起,左腿下踞,全體重心,移於左足。面向右方,目注乙面。
From WARDING OFF – Version 4, A, when B starts to ward off, hollow your chest, slightly shifting your body back, as you use your left hand to grab his left wrist, your right hand sticking to his left elbow, and roll him back downward to the Front. At the same time, your right toes lift and your left leg squats down, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前一。
Same as in Version 1.

擠之打手法一
PRESSING – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
擠者,排也,敵之以雙手捋我,我將肱平曲而排擠之,使敵之雙手均避於懷內,而不得移動。
To “press” means to send away. The opponent uses both hands to roll me back, so I bend a forearm across and press away, keeping his hands from pulling me in and making him unable to adjust.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由捋之打手法一,則甲因乙之捋,卽將右肱平曲,向乙胸間擠去,避其雙手於懷內,同時將左手按右肱以助其勢。幷將左膝右弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足。面向右方,目注乙面。
From ROLLING BACK – Version 1, A, go along with B’s rollback by bending your left forearm across and pressing out toward B’s chest to keep his hands from pulling you in. At the same time, your left hand pushes on your right forearm to assist the posture, your left knee bending to the Right, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵捋我右臂,我將右肱平曲,因彼之捋力,向敵胸間擠去,以避敵之雙手,然後以左手助右肱而拋擲之。
The opponent rolls back my right arm, so I bend my right forearm across and go along with the force of his rollback by pressing out toward his chest in order to interfere with his hands, then use my left hand to assist at my right forearm and throw him away.

擠之打手法二
PRESSING – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
同前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由捋之打手法二,則乙因甲之捋,卽將右肱平曲,向甲胸間擠去,避其雙手於懷內同時將左手按右肱以助其勢。幷將左膝左弓,右腿蹬直。全體重心,移於左足。面向左方,目注甲面。
From ROLLING BACK – Version 2, B, go along with A’s rollback by bending your right forearm across and pressing out toward A’s chest to keep his hands from pulling you in. At the same time, your left hand pushes on your right forearm to assist the posture, your left knee bending to the Left, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前。
Same as before.

擠之打手法三
PRESSING – Version 3

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由捋之打手法三,則甲因乙之捋,卽將左肱平曲,向乙胸間擠去,避其雙手於懷內,同時將右手按左肱以助其勢。並將右膝右弓,左腿蹬直全體重心,移於右足。面向右方,目注乙面。
From ROLLING BACK – Version 3, A, go along with B’s rollback by bending your left forearm across and pressing out toward B’s chest to keep his hands from pulling you in. At the same time, your right hand pushes on your left forearm to assist the posture, your right knee bending to the Right, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
見前二,惟左手助右肱為右手助左肱。
Same as in Version 2, except that instead of your left hand assisting at your right forearm, it is your right hand assisting at your left forearm.

擠之打手法四
PRESSING – Version 4

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由捋之打手法四,則乙因甲之捋,卽將左肱平曲,向甲胸間擠去,避其雙手於懷內,同時將右手按左肱以助其勢。並將右膝左弓,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。面向左方,目注甲面。
From ROLLING BACK – Version 4, B, go along with A’s rollback by bending your left forearm across and pressing out toward A’s chest to keep his hands from pulling you in. At the same time, your right hand pushes on your left forearm to assist the posture, your Right knee bending to the Left, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前三。
Same as in Version 3.

按之打手法一
PUSHING – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
按者,抑也,敵擠我,我下按而抑其力,使其力不能上騰。
To “push” means to press downward. The opponent presses me, so I push downward to suppress his force, and keep him from being able to issue with it.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由擠之打手法一,則乙旣被甲擠起,乙卽涵胸垂肘,雙手下按,以抑其力。同時左膝左弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足。面向左方,目注甲面。
From PRESSING – Version 1, B, once you have started to be pressed by A, hollow your chest, drop your elbows, and push down with both hands to suppress his force. At the same time, your left knee bends to the Left, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵以右肱擠我,我卽涵胸,將手下按,以抑其力,待其力旣空,然後再拋擲之。
The opponent uses his right forearm to press me, so I hollow my chest and push down with my hands to suppress his force, and once his force has been dissipated, I then throw him away.

按之打手法二
PUSHING – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
同前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由擠之打手法二,則甲旣被乙擠起,甲卽涵胸垂肘,雙手下按,以抑其力。同時左膝右弓,右腿蹬直,全體重心,移於左足。面向右方,目注乙面。
From PRESSING – Version 2, A, once you have started to be pressed by B, hollow your chest, drop your elbows, and push down with both hands to suppress his force. At the same time, your left knee bends to the Right, your right leg straightening, the weight shifting to your left foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前。
Same as before.

