TAIJI WRITINGS FROM THE SHANGHAI YMCA

青年會太極拳班週年特刋
THE YMCA TAIJI BOXING CLUB’S ANNIVERSARY BOOK
民國十八年十二月 上海靑年會太極拳班贈
A Present from the Shanghai YMCA Taiji Boxing Club, Dec, 1929

[translation by Paul Brennan, Xmas, 2017]

青年會太極拳班週年特刋
The YMCA Taiji Boxing Club’s Anniversary Book
姜乾題
– calligraphy by Jiang Qian

目錄
CONTENTS

中華民國卿雲國歌
Republic of China National Anthem – “Auspicious Clouds”
程厚坤先生書贈聯句
Couplet Presented by Cheng Houkun
王介壽先生書贈聯句
Couplet Presented by Wang Jieshou
靑年會太極拳班班員合影
Group Portrait of the Staff of the YMCA Taiji Boxing Club
太極拳式攝影
Photographs of Taiji Boxing Postures
太極拳推手式攝影
Photographs of Taiji Boxing Pushing Hands Postures
太極劍式攝影
Photographs of Taiji Sword Postures
序 彭欲義
Preface – by Peng Yuyi
太極拳宗派溯源 謝德軒
Tracing Back to the Origins of Taiji Boxing – by Xie Dexuan
講求衞生必須習練太極拳說 謝德軒
Giving Proper Attention to Health Requires Practicing Taiji Boxing – by Xie Dexuan
學習太極拳之經過 謝德軒
My Experience of Learning Taiji Boxing – by Xie Dexuan
太極拳各式名稱 謝德軒
Names of the Taiji Boxing Postures – listed by Xie Dexuan
太極劍各式名稱 謝德軒
Names of the Taiji Sword Postures – listed by Xie Dexuan
靑年會太極拳術班時間
Current YMCA Taiji Boxing Club Schedule
因病而學習太極拳之經過 畢子陛
My Process of Learning Taiji Boxing Because of Illness – by Bi Zibi
習練須有恆心說 畢子陛
The Need for Perseverance if the Training – by Bi Zibi
太極拳可以改造精神 盛效賢
Taiji Boxing Can Alter One’s State of Mind – by Sheng Xiaoxian
練習太極拳之要訣 沈濬文
The Keys to Practicing Taiji Boxing – by Shen Junwen
練習太極拳後之一得 邱祖望
What I Have Learned Since Practicing Taiji Boxing – by Qiu Zuwang
太極拳療病功效之報告 徐可亭
A Testimonial About the Curative Effects of Taiji Boxing – by Xu Keting
其二 胡省初
Testimonial 2 – by Hu Shengchu
其三 王為彰
Testimonial 3 – by Wang Weizhang
其四 黃定良
Testimonial 4 – by Huang Dingliang
其五 王子謙
Testimonial 5 – by Wang Ziqian
太極拳却病延年詞 彭遵路
Taiji Boxing for Preventing Illness & Prolonging Life – by Peng Zunlu
靑年會太極拳術班週年紀念感言 彭遵路
My Feelings upon the First Anniversary of the YMCA Taiji Boxing Club – by Peng Zunlu
轉錄褚民誼先生論太極拳之功用
Chu Minyi’s Discussion of Taiji Boxing’s Characteristics
太極拳術班暫定規則
Provisional Rules for the Taiji Boxing Club
太極拳術班委員會規則
Rules for the Taiji Boxing Club Committee

卿雲國歌
NATIONAL ANTHEM – “AUSPICIOUS CLOUDS”

卿雲爛兮
糺縵縵兮
日月光華
旦復旦兮
日月光華
旦復旦兮
Auspicious clouds are shining,
slowly gathering.
The sun and moon make them glow
at dawn, a new dawn…
The sun and moon make them glow
at dawn, a new dawn…

程厚坤先生書贈聯句
Couplet Presented by Cheng Houkun:

青年會太極拳術班一週紀念
To commemorate the first anniversary of the YMCA Taiji Boxing Club:
振懦發頽端在斯道
强種昌國實賴厥功
To rouse the weak and energize the listless,
hold to this method.
Strengthening the people and making the nation prosper
truly depends on this work.
程厚坤敬贈
– offered respectfully by Cheng Houkun

王介壽先生書贈聯句
Couplet Presented by Wang Jieshou:

青年會太極拳班一周紀念祝賀
To commemorate with congratulations the first anniversary of the YMCA Taiji Boxing Club:
沈濳髙明剛柔相濟
動靜轉然太極渾圓
In concealing and revealing,
hardness and softness complement each other.
Alternating between movement and stillness,
the grand polarity is complete.
王介壽為凌先生稀匋倩敬遵玄書 己巳一昜月海上慕頌
– some profound words as a favor to Ling Xitao, offered with admiration by Wang Jieshou, Shanghai, 10th month, 1929

青年會太極拳班班員合影
Group Portrait of the Staff of the YMCA Taiji Boxing Club:

太極拳式攝影
[Ten] Photographs of Taiji Boxing Postures:

倒攆猴
RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY:

斜飛勢
DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE:

抎手
CLOUDING HANDS:

左分脚
KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE:

右打虎勢
RIGHT TIGER FIGHTING POSTURE:

白蛇吐舌
WHITE SNAKES SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE:

下勢
LOWERING POSTURE:

退步跨虎
RETREAT, SITTING TIGER POSTURE:

十字擺連
CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK:

彎弓射虎
BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER:

太極拳推手式攝影
[Four] Photographs of Taiji Boxing Pushing Hands Postures:

四隅推手用採法
PLUCKING:

四正推手用捋法
ROLLING BACK:

四隅推手正靠
BUMPING:

四正推手內擠法
PRESSING:

太極劍式攝影
[Two] Photographs of Taiji Sword Postures:

魁星式
KUIXING POSTURE:

犀牛望月
RHINO GAZES AT THE MOON:


PREFACE

古人有云。老而不教。幼而不學。乃風俗之大不祥。旨哉言乎。夫積行成習。合各習尚以成風俗。風俗云者。人心世道之所表示於外者也。是故風俗浮薄。其民必趨邪侈。風俗淳厚。其民必敦信義。小之關於社會之興盛。大之關於國運之隆替。可不重視也哉。不學則志無所持。不教則業無所舉。志移業廢。必昧於義理。肆情妄作。不復有所顧忌。風俗如是。將無甯日。庸非不祥之甚乎。是以古人。不獨勉壯幼者必勤於學。且必勸老長者必勤於敎。庶幾相得益彰。化行俗美。國家社會。同進於安强之道矣。會員畢君子陛。年巳知命。無或輟學。曾以體質孱弱。就學於致柔拳術社。獲太極拳術之益。體質因以健旺。不敢私其所獲。以本會宗旨。服務社會。况會名靑年。人多幼壯。必教必學。乃熾乃昌。故於客歲。偕三數同志。與體育部凌主任希陶。及董事部委員史君宗棠。會商進行。設立太極拳術專班。欲以國技煆煉靑年會友之身心。造成異日為國宣力之中堅。集議數次。得史委員凌主任之賛助。於上年十一月二十七日開班成立。初時規模尚小。旣而班員增多。更得謝君德軒之義務教授。諄諄講解。不厭不倦。於今週年。附入者將近百人。手勢步驟。日漸進步。精神體魄。皆有增益。非畢君謝君之勤於教。及諸班員之勤於學。曷克臻此成績。以此推行成俗。豈不美哉。義忝列班次。得隨學習。深知斯拳之功用神妙。有益於男女老幼。故為搜集篇什。輯成初週特刊。將以傳揚國技。培植體育。而不暴其氣。勉副諸先進之德意云耳。
時在民國十八年十一月吳縣彭欲義序於申江
Ancient people had a saying: “If the old do not teach and the young do not learn, this does not bode well for the culture.” True words indeed. As the habits we accumulate become common custom, it is customarily said that the moral state of the people is outwardly revealed: when the customs are frivolous, the people will be decadent, whereas when the customs are down to earth, the people will be honest and trustworthy. On a small scale, this can affect the prosperity of a society, but on a large scale, it can affect the survival of a nation, and so it has to be taken seriously.
  Without learning, ideas will not be maintained. Without teaching, traditions will not be upheld. When ideas have become corrupted and traditions have fallen away, we will become blind to reason and take rash actions without any scruples. When our customs are in this state, days of peace are over and ominous events will be the norm. Therefore ancient people not only pushed the point that the young must diligently learn, but also that the old must diligently teach, hoping that the two will reinforce each other. With the spread of culture, the people will be improved, and thus nation and society will advance together along the path toward becoming stronger.
  Club member Bi Zibi has long known his duty and has never interrupted his studies. He used to have a weak constitution, but then he learned at the Achieving Softness Boxing Society and obtained the benefits of the Taiji boxing art. Because his body has been made so healthy, he did not dare to keep what he has learned to himself. The purpose of this club is to provide a service to society, especially to the “young” within the name YMCA. People in their youth tend to be robust, and so they need to be taught and to learn during that period in order to flourish and prosper thereafter. Therefore last year, he conferred with physical education director Ling Xitao and committee director Shi Zongtang about setting up a Taiji Boxing Club, wanting to use martial arts to give solid training in mind and body to the YMCA members, so that the youth of today may become the backbone of the nation in the future. After several meetings, he received the approval of Shi and Ling, and then the club was established on November 27 of last year.
  In the beginning, the scale of it was rather small, but its membership increased, and it also received the voluntary services of Xie Dexuan, who has given devoted and tireless instruction. And now after a year, there are almost a hundred people participating in the postures and movements, making constant progress and gaining benefit to both mind and body. Were it not for Bi and Xie diligently teaching, as well as the members diligently learning, these results could not have been achieved. From this success, let us spread the art and make it the custom, and then there will indeed be improvement for all.
  Honored to be part of this club and to have received instruction, I have come to deeply understand that this art’s most marvelous function is that it is beneficial for all – men and women, young and old. Therefore I have gathered some compositions together and compiled them into a special first anniversary publication in order to promote martial arts and foster physical education. Let us not bully our vital energy and instead strive to conform to the wisdom of the founders of the art.
  - written by Peng Yuyi of Wu County beside the Huangpu River, Nov, 1929@

太極拳宗派溯源 謝德軒
TRACING BACK TO THE ORIGINS OF TAIJI BOXING by Xie Dexuan [drawing mainly from Xu Yusheng’s 1921 manual]

太極拳始為唐徽州府許宣平所傳。名三世七因。僅三十七勢也。其練習之法。各勢自為段落。一勢成熟。再習其次。無一定拳路。功成後。自能亙相連貫。故又謂之長拳。其要訣有『八字歌』『心會論』『周身大用論』『十六關要論』『功用歌』等。下列諸氏。於太極拳之精蘊。皆別具會心。關發宏旨。故得傳至今日而不失其眞。凡我同志。幸注意焉。
Taiji Boxing began with Xu Xuanping of the Tang Dynasty, who was from Huizhou Prefecture. The art he taught was called Thirty-Seven, because it had thirty-seven posture names. His method of training was that each posture was a section to work on. Once a posture had been practiced to perfection, only then could the next posture be trained. There was no prescribed pattern for the postures, but once they had all been learned, they could be linked up naturally. Thus the art was also called Long Boxing.
  Key texts that he wrote include “Song of the Eight Techniques”, “On Mentally Understanding”, “On Fully Using the Body”, “The Sixteen Key Points”, and the “Song of Function”. The branches listed below are the main versions of Taiji Boxing. Though they each have some different understandings, they are all related by a main theme, and therefore the teachings that have come down to us in the present have not lost their authenticity. I hope all my comrades will give this point attention.

宋遠橋派 俞氏派
Song Yuanqiao branch / Yu Branch:

俞氏江南甯國府涇縣人。所傳之太極拳。名先天拳。亦名長拳。得唐安慶人李道子之傳。李居武當山南岩宮。俞氏派中最著名者。為俞淸慧。俞一誠。俞連舟。俞岱岩等。
The Yu family was from Jing County, Ningguo Prefecture, Jiangnan. The Taiji Boxing they taught was called Innate Nature Boxing, also called Long Boxing. They learned it from Li Daozi of the Tang Dynasty, who was from Anqing and who lived in the Wudang Mountains at the Southern Cliffs Temple. With the Yu Branch, the most famous exponents were Yu Qinghui, Yu Yicheng, Yu Lianzhou, and Yu Daiyan.

程氏派
Cheng Branch:

始自程靈洗(徽州人)。其拳得之於韓拱月。傳至程珌(紹興人)改名小九天。共十四勢。
It began from Cheng Lingxi (of Huizhou Prefecture). His boxing art was learned from Han Gongyue and was later passed down to Cheng Bi (of Shaoxing Prefecture), who changed the name of the art to Small Highest Heaven, which had a total of fourteen postures.

殷利亨派
Yin Liheng Branch:

殷氏所傳之拳術。名後天法。傳胡鏡子(揚州人)胡傳宋仲殊(安州人)。其式法十七。多屬肘法。雖其勢法。名目不同。而其用則一也。
The boxing art that Yin Liheng taught was called Acquired Nature Method. It was passed by Hu Jingzi (of Yangzhou), who taught it to Zhong Shu of the Song Dynasty (who was from Anzhou). It has seventeen postures, mostly elbow techniques. Although its posture names were different, its method of use was the still same as the other branches.

張三峯派
Zhang Sanfeng Branch:

三峯名通。字君實。遼陽人。元季儒者。善書畫。工詩詞。中統元年。曾舉茂才異等。任中山博陵令。慕葛川之為人。遂絕仕途。游寶鷄山。有三峯。挺秀峙立。蒼潤可喜。因以為號也。相傳洪武初召之入朝。行至武當。夜夢玄武帝授以拳法。旦以破賊。故名拳曰武當派。或曰內家拳。內家者。儒者之意。所以別於方外也。又因八門五步。為此拳中之要訣。故名十三式。言十三法也。時有西安人王宗岳者。得其眞傳。名聞海內。著『太極拳論』『太極拳解』『行工心解』『搭手歌』『總勢歌』等。溫州陳州人多從之學。是由山陜而流傳於浙東。又百餘年有海鹽張松湲。在派中最為著名。傳其技於甯波葉繼美近泉。再傳王征南。來咸。淸順治中人。征南之後又百年。始有甘鳳池。此皆為南派人士。其北派所傳者。由王宗岳傳河南蔣發。再傳河南懷慶府陳家溝。陳長興。其人立身中正不倚。形若木鷄。人因稱之為牌位先生。有子二人。名耿信。紀信。時有楊露蟬先生福魁者。河北廣平府永年縣人。聞其名。因與同里李伯魁共往師焉。初時同學者。除二人外皆陳姓。頗異視之。二人因亙相結納。盡心研究。時常澈夜不眠。長興見二人勤學。遂盡傳其秘。楊等歸傳其術於鄕里。俗稱為軟拳。因其能避制强硬之力也。嗣楊游北平。客諸府邸。親貴多從授業。旋為旗營敎師。有子三人。長名錡早亡。次名鈺字班候。三名鑑字健候又名鏡湖皆獲盛名。健候有子三人。長名兆熊字夢祥又名少候。次名兆元早亡。三名兆淸字澄甫。當露蟬充旗營敎師時。得其傳者共三人。萬春。凌山。全佑是也。一勁剛。一善發。一善柔化。或謂三人各得先生之一體。有筋骨皮之分。後從先生命。均拜班候先生之門。而稱弟子云。近世最負盛名者。為楊少候。澄甫。曁吳鑑泉。(卽全佑之子)現均傳授於滬杭間。至其留於北平者。尚有少候弟子。徐岱山。及澄甫弟子。金錫五先生而已。許禹生先生。王茂齋先生而己。
Zhang Sanfeng, given name Tong, called Junshi, was from Liaoyang. He was a Confucian scholar from the end of the Yuan Dynasty, excelling at calligraphy and painting, versed in poetry and essays. During the first year of Emperor Zhongtong’s [Kublai Khan] reign [1260], Zhang’s unusual talents were recognized by the emperor and he was appointed as Scholar-Official for Zhongshan, but because he admired the work [nature paintings] of Ge Zhichuan, he was inspired him to abandon his official career. He traveled to Mt. Baoji, where the mountain has three peaks that stand proud and elegant, green and lush, a joy to behold, and from then on he was known as Three Peaks [“san feng”].
  Tradition has it that at the beginning of Emperor Hong Wu’s reign [1368], he was invited to court, but his way was blocked at Wudang. Zhang dreamed during the night that the “Dark Warrior” Emperor [i.e. a Daoist “god of war”] taught him a boxing method, and then at dawn he used it to defeat the bandits. Thereupon his boxing art was known as the Wudang branch, or the internal school of boxing. Internal stylists are of a Confucian mentality, and are therefore distinct from transcendentalists. Also because eight techniques and five steps are the key within this boxing art, it is therefore called Thirteen Dynamics, meaning thirteen methods.
  At that time, there was Wang Zongyue of Xi’an, who received the authentic teachings and became renowned everywhere. He authored the “Taiji Boxing Treatise”, the “Taiji Boxing Essay”, “Understanding How to Practice”, the “Touching Hands Song”, and the “Set of Postures Song”. Chen Zhoutong of Wenzhou learned it, and thereupon it spread from Shaanxi all the way to eastern Zhejiang [i.e. from the mountains to the sea].
  More than a hundred years later, there was Zhang Songxi of Haiyan County [in Zhejiang], who became the most famous master within the system. His art was then passed on to Ye Jimei, called Jinquan, of Ningbo Prefecture, who then taught it to Wang Zhengnan, called Laixian, during the reign of the Qing Dynasty emperor Shunzhi [1644–1661]. More than a century after Zhengnan, the next person of note was Gan Fengchi. These were all exponents of the southern branch.
  Of those who passed on the northern branch, it was taught by Wang Zongyue to Jiang Fa of Henan, who then taught it to Chen Changxing of the Chen family village, Huaiqing prefecture, Henan. Chen always stood straight, impassively, not inclining in any direction, was as expressionless as a rooster made of wood, and so people called him Mr. Board. He had two sons, Gengxin and Jixin. Yang Luchan, called Fukui from Yongnian county, Guangping prefecture, Hebei, heard of his fame, and so he with his fellow villager Li Bokui went to learn from him. In the beginning of their training, they were the only students who did not have the surname Chen and they were looked upon as being very much outsiders, but because there was a close bond between the two of them, they studied wholeheartedly, often practicing throughout the night instead of sleeping. Mr. Board saw that they studied diligently and thereupon taught them all his secrets.
  Yang went home and taught the art to his fellow villagers, and it was commonly known as Soft Boxing because it has the ability of using evasion to gain control over a strong force. Then Yang traveled to Beijing and was a guest in every mansion. Many Qing Dynasty royals and nobles learned from him and he was made martial arts instructor to the Manchu barracks. He had three sons. The eldest was named Qi, but he died young. The second was named Yu, called Banhou, and the third was named Jian, called Jianhou, also known as Jinghu. Both of them achieved great fame. Jianhou had three sons. The eldest was named Zhaoxiong, called Mengxiang, and known as Shaohou, the second was named Zhaoyuan, who died young, and the third was named Zhaoqing, called Chengfu.
  While Yang Luchan served as instructor at the Manchu barracks, the three people who received his full teachings were Wan Chun, whose power was hard, Ling Shan, who was good at flinging opponents away, and Quan You, who was good at neutralizing, and so it is said that these three people each obtained one of his qualities. When he physically declined, he then told them all to do obeisance to Banhou as their teacher, and hence they are said to be Banhou’s disciples. The most famous teachers nowadays are Yang Shaohou, Yang Chengfu, and Wu Jianquan (Quan You’s son), who are all now teaching in Shanghai and Hangzhou. Still teaching in Beijing are Shaohou’s sons, Chengfu’s sons, Xu Daishan Jin Xiwu, Xu Yusheng, and Wang Maozhai.

講求衞生必須練習太極拳說 謝德軒
GIVING PROPER ATTENTION TO HEALTH REQUIRES PRACTICING TAIJI BOXING by Xie Dexuan

好生畏死。人之所同。死固可畏。然畏之而不思防衞。則徒畏又奚益哉。大都畏死之始。皆屬於病。而於不死不生之病。為尤可畏。如痿病。則下部殘廢。㾐病。則四肢不靈。虛病。則晝夜喘咳。胃病。則飲食失功。醫藥無效。沈滯牀蓐。雖生猶死。每見患斯病者。累月經年。神昏志弱。世間幸福。盡為病魔所侵。人生痛苦。莫此為甚。故畏死直是胃病。治病莫如防病。而求醫又莫良於自衞。戕生之事不及身。害生之物不入口。此戒飲食起居所宜審愼之謂。人所共知者也。然於身體之氣血筋絡。亦宜講究衞攝。使其充實宣暢。庶足以預防疾病。蓋氣血充實。則外邪不入。筋絡宣暢。則內患不生。外邪不入。內患不生。百病不却而自却。有何病之有哉。然則以何術而能充氣血暢筋絡哉。曰惟運動。顧運動之法繁多。有僅宜於老年而不宜於幼穉者。有利於少壯而不利於老弱者。有富者能行而貧乏不能步塵者。是故有心運動。必須善擇其宜。庶於身心有益。考吾國運動之法。首推武術。而武術之門別衆多各有所長。其最穩當而無流弊者。獨推柔術中之太極拳耳。顧習斯拳者。往往誤入岐途。夾用硬功。致失斯拳之本旨。而致不能登峯造極。良可惜哉。故欲習斯拳。必須謹守本旨。從而習之。方無流弊。凡吾同仁不願却病延年則己。如欲却病延年。則柔術中之太極拳一門。不可不及早講求也。
To love life and fear death – in this everyone is alike. Death is indeed to be feared, but what is the use of fearing something instead of thinking about ways to guard against it? For the most part, fear of death comes from experience of illness, especially illnesses that bring us to the point of a life-or-death situation, such as atrophy rendering the lower body crippled, leprosy taking away sensation from the limbs, severe asthma leaving one gasping for air day and night, digestive illness in which food and drink cannot be processed, and so on. When medicines are ineffective and illness leaves one marooned in bed, one’s life is hardly any better than death anyway. It is always seen that those who suffer from such illnesses for months or years have diminished spirits and depleted determination, their worldly joy crowded out by bodily misery, spending their lives in the worst suffering. Therefore fear of death is always a matter of fear of illness.
  Treating illness is not as good as preventing illness. Having to seek out a doctor is not as good as just taking care of yourself. Do not put yourself in risky situations and do not eat harmful things. Such prohibitions are commonsense cautions for one’s daily life, but the body’s energy, blood, sinews, and vessels should also be given careful attention. Simply making them enriched and unobstructed is enough to prevent illness. When energy and blood are enriched, external harms will not find a way in, and when sinews and vessels are unobstructed, internal problems will not manifest. With harms not invading and problems not arising, all ailments will be driven away without having to drive them away, for there will simply be no illness at all. But what method is there that can boost energy and blood, and smooth the sinews and vessels? Well, it’s exercise.
  There are numerous types of exercise. Some are only good for old people and are of no use for young people. Some are beneficial to the young and strong, but detrimental to the old and weak. Some can only be engaged in by the wealthy, while the poor have no access to them. Therefore when we set our minds upon exercise, we have to choose the right kind. Both body and mind should benefit. From examining our nation’s methods of exercise, I consider martial arts to be best, but there are so many martial arts systems, each with their own strong points. For the one that is the safest and most without drawbacks, I can only endorse the soft art of Taiji Boxing.
  However, practitioners of this art often go astray, mixing in training that employs too much hardness, thereby losing touch with the original purpose of the art and ending up unable to achieve a high level, truly a pity. Therefore if we wish to train in this boxing art, we have to practice it in accordance with its true intention, in order to keep it from becoming a counterproductive activity. But the only real problem is that we never want to put in the work of preventing illness. And so if you seek to prevent illness and prolong life, then the soft art of Taiji Boxing should be given your attention as soon as possible.