按之打手法三
PUSHING – Version 3

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由擠之打手法三,則乙旣被甲擠起,乙卽涵胸垂肘,雙手下按,以抑其力。同時右膝左弓,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。面向左方,目注甲面。
From PRESSING – Version 3, B, once you have started to be pressed by A, hollow your chest, drop your elbows, and push down with both hands to suppress his force. At the same time, your right knee bends to the Left, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Left, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
見前。
Same as before.

按之打手法四
PUSHING – Version 4

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由擠之打手法四,則甲旣被乙擠起,甲卽涵胸垂肘,雙手下按,以抑其力。同時右膝右弓,左腿蹬直,全體重心,移於右足。面向右方,目注乙面。
From PRESSING – Version 4, A, once you have started to be pressed by B, hollow your chest, drop your elbows, and push down with both hands to suppress his force. At the same time, your right knee bends to the Right, your left leg straightening, the weight shifting to your right foot. You are looking to the Right, your gaze toward B.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
見前。
Same as before.

太極拳打手法之基本搭手法三
PLAYING HANDS BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 3

甲乙二人左右對面而立,相距約一步遠,同作太極勢。然後甲乙各將右臂抬起,甲之右腕與乙之右腕相搭,甲之左手貼乙之右肘,乙之左手貼甲之右肘,身體直立,目均平視。
A and B stand facing each other to the Left and Right, about a step away from each other, both in the BEGINNING POSTURE. Then A and B each lift their right arm so that A’s right wrist and B’s right wrist connect with each other, A’s left hand sticking to B’s right elbow, B’s left hand sticking to A’s right elbow, body standing straight, gaze level.

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太極拳打手法之基本搭手法四
PLAYING HANDS BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 4

甲乙二人左右對面而立,相距約一步遠,同作太極勢。然後甲乙各將左臂抬起,甲之左腕與乙之左腕相搭,甲之右手貼乙之左肘,乙之右手貼甲之左肘,身體直立,目均平視,
A and B stand facing each other to the Left and Right, about a step away from each other, both in the BEGINNING POSTURE. Then A and B each lift their left arm so that A’s left wrist and B’s left wrist connect with each other, A’s right hand sticking to B’s left elbow, B’s right hand sticking to A’s left elbow, body standing straight, gaze level.

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捋挒肘靠打手法
PLAYING HANDS METHOD FOR PLUCKING, RENDING, ELBOWING, AND BUMPING

採挒肘靠打手法者,四隅角練習應敵之法也。然而此法週行四隅,動作較為複雜。故當今國術同志,能者亦甚罕睹,茲用科學方法,將諸法一一分析說明,使學者一目了然,循序漸進,不難達於神明也。
The playing hands method for plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping is a means of practicing the four secondary techniques for dealing with an opponent. However, in this method of recycling the four secondary techniques over and over, the movements are more difficult [than the exercise for the primary techniques]. This is why it is so rare to see martial arts comrades who are skillful with it nowadays. I have used scientific methods to analyze them one by one, so that they will be clear at a glance and you will be able to proceed step by step to reach a high level without difficulty.

採之打手法一
PLUCKING – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
採者,摘也,擇而取之之謂,蓋禦敵之時,將敵人之力,向旁牽引,如選物者,先擇而後取之,轉置他方之意也。
To “pluck” means to pick, choose, take. When defending against an opponent, I draw his force to the side, as though I am selecting an object [as if to pocket it]. First I choose it, then take it, bringing it across to the other side.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本搭手法三。甲則以右手攬乙之右腕,左手貼乙之右肘,向左後下方採之。同時甲將右足向左後方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點,面向右後方,目注乙面。
Both of you, stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both making the BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 3. A, use your right hand to grab B’s right wrist, your left hand sticking to his right elbow, and pluck downward to the Left Rear. At the same time, step your right foot out to the Left Rear and squat down on both legs, the weight shifted to be between your feet. You are looking to the Right Rear, your gaze toward B.
乙將左足向左後方開一步,右足向甲襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起。同時將右臂向左後下方伸出,左手撫右肱以助之。面向左前方,目注甲面。全體重心,移於左足。
B, step your left foot out to the Left Rear and step your right foot below A’s crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, as your right arm reaches out downward to the Left Rear, your left hand touching your right forearm to assist. You are looking to the Left Front, your gaze toward A, the weight shifted to your left foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵人欲捋我右臂,我平移敵人之力而採之,或擊或擲,皆由我便。
The opponent wants to do a rollback to my right arm, so I match his force and pluck, strike, or throw, whichever is most convenient.