學習太極拳之經過 謝德軒
MY EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING TAIJI BOXING by Xie Dexuan

余於民國七年。因公遷調北平。溽暑炎熱。貪食冷品。不意入秋病作。亟忙診治。乃得告痊。而痊後未久。胃腸復病。日甚一日。諸醫束手。歷經一年。痛苦備嘗。旋聞運動能健身適生。遂棄醫從事運動。初練八段錦,易筋經,廿四勢,形意拳等。閱時經年。略有起色。但稍輟而病復作。嗣知內家太極拳術。治心胃腸等病。乃决意改習。延請楊澄甫先生之弟子金錫五先生。每日到舍敎練。余以治病。苦心練習。錫五先生亦諄諄敎授。體貼周至。未半年而夙病全消。功效之速。有如此者。余初意不過藉以療病。繼入門徑。稍能辨太極拳之精味。覺其各勢雖分叚落。要皆相生相化。貫通一氣。呼吸動作。表裏相資。氣血精骸。翕然感通。深得按摩導引之旨。而其所含剛柔進退陰陽虛實之用意。尤合太極之玄理。遇敵實用。則又變化無窮。隨其意之所至。美哉斯術。神乎其不可思議也。余旣得其趣興。益勤練習。勉圖深造。凡十一年。未嘗停輟。惟時錫五先生門弟子日益衆多。皆為當地聞人。先生暇晷漸少。余逐不能時親敎誨。未幾承楊少候先生之不棄。賡續敎授。繼且收列門牆。敎誨逾恆。惟余好奇心切。同時復受敎於吳鑑泉先生。迨至客夏。首都南遷。奉命復到滬上。遂與諸老師暌晨夕矣。憶在數年之中。於太極拳之精蘊。固未有所深詣。然於箇人身心。則庶幾達到目的矣。爰將所得實益。及諸老師之培植。為講究斯道者述其大略焉。
In 1918, my duties took me to Beijing. It was a sweltering hot summer and so I overindulged on cold foods and unexpectedly made myself ill. I hurried to get treatment and was then told I had recovered, but before long my intestinal illness returned and only got worse with each day. No doctor was able to do anything and I suffered for a full year. I then heard that exercise was capable of building up the body back to health, so I gave up on medicine and engaged in exercise. I began practicing Baduanjin, Twenty-Four Posture Yijinjing, and Xingyi Boxing. After a year, there were some signs of improvement, but if I stopped practicing at all, my illness would return.
  I then learned that the Taiji boxing art of the internal school had cured illnesses of the heart and stomach, so I decided to switch to practicing that. I engaged the services of Yang Chengfu’s disciple Jin Xiwu, going to him every day for instruction in order to be cured of my illness. I practiced hard, and Jin was a tireless and thorough teacher. After not even half a year, my chronic illness had completely disappeared.
  Having gained results so quickly, I began to understand that the art was not only a means of treating illness and continued on from the basics, becoming a little more able to appreciate its subtleties. I realized that although its postures are distinct moments, they should all give rise to each other, transforming from one to another, linking together as a single flow of breath and movement. Inside and outside support each other, with energy and blood, essence and bone, being harmoniously interconnected. I grasped from it the meaning of the massage and limbering traditions. The art contains the concepts of hardness/softness, advance/retreat, passive/active, emptiness/fullness, perfectly conforming to the abstract principle of “grand polarity”. And for use against an opponent, the art transforms endlessly, following his intention wherever he goes. How beautiful this art is, wondrous beyond imagining.
  I received so much delight from it that I practiced even more diligently, striving toward more advanced levels of study. I put altogether eleven years into it without interruption, but by then Jin’s students had become ever more numerous, all treating him as a local celebrity, and so he had less and less spare time, until I was no longer able to get a moment of personal instruction. Thus I soon went to Yang Shaohou to continue learning, receiving his own particular version. His kind of instruction was excessive, but my curiosity kept me going for a while. At the time, I was also receiving instruction from Wu Jianquan, but he was then sent south from Beijing to Shanghai.
  Although I had become separated from all my teachers, I look back and see that within that stretch of years I had accumulated the essence of Taiji Boxing, and though I have still not yet attained a deep level in the art, my body and mind have for the most part achieved their goals. I have obtained true benefit, and through the training I have received from my teachers, I have been able to study the main ideas of this art.

太極拳各式名稱 謝德軒
NAMES OF THE TAIJI BOXING POSTURES listed by Xie Dexuan

太極初式(預備式)
[1] BEGINNING POSTURE (or PREPARATION POSTURE)
手揮琵琶式
[2] PLAY THE LUTE
攬雀尾
[3] CATCH THE SPARROW BY THE TAIL
掤捋擠按
[4] WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
單鞭
[5] SINGLE WHIP
提手上勢
[6] RAISE THE HANDS
白鶴晾翅
[7] WHITE CRANE DRIES ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[8] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
手揮琵琶式
[9] PLAY THE LUTE
摟膝拗步(三次)
[10] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (THREE TIMES)
手揮琵琶式
[11] PLAY THE LUTE
退步捋
[12] RETREAT, ROLLBACK
進步搬攔捶
[13] ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
如封似閉
[14] SEALING SHUT
十字手
[15] CROSSED HANDS
抱虎歸山
[16] CAPTURE THE TIGER & SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
掤捋擠按
[17] WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
肘底看捶
[18] BEWARE THE PUNCH UNDER ELBOW
倒攆猴(五次)
[19] RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (FIVE TIMES)
合手
[20] CLOSING HANDS
斜飛勢
[21] DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
提手上勢
[22] RAISE THE HANDS
白鶴晾翅
[23] WHITE CRANE DRIES ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[24] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
海底針
[25] NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
扇通背
[26] FAN THROUGH THE BACK
轉身撇身捶
[27] TURNING AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
退步捋
[28] RETREAT, ROLLBACK
進步搬攔捶
[29] ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
進步掤捋擠按
[30] ADVANCE, WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
單鞭
[31] SINGLE WHIP
抎手(五次)
[32] CLOUDING HANDS (FIVE TIMES)
單鞭
[33] SINGLE WHIP
左高探馬
[34] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – LEFT
右起脚
[35] KICK TO THE RIGHT SIDE
右高探馬
[36] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE – RIGHT
左起脚
[37] KICK TO THE LEFT SIDE
轉身蹬脚
[38] TURN AROUND, PRESSING KICK
摟膝拗步(二次)
[39] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (TWO TIMES)
摟膝栽捶
[40] BRUSH KNEE, PLANTING PUNCH
翻身二起脚
[41] TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK
左打虎勢
[42] LEFT FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE
右打虎勢
[43] RIGHT FIGHTING TIGER POSTURE
右蹬足
[44] RIGHT PRESSING KICK
雙峯貫耳
[45] DOUBLE PEAKS THROUGH THE EARS
左蹬脚
[46] LEFT PRESSING KICK
轉身右蹬脚
[47] SPIN AROUND, RIGHT PRESSING KICK
進步搬攔捶
[48] ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
如封似閉
[49] SEALING SHUT
十字手
[50] CROSSED HANDS
抱虎歸山
[51] CAPTURE THE TIGER & SEND IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN
掤捋擠按
[52] WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
斜單鞭
[53] DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP
野馬分鬃(四次)
[54] WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE (FOUR TIMES)
進步掤捋擠按
[55] ADVANCE, WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
單鞭
[56] SINGLE WHIP
織女穿梭(四隅各一次)
[57] WEAVING GIRL WORKS THE SHUTTLE (ONE TIME TO EACH OF THE FOUR CORNERS)
進步左斜飛式
[58] ADVANCE, LEFT DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
進步掤捋擠按
[59] ADVANCE, WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
單鞭
[60] SINGLE WHIP
抎手(五次)
[61] CLOUDING HANDS (FIVE TIMES)
單鞭
[62] SINGLE WHIP
蛇身下勢
[63] SNAKING BODY, LOWERING POSTURE
左金鷄獨立
[64] GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG – LEFT
右金鷄獨立
[65] GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG – RIGHT
倒攆猴(五次)
[66] RETREAT, DRIVING AWAY THE MONKEY (FIVE TIMES)
合手
[67] CLOSING HANDS
斜飛勢
[68] DIAGONAL FLYING POSTURE
提手上勢
[69] RAISE THE HANDS
白鶴晾翅
[70] WHITE CRANE DRIES ITS WINGS
摟膝拗步
[71] BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE
海底針
[72] NEEDLE UNDER THE SEA
扇通背
[73] FAN THROUGH THE BACK
轉身撇身捶
[74] TURN AROUND, TORSO-FLUNG PUNCH
退步捋
[75] RETREAT, ROLLBACK
進步搬攔捶
[76] ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
進步掤捋擠按
[77] ADVANCE, WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
單鞭
[78] SINGLE WHIP
抎手(三次)
[79] CLOUDING HANDS (THREE TIMES)
單鞭
[80] SINGLE WHIP
高探馬
[81] RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE
白蛇吐舌
[82] WHITE SNAKES SHOOTS OUT ITS TONGUE
轉身右蹬脚
[83] TURN AROUND, RIGHT PRESSING KICK
進步摟膝指𦡁捶
[84] ADVANCE, BRUSH KNEE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH
進步掤捋擠按
[85] ADVANCE, WARD-OFF, ROLLBACK, PRESS, PUSH
單鞭
[86] SINGLE WHIP
蛇身下勢
[87] SNAKING BODY, LOWERING POSTURE
上步七星
[88] STEP FORWARD, BIG DIPPER POSTURE
退步跨虎
[89] RETREAT, SITTING TIGER POSTURE
轉身擺蓮脚
[90] SPIN AROUND, SWINGING LOTUS KICK
彎弓射虎
[91] BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER
進步搬攔捶
[92] ADVANCE, PARRY, BLOCK, PUNCH
如封似閉
[93] SEALING SHUT
合太極
[94] CLOSING POSTURE

太極劍式 謝德軒
NAMES OF THE TAIJI SWORD POSTURES listed by Xie Dexuan

三環套月
[1] THREE LOOPS AROUND THE MOON
魁星式
[2] KUIXING POSTURE
燕子抄水
[3] SWALLOW TAKES UP WATER
右邊攔掃
[4] RIGHT BLOCKING SWEEP
左邊攔掃
[5] LEFT BLOCKING SWEEP
小魁星
[6] SMALL KUIXING POSTURE
燕子入巢
[7] SWALLOW ENTERS ITS NEST
鳳凰點頭
[8] PHOENIX NODS ITS HEAD
靈貓捕鼠
[9] QUICK CAT CATCHES THE MOUSE
黃蜂入洞
[10] WASP ENTERS THE HIVE
右邊鳳凰展翅
[11] PHOENIX SPREADS ITS WINGS – RIGHT
小魁星
[12] SMALL KUIXING POSTURE
左邊展翅
[13] PHOENIX SPREADS ITS WINGS – LEFT
等魚式
[14] WAITING FOR A FISH
左右龍行式
[15] LEFT & RIGHT DRAGON WALKING POSTURE
宿鳥投林
[16] BIRD GOES INTO THE FOREST TO ROOST
烏龍擺尾
[17] BLACK DRAGON SWINGS ITS TAIL
風捲荷葉
[18] WIND ROLLS UP THE LOTUS LEAVES
左右獅子搖頭
[19] LEFT & RIGHT LION SHAKES ITS HEAD
虎抱頭
[20] TIGER HIDES ITS HEAD
野馬跳澗
[21] WILD HORSE JUMPS THE STREAM
勒馬式
[22] REIN IN THE HORSE
指南針
[23] POINT LIKE A COMPASS NEEDLE
左右迎鳳撣塵
[24] BRUSHING OFF DUST AGAINST THE WIND
順水推舟
[25] GOING WITH THE CURRENT TO PUSH THE BOAT
流星赶月
[26] METEOR CHASES THE MOON
天馬飛報
[27] SPIRIT HORSE FLIES THROUGH THE SKY
挑簾式
[28] RAISING THE CURTAIN
左車輪劈劍式
[29] LEFT WHEELING, CHOPPING SWORD
大鵬展翅
[30] RUKH SPREADS ITS WINGS
抽樑換柱
[31] PULLING OUT A ROOF BEAM AND REPLACING IT WITH A PILLAR
海底撈月
[32] TRYING TO SCOOP THE MOON’S REFLECTION FROM THE WATER
懷中抱月
[33] EMBRACE THE MOON
宿鳥投林
[34] BIRD GOES INTO THE FOREST TO ROOST
犀牛望月
[35] RHINO GAZES AT THE MOON
射雁式
[36] SHOOT THE GOOSE
靑龍現爪
[37] BLUE DRAGON PRESENTS A CLAW
鳳凰雙展翅
[38] PHOENIX UNFURLS ITS WINGS
左右掛攔
[39] LEFT & RIGHT HANGING BLOCKS
射雁式
[40] SHOOT THE GOOSE
白猿獻桃
[41] WHITE APE OFFERS A PEACH
左右落花式
[42] LEFT & RIGHT FALLING PETALS
玉女穿梭
[43] MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE
白虎攪尾
[44] WHITE TIGER TWITCHES ITS TAIL
魚跳龍門
[45] FISH LEAPS THE DRAGON GATE
左右烏龍交柱
[46] BLACK DRAGON COILS AROUND THE PILLAR
仙人指路
[47] IMMORTAL POINTS THE WAY
風掃梅花式
[48] WIND SWEEPS THE PLUM FLOWERS
收式
[49] CLOSING POSTURE

靑年會太極拳術班時間
Current YMCA Taiji Boxing Club Schedule:

星期一至六每日下午五鐘至七鐘
Mon–Sat: 5pm–7pm
班員衆多可以提議變更或酌添晨班
(We may adjust these times or perhaps add a morning class.)

因病而學習太極拳之經過 畢子陛
MY PROCESS OF LEARNING TAIJI BOXING BECAUSE OF ILLNESS by Bi Zibi

余於七八年前。始患腹痛,頭痛,失眠,火旺,遇事厭煩等症、用科學方法驗胃液。及X光診斷。當悉大腸下垂。病源實為神經衰弱而起。據樂文照醫師(美國哈佛醫學博士)云。無藥可治。祗得練習身體。當心飲食。可獲健康。後遇王為彰徐可亭二君。勸學太極拳術。復因徐君之介紹。入致柔拳社。甲種年費洋壹百念元。當承社長陳微明敎授陳志進熱心指導。日日練習。學之六月。頭痛自愈。年餘失眠腸病諸症若失。身上肌肉已見發達。健康有加矣。故練太極拳誠養生却病之妙術也。
Seven or eight years ago, I started to suffer from issues such as abdominal pain, headaches, insomnia, “excessive internal fire”, and irritability. Using scientific methods to get a diagnosis, my gastric juices were tested and X-rays were taken. It turned out I had a prolapsed large intestine, which was producing neurasthenia. According to Yue Wenzhao (who had gone to America and became a Harvard M.D.): “There is no medicine that can cure this, you only can engage in physical exercise and be mindful of your diet in order to regain your health.”
  Then I met Wang Weizhang and Xu Keting, who both encouraged me to learn the Taiji boxing art. Xu recommended to me that I join the Achieving Softness Boxing Society. For a beginning annual tuition of a mere 120 yuan [¥120 in the early 1920s equivalent to around $900 nowadays], I was able to partake of director Chen Weiming and instructor Chen Zhijin’s enthusiastic guidance. After learning for six months, practicing every day, my headaches went away, and then after a year, my insomnia and intestinal troubles disappeared. My muscles were also noticeably building and my health just kept on increasing. Therefore practicing Taiji Boxing truly is a marvelous means of nurturing health and preventing illness.

習練須有恆心說 畢子陛
THE NEED FOR PERSEVERANCE IN THE TRAINING by Bi Zibi

凡人年紀稍大。往往百病叢生。此中苦痛。有不可以言語形容者。欲除此病。非練習柔軟健身不可。蓋一經練習。血脈流通。精神百倍。有病者轉病為强。無病者身體日見强壯。切勿因循自誤。必須預早猛思。倘至臥病牀褥。不能展動時恐追悔莫及也。然仍要恆心則可。所謂人無恆心。萬事不成。信然。
Generally as people get older, illnesses become more frequent, coming with pains that cannot be described in words. If we wish to get rid of such illnesses, it cannot be done without training to make the body more supple and fit. With practice comes improved circulation and greatly increased energy. Those with illness will change from being ill to being strong, and those without illness will find themselves becoming stronger still with each day.
  You must not procrastinate and end up making yourself ill, instead it is necessary to prepare against problems early and with fierce determination. Once you are bedridden with illness and unable to move, I fear it may be too late to prevent it. However, you have to be persevering to make it work. As it is said [paraphrasing Lun Yu, 13.22]: “A man without perseverance will never accomplish anything.” True words indeed.

太極拳可以改造精神 盛效賢
TAIJI BOXING CAN ALTER ONE’S STATE OF MIND by Sheng Xiaoxian

余學太極拳以來。迄今巳及二載。其間時輟時作。統計實習之日。未滿一年。故於斯道。自無心得可言。惟有一極確之事實。不敢不為諸君述之。其事唯何。乃太極拳有改造精神之功效也。當余未習此術時。身體上雖無顯著之病。而作事似染暮氣。無勇往直前之心。事之當為者。每思避之。難為者每思棄之。實一抱悲觀主義者。迨練太極拳後半載。精神忽覺大振。思想亦隨而劇變。昔所思避者。今必欲就之。昔所為難者。今必欲試之。昔日之萎靡狀態。化為烏有。去冬因事間斷練習。約近二月。精神復略覺頽疲。於是繼續行之。不數日振作如故。此乃太極拳改造精神之一證。友人李君。好學之士也。性勤而苦健忘。余勸之練太極拳。數月後。記憶力大增。據云。昔日讀書。往往勉强行之。今則興味濃厚。精神愉快極矣。此乃太極拳改造精神之又一證。此外余之同學中。因精神不濟而獲益於太極拳者甚多。惜余本人不學無術。有良好精神而無用之之道耳。茲假靑年會太極拳班發行一週紀念特刊之便。特誌數語廣為宣傳。海內不乏能人才士。如以無健康之精神為苦者。盍速練習斯術。繼之以恆。以驗吾言之不妄。一旦精神充足。才識雄厚。造福社會。豈有限量哉。
It has now been two years since I started learning Taiji Boxing, though in that time my practice has been interrupted enough that the amount of days I have put into it would barely add up to one year. This art inherently produces experiences that are hard to describe but that are nevertheless real. I have to tell everyone why this is so. It is because Taiji Boxing has the effect of transforming one’s state of mind.
  Before I practiced this art, although I had no noticeable illness in my body, I seemed to have a total apathy toward getting stuff done, never boldly diving into anything. Whatever it was that I ought to be doing, I always wanted to avoid it, and whenever something was difficult at all, I always wanted to abandon it altogether. I was indeed wrapped up in pessimism. Then after I had been practicing Taiji Boxing for half a year, my mind suddenly felt inspired and my thinking changed with it. Things that I used to want to avoid, I now wanted to engage in. Things that I used to find to be too difficult, I now found to be desirable challenges. My former listless state had vanished.
  Last winter, there was a period in which business interrupted my practice for almost two months and my mind went back to feeling weary. Therefore I reinvested some of my time in practicing, and after just a few days I felt stimulated once again. These things are evidence that Taiji Boxing alters one’s state of mind.
  My friend Li loves to learn, and although he is hardworking, he suffered from constantly forgetting whatever he had learned. So I suggested he practice Taiji Boxing. After a few months, his memory improved, and he told me: “When reading books, I used to have to force myself to concentrate. Now the pleasure I get from reading is so strong that it keeps me in a cheerful mood.” This is more evidence that Taiji Boxing alters one’s mental condition.
  Beyond these examples, among my classmates are a great many who thought their minds were no good and took up Taiji Boxing to switch them on. Unfortunately I myself have no knowledge or skill, equipped with a decent mind and yet useless ideas, but here is this special volume to commemorate the first anniversary of the YMCA’s Taiji Boxing Club that is filled writings to be spread far and wide, so that throughout the nation there will be no lack of talented people.
  If you are troubled by a weak mind, why are you not in haste to practice this art? Keep at it perseveringly and you will experience that my words are not exaggerations. You will soon have a mental boost and your capacities will be enriched. And thereby you will bring benefit to the rest of society, extending the results beyond just yourself.

練習太極拳之要訣 沈濬文
THE KEYS TO PRACTICING TAIJI BOXING by Shen Junwen

太極拳之能强身强國。巳為先輩提倡。盡人皆知。至於架子推手之實驗。則僕於年來就師所敎。而揣摹所得者。約略述之。太極拳之妙用。實無止境。僕所論者。僅能對於初學諸同志共同研究耳。初學太極時。力戒急進。日習一二手足矣。蓋多學恐不能得正確姿勢。而易用拙力。則妙用失矣。須知太極拳者。乃用意不用力。卽譜中所謂意氣君來骨肉臣。故練時須從緩字着手。緩則無浮燥之病。而浩然之氣自然沉於丹田。但須手手到家。意亦隨到。不用拙力則鬆凈。然非散漫。因雖鬆而氣實始終貫一。毫不疏懈。故上下相連。如常山蛇。擊首則尾應。擊尾則首應。次則須求虛實分淸。無論練架子推手一舉動之間。須有虛實。故有邁步如貓行之謂。因虛實淸則輕靈而神自然貫頂矣。頸項不能頑强。須有懸空之意。並且神宜內歛。因神若在外。則有弛張之弊。失却本意矣。至於所謂內勁。乃於鬆凈。手手練到。架子工夫。積久自然而得。决非平日練時。以為有勁卽是勁。須知自覺有勁。已涉於力之一道矣。亦當在鬆字着手。再求能與對方不脫。卽不丟不頂。而處處須圓渾。無使有凹凸處。再細細揣摹對方之虛實。然自己虛實處。須應變敏捷。彼進則以虛應之。彼退則逼之。此卽進之則彌長。退之則彌促。解此則去憧勁不遠矣。而身如處女。不可被對方碰到。以養成人不能近身之習慣。至於發勁。則須等有可乘之機。而貴乎神速。總之太極拳之妙用。全在乎以柔克剛。以靜制動也。
Taiji Boxing is capable of strengthening the body and the nation. This is common knowledge thanks to the masters who have been promoting it. As for the experience of practicing the solo set and pushing hands, I will briefly describe some things that I have been taught over the last year and what I have grasped through contemplation. The subtleties of Taiji Boxing are truly limitless, but I what I have presented here is merely a few items for beginners to study together.
  In the beginning of learning Taiji, strongly guard against being in a rush to progress. In a day, practice just one or two movements. If you learn too much at once, you would probably not be able to learn the postures correctly, easily end up using an awkward exertion, and then their subtleties would be lost. You have to understand that Taiji Boxing uses intention rather than exertion. It says in the classics [Thirteen Dynamics Song]: “Mind is sovereign and body is subject.” Therefore you have to have a quality of leisureliness when practicing, thus preventing the errors of floating up and moving impatiently, and “noble energy” will naturally sink to your elixir field. But you also have to move accurately and with intention.
  Do not use any awkward exertion, and thus you will remain loosened, but also do not become disordered. No matter how relaxed you are, energy always has to be coursing through, and you must never neglect this point. Therefore your upper body and lower are to be coordinating with each other, like the “Mt. Chang Snake” battle formation [Art of War, chapter 11]: “Strike its head, its tail responds. Strike its tail, its head responds. [Strike its middle, its head and tail respond together.]”
  Next, you have to strive to clearly distinguish between emptiness and fullness. Whether practicing the solo set or pushing hands, there has to be an awareness of emptiness and fullness. This is why it is said that you must “step like a cat”. When emptiness and fullness are clearly distinguished, you will be nimble, and spirit will naturally course through to your headtop.
  Your neck should not be stiff. Instead there has to be an idea of your head being suspended in the air. Furthermore, “spirit should be collected within”. If your spirit is all on the outside, you will have the error of tension and lose touch with the real meaning of the art. As for “internal power”, it lies in loosening completely. You will naturally obtain it after practicing the set over a long time, but you have to practice consistently in order to have this power. And you have to understand that having power is not the same thing as using force.
  With a quality of looseness, you will also be able to keep yourself from disconnecting with the opponent, neither coming away nor crashing in. You also have to be rounded everywhere, no areas where you are caving in or sticking out. You will thus be able to more carefully detect the opponent’s emptiness and fullness. Meanwhile, your own areas of emptiness and fullness have to be able to transform nimbly. If he advances, deal with it by emptying. If he retreats, crowd him. This is what is meant by: “When advancing, it is even farther. When retreating, it is even nearer.” Understanding these principles, you will not be far from the level of identifying energies.
  Be like a shy maiden, meaning that you do not throw yourself at the opponent, and that you cultivate the habit of letting no one touch your body. As for issuing power, you must wait for opportunity and then act the instant it comes. The marvels of Taiji Boxing lie entirely in using softness to defeat hardness, using stillness to overcome motion.