採之打手法二
PLUCKING – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
甲乙二人左右對面而立,同作基本搭手法四。甲則以左手攬乙之左腕,右手貼乙之左肘,向左前下方採之。同時將左足向左前方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。面向右前方,目注乙面。
Both of you, stand facing each other to the Left and Right, both making the BASIC CONNECTING HANDS POSTURE – Version 4. A, use your left hand to grab B’s left wrist, your right hand sticking to his left elbow, and pluck downward to the Left Front. At the same time, step your left foot out to the Left Front and squat down on both legs, the weight shifted to be between your feet. You are looking to the Right Front, your gaze toward B.
乙將右足向左前方開一步,左足向甲襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起。同時將左臂向左前下方伸出,右手撫左肱以助之。面向左後方,目注甲面。全體重心,移於右足。
B, step your right foot out to the Left Front and step your left foot below A’s crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, as your left arm reaches out downward to the Left Front, your right hand touching your left forearm to assist. You are looking to the Left Rear, your gaze toward A, the weight shifted to your right foot.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前,惟右臂為左臂。
Same as before, except right forearm instead of left.

挒之打手法一
RENDING – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
挒者,以手執物而力轉之,蓋禦敵之時,轉移敵人之力,還擊其身也。
To “rend” is to use a hand to grab an object and forcefully turn it. When defending against an opponent, I turn his force away to send it back at him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由採之打手法一,則甲用左手按乙之左腕,右手貼乙之左肘向下按之。同時甲之右足向右後方開一步,左足由乙之右足外提起,向乙之襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起。同時左臂向右後下方伸出,右手撫左肱以助之。面向右前方,目注乙面。全體重心,移於右足。
From PLUCKING – Version 1, A, use your left hand to push on B’s left wrist, your right hand sticking to his left elbow, and push down. At the same time, your right foot steps out to the Right Rear and your left foot lifts from the outside of B’s right foot to step in below his crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, as your left arm reaches out downward to the Right Rear, your right hand touching your left forearm to assist. You are looking to the Right Front, your gaze toward B, the weight shifted to your right foot.
乙則將左足向右後方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。同時左手攬甲之左腕,右手貼甲之左肘,向右後下方捋之,面向左後方,目注甲面。
B, step your left foot out to the Right Rear and squat down on both legs, the weight shifting to be between your feet. At the same time, your left hand grabs A’s left wrist, your right hand sticking to A’s left elbow, and you do a rollback downward to the Right Rear. You are looking to the Left Rear, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵因我之採力,以肩肘來靠我胸,我轉移其力之方向,使敵人之力,還擊於其身。
The opponent goes along with the force of my pluck by using his shoulder and elbow area to bump to my chest, so I rotate the direction of his force to cause it to return to his own body.

挒之打手法二
RENDING – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由採之打手法二,則甲用右手按乙之右腕,左手貼乙之右肘向下按之。同時甲之右足由乙之左足外提起,向乙之襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起,全體重心,移於左足。同時右臂向右前下方伸出,左手撫右肱以助之。面向右後方,目注乙面。
From PLUCKING – Version 2, A, use your right hand to push on B’s right wrist, your left hand sticking to his right elbow, and push down. At the same time, your right foot lifts from the outside of B’s left foot and steps in below his crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, the weight shifted to your left foot, as your right arm reaches out downward to the Right Front, your left hand touching your right forearm to assist. You are looking to the Right Rear, your gaze toward B.
乙將右足向右前方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。同時右手攬甲之右腕,左手貼甲之右肘,向右前下方捋之。面向左前方,目注甲面。
B, step your right foot out to the Right Front and squat down on both legs, the weight shifting to be between your feet. At the same time, your right hand grabs A’s right wrist, your left hand sticking to A’s right elbow, and you do a rollback downward to the Right Front. You are looking to the Left Front, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前。
Same as before.

肘之打手法一
ELBOWING – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
肘者,臂之彎曲處之外側也,應敵之時,因彼之挒力,乘勢以肘擊敵也。
To “elbow” means that I use the outer side of the place where my arm bends. When dealing with an opponent, I go along with the force of his rending technique and take advantage of the opportunity to strike him with my elbow.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由挒之打手法一,則甲將左臂上撥,同時將左足抽出,向左前方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。幷以左手攬乙之左腕。右手貼乙之左肘,向左前下方捋之。面向右前方,目注乙面。
From RENDING – Version 1, A, send your left arm deflecting upward as your left foot withdraws and then steps out to the Left Front, both legs squatting down, the weight shifting to be between your feet. At the same time, your left hand grabs B’s left wrist, your right hand sticking to his left elbow, and you do a rollback downward to the Left Front. You are looking to the Right Front, your gaze toward B.
乙因甲之撥力,用左掌向甲之面部撲擊,並以右手按甲之左肘,向左前下方挒之。同時右足向左前方開一步,左足向甲襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起。左臂向左前下方伸出,以右手撫左肱以助之。面向左後方,目注甲面。
B, go along with the force of A’s deflection by using your left palm to strike toward his face while using your right hand to push on his left elbow, rending downward to the Left Front. At the same time, your right foot steps out to the Left Front and your left foot steps in below A’s crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, as your left arm reaches out downward to the Left Front, your right hand touching your left forearm to assist. You are looking to the Left Rear, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵旣將我挒起,我因其力向前進身,乘勢以肘擊敵之胸。
As the opponent begins to rend me, I go along with his force by advancing my body and take advantage of the opportunity to use my elbow to strike to his chest.