練習太極拳後之一得 邱祖望
WHAT I HAVE LEARNED SINCE PRACTICING TAIJI BOXING by Qiu Zuwang

太極拳之沈着輕靈。精微奧妙。習之能養身却病。精固神聰。時賢已先我言之詳矣。顧萬事不親試之。終覺言者過譽。所謂耳聞不若目覩者也。鄙人自幼喜習拳術。然所學者祗少林一派。且亦荒之已久。迨前歲。身體漸虧。憚於勞動。食量减少。難得熟寐。臥時筋骨酸痛。屢進補劑。終未獲效。旋讀報載太極拳先輩遺聞軼事。及此拳之有益健康。不覺心焉好之。欲圖一試。爰偕至友王孟年君。入致柔拳社陳微明先生處學習。初時。體重祗壹百磅。習之期年。增為一百零八磅。而夙患悉除。身心兩適。時本班主席畢子陛君。以滬地拳社。大槪收費稍多。不易普及。練後發汗。當地不能洗浴。而人多地狹。動作不舒。於是在靑年會發起組織太極拳班。藉凌希陶先生等之熱心贊助。得以成立。不數月蔚然可觀。盖在本班練習者。一,不收學費。二,練習之後卽可洗浴。三,地方寬暢。與他處之設備不週者。自不可同日語也。嗣更聘太極拳先進楊少候先生之滴派謝德軒先生。担任義務總敎練。於是全班精神。為之大振。我儕獲益。較前更多。而余身重量。竟於不知不覺間。又增為一百十五磅矣。太極拳之功用效驗。有如是者。今後方知言者之非過譽也。入夏以來。因事業上之刺激。與種種之感觸。時患頭眩腦暈。胸膈若有一痞。以問主席畢君。君曰,是子不勤練太極拳之故也。一言提醒。有如棒喝。於是早夕勤習。以迄於今。精神已復舊觀。身體亦漸健康。太極拳誠余之最佳補品。將終身而珍視之也。太極拳之强身却病。旣如上述。茲以數年來練習所得。更申言之。世之論練習太極拳者。須注重姿勢準確。動作調匀。起步輕靈。出手柔和。斯固為天經地義。不可變易之名論。但余以為除此以外。尤須注意於意神兩字。意欲含而神欲歛。夫而後能鬆腰腿。明虛實。含胸拔背。氣沉丹田。動定如河岳。蓄勁如彎弓。曲中求直。應機伏勢以至於開展緊凑。一靜一動。無所不宜。老子曰。常無欲以觀其妙。常有欲以觀其徼。天下之至柔。馳騁天下之至堅。又曰。不爭而善勝。夫惟不爭故無尤。故習是拳者。先必含意歛神。而後能不爭。能不爭而後能觀其徼妙。以靜制動。以柔敵堅。然則太極拳之大成。當於意神間求之也。
The practicing of Taiji Boxing’s calm nimbleness and profound subtlety can nourish the body and prevent illness, firm the spirit and sharpen the mind. Masters before us have already explained these things in detail. If you never experience it personally, you will always feel these explanations to be exaggerations. Hearing about something is not as good as seeing for yourself.
  I loved practicing boxing arts in my youth, but I had learned only a style of Shaolin, and then I neglected it for a long time. Last year, my body gradually weakened and I dreaded doing any physical work. My appetite decreased and it was difficult to sleep soundly, my body aching as soon as I was lying down. I repeatedly tried new medicinal tonics, but nothing ever had any effect. Then I read in the newspaper some anecdotes about Taiji Boxing masters and that this boxing art was beneficial for health. I found myself liking the idea and decided to give it a try.
  Accompanied by my close friend Wang Mengnian, I joined the Achieving Softness Boxing Society, where Chen Weiming is teaching. In the beginning of the training, I weighed only a hundred pounds, but brought it up to a hundred and eight after practicing for a year. My long-standing illness had been completely eliminated, and my body and mind were each made whole again.
  At that time, our club chairman Bi Zibi thought that boxing arts clubs in Shanghai were usually charging too much for tuition, making it harder to spread these arts. They also provided no place to wash off the sweat after practicing, and the practice space was usually too small, making everyone’s movements awkward. Therefore he organized the Taiji Boxing Club at the YMCA, with the ardent support of Ling Xitao. Not long after it had been established, it grew to the point of flourishing.
  Practitioners at this club: 1. do not have to pay tuition, 2. are able to bathe after practicing, 3. have a practice area that is spacious. This renders all those unsatisfactory facilities as being hardly worth mentioning. Moreover, the club has secured the voluntary services of Xie Dexuan, a student of Yang Shaohou, appointing him as chief instructor, boosting the enthusiasm of everyone in the club, and we are benefitting even more than before. My body weight has now risen to a hundred and fifteen pounds without any special effort. The effects of Taiji Boxing are thus clearly not overpraised.
  In the summer, the aggravation of my job, together with all sorts of anxieties, was making me light-headed and heavy-hearted. I asked Bi Zibi about this, and he told me: “That’s what happens if you don’t practice your Taiji.” Since this single rebuke, I have been practicing all day, every day, up to this day. My spirit has been revived and my body has gradually become healthier. Taiji Boxing is indeed my best tonic and I will cherish it for the rest of my life.
  Above I have recounted Taiji Boxing’s ability to strengthen the body and prevent illness. Now I will go further and describe what I have obtained from a few years of practice. Everyone says that Taiji Boxing practitioners must pay attention that the postures are correct, the movements are even, the feet step nimbly, and the hands are sent out with mildness. These are indeed correct rules which must not be altered. But I have found that beyond these things, special attention should also be given to intention and spirit: intention should be focused and spirit should be concentrated. You will then be able to loosen your waist and legs, distinguish between emptiness and fullness, contain your chest and pluck up your back, and sink energy to your elixir field.
  “In movement, be like a river, and in stillness, be like a mountain.” “Store power like drawing a bow.” “Within bending, seek to be straightening.” Take advantage of opportunities [instead of forcing things to happen], and then your movements of opening and closing, and moments of stillness and movement, will always be just right. Laozi said [Daodejing, chapter 1]: “Dwelling with nothingness, you will see mystery. Dwelling with somethingness, you will see details.” [chapter 43:] “The softest thing in the world wears away the hardest. Emptiness enters where there is no room.” [chapter 73:] “Do not fight and you will win.” [chapter 8:] “If you do not compete, you will not lose.”
  Therefore practitioners of this boxing art first have to focus intention and concentrate spirit. Then you will be able to have the quality of not competing and thereby be able to discover its mysteries of using stillness to overcome motion, using softness to defeat hardness. Thus success in Taiji Boxing lies in intention and spirit.

太極拳療病功效之報告
A TESTIMONIAL ABOUT THE CURATIVE EFFECTS OF TAIJI BOXING

敬啓者。鄙人行年五十有三。曾憶二十年前嘗患氣喘。臥立不安。入冬尤甚。中西醫藥。絕無效力。旋以年久病深。幾於無日甯息。每於痛苦難忍之際。轉以不能卽死為恨。前年於友人案頭。偶見太極拳練習法一書。翻閱數頁。知其術輕而易舉。剛而不猛。顧性不相近。因卽置之不加細讀。而友人則從旁聳謏。力稱此拳法與身體之特種關係。謂有却病延年之功效。自忖病魔作祟。率由孱弱所召。固能舒筋活血。開張體氣。自是正本淸源之道。誠無須乎藥石。遂矢志練習。方六閱月。頓覺身體爽快。步履輕捷。今數年矣。喘逆之病。早已脫除。而健爽有加焉。老同事某君年六十有四。同病相憐。亦得太極拳之功而霍然。斯眞却病延年之實驗也。茲値貴曾熱心提倡之太極拳術班一週紀念。不揣卑陋。略述鄙人身心所得之經過。附登特刊。用廣傳揚。不勝拜禱之至。
可亭徐士淵謹啓
To whom it may concern,
  Now at the age of fifty-three, I look back twenty years to when I began to suffer from asthma, which troubled me whether I was standing or lying down. It was especially severe in the winter, and neither Chinese nor Western medicine had any effect. I spent the whole year round in a state of deep protracted illness, hardly a single day’s rest, always suffering unbearably, so much so that I hated that it could not just hurry up and kill me.
  Then the year before last, I noticed a book of Taiji Boxing practice methods on a friend’s table. I browsed through a few pages and learned that this art is simple and easy to do, for it has a quality of hardness but not of fierceness, not at all like what we usually see of these arts. Because I had put the book back down instead of giving it further scrutiny, my friend then roused me from my ignorance. He strongly stated that this boxing art is particularly concerned with health, claiming that it has the effects of preventing illness and prolonging life. I pondered upon the dreadful illness haunting me and how it had reduced me to such frailty. If this art could indeed soothe the muscles and liven the blood, awakening the body’s energy, then with such a thorough means of overhaul, one would truly not even need medicines. I then vowed to practice it.
  Six months later, I felt my body had been completely refreshed and I walked with a spry confidence. It is now a few years since then, and my terrible gasping for breath has long been cast off, replaced with increasing health and well-being. An older coworker, now age sixty-four, had been suffering from the same illness. He likewise took up the practice of Taiji Boxing and was quickly cured. These are surely verifications that it prevents illness and prolongs life. In acknowledgement of its value, I heartily recommend the Taiji Boxing Club, now marking its first year. Despite my meager ability, I have briefly recounted my experience of what I have received from the art, in both body and mind, for inclusion in this special publication. May this book find use far and wide, and for that I will earnestly pray.
  - respectfully yours, Xu Shiyuan, called Keting

胡君省初之報告
HU SHENGCHU’S TESTIMONIAL

鄙人稟質羸弱。自幼多病。去年春。更嬰胃疾。食量驟減。終日不思飲食。甚至當餐亦不覺飢。食僅能進饘粥。驟以飯進。則必氣逆腹脹。坐臥難甯。如是者半載。自覺精力日益衰。肌肉日益瘦。臂不能舉重。足不能涉遠。且時或頭昏目眩。腰痠神疲。歷經中西醫士診視。服藥調養。殊少良效。友人有以運動勉者。鄙人良韙其言。屢次試行。力不堪任。反益疲憊。蓋體弱之人。一經用力。則精神更不能繼。故亦綦少裨益。嗣聞靑年會有太極拳術班之組織。鄙人雖久耳太極拳之名。於身體極有利益。然未一覩其究竟。遂往參觀。察其動作。簡而柔和。極合孱弱之體。乃欣然加入。因畢子陛及諸位先生之指導。得以領會旨趣。練習甫經三月。食量已漸增加。精神隨而健爽。迄今半載。向之所苦之氣逆腹脹。竟亦脫然若失。而體量有增加焉。雖未能謂已强壯。然可以言巳步入健康之途矣。鄙人感諸位先生指導之殷。私幸體氣之得益。知太極拳之功用。確係大有造於衞生。爰述經過。以告同志。
I received a weak body and was often ill ever since I was young. Last spring, I was again reduced to an infant by way of a stomach illness. My appetite suddenly reduced to the point that all day long I did not think about food or drink, nor did I even have any hunger at meals. I was only able to eat some porridge and maybe a little rice, and then I would feel gas building up and creating uncomfortable pressure in my abdomen. It was hard to be peace whether sitting or lying down.
  After half a year of this, I was struck by how much my energy was becoming increasingly depleted and my muscles were becoming increasingly emaciated. My arms could not stand to lift anything heavy and my legs could not handle walking very far. I sometimes had bouts of dizziness, lower backache, mental fatigue. I was often examined by doctors of both Chinese and Western medicine, but the medicines they gave me very rarely had any meaningful effect.
  Friends suggested that I make an effort to exercise. I trusted them and repeatedly gave it a try, but I was not strong enough to endure it and it only made me even more exhausted. As soon as a weak person puts forth any exertion, his mind gives up on it, and therefore strenuous exercise is of very little benefit.
  Then I learned that the YMCA had organized a Taiji Boxing Club. Although I had long heard of Taiji Boxing’s reputation of being very beneficial for the body, I had not yet actually seen it, so I went to take a look. I observed that its movements are simple and gentle, very fitting for a frail body, and I happily joined.
  Owing to the guidance of Bi Zibi and the other instructors, I came to understood the purpose of this art. After practicing for only three months, my appetite gradually increased and my spirit in turn was invigorated. Now after half a year, the painful bloating in my abdomen seems to have completely disappeared and my weight has increased. Although I cannot yet claim to be strong, I can declare that I have set out on the path to health. I am quite moved by the wonderful help of my instructors and feel blessed for how much my physical condition has benefited. I now know the function of Taiji Boxing: it really is a potent means of building health. Thus I have described my experience to let all my comrades know.

王君為彰之報告
WANG WEIZHANG’S TESTIMONIAL

拳術為吾國亘古以來之國粹。崇尚武功時代之惟一精華。惟在承平時期。國人每不重視。政府亦鮮提倡。千餘年來。毫無進步。重要法門。且竟失傳。人民體魄。日以浸弱。致人譏為東亞病夫。良可惜也。晚近霍元甲氏鑒於國人之弱質。欲以拳術救濟其弊。苦心孤詣。造成精武體育會。國人震于霍氏技術。稍稍假以詞色。未幾而霍氏遭外人之毒手以聞。國人對于拳術之心理。又為之一跌。乙丑仲春。陳師微明。應關炯之君等之聘來滬。陳師于文章道德均負盛譽。而于武當拳術。尤有心得。其時彰適患病頗劇。繼成痰喘肺炎。諸醫束手。百藥罔效。竟亦置之。然而步履艱難。身體痿弱。已至極點。微聞陳師傳授太極。竊欲一試。或能起余沉疴。又苦未悉寓址。一日偶經其地。得睹市徽。驚喜欲狂。歸告堂上。卽於翌日開始請授。初覺艱苦萬端。一念殘軀。精神稍振。接續三月。已飯食增進。面色和順。期年而病若失矣。迄于今日。得能步履輕健身體强健者。不得不拜陳師之賜。抑亦太極拳之賜也。本班應社會之需求。成立迄今。雖祗一週。而于各同志研究所得獲益者。亦不在少數。近數月復得謝師到會諄諄指導。同志之獲益者益多。於是知拳術洵為我國之精粹。而太極拳尤有裨益于吾人深矣。値茲週年紀念。謹以至誠以告國人。太極拳為健身强國之基礎。全國同志。一致研習。得洗吾東亞病夫之惡詞也幸甚。
Boxing arts have been a part of our national culture since time immemorial. In times of war, they were even considered the quintessence of it. But during eras of peace, our countrymen typically ceased to see them as being of any importance and the government hardly endorsed them at all. For more than a thousand years, this situation did not change. Major systems have been lost forever, and the people have become physically weaker and weaker, until finally we are mocked as the “sick men of Asia”, truly lamentable.
  In recent years, Mr. Huo Yuanjia noticed the enfeebled constitutions of our countrymen and wanted to use boxing arts to rescue us from this dilemma. Thus he put forth the painstaking effort to create the Jingwu Athletic Association. Our countrymen were inspired by Huo’s skills and gradually began following his example. But before long it was heard that Master Huo had been murdered by foreigners, and then our countrymen’s desire for boxing arts correspondingly slumped.
  In the second month of spring, 1925, Chen Weiming accepted an invitation from Guan Jiongzhi to come to Shanghai. Chen had earned fame for his moral essays, but he had become especially knowledgeable in the Wudang boxing arts. At that time, I was struck by a severe illness, which continued into becoming asthma and then pneumonia. No doctor could do anything, every medicine ineffective. Eventually I could barely walk, my body extremely weak. Then I heard that Chen was teaching Taiji, so I decided to give it a try and see if it could perhaps deal with my lingering illness. Unfortunately I did not know the address, but then one day I happened to be passing through the right neighborhood and caught sight of the school’s emblem. I could not restrain my delighted surprise and rushed home to tell my family. Then the next day I started to receive instruction in the art.
  In the beginning, I found it difficult and complicated, a little worried that I might hurt myself, but my spirit had been roused. After three months, my appetite increased and color returned to my cheeks. After a year, my illness seemed to have disappeared. And now, I can walk with a nimble gait and my body is strong. I heartily thank Chen for this gift, for what Taiji Boxing has done for me.
  This club is a response to the needs of society. Although it has only been one year since it was established, all who have studied have benefited greatly. In the last few months, they have also been receiving the tireless guidance of Xie Dexuan, progressing still further, and have come to understand that while boxing arts are the essence of our nation’s culture, Taiji Boxing in particular brings us profound benefit.
  To commemorate the anniversary of the club, I hereby sincerely declare to my countrymen that Taiji Boxing is the foundation of strengthening the body to strengthen the nation. If our comrades throughout the nation would all study it, I am hopeful indeed that we can wash away the insult of being the “sick men of Asia”.

黃君定良之報告
HUANG DINGLIANG’S TESTIMONIAL

鄙人自前年身患傷寒以後。雖已治瘉。然身體殊甚虧弱。辦事頗覺乏力。且時有頭昏。雖經醫治。亦未見效。後聞練習太極拳。有却病延年之功效。故鄙人意擬加入拳社。以資進行。無奈經濟壓迫。無機會之可能。不勝悵悵。後幸得至友之義務敎授。得能如願以達目的。迄今年餘。日無間斷。雖未入門。然身體已覺恢復原狀。上患種種情形。均已無形銷滅。太極拳誠有意想不到之效力。此係鄙人之確實情形也。故特握筆紀之。以付本刊。尚希公鑒。
十八年一月十七日
The year before last, I was struck by typhoid fever. Although I was treated for it, my body was left in such a weakened condition that I was plagued by strong fatigue while at work and often had dizzy spells. Despite being cured, I still saw no results. Then I heard that practicing Taiji Boxing has the effects of preventing illness and prolonging life, so I decided to join a boxing arts club in order to make some progress. Unfortunately I was in financial straits, giving me no chance to learn, and this left me unbearably disappointed.
  Then thanks to a close friend who gave me voluntary instruction, I was able to get what I had been hoping for. After just over a year of practice, never skipping a day, even though I still have not mastered the fundamentals of the art, my body already feels restored, and all my previous sufferings have melted away into nothing. Taiji Boxing truly is unimaginably effective, as I have learned from my own personal experience. Therefore I have taken up my pen to write down these words for inclusion in this book, in the hope that this information may be of some use to you all.
  - Jan 17, 1929

王君子謙之報告
WANG ZIQIAN’S TESTIMONIAL

子謙於丁卯年。因畢君之介紹。入致柔拳社。從陳微明陳志進二先生學。閱六月。卒受經濟之困。而輟學。然在家仍事練習。未嘗間斷。迄今二載。對於身心。覺暢快異於前。同志諸君曷習試之。
In 1927, Bi Zibi recommended to me that I join the Achieving Softness Boxing Society. I learned from Chen Weiming and Chen Zhijin for six months, then fell into financial trouble and had to quit. But I have continued practicing at home without interruption for the two years since, and in body and mind I feel more joyful exuberance than I ever had before. Comrades, why not practice it and see for yourselves?

太極拳却病延年詞 彭遵路
TAIJI BOXING FOR PREVENTING ILLNESS & PROLONGING LIFE by Peng Zunlu

却病可以延年。夫人而知之矣。顧何由而能却病。則於病之來源。必先研究。方能設却除之法。而引延年齡。所謂對症施藥者也。人居大地之上。感陰陽。冒風雨。觸晦明。日處於六氣鼓盪激刺之中。苟無攝養調劑之法。鮮不為所侵襲而致衰弱。體魄精神。因以失靈。此自然界之病源也。吾人處世行事。隨所接而生念。大抵溺於聲色財貨之中。兢為貧得無厭之求。於是氣血耗傷。精神迷離。侵假而百病叢集。此放縱之病源也。六氣之侵襲。或可尤天之不仁。而放縱之戕伐。咎實在於個人。此病源之大別。不可不知者也。夫人之耽溺聲色。從流下而忘返者。豈其自欲戕伐哉。蓋謂藥石可以補助。有所恃而無恐也。夫藥石之功。得良醫之力。不過治標而已。故攖氣血耗傷之症由藥石而復元者。誠不多覯也。善治病者。必攷其病之源。而逆治於其未形之時。此所謂治病之本。治本之道。不在於身外之藥石。而在於身內之組織。人之生也。秉天地之靈氣。分佈於全身為三大要素。曰精。曰氣。曰神。精為精髓。氣為氣血。神為神志。之三者。天所予吾以自衞者也。洵能維護培養。則精髓日以强固。氣血日以充實。神志日以淸明。由是而六脈調和。腠理舒暢。六氣無自而侵。邪念無自而萌。百病不却而自却。苟非自殺。或罹災禍。欲期不壽。可得乎哉。然則以何術而能維護培養此精氣神之三大元素哉。曰惟運動。夫運動為衞生之要訣。固盡人而知之矣。其法有二。曰內功。曰外功。外功舉動粗暴。用氣驟促。如踢球。擊棍。騎射之類。苟非年齡幼壯。指導得當。鮮不發生流弊。是故講外功者。有所戒守。犯則必傷。內功。以凝神運氣。舒暢血脈為歸納。老少咸宜。有益無損。夫氣者。精之元也。氣充則精自固。氣者。神之盛也。氣宣則神自聰。精固神聰。則體魄健全矣。吾國舊時運動。厥惟拳術。拳術者。乃求一種目的之功效。而作一種秩序之動作也。故有少林武當。八叚經之派別。為法各異。立名不同。而其中最穩當而脫除火氣者。獨推武當派中之太極一法。是法也。以靜制動。以柔克剛。化拙力而益精氣。習久功深。能使全身各部。意到神到。神到氣到。氣到而精力皆到。且其功無止境。妙玄參化。苟能專恆不怠。運用中度。則神志淸爽。思想靈敏。交人接物。旡往不宜。豈曰却病延年巳哉。此所以以太極命名。而景從之者之多也。
Preventing illness can prolong life, as everyone knows. But how to prevent illness? The source of illness must first be studied in order to get rid of it and lead to a longer life. It is said: “Give medicine according to the symptoms.” Living in the world, we are influenced by sunshine and shade, wind and rain, night and day. Affected always by the six atmospheres [hot, cold, wet, dry, windy, smoky], without methods of conserving and regulating health, it would be hard to keep ourselves from being invaded by pathogens, weakening and deteriorating us mentally and physically. This is a matter of illness being caused by our environment.
  But then there is our behavior in society and the lifestyle we lead. We typically drown in debauchery and materialism, anxious with a sense of never getting enough, leaving us physically spent and mentally dazed, and giving free rein to pathogens to invade and produce countless illnesses. The six atmospheres may sneak up on us, for Nature is uncaring, or we may thoughtlessly bring harm to ourselves, in which case we have nothing else to blame. The different sources of such illnesses have to be understood. One who indulges in debauchery gets lost in it and forgets his way back, but we should not want to harm ourselves in the first place.
  Medicines can help in that we can rely on them to quell fear. But skillful apothecaries and able doctors only alleviate symptoms. It is not often seen that mere medicines will restore one to health after one has wasted one’s vitality. One who is good at treating illness will study the source of illnesses and treat them before they manifest. This is called: “treating illness at the root”. The way of treating it at the root does not lie in medicines outside the body, but in being organized within the body.
  A human life exists thanks to the power of Nature, which is spread throughout the body in the form of three main elements: essence, energy, spirit. Essence lies in the marrow, energy flows along with the blood, and spirit is one’s consciousness. These three things that Nature has given us are up to us to protect. If we can indeed protect and nourish these things, then our marrow will become increasingly enriched, our blood increasingly robust, and our minds increasingly clear. And then our meridians will be in a state of harmony and our flesh will be very comfortable. The six atmospheres have no way to get in and evil thoughts no ground on which to sprout, and hence illness will be prevented without having to be prevented. Barring suicide or accidents, we can thus expect long life.
  But what means can protect and nourish these three basic elements? Exercise! Exercise is the key to health. Really everyone knows this. There are two methods: internal training and external training. In external training, the movements are rough and abrupt. Examples include soccer, stick fighting, horseback archery, and so on. Unless you are young and fit, and have guidance in how to perform properly, the training will tend to lead to improper ways of practicing. Therefore external training has prohibitions, which if violated will result in injury. Internal training instead uses the concentrating of spirit and moving of energy, resulting in smooth blood circulation. It is suitable for both young and old. It is beneficial and causes no damage. Energy is the basis of essence. Being full of energy means that your essence is strong. Energy is the expression of spirit. Having energy all over means that your spirit is bright. With strength of essence and brightness of spirit, the body is completely healthy.
  Our nation’s oldest form of exercise is boxing arts. Some of them emphasize practical effectiveness while others emphasize practicing sequences of movements. There are systems such as Shaolin, Wudang, or Baduanjin, each with their different methods and their different features that they are known for, but the most stabilizing among them, the one that best reduces excessive internal fire, is the Taiji art from the Wudang branch. Its method is to use stillness to overcome motion, use softness to defeat hardness, to melt away awkward exertion and instead boost essence and energy.
  After practicing for a long time, skill will deepen enough that you will be able to get this effect everywhere in your body: where intention goes, spirit goes; where spirit goes, energy goes; where energy goes, there will be power. There is no end to your achievement as you become ever more subtle. If you can persevere without slacking, never overdoing nor underdoing, your mind will be alert, thoughts nimble, and when you deal with opponents, everything you do will be just right. Preventing illness and prolonging life is just the start. These are the reasons why Taiji is admired by so many.