肘之打手法二
ELBOWING – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由挒之打手法二,則甲將右臂上撥,同時將右足抽出,向左後方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。並用右手攬乙之右腕,左手貼乙之右肘。向左後下方捋之。面向右後方,目注乙面。
From RENDING – Version 2, A, send your right arm deflecting upward as your right foot withdraws and then steps out to the Left Rear, both legs squatting down, the weight shifting to be between your feet. At the same time, your right hand grabs B’s right wrist, your left hand sticking to his right elbow, and you do a rollback downward to the Left Rear. You are looking to the Right Rear, your gaze toward B.
乙因甲之撥力,用右掌向甲之面部撲擊,幷以左手按甲之右肘,向左後下方之。同時左足向左後方開一步,右足向甲襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起。右臂向左後下方伸出,以左手撫右肱以助之。面向左前方,目注甲面。
B, go along with the force of A’s deflection by using your right palm to strike toward his face while using your left hand to push on his right elbow, [rending] downward to the Left Rear. At the same time, your left foot steps out to the Left Rear and your right foot steps in below A’s crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, as your right arm reaches out downward to the Left Rear, your left hand touching your right forearm to assist. You are looking to the Left Front, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前。
Same as before.

靠之打手法一
BUMPING – Version 1

略釋
Explanation of the name:
靠者,依他物以為安固之謂,於應敵之際,因敵力向前進身,乘勢以肩靠之。
To “bump” is to deal with an opponent when he feels stable by following his force forward toward his body and taking advantage of the opportunity by using my shoulder to bump him.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由肘之打手法一,則甲以右手按乙之右腕,左手貼乙之右肘,向下按之,同時甲之右足由乙之左足外提起,向乙之襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起,全體重心,移於左足。同時右臂向右前下方伸出,左手撫右肱以助之,面向右後方,目注乙面。
From ELBOWING – Version 1, A, use your right hand to push on B’s right wrist, your left hand sticking to his right elbow, and push downward. At the same time, your right foot lifts from the outside of B’s left foot and steps around to be below his crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, the weight shifted to your left foot, and your right arm reaches out downward to the Right Front, your left hand touching your right forearm to assist. You are looking to the Right Rear, your gaze toward B.
乙將右足向右前方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。同時右手攬甲之右腕,左手貼甲之右肘,向右前下方捋之。面向左前方,目注甲面。
B, step your right foot out to the Right Front and squat down on both legs, the weight shifted to be between your feet. At the same time, your right hand grabs A’s right wrist, your left hand sticking to his right elbow, and do a rollback downward to the Right Front. You are looking to the Left Front, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
敵採我,我卽因彼之力,以肩靠敵之胸。
The opponent plucks me, so I go along with his force and use my shoulder to bump to his chest.

靠之打手法二
BUMPING – Version 2

略釋
Explanation of the name:
見前。
Same as before.
姿勢說明
Explanation of the posture:
由肘之打手法二,則甲以左手按乙之左腕,右手貼乙之左肘,向下按之,同時甲之左足由乙之右足外提起,向乙之襠中插入一步,足根點地,足尖翹起,全體重心,移於右足。同時左臂向右後下方伸出,右手撫左肱以助之。面向右前方,目注乙面。
From ELBOWING – Version 2, A, use your left hand to push on B’s left wrist, your right hand sticking to his left elbow, and push downward. At the same time, your left foot lifts from the outside of B’s right foot and steps around to be below his crotch, heel touching down, toes lifted, the weight shifted to your right foot, and your left arm reaches out downward to the Right Rear, your right hand touching your left forearm to assist. You are looking to the Right Front, your gaze toward B.
乙將左足向右後方開一步,雙腿下踞,全體重心,移於兩足間之中點。同時左手攬甲之左腕,右手貼甲之左肘,向右後下方捋之。面向左後方,目注甲面。
B, step your left foot out to the Right Rear and squat down on both legs, the weight shifted to be between your feet. At the same time, your left hand grabs A’s left wrist, your right hand sticking to his left elbow, and do a rollback downward to the Right Rear. You are looking to the Left Rear, your gaze toward A.

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應用說明
Explanation of the application:
同前。
Same as before.

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