靑年會太極拳術班週年紀念感言 吳縣彭遵路
MY FEELINGS UPON THE FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF THE YMCA TAIJI BOXING CLUB by Peng Zunlu of Wu County [i.e. Suzhou, to the west of Shanghai]

嘗聞歐洲人士。稱吾中國為遠東病夫。明目張膽。肆無忌憚。嗚呼。何欺吾之甚焉。吾國人對之。當如何發奮激勵而洗滌斯恥哉。夫吾中國。地大民衆。品豐物阜。文化之根基最深。禮敎之覆育最廣。故在昔時。附庸屬地。遠及遐荒。方物貢献。充盈府庫。宣文揚武。聲敎訖於海外。柔遠懷近。九服咸欽。此皆布在方策。世所共知。當吾國隆盛之時。彼稱吾病夫者。大都猶習草野之氣。相攫相殘。類同爪牙。是故羅馬。得以蕞爾之地。提少數之衆。越險涉深。馳騁遠地。智取威脅。雄覇全歐。彼向以悍强驍勇自矜之種族。羣列於臣妾奴隸之儔倫。含垢忍辱。仰承色笑。嗚呼。徒力安所用哉。然而羅馬席捲歐土。不以仁政懷柔其民。而以專制窒梏其身。暴民政治。理無久亨。如秦之於六國。力取虐治。民不堪命。積漸發暴。終於淪亡。余嘗思歐洲各國。種族龐雜。習俗不同。貌似親善。心實叵測。積極爭勝。不奪不饜。目前聯絡。無非偏安。乃復不自儆惕。效尤羅馬。欺凌寡弱。以病夫稱吾中國。嗚呼。吾國人苟有血氣。可安忍坐視而不奮起也哉。雖然。為斯語者。必有所根據。必透悉吾國之民情事理。乃敢顯然譏訕而不懼。蓋非獨不懼吾國人之憤懣而仇恨也。且幷不懼世界公論之非議。此其中必大有因在矣。問嘗省察吾國人之習性。以與歐洲各國相較。不禁廢然若失。默然而痛於心也。夫病者。不健全之謂也。曷觀吾國之政治。商務。農事。實業之情形乎。實無一端可得稱為健全也。自海禁開放。各國人士。接踵而至。游歷傳敎。靡所弗屆。與吾各界人士相親習者。已逾百年。宜其知吾之深而言之刻也。夫物間則纛。人間則廢。吾國人民。狃於間散。不求振作。故思慮不專。事鮮成功。以今日强食弱肉之時。而復相習於間。宜其有病夫之名稱矣。然則何由而能健全自强乎。曰惟精神。惟毅力。蓋國之本在民。民强則國自强。故謀國者。必先樹人。樹人之道。必先講究體育。體育發達。則精神毅力皆備。精神毅力旣備。則慮深行篤。可以任重致遠。臨大節而不懼。處患難而不變。蘊而藏之為潛德。行而宜之成大業。此卽浩然之氣。以直養而無害之謂也。凡吾國人。無論老幼少壯。皆當以體育與學問道德。切實講求。務使通國人民。皆有健全軀幹。淸爽神志。庶幾百廢俱舉。而可與世界各國相抗衡矣。體育之法。厥惟國技。而國技之中。又以太極拳為最有精味。其為術。威而不猛。溫而含厲。不以好勇鬥狠為效用。而以養精蓄氣為主功。故於老幼男女。無不相宜。洵體育之中道。樹人之要素也。余向以小學體育。為救國要着。曩在北平靑年會。亦經提創國技。旋以差事出國。未能始終其事。現在政府提創於上。學校中幷有以國術編入課程者。乃額手稱慶。以為樹人之根本已立。國家之强盛有期。非歐洲人士之譏辱。或猶不能猛省如是之速。古人所謂。必有忍事乃有濟。故余始以謂歐洲人士以病夫之名稱辱吾。今乃知歐洲人士以病夫之名稱激吾。嗚呼。吾國人其猛省焉。
I have heard Europeans blatantly and brazenly say that we Chinese are the “sick men of the far east”. Alas, how did we come to this? And should we not strive to wash away such humiliation? Our nation is a vast land with huge numbers of people and abundant goods. The basis of our culture runs very deep, with our Confucian traditions spread everywhere. In ancient times, territories far and wide contributed enough local goods to overflow the imperial storehouses. We shared our literature and our military training, extending our system of education beyond our borders, reaching far away with gentleness to absorb territories, the nine regions all admiring the culture. This is the strategy of expansion that makes sense to us.
  While our nation was flourishing, those who now call us sick men were instead for the most part still living in a primitive manner, barbarians raiding each other, just like the tooth-and-claw behavior of beasts. Rome at the time was still a tiny territory, but its small number of people invaded deeply into distant lands and took possession, intimidating its way toward hegemony over the whole of Europe. They were a bold and arrogant race of people, enslaving others and making them endure the humiliation of maintaining a smiling compliance, bringing stability unfortunately through the use of force.
  The banner of Rome unfurled over Europe, not through a benevolent government pacifying the people, but through despots oppressing and shackling. Bullying the people is not a way for a government to truly endure, just like the kingdom of Qin conquering the other six kingdoms [in order of conquest: Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu, Qi], taking them by force and then ruling over them with cruelty. The people found this unbearable and gradually came to rebel, ultimately destroying the Qin Dynasty.
  I used to think [presumably before World War I] that the nations and races of Europe were a mix of different cultures contentedly coexisting, accepting their ignorance of each other and engaging in a dynamic competition in which they do not strive to crush each other. But now I see that their association is just a state of temporary satisfaction with the power they have over their own regions, and it would not be easy to guard against the example of Rome repeating itself to bully the outnumbered and the weak [as would indeed happen in the following decade].
  They call us Chinese “sick men”. Alas, if our countrymen had any vigor, we could sit back and ignore it without kicking up a fuss. However, there is surely some basis for saying it, a penetrating awareness of the condition of our people, in order to so fearlessly dare to ridicule us. In fact, they not only do not fear our resentment, they outright despise us, and furthermore do not even fear that there might be any reproach of world opinion for it. And there is good reason for this. If we examine the characteristics of our nation and compare them to those of the various nations of Europe, we cannot help but feel like we have failed and become speechless with heartbreak. Our “sick men” cannot be said to be strong. If we look at the situation of our politics, business, agriculture, or industry, there is no aspect that can be considered strong.
  Ever since the maritime embargo was lifted [probably referring to the Treaty on Nanjing in 1842], people from many nations have poured in, tourists and missionaries without end, mingling among our people, people from all walks of life, for the last century. It should be understood how deeply the effects of this are etched into us. Our products were held aloft, but our people were then left to rot. And so our nation’s people have become stubbornly disorganized, not wanting to do any work, therefore their thoughts are unfocused and things are rarely accomplished. Nowadays the law of the jungle is in force, but we have still been carrying on as before. We deserve to be called “sick men”. But how can we strengthen ourselves?
  Through spirit and willpower! The basis of a nation is its people. If the people are strong, the nation will automatically be strong. Therefore to strengthen a nation, it is first necessary to educate the people, and education has to begin with physical education. Once physical education is flourishing, the people will be equipped with spirit and willpower. Equipped with spirit and willpower, their thoughts will be deep, their actions sincere, and they will be able to carry out great deeds. They will be fearless when facing a crisis, unshaken by adversity. They will find hidden power stored within themselves and do what needs to be done. This is what is meant by a [from Mengzi, chapter 2a:] “noble energy that is nurtured with integrity and not corrupted”.
  Our people, whether young and old, should all be engaged in physical education alongside their learning of ethical conduct. Let us conscientiously work to ensure that the people throughout the nation all have strong bodies and sharp minds, and then almost everything lacking will have been achieved, and we can be the equal of any other nation in the world.
  As for our method of physical education, it is our martial arts. And within our martial arts, Taiji Boxing is the most interesting, for its method is to exude authority but not aggressiveness, to have a gentleness that has severity hidden within it. The effect of this is that it does not make one combative, instead concerned more with nourishing essence and storing energy, and therefore it is suitable for everyone, young and old, men and women. Truly it is the most balanced form of exercise and thus the key to such education.
  I think that in order to rescue the nation, it is necessary to teach physical education in elementary school. Previously, I tried to promote martial arts at the Beijing YMCA, but my duties there took me abroad, and so I was unable to see it through. However, now that the government is doing the promoting, martial arts are being added to the curricula of schools, about which I am overjoyed. The basis of such education has been established and the time has come to strengthen the nation.
  Were it not for the insults of Europeans, we might not have woken up this quickly. An ancient man said [from Book of Documents, document 49]: “You must have patience, and then everything will work out.” I started out thinking that Europeans were calling us sick men to humiliate us, but now I get it – they are saying it to rouse us to action! Now if only my countrymen would realize this too.

轉錄褚民誼先生論太極拳之功用
CHU MINYI’S DISCUSSION OF TAIJI BOXING’S CHARACTERISTICS [which appeared a few months before in Chu’s own 1929 book, though with a different final section]

拳術所以鍛鍊身心。振奮精神也。然我國拳術。源流甚古。因其姿勢功用之不同。而派別名稱亦異。有以險奇為貴者。有以平易為貴者。則不盡皆能發達體育。而入主出奴。又紛呶無已。第溯其源流。則不外兩家。卽武當與少林是。武當主柔勁蓄於內。少林主剛勁顯於外。晚近以還。少林之勢甚盛。流傳愈廣。門類派別亦愈衆。相率標新立異。超尚險奇。漸有失却體育本旨之勢。初學者習之。輒事倍而功半。體弱者習之。尤害多而利少。故余殊所不取。太極拳者。內家拳術中之最平易而最能發達體育者也。故余嗜之特甚。無間寒暑。日必習之。習之旣久。愈覺其奧妙無窮。其功用之偉。優點之多。誠非其他拳術所可企及。茲分為姿勢,動作,用意,發勁,靈巧,養生,數種述之如下。
Boxing arts train body and mind, and rouse the spirit. Our nation’s boxing arts are extremely ancient in origin, and because their postures and applications are different, the styles and their names are consequently distinct. There are styles that value being impressively dramatic, and there are those prefer to be unassumingly calm. Thus while none of them are complete, all of them are capable of developing the body. However, styles tend to generate a sectarian bias [“to go into it as a lord and emerge as its slave”] and make an endless amount of noise about how great they are. Tracing back through their development, it turns out there are generally no more than two schools of thought: Wudang and Shaolin. Wudang emphasizes softness, the power stored inwardly. Shaolin emphasizes hardness, the power expressed outwardly.
  In recent years, styles of Shaolin have become very abundant. The more it spreads, the more varieties of it branch off. One after another, a new version sets out on its own, intent on proving it is the most startling and unique one yet, and they have gradually lost touch with the original purpose of it as physical education. When beginners train in such styles, they then get half the result for twice the effort. When weak people practice such styles, the harms are many and the benefits are few. Thus I have no particular desire for them.
  Taiji Boxing is the mildest of the boxing arts of the internal school and the most capable of developing the body. Therefore I am quite addicted to it and have practiced daily without fail, even during the worst of winter and summer. The longer you practice it, the more you will discover its limitless subtleties. Its effects are grand and its merits are many. There are really no other boxing arts to match it.
  The several sections below describe its characteristics of posture and movement, use of intention and issuing of power, skill building and health cultivation:

(一)姿勢
1. Posture

太極拳之姿勢甚夥。總合之有五行八卦之分。是謂十三勢。何謂五行。進,退,顧,盼,定,是也。何謂八卦。掤,捋,擠,按,採,挒,肘,靠,是也。以上十三種之姿勢。為學太極者所必經之途徑。使吾人逐日演習之不稍間斷。則若干年後。歷練旣深。拳術中之精奧。自能闡發無遺。而獲益匪淺。
Taiji Boxing’s postures are very numerous (as the photos reveal), but they always conform to the five elements and eight trigrams, which form the thirteen dynamics. What is meant by the “five elements”? The steps of advancing, retreating, stepping to the left, stepping to the right, and staying in the center. What is meant by the “eight trigrams”? The techniques of warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping. These thirteen kinds of postural dynamics have to be understood by students of Taiji Boxing. Let us practice every day without ever skipping a day. Then after several years of experience, we will naturally come to fully comprehend all the subtleties within the art, and the benefits will not be meager.

(二)動作
2. Movement

太極拳之動作。須慢而匀。蓋外家拳術。雖見速效。而流弊滋甚。若太極拳則以活動筋骨為主。故一切運動。以柔和為上。惟其慢,始能柔。惟其匀,始能和。且各種動作。俱成圜形。而一圜之中。虛實變化生焉。其無窮之奧妙。卽在此虛實變化之中。初學者或未能知。習之旣久。則得心應手。趣味無窮。旣足以舒展筋骨。又能調和血氣。可謂身心並修。最合於發達體育之道者。
Taiji Boxing’s movements are slow and even. External styles of boxing arts may seem to produce quick results, but there are so many bad habits that come with them. In the case of Taiji Boxing, the emphasis is on the liveliness of the muscles and bones, therefore the most important qualities in every movement are softness and mildness. If it is done slowly, then it can be soft. If it is done evenly, then it can be mild.
  Furthermore, the various movements all have a round shape, for it is within a circle that the transformations of emptiness and fullness are generated. The art’s limitless subtleties lie within these changes of emptiness and fullness. A beginner may not yet be able to understand this, but if you practice for a long time, you will perform with the proficiency you imagine, and your fascination for what you are doing will have no end.
  This art is sufficient for the task of developing the physique, but it is also able to regulate the temperament. Thus it can be said to cultivate both body and mind, and is therefore the most appropriate method of promoting physical education.

(三)用意
3. Using Intention

太極拳練習時。純任自然。不尚用力用氣。而尚用意。用力則笨。用氣則滯。是故沉氣鬆力為要。氣沉則吸呼調和。力鬆則發展先天之力而排除後天之力。蓋先天之力乃固有之力。後天之力則勉强之力。前者其勢順。後者其勢逆。太極拳主逆來順受。以順制逆。故不須用過分之力。惟外家之拳術。其用力用氣。每屬於勉强。强人以難能。故謂之硬工。習之不當。流弊滋多。且習硬工者。其力已盡量用出。毫無含蓄。雖習之多年。表面似有增進。實則其內部之力。並未加長。譬猶勞動者終日工作。非不用力也。然其所有之力。皆已盡量用去。並無積蓄。故勞動若干年年後。其力依然如故。外家之硬工亦若是耳。若太極拳雖不用過分之力與氣。而能運用意志。惟其能運用意志。故能使其力蓄於內不流露於外。氣沉於丹田不停滯于胸膛。惟其不用過分之力與氣。故習之旣久。積蓄之氣力乃愈大。至必要時。乃能運動自如。毫無困難與勉强。此則太極拳之特長。非外工所能及也。
When practicing Taiji Boxing, it should have a pure naturalness. Instead of emphasizing exertion and emotion, you should emphasize using intention. Using exertion makes you clumsy. Using emotion slows you down. Therefore quelling emotion and letting go of exertion are requirements. Quelling emotion regulates the breath. Relaxing exertion promotes innate strength and inhibits acquired strength. Innate strength is real strength, whereas acquired strength is contrived strength. The former has a smooth energy, the latter a coarse energy. Taiji Boxing focuses on receiving coarse energy with smooth energy. By using the smooth to defeat the coarse, it is therefore not necessary to put forth excessive effort.
  The exertion and emotion of external styles of boxing arts is always contrived. A strong person considers difficulty to be ability, thus this type of training is deemed “hard”. If your practice is inappropriate, it will create many bad habits. For one who does hard training every day, his power will be spent as soon as it is expressed, nothing left in storage. Even if he practices for many years, he will progress only superficially, not really building up any inner power at all. Consider a laborer, who puts forth effort in his work every day. He always uses all of his strength when he applies it, nothing left over. Therefore after many years of labor, his strength is no greater than when he started. The hard training of external stylists resembles this situation.
  Because Taiji Boxing does not use excessive exertion or emotion, the practice is entirely a matter of intention. If you can use intention, you will be able to conceal power inwardly rather than revealing it outwardly. Energy sinks to your elixir field rather than getting stuck in your chest. If you avoid using excessive exertion and emotion as you practice over a long period, you will accumulate more and more power. And then when you need it, you will be able to wield it freely, without any difficulty and without forcing it. This is the specialty of Taiji Boxing. No external training can achieve this.

(四)發勁
4. Issuing Power

勁有剛柔之別。何謂剛勁。無論其勁之大小。含有抵抗性而一往無前者,謂之剛勁。何謂柔勁。隨敵勁以為伸縮。而不加抵抗者,謂之柔勁。太極拳之妙處。在於與人交手時。不先取攻勢。而能接受敵人之勁。初不加以抵抗。以其黏柔之力。化去敵人頑强之勁。待敵人一擊不中。圖謀再舉之時。然後蹈瑕抵隙。順其勢而反守為攻。則敵人力竭之餘。重心移動。鮮有不失敗者。蓋太極拳之動作。本為無數圜形。而圜形之中。則為重心所在。處處立定脚跟。雖敵人發勁極强。而以逆來順受之法引之入殼。待敵人之力旣出。重心旣失。然後從而制之。所謂避實就虛。以柔勝剛之法也。
Power divides into hard and soft. What is meant by “hard” power? This is when your power contains a quality of resistance, no matter the extent of the power, and goes forward with simple determination. What is meant by “soft” power? This is when you go along with the expanding and contracting of the opponent’s power instead of adding any resistance to it.
  The subtlety of Taiji Boxing lies in not starting by seeking ways to attack when fighting with an opponent, but instead being able to receive his power without giving any initial resistance to it. Use sticky soft power to neutralize his stubbornly aggressive power. Wait for that moment when his attack has missed and he hopes to try again, then exploit his diminished position by going along with his energy and switching from defensive role to attacker. Once his force has been spent, his balance will have shifted, and he is thereby sure to be defeated.
  Taiji Boxing’s movements are endlessly circular. As your balance lies at the center of a circle, you will always be standing stably on your heels. Even if the opponent issues power with great strength, use the principle of receiving his incoming force to lure him into a trap. Wait for his power to come out, then for his balance to falter, and then seize the moment and take control. As it is said [Art of War, chapter 6]: “Avoid him where he is full and attack him where he is empty.” This is the method of softness defeating hardness.

(五)靈巧
5. Becoming Skillful

語云,熟能生巧。太極拳卽本此意以從事。而深得個中三昧者。故太極拳之精粗。以工夫之深淺為斷。蓋工夫深,則於其中之虛實變化皆已了然。旣了然於虛實之變化。則能於虛實變化中。求出巧妙之途徑。故其所用之力輕靈圓活。以視外工之用力專注於一隅成為死笨之力者。迴乎不同。且因其不用過分之力與氣。故能持久而不敝。因其動作為圜形。故能處處穩定重心。重心穩定。則基礎鞏固。無慮外力之侵矣。
As the saying goes, “practice will produce skill”, and Taiji Boxing is based in this notion. Abide by it and you will achieve mastery. The difference between precision and sloppiness in Taiji Boxing depends on the depth or shallowness of your skill. If your skill is deep, then changes between emptiness and fullness will always be clear to you. If the switchings of emptiness and fullness are clear to you, then you will be able to find pathways of ingenuity amidst such changes.
  Whenever you put forth effort to be nimble and lively, it resembles an external stylist’s use of exertion and emotion as he puts too much determination into too trivial an objective. The result is a rigid and clumsy strength that is vastly different from skill. Furthermore, by not using excessive force and anger, you can therefore endure longer without getting worn out. Because the movements are round, you can always have a stable center. With a stable center, you will have a solid base. And you will then have no worries about someone attacking you with external strength.

(六)養生
6. Cultivating Health

拳術本屬體育之一種。自以養生為主要。然此非所論於外家之硬工。惟太極拳始眞能養生。無論强弱老幼。均可練習。吾人身體之發達。貴能平均。在生理上均有一定之程序。劇烈之運動。固不合於此種程序。結果多得其反。太極拳之動作。則輕輭異常。而一動全身皆動。於全身任何部份。均無偏陂之弊。且因其動作柔和輕靈。故能調和氣血。陶養性情為最合於生理上之程序。能使身體平均發達者。且練習之時。無須用過分之力與氣。雖老弱病夫。亦不難為之。所謂却病延年。洵非虛語
Boxing arts are essentially a form of physical education, and so health cultivation is naturally a major emphasis. However, this is not represented well by the hard labor of external stylists, and only Taiji Boxing really has the capacity for health cultivation. Regardless of weak or strong, old or young, all can practice it. It is best for us to be able to develop our bodies uniformly, complementing the regular physiological processes within our bodies. Because strenuous exercise does not conform to these processes, it is typically rendered counterproductive.
  Hence the movements in Taiji Boxing are unusually delicate. With each movement, the whole body is in motion, and thus no part of the body gets harmfully overworked. Furthermore, because the movements are gentle and nimble, they can regulate the temperament and cultivate one’s character, and because they conform perfectly to physiological processes, they can develop the body uniformly. While practicing, you do not need to put forth undue effort, and so even if you are old or ill, it is not difficult to do. Therefore the claim that it “prevents illness and prolongs life” is truly not a bunch of empty words.

吾國武術不講久矣。自首都有國考之舉。樹之風聲。以為模楷。一時各地紛起響應。集會結社。共事研討。尚武之精神日暮。而自强之風靡一時。不佞固忝居於提倡之列。而性喜研究國術。曾經參與國考者。國考之成績如何。有主試之評斷在。茲不欲深論。獨惜考試時所表演者。類多外家之硬工。習內家者較少。而於太極拳為尤尠。此則坐於外家之姿勢。慣為險奇怪異。足以驚世駭俗。內家則不以猛勇見長。而以功用為主。故世人多忽視之。實則吾人研究國術。乃以之强健身體。非以之眩奇矜異。又何取乎猛勇與險怪。而不擇善之是從。內家之拳術。雖不以猛勇見長。乃以柔軟取勝。是能强健身體。太極拳則為內家拳術之精華。最合於養生之旨者。且吾人提倡國術。在使國術科學化。則太極拳為亲經科學化之國術。是故吾人提倡國術。應自提倡太極拳始。應竭力闡明其精奧。發揚其竅要。以求其普及。爰草此篇。述其功用之一班。以質諸世之一般研究國術者。
Our nation’s martial arts were being ignored for a long time, but ever since the National Martial Arts Tournament [held the previous year], there has been the sound of wind in the trees [i.e. they are being talked about constantly]. It is now the norm everywhere to answer the call to action by forming clubs and societies to study these arts together, celebrating the martial spirit from dawn to dusk. Now that self-strengthening is in vogue, I am truly honored to be among those promoting martial arts, for it is my nature to take delight in studying them. I participated in the National Tournament, my achievement in it being that I was in charge of the judging.
  I am not going to elaborate on that event here, I only want to point out that those giving performances at the tournament were mostly external stylists exhibiting feats of hardness, very few practitioners of internal styles, hardly anyone representing Taiji Boxing. The reason for this comes down to the postures of external styles, which always look so dangerous and impressive, enough to amaze everyone. Internal styles do not excel at aggressive boldness, instead giving priority to skillfulness, and thus common people tend to ignore them. For us, the study of martial arts is about making the body strong and healthy, not showing off. Why choose aggressive boldness and display of difficulty rather than simply perfection of skill? Internal styles of boxing arts do not consider such aggressiveness to be an indication of quality.
  Because it uses softness to achieve victory and is thereby able to bring health to the body, Taiji Boxing is the best of the internal styles of boxing arts and is the most compatible with the goal of nurturing health. Furthermore, our promoting of martial arts lies in causing them to be more scientific. As Taiji Boxing is already a more scientific martial art, our promoting of martial arts should therefore begin with promoting Taiji Boxing. We should do our utmost to explain its subtleties, express its secrets, and strive for its popularization. Thus I have written this piece on the characteristics of the art to provide material for ordinary people studying martial arts.

太極拳術班暫定規則
Provisional Rules for the Taiji Boxing Club:

一本班定名為太極拳術班
1. The established name will be the Taiji Boxing Club.
二由靑年會聘請太極拳專家為本班主任敎練
2. The YMCA will hire Taiji Boxing experts to run the classes.
三敎師以楊澄甫派為標準
3. Our instructors will use Yang Chengfu’s version as the standard.
四現任幫敎三人應請靑年會酌量資貼車費每人約以十元為標準
4. Instructors will be supplied with 10 yuan [¥10 in 1929 equivalent to a little over $50 today] for commuting expenses.
五本班課程俟聘定敎師後再行議訂
5. The club’s curriculum will be established only after instructors have been appointed.
六本班須確定基本班員
6. The club must determine its own requirements for membership.
七非靑年會會員不得加入本班
7. Club membership will be dependent on YMCA membership.
八本班原有委員會應繼續存在襄助靑年會體育部管理本班一切事宜所有組織規條送交體育部備案
8. The club’s committee will assist the YMCA physical education department by sending any rules it establishes to be kept on file in the department office.

靑年會太極拳術班委員會規則
Rules for the YMCA Taiji Boxing Club Committee:

宗旨
[1] Purpose:
本班為統一事宜籌畫改良特組織委員會
The club will make unified arrangements and changes through a special organizing committee.

委員人數
[2] Number of members:
委員人數定為九人由本班同人推舉
The committee will consist of nine members elected by their club colleagues.

職員
[3] Staff members:
委員會設主席一人副主席一人書記一人司庫一人由各委員亙選充任
The committee will appoint a chairman, a vice chair, a secretary, and a treasurer, each position to be occupied by committee members.

任期
[4] Term of office:
委員會委員職員任期以一年為期得連選連任職員有缺席或假離者由出席委員中補充委員中有長期離往他處者由本班同人選補遺缺
Committee and staff members will occupy their positions for a year, at the end of which they may be re-elected to serve in the position for a further year. When staff members go on leave or go on vacation, their duties will be carried out by committee members. If a committee member goes on an extended leave or moves away, the committee will chose from within the club to fill the vacant post.

會期
[5] Meeting times:
委員會每兩星期開會一次每次出席委員過半人數為法定數
The committee will hold a meeting once every two weeks, which each time must be attended by at least half of the committee members.

職務
[6] Duties:
規定課程 維持秩序 攷核成績 規畫儀器 籌備演說 保管存品損項 舉辦同樂事宜 協助體育部計畫改良事宜及發揚國技
Formulate curricula, maintain order, assess results, arrange equipment, prepare speeches, have any damaged items repaired, provide a happy environment, assist the physical education department with planning and changes, and promote Chinese martial arts.

議决事件辦法
[7] Means of passing resolutions:
委員會議决事項應用書面交靑年會幹事部執行或請幹事轉送董事會解决
For the committee to pass resolutions, items should be delivered in writing to YMCA management, who will then carry them out or pass them on to the board of directors.

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